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Today's Daf Yomi

March 11, 2016 | 讗壮 讘讗讚专 讘壮 转砖注状讜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Gittin 89

How seriously do we take rumors that say a woman is divorced or married? 聽If we do take it seriously, are there levels of rumors – ones that are more believable than others? 聽And what are the ramifications of they are acceptable? 聽What if the rumors are proven false, does that undo everything or not? 聽Why?

讛专讬 讝讜 诪讙讜专砖转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讜诇 讜砖讜讘专讜 注诪讜

she is considered to be divorced and may remarry. What is the reason for this? The rumor came with its receipt. The rumor that she is betrothed is canceled by the rumor that she is divorced.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讬爪讗 诇讛 砖诐 诪讝谞讛 讘注讬专 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻专讬爪讜转讗 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讞讝讜 诇讛

Rava said: If a rumor circulated in the city that a woman engaged in licentious sexual intercourse, we are not concerned that the rumor is true with regard to her eligibility to marry a priest. What is the reason for this? It is assumed that people saw her engage in merely licentious behavior, in a manner that does not disqualify her from marrying a priest.

讻转谞讗讬 讗讻诇讛 讘砖讜拽 讙讬专讙专讛 讘砖讜拽 讛谞讬拽讛 讘砖讜拽 讘讻讜诇谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 转爪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬砖讗讜 讜讬转谞讜 讘讛 诪讜讝专讜转 讘诇讘谞讛

This statement is parallel to one side of a dispute among the tanna鈥檌m: If a woman ate in the marketplace, walked with her neck stretched forward in an arrogant manner in the marketplace, or nursed in the marketplace, with regard to all of these cases Rabbi Meir says that she must leave her husband, since all of these behaviors are considered licentious behavior. Rabbi Akiva says that she must leave him only once the women who spin [mozerot] by the moonlight converse about her having engaged in promiscuous sexual intercourse, as this indicates that the matter is well known and accepted as fact.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗诐 讻谉 诇讗 讛谞讞转 讘转 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讬讜砖讘转 转讞转 讘注诇讛 讜讛转讜专讛 讗诪专讛 讻讬 诪爪讗 讘讛 注专讜转 讚讘专 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讗讜 注诇 驻讬 砖诇砖讛 注讚讬诐 讬拽讜诐 讚讘专 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讚讘专 讘专讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 讚讘专 讘专讜专

Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said to him: If so, you have not allowed any daughter of Abraham our forefather to remain with her husband, i.e., all wives will be forced to leave their husbands, as it is common for women to slander their peers. And the Torah said: 鈥淏ecause he has found some unseemly matter in her, and he writes her a scroll of severance鈥 (Deuteronomy 24:1), and it says over there: 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:15). Just as there, the word 鈥渕atter鈥 is referring to a clear matter, as it is established through witnesses, so too here, the unseemly matter that is considered a cause for divorce is also referring to a clear matter that was not established merely through a rumor. Rava鈥檚 statement is in accordance with this opinion.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注讜诇讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 谞砖讜讗讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 讗专讜住讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 砖诇讗 诇驻诇讜谞讬 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 讘注讬专 讗讞专转 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛

The Sages taught: If a rumor circulated that a certain unmarried woman is a non-virgin, one is not concerned about it, and she may marry a High Priest. If a rumor circulated that she is a married woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a betrothed woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is betrothed, but not to so-and-so, i.e., the man who betrothed her is not specified, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she was betrothed in another city, one is not concerned about it.

诪诪讝专转 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 砖驻讞讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛

If a rumor circulated that she is a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzeret], one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a maidservant, one is not concerned about it.

讛拽讚讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 谞讻住讬讜 讛驻拽讬专 驻诇讜谞讬 谞讻住讬讜 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛谉

Similarly, if a rumor circulated that so-and-so consecrated his property, or that so-and-so renounced ownership of his property, we are not concerned about these rumors, and his property cannot be taken away by the Temple treasury or another person.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 驻诇讜谞讬转 诪转拽讚砖转 讛讬讜诐

Ulla says: The rumor mentioned in the mishna with regard to betrothal is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there is circumstantial evidence, as there are candles lit and beds made in the woman鈥檚 house, as was the custom for brides, and people entering and leaving and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today.

诪转拽讚砖转 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽讚砖讛 讗讬诪讗 驻诇讜谞讬转 谞转拽讚砖讛 讛讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: If people merely are saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rather, say that people are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

讜讻谉 转谞讬 诇讜讬 诇讗 砖讬砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜谞砖讬诐 讟讜讜转 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 讜砖诪讞讜转 诇讛 讜讗讜诪专讜转 驻诇讜谞讬转 诪转拽讚砖转 讛讬讜诐 诪转拽讚砖转 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽讚砖讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬诪讗 驻诇讜谞讬转 谞转拽讚砖讛 讛讬讜诐

And similarly, Levi taught a baraita: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only hear an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where candles are lit and beds are made, and women are spinning by candlelight and rejoicing for her and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today. The Gemara asks: If they are merely saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rav Pappa said: Say that they are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 讗诪专讜 讚讘专 讝讛 讛讜讗 拽讜诇 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讚讘专 讝讛讜 讗诪转诇讗

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there are candles lit and beds made and people entering and leaving. If they made an explicit statement that the woman was betrothed, this is a rumor that renders her betrothed. If they did not make such a statement, this is the explanation mentioned in the mishna.

诇讗 讗诪专讜 讜讛讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讜诇讗 讻诇讜诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪转诇讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讻讗谉 讜注讚 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讛讜讗 讚讛讜讬讗 讗诪转诇讗 讛讗 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诪转诇讗

The Gemara asks: If they did not make such a statement, why is it considered an explanation? But they did not say anything that requires an explanation. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yo岣nan did not mean that the people did not say anything, but rather that they did not state unequivocally that the woman is betrothed, to the exclusion of that which Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The explanation mentioned in the mishna negates the rumor even if it circulates at some point from now until ten days after the rumor begins to circulate. Rabbi Yo岣nan therefore teaches us that only if the people did not say unequivocally that she is betrothed is it considered an explanation that negates the rumor. But if they said so unequivocally, any later explanation is not considered an explanation that negates the rumor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讗诪专讜 驻诇讜谞讬 诪讛讬讻谉 砖诪注 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜驻诇讜谞讬 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜讘讜讚拽讬谉 讜讛讜诇讻讬谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬谉 诇讚讘专 讛讘专讜专

Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear that this woman is betrothed? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so. And as a result, the judges investigate the rumor continuously, tracing the hearsay until they reach a clear matter, i.e., eyewitnesses.

讚讘专 讛讘专讜专 注讚讜转 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讗诪专讜 驻诇讜谞讬 诪讛讬讻谉 砖诪注 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜驻诇讜谞讬 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜讛诇讻讜 诇讛诐 诇诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐

The Gemara raises an objection: If the court reaches a clear matter it is proper testimony, not a rumor. Rather, when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael he taught that Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear this? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so, and they went overseas, so that the court cannot investigate further.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讗讜 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讛讻砖专讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Do we suppress a rumor that was not substantiated by the court, or do we not suppress it? He said to him: Since Rav 岣sda says that a rumor is not treated stringently until the court hears it from valid witnesses, which indicates that rumors are generally treated leniently, learn from it that we suppress a rumor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讚专讘讛 诪讚讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗驻讬诇讜 诪驻讬 谞砖讬诐 讛讜讬 拽讜诇 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗

Abaye said to him: On the contrary, since Rav Sheshet said that even if the court hears it from women it is considered a serious rumor, indicating that rumors are treated stringently, learn from it that we do not suppress a rumor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转专讜讜转讗 谞讬谞讛讜 讘住讜专讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗 讘谞讛专讚注讗 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗

Rav Yosef said to him: These opinions correspond to the local custom in two different places. In Sura they suppress a rumor, whereas in Neharde鈥檃 they do not suppress a rumor.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 诇讘专 讘讬 专讘 讗转讬讬讛 专讘 讞诪讗 诇讗讘讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讗 诇讬 讛讬讻讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诇 转谞讗讬 拽讚讬砖 讗讚注转讗 讚诇讗 讗讝讬诇 诇讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讜讗讝诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬讚谞讗 讚讛讜讗讬 拽诇讗 诇讗 讛讜讗讬 讗诪转诇讗 诇讗讜 讻诇 讻诪讬谞讱 讚诪讞讝拽转 讗诪转诇讗

The Gemara relates several incidents: A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed to a student of Torah. Rav 岣ma summoned her father and said to him: Tell me exactly how the incident transpired. The father said to him: The student betrothed her conditionally, with the intention that he would not go to the city of Bei 岣zai, and he subsequently went there, thereby nullifying the betrothal. Rav 岣ma said to him: Since at the time that the rumor existed this explanation did not exist, it is not in your power to create the presumption of an explanation. Therefore, the rumor must be treated stringently.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 讘讗爪讬驻讗 讚转讜讞诇讗 讘注讬谞讗 讚讘讬 砖讬驻讬 砖诇讞讛 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讘讛讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讛讜 砖讜讛 驻专讜讟讛

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed with a mat of dates [atzifa deto岣la] from the spring of Bei Shifei. Rav Idi bar Avin sent the case to be presented before Abaye, asking him: What is the halakha in a case like this? Should this rumor be suppressed? Abaye said to him: Even according to the one who said that we do not suppress a rumor, in this case we suppress the rumor. This is because if she marries someone else people will not slander her. Rather, they will say that the Sages investigated her betrothal, i.e., the value of the mat of dates with which she was betrothed, and concluded that it was not worth one peruta and therefore the betrothal was invalid.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed

诇讞讚 诪讘谞讬 驻诇谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讘讛讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬 拽讟谉 讛讜讜

to one of the sons of so-and-so, who had both adult and minor sons. The son to whom she was betrothed was not specified. Rava said: Even according to the one who says that we do not suppress a rumor, in this case we suppress the rumor. People will not slander her. Rather, they will say that the Sages investigated the betrothal and concluded that it was the betrothal of a minor.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 诇拽讟谉 讛谞专讗讛 讻讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诪专讚讻讬 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讗诪专讜 注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇驻诇讙讜转 专讗讜讘谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻诇讙讜转 专讗讜讘谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讞拽专讬 诇讘

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed to a minor boy who looked like an adult, as his body was developed like an adult. Rav Mordekhai said to Rav Ashi: There was a precedent in which the Sages said that there is no concern that people will think that the woman is betrothed, since the boy did not yet reach the divisions of Reuben, i.e., the competence of adulthood, as it is stated: 鈥淎mong the divisions of Reuben there were major resolves of heart鈥 (Judges 5:16). Therefore, the betrothal is rendered entirely invalid, and there is no concern of slander.

讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 转讛讗 砖诐 讗诪转诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪转诇讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讻讗谉 讜注讚 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 专讘 讝讘讬讚 讗诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诪转诇讗 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讗诪转诇讗

搂 It is stated in the mishna that a rumor is treated seriously only provided there is no explanation. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The explanation mentioned in the mishna negates the rumor even if it circulates at some point from now, i.e., from the time the rumor circulated, until ten days afterward. Rav Zevid says: Where there is the reasonable possibility of an explanation, we are concerned about the possibility of an explanation even if it is not mentioned explicitly, and the rumor is therefore disregarded.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘 讝讘讬讚 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 转讛讗 砖诐 讗诪转诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诪转诇讗 拽讗诪专

Rav Pappa raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Zevid from the expression in the mishna: Provided there is no explanation, which indicates that the explanation must be mentioned for it to be regarded. Rav Zevid said to him: The mishna is saying that where there is the reasonable possibility of an explanation the rumor is disregarded, even if it was not mentioned.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讜讗转 诇讗 转住讘专讗 讜讛转谞谉 谞转拽讚砖讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讘讗 讘注诇讛 诪讜转专转 诇讞讝讜专 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 注诇 转谞讗讬 拽讚讬砖

Rav Kahana said to Rav Pappa: And you, do you not hold Rav Zevid鈥檚 statement to be true? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna that if a woman was betrothed after her husband was taken for dead, and then her husband came back, she is permitted to return to him (Yevamot 92a), which would not have been the case if she had been married and not merely betrothed? Isn鈥檛 this because we say that the second man betrothed her conditionally, stipulating that if her husband is found to be alive the betrothal is null, even though this explanation did not circulate explicitly?

砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讗转讬 讘注诇 讜拽讗 诪注专注专

The Gemara answers: It is different there because the husband comes and contests the betrothal, which shows clearly that he never divorced her and that her betrothal was mistaken. Therefore, there is no need for an additional explanation.

讗讬 讛讻讬 谞讬砖讗转 谞诪讬 谞讬砖讗转 讚注讘讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 拽谞住讜讛 专讘谞谉 谞转拽讚砖讛 讚诇讗 注讘讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 诇讗 拽谞住讜讛 专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: If so, in a case where she married the second man, it should also be permitted for her to return to her first husband. Why do the Sages render it prohibited for her to do so? The Gemara answers: In a case where she married him, since she performed a prohibited action, albeit unintentionally, by engaging in sexual intercourse with a man who is not her husband while she was married, the Sages penalized her. By contrast, in a case where she was merely betrothed, since she did not perform a prohibited action, the Sages did not penalize her.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻诇 拽诇讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转讞讝拽 讘讘讬 讚讬谞讗 诇讗讜 拽诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻诇 拽诇讗 讚讘转专 谞讬砖讜讗讬谉 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讛讗 讚讘转专 讗讬专讜住讬谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 专讘 讞讘讬讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讘转专 讗讬专讜住讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讛诇讻转讗 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛

Rav Ashi said: Any rumor that was not confirmed in court is not regarded as a significant rumor. And Rav Ashi said: With regard to any rumor that was spread about a woman after her marriage, we are not concerned about it. She need not leave her husband, and he need not divorce her. The Gemara infers that if the rumor circulated after her betrothal we are concerned about it, and she must be divorced from her betrothed. Rav 岣viva said: Even if it circulated after her betrothal, we are still not concerned about it. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that we are not concerned about it.

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 诪讘讬 专讘 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讬诇诪讚谞讜 专讘讬谞讜 讬爪讗 注诇讬讛 拽讜诇 诪专讗砖讜谉 讜讘讗 讗讞专 讜拽讚砖讛 拽讬讚讜砖讬 转讜专讛 诪讛讜 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 转爪讗 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 讛讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 讜讛讜讚讬注讜谞讬

Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that a group of students from the study hall of Rav sent the following question to Shmuel after Rav鈥檚 death: Teach us, our master: If a rumor circulated about a woman that she is betrothed to a first man, and another man came and betrothed her in a manner of betrothal that is recognized by Torah law, as there is clear testimony of it, what is the halakha? He sent them an answer: She must leave the second man, and you clarify the matter to figure out exactly what happened and inform me.

诪讗讬 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 讛讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚讗讬 诪讙诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讬 讚拽诪讗 诇讗讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬 诪注诇讬讗 谞讬谞讛讜 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讜讛讗 谞讛专讚注讗 讗转专讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讜讗 讜诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗 讗诇讗 讚讗讬 诪讬讙诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讬 拽诪讗 拽讬讚讜砖讬 诪注诇讬讗 谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 爪专讬讻讛 讙讟 诪砖谞讬

The Gemara asks: What is meant by: And you clarify the matter? If we say that he said this so that if it is discovered that the betrothal of the first man was not a proper betrothal we should suppress the rumor, thereby permitting her to marry the second man, isn鈥檛 Neharde鈥檃 Shmuel鈥檚 locale? And as mentioned above, in Neharde鈥檃 they would not suppress a rumor. Rather, he must have instructed them in this manner because if it is discovered that the betrothal of the first man was a proper betrothal, she does not need a bill of divorce from the second man.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖转 讗讬砖 砖驻砖讟讛 讬讚讛 讜拽讬讘诇讛 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉 诪讗讞专 诪拽讜讚砖转

And in ruling that she does not need a bill of divorce from the second man, Shmuel is in disagreement with Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: In the case of a married woman who extended her hand and received money or a document of betrothal from another man, it is considered uncertain whether or not the woman is betrothed to him, and she needs a bill of divorce from him.

诪讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讛讗砖讛 砖讗诪专讛 诇讘注诇讛 讙讬专砖转谞讬 谞讗诪谞转 讞讝拽讛 讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪注讬讝讛 驻谞讬讛 讘驻谞讬 讘注诇讛

Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion is based on a principle stated by Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says that a woman who said to her husband: You divorced me, is deemed credible, due to the presumption that a wife is not so brazen to lie in this manner before her husband. Therefore, in the case brought before Shmuel, the fact that the woman received money or a document of betrothal from the second man should be considered sufficient basis for the rumor to be suppressed, since if she were already betrothed she certainly would not have accepted the betrothal from him.

讜讗讬讚讱 讻讬 讗转诪专 讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讘驻谞讬讜 砖诇讗 讘驻谞讬讜 诪注讬讝讛 讜诪注讬讝讛

The Gemara asks: And how does the other Sage, Shmuel, who disagrees with Rav Huna, relate to this principle? The Gemara answers: He holds that Rav Hamnuna鈥檚 principle was stated in reference to a case when the wife says in her husband鈥檚 presence that he divorced her, but when she is not in his presence she is certainly brazen enough to lie in this manner. Therefore, in the case brought before Shmuel, the woman may have accepted the betrothal of the other man because it was not in her husband鈥檚 presence.

诇讗 诪爪讗讜 讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 诪讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha if they did not find a clear matter, i.e., they could not establish with certainty whether she was betrothed to the first man?

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讙专砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜谞讜砖讗 砖谞讬 讗讘诇 诪讙专砖 砖谞讬 讜谞讜砖讗 专讗砖讜谉 诇讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗转讬 诇诪讬诪专 诪讞讝讬专 讙专讜砖转讜 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉

Rav Huna says: The first man divorces her and the second man marries her. But for the second man to divorce her and the first man to marry her is not permitted. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that it is not permitted? It is prohibited lest people come to say that the first man is remarrying his divorc茅e after her betrothal to another man, as they will mistakenly assume that the first man betrothed her and then divorced her, thereby enabling her to be betrothed to the second man. Therefore, if he marries her after she is divorced from the second man, people will conclude that he is in violation of the Torah prohibition of remarrying one鈥檚 divorc茅e after she was married to another man.

专讘 砖讬谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讗祝 诪讙专砖 砖谞讬 讜谞讜砖讗 专讗砖讜谉 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讬 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬 讟注讜转 讛讜讛

Rav Shinnana, son of Rav Idi, says: For the second man to divorce her and the first man to marry her is also permitted. There is no concern that people will assume that the first man is remarrying his divorc茅e, as they will say that the Sages investigated the second man鈥檚 betrothal and found that it was a mistaken betrothal.

讬爪讗 注诇讬讛 拽讜诇 诪讝讛 讜诪讝讛 诪讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗祝 讝讜 诪讙专砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜谞讜砖讗 砖谞讬 讗诪讬诪专 讗诪专 诪讜转专转 诇砖谞讬讛诐

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha if a rumor circulated about her having been betrothed to this man and then another rumor was spread that she became betrothed to that man? Rav Pappa says: In this case too, the first man divorces her and the second man marries her, due to the previously mentioned concern that people will think that he is remarrying his divorc茅e after she was betrothed to another man. Ameimar says: She is permitted to both the first and the second man. One of them must divorce her while the other may marry her.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Gittin 89

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Gittin 89

讛专讬 讝讜 诪讙讜专砖转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 拽讜诇 讜砖讜讘专讜 注诪讜

she is considered to be divorced and may remarry. What is the reason for this? The rumor came with its receipt. The rumor that she is betrothed is canceled by the rumor that she is divorced.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讬爪讗 诇讛 砖诐 诪讝谞讛 讘注讬专 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻专讬爪讜转讗 讘注诇诪讗 讛讜讗 讚讞讝讜 诇讛

Rava said: If a rumor circulated in the city that a woman engaged in licentious sexual intercourse, we are not concerned that the rumor is true with regard to her eligibility to marry a priest. What is the reason for this? It is assumed that people saw her engage in merely licentious behavior, in a manner that does not disqualify her from marrying a priest.

讻转谞讗讬 讗讻诇讛 讘砖讜拽 讙讬专讙专讛 讘砖讜拽 讛谞讬拽讛 讘砖讜拽 讘讻讜诇谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 转爪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪砖讬砖讗讜 讜讬转谞讜 讘讛 诪讜讝专讜转 讘诇讘谞讛

This statement is parallel to one side of a dispute among the tanna鈥檌m: If a woman ate in the marketplace, walked with her neck stretched forward in an arrogant manner in the marketplace, or nursed in the marketplace, with regard to all of these cases Rabbi Meir says that she must leave her husband, since all of these behaviors are considered licentious behavior. Rabbi Akiva says that she must leave him only once the women who spin [mozerot] by the moonlight converse about her having engaged in promiscuous sexual intercourse, as this indicates that the matter is well known and accepted as fact.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗诐 讻谉 诇讗 讛谞讞转 讘转 诇讗讘专讛诐 讗讘讬谞讜 砖讬讜砖讘转 转讞转 讘注诇讛 讜讛转讜专讛 讗诪专讛 讻讬 诪爪讗 讘讛 注专讜转 讚讘专 讜诇讛诇谉 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 驻讬 砖谞讬诐 注讚讬诐 讗讜 注诇 驻讬 砖诇砖讛 注讚讬诐 讬拽讜诐 讚讘专 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讚讘专 讘专讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 讚讘专 讘专讜专

Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri said to him: If so, you have not allowed any daughter of Abraham our forefather to remain with her husband, i.e., all wives will be forced to leave their husbands, as it is common for women to slander their peers. And the Torah said: 鈥淏ecause he has found some unseemly matter in her, and he writes her a scroll of severance鈥 (Deuteronomy 24:1), and it says over there: 鈥淎t the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, a matter shall be established鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:15). Just as there, the word 鈥渕atter鈥 is referring to a clear matter, as it is established through witnesses, so too here, the unseemly matter that is considered a cause for divorce is also referring to a clear matter that was not established merely through a rumor. Rava鈥檚 statement is in accordance with this opinion.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注讜诇讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 谞砖讜讗讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 讗专讜住讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 砖诇讗 诇驻诇讜谞讬 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 讘注讬专 讗讞专转 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛

The Sages taught: If a rumor circulated that a certain unmarried woman is a non-virgin, one is not concerned about it, and she may marry a High Priest. If a rumor circulated that she is a married woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a betrothed woman, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is betrothed, but not to so-and-so, i.e., the man who betrothed her is not specified, one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she was betrothed in another city, one is not concerned about it.

诪诪讝专转 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛 砖驻讞讛 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛

If a rumor circulated that she is a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzeret], one is not concerned about it. If a rumor circulated that she is a maidservant, one is not concerned about it.

讛拽讚讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 谞讻住讬讜 讛驻拽讬专 驻诇讜谞讬 谞讻住讬讜 讗讬谉 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讛谉

Similarly, if a rumor circulated that so-and-so consecrated his property, or that so-and-so renounced ownership of his property, we are not concerned about these rumors, and his property cannot be taken away by the Temple treasury or another person.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 驻诇讜谞讬转 诪转拽讚砖转 讛讬讜诐

Ulla says: The rumor mentioned in the mishna with regard to betrothal is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there is circumstantial evidence, as there are candles lit and beds made in the woman鈥檚 house, as was the custom for brides, and people entering and leaving and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today.

诪转拽讚砖转 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽讚砖讛 讗讬诪讗 驻诇讜谞讬转 谞转拽讚砖讛 讛讬讜诐

The Gemara asks: If people merely are saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rather, say that people are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

讜讻谉 转谞讬 诇讜讬 诇讗 砖讬砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜谞砖讬诐 讟讜讜转 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 讜砖诪讞讜转 诇讛 讜讗讜诪专讜转 驻诇讜谞讬转 诪转拽讚砖转 讛讬讜诐 诪转拽讚砖转 讜讚诇诪讗 诇讗 讗拽讚砖讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬诪讗 驻诇讜谞讬转 谞转拽讚砖讛 讛讬讜诐

And similarly, Levi taught a baraita: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only hear an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where candles are lit and beds are made, and women are spinning by candlelight and rejoicing for her and saying that so-and-so is becoming betrothed today. The Gemara asks: If they are merely saying that she is becoming betrothed, what is the reason for concern? Perhaps she was not betrothed in the end. Rav Pappa said: Say that they are saying that so-and-so was betrothed today.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讛讜 谞专讜转 讚讜诇拽讜转 讜诪讟讜转 诪讜爪注讜转 讜讘谞讬 讗讚诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 讜讬讜爪讗讬谉 讗诪专讜 讚讘专 讝讛 讛讜讗 拽讜诇 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讚讘专 讝讛讜 讗诪转诇讗

Rabba bar bar 岣na says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where there are candles lit and beds made and people entering and leaving. If they made an explicit statement that the woman was betrothed, this is a rumor that renders her betrothed. If they did not make such a statement, this is the explanation mentioned in the mishna.

诇讗 讗诪专讜 讜讛讗 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讜诇讗 讻诇讜诐 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 讗诪转诇讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讻讗谉 讜注讚 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诇讗 讗诪专讜 讛讜讗 讚讛讜讬讗 讗诪转诇讗 讛讗 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讛讜讬讗 讗诪转诇讗

The Gemara asks: If they did not make such a statement, why is it considered an explanation? But they did not say anything that requires an explanation. The Gemara answers that Rabbi Yo岣nan did not mean that the people did not say anything, but rather that they did not state unequivocally that the woman is betrothed, to the exclusion of that which Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The explanation mentioned in the mishna negates the rumor even if it circulates at some point from now until ten days after the rumor begins to circulate. Rabbi Yo岣nan therefore teaches us that only if the people did not say unequivocally that she is betrothed is it considered an explanation that negates the rumor. But if they said so unequivocally, any later explanation is not considered an explanation that negates the rumor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讗诪专讜 驻诇讜谞讬 诪讛讬讻谉 砖诪注 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜驻诇讜谞讬 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜讘讜讚拽讬谉 讜讛讜诇讻讬谉 注讚 砖诪讙讬注讬谉 诇讚讘专 讛讘专讜专

Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear that this woman is betrothed? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so. And as a result, the judges investigate the rumor continuously, tracing the hearsay until they reach a clear matter, i.e., eyewitnesses.

讚讘专 讛讘专讜专 注讚讜转 诪注诇讬讬转讗 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 诇讗 砖砖诪注讜 拽讜诇 讛讘专讛 讗诇讗 讻讚讬 砖讬讗诪专讜 驻诇讜谞讬 诪讛讬讻谉 砖诪注 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜驻诇讜谞讬 诪驻诇讜谞讬 讜讛诇讻讜 诇讛诐 诇诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐

The Gemara raises an objection: If the court reaches a clear matter it is proper testimony, not a rumor. Rather, when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda came from Eretz Yisrael he taught that Rabbi Abba said that Rav Huna said that Rav said: The mishna is not referring to a case where people only heard an echo. Rather, it is referring to a case where people say: From where did so-and-so hear this? From so-and-so, and so-and-so heard it from so-and-so, and they went overseas, so that the court cannot investigate further.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讗讜 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讚 砖讬砖诪注讜 诪驻讬 讛讻砖专讬诐 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Do we suppress a rumor that was not substantiated by the court, or do we not suppress it? He said to him: Since Rav 岣sda says that a rumor is not treated stringently until the court hears it from valid witnesses, which indicates that rumors are generally treated leniently, learn from it that we suppress a rumor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讚专讘讛 诪讚讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讗驻讬诇讜 诪驻讬 谞砖讬诐 讛讜讬 拽讜诇 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗

Abaye said to him: On the contrary, since Rav Sheshet said that even if the court hears it from women it is considered a serious rumor, indicating that rumors are treated stringently, learn from it that we do not suppress a rumor.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转专讜讜转讗 谞讬谞讛讜 讘住讜专讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗 讘谞讛专讚注讗 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗

Rav Yosef said to him: These opinions correspond to the local custom in two different places. In Sura they suppress a rumor, whereas in Neharde鈥檃 they do not suppress a rumor.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 诇讘专 讘讬 专讘 讗转讬讬讛 专讘 讞诪讗 诇讗讘讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讗 诇讬 讛讬讻讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 注诇 转谞讗讬 拽讚讬砖 讗讚注转讗 讚诇讗 讗讝讬诇 诇讘讬 讞讜讝讗讬 讜讗讝诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讘注讬讚谞讗 讚讛讜讗讬 拽诇讗 诇讗 讛讜讗讬 讗诪转诇讗 诇讗讜 讻诇 讻诪讬谞讱 讚诪讞讝拽转 讗诪转诇讗

The Gemara relates several incidents: A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed to a student of Torah. Rav 岣ma summoned her father and said to him: Tell me exactly how the incident transpired. The father said to him: The student betrothed her conditionally, with the intention that he would not go to the city of Bei 岣zai, and he subsequently went there, thereby nullifying the betrothal. Rav 岣ma said to him: Since at the time that the rumor existed this explanation did not exist, it is not in your power to create the presumption of an explanation. Therefore, the rumor must be treated stringently.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 讘讗爪讬驻讗 讚转讜讞诇讗 讘注讬谞讗 讚讘讬 砖讬驻讬 砖诇讞讛 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 诇拽诪讬讛 讚讗讘讬讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讘讛讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬讛 讜诇讗 讛讜讛 讘讛讜 砖讜讛 驻专讜讟讛

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed with a mat of dates [atzifa deto岣la] from the spring of Bei Shifei. Rav Idi bar Avin sent the case to be presented before Abaye, asking him: What is the halakha in a case like this? Should this rumor be suppressed? Abaye said to him: Even according to the one who said that we do not suppress a rumor, in this case we suppress the rumor. This is because if she marries someone else people will not slander her. Rather, they will say that the Sages investigated her betrothal, i.e., the value of the mat of dates with which she was betrothed, and concluded that it was not worth one peruta and therefore the betrothal was invalid.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed

诇讞讚 诪讘谞讬 驻诇谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讘讛讗 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讜 讘讛讜 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬 拽讟谉 讛讜讜

to one of the sons of so-and-so, who had both adult and minor sons. The son to whom she was betrothed was not specified. Rava said: Even according to the one who says that we do not suppress a rumor, in this case we suppress the rumor. People will not slander her. Rather, they will say that the Sages investigated the betrothal and concluded that it was the betrothal of a minor.

讛讛讬讗 讚谞驻拽 注诇讛 拽诇讗 讚讗讬拽讚砖讛 诇拽讟谉 讛谞专讗讛 讻讙讚讜诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 诪专讚讻讬 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讜讗诪专讜 注讚讬讬谉 诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇驻诇讙讜转 专讗讜讘谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇驻诇讙讜转 专讗讜讘谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讞拽专讬 诇讘

A rumor circulated that a certain woman was betrothed to a minor boy who looked like an adult, as his body was developed like an adult. Rav Mordekhai said to Rav Ashi: There was a precedent in which the Sages said that there is no concern that people will think that the woman is betrothed, since the boy did not yet reach the divisions of Reuben, i.e., the competence of adulthood, as it is stated: 鈥淎mong the divisions of Reuben there were major resolves of heart鈥 (Judges 5:16). Therefore, the betrothal is rendered entirely invalid, and there is no concern of slander.

讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 转讛讗 砖诐 讗诪转诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪转诇讗 砖讗诪专讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讻讗谉 讜注讚 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 专讘 讝讘讬讚 讗诪专 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诪转诇讗 讞讜砖砖讬谉 诇讗诪转诇讗

搂 It is stated in the mishna that a rumor is treated seriously only provided there is no explanation. Rabba bar Rav Huna said: The explanation mentioned in the mishna negates the rumor even if it circulates at some point from now, i.e., from the time the rumor circulated, until ten days afterward. Rav Zevid says: Where there is the reasonable possibility of an explanation, we are concerned about the possibility of an explanation even if it is not mentioned explicitly, and the rumor is therefore disregarded.

讗讬转讬讘讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘 讝讘讬讚 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 转讛讗 砖诐 讗诪转诇讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讗诪转诇讗 拽讗诪专

Rav Pappa raised an objection to the opinion of Rav Zevid from the expression in the mishna: Provided there is no explanation, which indicates that the explanation must be mentioned for it to be regarded. Rav Zevid said to him: The mishna is saying that where there is the reasonable possibility of an explanation the rumor is disregarded, even if it was not mentioned.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讜讗转 诇讗 转住讘专讗 讜讛转谞谉 谞转拽讚砖讛 讜讗讞专 讻讱 讘讗 讘注诇讛 诪讜转专转 诇讞讝讜专 诇讗讜 诪砖讜诐 讚讗诪专讬谞谉 注诇 转谞讗讬 拽讚讬砖

Rav Kahana said to Rav Pappa: And you, do you not hold Rav Zevid鈥檚 statement to be true? But didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna that if a woman was betrothed after her husband was taken for dead, and then her husband came back, she is permitted to return to him (Yevamot 92a), which would not have been the case if she had been married and not merely betrothed? Isn鈥檛 this because we say that the second man betrothed her conditionally, stipulating that if her husband is found to be alive the betrothal is null, even though this explanation did not circulate explicitly?

砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚讗转讬 讘注诇 讜拽讗 诪注专注专

The Gemara answers: It is different there because the husband comes and contests the betrothal, which shows clearly that he never divorced her and that her betrothal was mistaken. Therefore, there is no need for an additional explanation.

讗讬 讛讻讬 谞讬砖讗转 谞诪讬 谞讬砖讗转 讚注讘讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 拽谞住讜讛 专讘谞谉 谞转拽讚砖讛 讚诇讗 注讘讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 诇讗 拽谞住讜讛 专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: If so, in a case where she married the second man, it should also be permitted for her to return to her first husband. Why do the Sages render it prohibited for her to do so? The Gemara answers: In a case where she married him, since she performed a prohibited action, albeit unintentionally, by engaging in sexual intercourse with a man who is not her husband while she was married, the Sages penalized her. By contrast, in a case where she was merely betrothed, since she did not perform a prohibited action, the Sages did not penalize her.

讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻诇 拽诇讗 讚诇讗 讗讬转讞讝拽 讘讘讬 讚讬谞讗 诇讗讜 拽诇讗 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻诇 拽诇讗 讚讘转专 谞讬砖讜讗讬谉 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讛讗 讚讘转专 讗讬专讜住讬谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 专讘 讞讘讬讘讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讘转专 讗讬专讜住讬谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讜讛诇讻转讗 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讛

Rav Ashi said: Any rumor that was not confirmed in court is not regarded as a significant rumor. And Rav Ashi said: With regard to any rumor that was spread about a woman after her marriage, we are not concerned about it. She need not leave her husband, and he need not divorce her. The Gemara infers that if the rumor circulated after her betrothal we are concerned about it, and she must be divorced from her betrothed. Rav 岣viva said: Even if it circulated after her betrothal, we are still not concerned about it. The Gemara concludes: And the halakha is that we are not concerned about it.

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 诪讘讬 专讘 诇砖诪讜讗诇 讬诇诪讚谞讜 专讘讬谞讜 讬爪讗 注诇讬讛 拽讜诇 诪专讗砖讜谉 讜讘讗 讗讞专 讜拽讚砖讛 拽讬讚讜砖讬 转讜专讛 诪讛讜 砖诇讞 诇讛讜 转爪讗 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 讛讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 讜讛讜讚讬注讜谞讬

Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said that a group of students from the study hall of Rav sent the following question to Shmuel after Rav鈥檚 death: Teach us, our master: If a rumor circulated about a woman that she is betrothed to a first man, and another man came and betrothed her in a manner of betrothal that is recognized by Torah law, as there is clear testimony of it, what is the halakha? He sent them an answer: She must leave the second man, and you clarify the matter to figure out exactly what happened and inform me.

诪讗讬 讜讛注诪讬讚讜 讛讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚讗讬 诪讙诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讬 讚拽诪讗 诇讗讜 拽讬讚讜砖讬 诪注诇讬讗 谞讬谞讛讜 诪讘讟诇讬谞谉 拽诇讗 讜讛讗 谞讛专讚注讗 讗转专讬讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 讛讜讗 讜诇讗 诪讘讟诇讬 拽诇讗 讗诇讗 讚讗讬 诪讬讙诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚拽讬讚讜砖讬 拽诪讗 拽讬讚讜砖讬 诪注诇讬讗 谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 爪专讬讻讛 讙讟 诪砖谞讬

The Gemara asks: What is meant by: And you clarify the matter? If we say that he said this so that if it is discovered that the betrothal of the first man was not a proper betrothal we should suppress the rumor, thereby permitting her to marry the second man, isn鈥檛 Neharde鈥檃 Shmuel鈥檚 locale? And as mentioned above, in Neharde鈥檃 they would not suppress a rumor. Rather, he must have instructed them in this manner because if it is discovered that the betrothal of the first man was a proper betrothal, she does not need a bill of divorce from the second man.

讜驻诇讬讙讗 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖转 讗讬砖 砖驻砖讟讛 讬讚讛 讜拽讬讘诇讛 拽讬讚讜砖讬谉 诪讗讞专 诪拽讜讚砖转

And in ruling that she does not need a bill of divorce from the second man, Shmuel is in disagreement with Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: In the case of a married woman who extended her hand and received money or a document of betrothal from another man, it is considered uncertain whether or not the woman is betrothed to him, and she needs a bill of divorce from him.

诪讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讛讗砖讛 砖讗诪专讛 诇讘注诇讛 讙讬专砖转谞讬 谞讗诪谞转 讞讝拽讛 讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪注讬讝讛 驻谞讬讛 讘驻谞讬 讘注诇讛

Rav Huna鈥檚 opinion is based on a principle stated by Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says that a woman who said to her husband: You divorced me, is deemed credible, due to the presumption that a wife is not so brazen to lie in this manner before her husband. Therefore, in the case brought before Shmuel, the fact that the woman received money or a document of betrothal from the second man should be considered sufficient basis for the rumor to be suppressed, since if she were already betrothed she certainly would not have accepted the betrothal from him.

讜讗讬讚讱 讻讬 讗转诪专 讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讘驻谞讬讜 砖诇讗 讘驻谞讬讜 诪注讬讝讛 讜诪注讬讝讛

The Gemara asks: And how does the other Sage, Shmuel, who disagrees with Rav Huna, relate to this principle? The Gemara answers: He holds that Rav Hamnuna鈥檚 principle was stated in reference to a case when the wife says in her husband鈥檚 presence that he divorced her, but when she is not in his presence she is certainly brazen enough to lie in this manner. Therefore, in the case brought before Shmuel, the woman may have accepted the betrothal of the other man because it was not in her husband鈥檚 presence.

诇讗 诪爪讗讜 讚讘专 注诇 讘讜专讬讜 诪讛讜

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha if they did not find a clear matter, i.e., they could not establish with certainty whether she was betrothed to the first man?

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讙专砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜谞讜砖讗 砖谞讬 讗讘诇 诪讙专砖 砖谞讬 讜谞讜砖讗 专讗砖讜谉 诇讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗转讬 诇诪讬诪专 诪讞讝讬专 讙专讜砖转讜 诪谉 讛讗讬专讜住讬谉

Rav Huna says: The first man divorces her and the second man marries her. But for the second man to divorce her and the first man to marry her is not permitted. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that it is not permitted? It is prohibited lest people come to say that the first man is remarrying his divorc茅e after her betrothal to another man, as they will mistakenly assume that the first man betrothed her and then divorced her, thereby enabling her to be betrothed to the second man. Therefore, if he marries her after she is divorced from the second man, people will conclude that he is in violation of the Torah prohibition of remarrying one鈥檚 divorc茅e after she was married to another man.

专讘 砖讬谞谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讗祝 诪讙专砖 砖谞讬 讜谞讜砖讗 专讗砖讜谉 诪讬诪专 讗诪专讬 注讬讬谞讬 专讘谞谉 讘拽讬讚讜砖讬 讜拽讬讚讜砖讬 讟注讜转 讛讜讛

Rav Shinnana, son of Rav Idi, says: For the second man to divorce her and the first man to marry her is also permitted. There is no concern that people will assume that the first man is remarrying his divorc茅e, as they will say that the Sages investigated the second man鈥檚 betrothal and found that it was a mistaken betrothal.

讬爪讗 注诇讬讛 拽讜诇 诪讝讛 讜诪讝讛 诪讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讗祝 讝讜 诪讙专砖 专讗砖讜谉 讜谞讜砖讗 砖谞讬 讗诪讬诪专 讗诪专 诪讜转专转 诇砖谞讬讛诐

The Gemara asks: What is the halakha if a rumor circulated about her having been betrothed to this man and then another rumor was spread that she became betrothed to that man? Rav Pappa says: In this case too, the first man divorces her and the second man marries her, due to the previously mentioned concern that people will think that he is remarrying his divorc茅e after she was betrothed to another man. Ameimar says: She is permitted to both the first and the second man. One of them must divorce her while the other may marry her.

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