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Today's Daf Yomi

October 17, 2022 | ื›ืดื‘ ื‘ืชืฉืจื™ ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

Ketubot 103

A case was brought regarding a man who rented a millstone and in exchange for payment, he ground the wheat for the owner. When the owner became rich and no longer needed the services of the grinder, he wanted to get paid money for the rental of the millstone. Can he force him to pay the money? Can we learn the answer to this question from the case in our Mishna with the two husbands who are forced to pay the value of the food they committed to give the daughter? Can one distinguish between the cases? Orphans need to allow the widow of their father to stay in their house and feed her. If she returns to her fatherโ€™s house, they do not need to feed her. In what situations do we make exceptions to these rules? The Gemara brings a braita that tells what happened when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died. First, he told his sons to take care of his wife and show respect for her. Isnโ€™t this a Torah obligation? He wanted his candle to be lit, and his table and bed to be set. Why? Apparently, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would come back (from the dead) every Friday night until one particular incident that caused him to stop coming. He told his sons who would serve him. They thought he meant at his burial but since they predeceased him, they realize he meant in heaven. He then called the sages and told them not to eulogize him in the cities, how long to mourn for him before reopening the yeshivot, and that Shimon his son is wise and Gamliel his son will take over as the Nasi, and Chanina bar Chama will be the head of the yeshiva. Why did he tell them each of these things? What happened as a result of not allowing eulogies for him in the small villages? How long did they in fact mourn for him? Chanina bar Chama did not sit at the head right away โ€“ as he first let Rabbi Afas be the head as he was older. While Rabbi Afas was the head, Rabbi Chanina would sit outside and learn with Levi. Once he died, Levi had no one to learn with and went to Babylonia. When Rav saw him come, he immediately understood that Rabbi Afas had died and Rabbi Chanina had become the head. How did he know this? Why wasnโ€™t Rabbi Chiya chosen? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then called in his children and passed on to them what they needed to know.

ืžืื™ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืืžื” ืฉืžืขืช ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืช ืืฆืœ ื”ืื ืœื ืฉื ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืœื ืฉื ื ืงื˜ื ื”

What is the purpose of emphasizing: To the place where her mother lives? Conclude from here that a daughter lives with her mother; it is no different if she is an adult woman, and it is no different if she is a minor girl.

ืœื ื™ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื•ื›ื•ืณ

ยง It was taught in the mishna that if two men are obligated to support this girl, both of them may not jointly say that they will be partners in her support. Rather, each one fulfills his obligation independently.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื•ื’ืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืœื—ื‘ืจื™ื” ืœื˜ื—ื™ื ื” ืœืกื•ืฃ ืื™ืขืชืจ ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื•ื—ืžืจื

The Gemara relates that there was a certain man who rented out a millstone to another for the price of grinding, i.e., the one who rented the millstone was to pay the cost of the rental by grinding whatever the owner needed to be ground. In the end, the owner of the millstone became rich, and he purchased another millstone and a donkey, and he no longer required the services of the renter to grind things for him.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขื“ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ื ื’ื‘ืš ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื‘ ืœื™ ืื’ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื˜ื—ืŸ ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ื ืœืš

The owner of the millstone said to the renter: Until now I would have what I needed ground by you, and the service that you provided was in place of payment for the rental of the millstone. Now, since I no longer require this service, give me payment for the millstone. The renter said back to him: I will grind for you because that is what I agreed to, but I did not agree to have to pay money.

ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื”ืจื™ ืื ื• ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื›ืื—ื“ ืืœื ืื—ื“ ื–ื ื” ื•ืื—ื“ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื” ื“ืžื™ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

Ravina thought to say that this is the same as the mishna that states that both of them may not jointly say: We will sustain the girl as one in a partnership. Rather, one sustains her, providing her with food, while the other gives her the monetary value of the sustenance. In that case, although the original condition was to provide the girl with support in the form of food, when circumstances changed, the previous husband became obligated to pay her support in the form of money. So too here, due to the change in circumstances, the renter should pay the owner of the millstone with money.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ืžื™ ื“ืžื™ ื”ืชื ื—ื“ ื›ืจื™ืกื ืื™ืช ืœื” ืชืจืชื™ ื›ืจื™ืกืชื ืœื™ืช ืœื” ื”ื›ื ืžืฆื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืื•ืชื™ื‘

Rav Avira said to Ravina: Are the two cases comparable? There, in the case of the girl, she has only one stomach; she does not have two stomachs. Therefore, it is impossible for both of them to support her with food. Here, in the case of the millstone, the renter is able to say to him: Grind and sell, grind and store for later use, i.e., the owner of the millstone can use his new millstone to grind for others at a profit, and at the same time the renter will continue grinding the ownerโ€™s grain as per their agreement. Therefore, the renter is not obligated to change the terms of the original agreement.

ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ืœืจื™ื—ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ืœืจื™ื—ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื–ื• ื›ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืžื“ืช ืกื“ื•ื

The Gemara notes: We said this only in a case where the renter does not have any other grinding to do with the millstone and without the grinding that the renter does for the owner the mill will remain inoperative. However, if he has other grinding to do with the millstone, i.e., instead of grinding the ownerโ€™s grain he can grind the grain of others for a fee and thereby pay money for his rental, in a case such as this one forces him to cease his conduct characteristic of Sodom and to pay his rental fee in the form of money.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™ ืœื–ื•ื– ืžื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื” ืœื›ื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืื ื• ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืš ืืœื ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืžื“ื•ืจ ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื”

MISHNA: In the case of a widow who said: I do not want to move from my husbandโ€™s house, but instead I wish to remain there, the heirs are not able to say to her: Go to your fatherโ€™s house and we will sustain you. Rather, they sustain her in her husbandโ€™s house and they give her living quarters befitting her dignity.

ืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™ ืœื–ื•ื– ืžื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื” ืื ืืช ืืฆืœื ื• ื™ืฉ ืœื™ืš ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ืืฆืœื ื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ืš ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

However, if she said: I do not want to move from my fatherโ€™s house, and you should bring me my support there, the heirs are able to say to her: If you are living with us, you will have sustenance from us, but if you are not living with us, you will not have sustenance from us.

ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื˜ื•ืขื ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ื™ืœื“ื” ื•ื”ืŸ ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื”

If she argued that she does not wish to live in her deceased husbandโ€™s house because she is young, and they, the heirs, are also young, and it is improper for them to be living in the same house together, then they sustain her and she stays in her fatherโ€™s house.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ืžื“ื•ืจ ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ืฉื›ืš ื›ืชื‘ ืœื” ื•ืืช ืชื”ื ื™ืชื‘ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืžื™ืชื–ื ื ืžื ื›ืกื™ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ืžื’ืจ ืืจืžืœื•ืชื™ืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™

GEMARA: The Sages taught: A widow that remains in her husbandโ€™s house uses the living quarters in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime. She uses the slaves and the maidservants in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime, the pillows and the sheets in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime, and the silver utensils and gold utensils in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime. She maintains all the rights she had during her husbandโ€™s lifetime because this is what he wrote to her in the text of the marriage contract: And you will reside in my house and be sustained from my property all the days that you live in my house as a widow.

ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืœื ื‘ื‘ืงืชื™

Rav Yosef taught: The husband stipulated in the marriage contract: You will reside in my house, with the implication: And not in my hut. Therefore, if the house is too small, she cannot obligate the heirs to allow her to live in the house with them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืœื ืขืฉื• ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื

Rav Naแธฅman said: Orphans who sold the living quarters of a widow did not do anything, i.e., the sale is invalid.

ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ืฉืงื“ืžื• ื•ืžื›ืจื• ื‘ื ื›ืกื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืžื›ืจื•

The Gemara asks: And in what way is this case different from that which Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said? As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: With regard to orphans who preemptively sold from the small quantity of property left to them by their father before the court appropriated it for the purpose of providing for female children, who do not inherit, what they sold is sold, even though they acted improperly. Why, then, is the sale of a widowโ€™s living quarters invalid?

ื”ืชื ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื›ื ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื

The Gemara answers: There, in the case of orphans selling property that according to halakha should be retained in order to support the orphaned daughters, the property is not mortgaged to the orphaned daughters from the lifetime of their father, since the lien on the property arising from the obligation to provide support for the daughters occurs only after the fatherโ€™s death. Here, in the case of the widowโ€™s living quarters, the property is mortgaged to her from the lifetime of her husband, who was obligated even while he was alive to provide her with a place to live.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื™ื˜ื™ื ืŸ ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉื ืคืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื•ืชื•

Abaye said: We hold on the authority of tradition that in the case of a widowโ€™s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it, since they are obligated to maintain her in the residence that was mortgaged to her and are not required to provide her with a place to live.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉื ืคืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื™ื ืื•ืžืจืช ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื ื™ ื•ืื‘ื ื ื• ืžืฉืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขื™ืŸ ืœื”

This is also taught in a baraita: In the case of a widowโ€™s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it. And not only this, but even if she says: Leave me be and I will rebuild it from my own funds, one does not listen to her, and the heirs do not have to let her rebuild it.

ื‘ืขื™ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉื™ืคืฆื” ืžืื™ ืชื™ืงื•

Abaye raised a dilemma: If she repaired the house, what is the halakha? Is it as though the house collapsed and was rebuilt, in which case she no longer has rights to it, or may she stay in the house as long as it remains standing? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™

ยง We learned in the mishna: If she said: I do not want to move from my fatherโ€™s house and you should bring me my support there, the heirs are not obligated to support her.

ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื• ืœื” ื›ื™ ื™ืชื‘ื” ื”ืชื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื”

The Gemara asks: And why is this so? They should give her support just as they would if she were living there, i.e., in her husbandโ€™s house. The Gemara answers: This supports the view of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: The blessing of the house is in its abundance of residents. This means that the amount of blessing in a home is proportionate to the number of people who live there. When there are many people living together in one home, the expenses per capita are decreased. The heirs can say to her that if she stays with them in the house, the expense of her upkeep will be less than if she lives on her own.

ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื• ืœื” ืœืคื™ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™

The Gemara asks: And they should give her the support in her fatherโ€™s house according to the blessing of the house, i.e., according to the amount they would be required to pay if she lived with them. The Gemara answers: Indeed, the intent of the mishna is that they may pay her this amount, not that they may entirely avoid supporting her.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื” ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืขื•ืฉืจ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžืจืคื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ

Rav Huna said: The language of the Sages teaches blessing, the language of the Sages teaches wealth, and the language of the Sages teaches healing. One can learn important lessons about these matters from the manner in which the Sages formulated their halakhic rulings. How is this so? With regard to blessing, it is that which we said above about the blessings of the home.

ืขื•ืฉืจ ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžืฉืš ื•ืœื ืžื“ื“ ืงื ื” ืžื“ื“ ื•ืœื ืžืฉืš ืœื ืงื ื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืคืงื— ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื•

The language of the Sages teaches about wealth, as we learned in a mishna (Bava Batra 84b): One who sells produce to another, if the buyer pulled the produce as an act of acquisition but did not measure it, he has acquired the produce. If he measured the produce but did not pull it, he has not acquired it. And if the buyer was perspicacious and wanted to ensure that the seller would not back out of the deal, he would rent the place where the produce was located, and he would thereby acquire the produce immediately from the time he measures it. This mishna teaches good counsel in money-related matters.

ืžืจืคื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืœืขื•ืก ืื“ื ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื ื™ื— ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืžื›ืชื• ื‘ืคืกื— ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื—ืžื™ืฆื•ืช

The language of the Sages teaches about healing, as we learned in a mishna (Pesaแธฅim 39b): A person should not chew wheat and then place it on his wound during Passover because the wheat will become leavened as a result. This comment of the Sages indicates that chewed wheat is beneficial for treating a wound.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืกื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืืฆืœื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืžื›ื ื ืจ ื™ื”ื ื“ืœื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืš ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืžื˜ื” ืชื”ื ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื—ืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคืจืชื™ ื”ื ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืชื™

ยง The Sages taught: At the time of the passing of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, he said: I need my sons. His sons entered his room. He said to them as a last will and testament: Be careful with the honor of your mother. He said further: My lamp should be lit in its usual place, my table should be set in its usual place, and the bed should be arranged in its usual place. Yosef แธคeifani and Shimon Efrati; they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death.

ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืžื›ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ืืฉืช ืื‘ ื”ื•ืื™

The Gemara clarifies the various requests that he made of his sons: Be careful with the honor of your mother. The Gemara asks: Why would he need to say this? After all, this is required by Torah law, as it is written: โ€œHonor your father and your motherโ€ (Exodus 20:11)? The Gemara answers: She was their fatherโ€™s wife. She was not their mother, but their stepmother, and he therefore needed to caution them concerning her honor.

ืืฉืช ืื‘ ื ืžื™ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื–ื• ืืฉืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ื–ื• ื‘ืขืœ ืืžืš ื•ื™ื• ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืืช ืื—ื™ืš ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara asks: Honoring a fatherโ€™s wife is also required by Torah law, as it is taught in a baraita: Honor your father [et avikha] and your mother [veโ€™et immekha]. The preposition et in the phrase: Your father; this teaches that you must honor your fatherโ€™s wife. Similarly, the preposition et in the phrase: And your mother; this teaches that you must honor your motherโ€™s husband. And the extra letter vav, which is appended as a prefix in the phrase โ€œveโ€™et immekhaโ€ is included in order to add your older brother to those who must be honored.

ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื

The Gemara answers: This halakha, that one is obligated by Torah law to respect his fatherโ€™s wife, applies only during his fatherโ€™s lifetime. While the father is alive, out of respect for him, his wife must also be treated with respect. However, following his death, no, there is no longer any obligation to honor a stepmother. It was for this reason that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to caution his sons in this matter.

ื ืจ ื™ื”ื ื“ืœื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืš ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืžื˜ื” ืชื”ื ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ ืฉืžืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื”

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi commanded his sons: My lamp should be lit in its usual place, my table should be set in its usual place, and the bed should be arranged in its usual place. The Gemara asks: What is the reason he made these requests? The Gemara explains: Every Shabbat eve, even after his passing, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would come to his house as he had done during his lifetime, and he therefore wished for everything to be set up as usual.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ ืฉืžืฉื ืืชืื™ ืฉื‘ื‘ืชื ืงื ืงืจื™ื” ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจื” ืืžืชื™ื” ืฉืชื™ืงื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืข ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ืืชื ืฉืœื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืœืขื– ืขืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื

The Gemara relates the following incident: It happened on a certain Shabbat eve that a neighbor came by and called and knocked at the door. His maidservant said to her: Be quiet, for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is sitting. When he heard his maidservant reveal his presence to the neighbor, he did not come again, so as not to cast aspersions on earlier righteous individuals who did not appear to their families following their death.

ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื—ืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคืจืชื™ ื”ื ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืชื™ ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื• ื“ืงื“ื™ื ืขืจืกื™ื™ื”ื• ืœืขืจืกื™ื” ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara elaborates on Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s statement: Yosef แธคeifani and Shimon Efrati, they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death. It was understood from this statement that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was speaking of this world, that these two should serve him in his death and administer his burial. However, when they saw that their biers preceded his bier, i.e., they died before him, they said: Conclude from here that he was speaking of that world. They will attend to him in the World-to-Come.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืžืจื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื•ืื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ืขื“ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืžื™ ื–ื›ื•ืชื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื•

And the reason he said this was so that people should not say: There was something wrong with them, and until now, too, it was the merit of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi that benefited them and prevented them from dying due to their sins. Now that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is dying, his merit no longer protects them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi therefore clarified that the reason for their deaths was in order to enable them to escort him in death as in life.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืกื• ืืฆืœื• ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืืœ ืชืกืคื“ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said further to his attendants: I need the Sages of Israel. The Sages of Israel entered his room. He said to them: Do not eulogize me in the small towns

ื•ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื• ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ

and reconvene the study sessions at the yeshiva after thirty days of mourning. My son Shimon is a Sage. My son Gamliel should be the Nasi. แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva.

ืืœ ืชืกืคื“ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื˜ืจื—ื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื™ ื“ืงืกืคื“ื™ ื‘ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื•ืงืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืืžืจื• ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara explains the requests of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Do not eulogize me in the small towns. They understood from this statement that he said this due to the trouble that would be caused for many if he were eulogized in every town, since they would have to travel from the outlying villages to take part in the eulogies. However, when they saw that they were eulogizing him in the cities and everyone came despite the trouble, they said: Conclude from here that he said this due to considerations of honor. Had they eulogized him in the towns, the gatherings would have been small and unfitting for a man of his stature. He therefore requested that they arrange things in a way that large crowds would gather.

ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื• ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื“ืœื ืขื“ื™ืคื ื ืžืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ืžืฉื” ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื•ืื‘ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืกืคื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ืกืคื“ื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื•ื’ืจืกื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืื• ืกืคื“ื• ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ื•ื’ืจืกื™ ื‘ื™ืžืžื ืขื“ ื“ืกืคื“ื™ ืชืจื™ืกืจ ื™ืจื—ื™ ืฉืชื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further instructed: Reconvene the study sessions at the yeshiva after thirty days of mourning. This is because I am not better than Moses, our teacher, as it is written: โ€œAnd the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty daysโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:8), which means that for thirty days they eulogized him by day and night. From this point forward they eulogized him by day and they studied by night, or they eulogized him by night and studied by day, until they eulogized him for twelve months of the year.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืืฉื›ื‘ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืคืงื ื‘ืช ืงืœื ื•ืืžืจื” ื›ืœ ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืืฉื›ื‘ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ืงืžื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ืœื ืืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืข ื”ื›ื™ ืกืœื™ืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื•ื ืคืœ ืœืืจืขื ื•ืžื™ืช ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืืฃ ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The Gemara relates that on the day of the funeral of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, a Divine Voice emerged and said: Whoever was present at the funeral of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is destined for life in the World-to-Come. There was a certain launderer who would come before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi every day. On that particular day, he did not come and was therefore not present at the funeral. When he heard this, that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had died, he was so full of grief that he ascended to the roof and fell to the ground and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: That launderer too is destined for life in the World-to-Come.

ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: My son Shimon is a Sage; my son Gamliel should be the Nasi. What was he saying, i.e., what did he mean by these remarks? The Gemara explains: This is what he was saying: Although my son Shimon is a greater Sage, my son Gamliel should be the Nasi.

ืืžืจ ืœื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืš ื•ืœืžื˜ืœืขืชืš ืžืื™ ืงืฉื™ื ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืงืจื ืงืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืžืœื›ื” ื ืชืŸ ืœื™ื”ื•ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจ

Levi said: Need this be said? After all, Gamliel was the firstborn. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said: It is necessary for you and for your limp. The Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Shimon find difficult with Leviโ€™s question that caused him to scoff? Doesnโ€™t the verse state: โ€œBut the kingdom he gave to Jehoram because he was the firstbornโ€ (IIย Chronicles 21:3)? This indicates that the firstborn is the one who inherits his fatherโ€™s appointment, and so Levi legitimately asked why Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to leave specific instructions about this.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื”

The Gemara explains: He, Jehoram, filled the place of his fathers, i.e., he was their equal in his personal attributes and leadership capabilities. However, Rabban Gamliel did not fill the place of his fathers, and for this reason Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to specifically command that he nevertheless be appointed as the Nasi.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื”ื™ ื“ืื™ื ื• ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื‘ื™ืจืืช ื—ื˜ื ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื”

The Gemara asks: And if that is so, what is the reason that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did this? Why did he choose this son to be his successor if he was unfit for the position? The Gemara answers: Although he did not fill the place of his fathers with regard to wisdom, as he was not as great a Torah scholar as his father, he did fill the place of his fathers with regard to fear of sin and was therefore fit to be appointed as the Nasi.

ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื‘ืจืื™ ื•ืืชื ืœื•ื™ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื”

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi instructed: แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva. The Gemara relates: Rabbi แธคanina did not accept this appointment, because Rabbi Afes was older than him by two and a half years and he did not want to precede him in accepting this position. Consequently, Rabbi Afes sat at the head of the yeshiva, and Rabbi แธคanina sat outside, as it was unbefitting for him to sit as a student before Rabbi Afes. And Levi came and sat and studied with him outside.

ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื’ื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื” ืืงืœืข ืœื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื•ืžื˜ืœืข ื•ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื›ืœื™ืœื ืฉืจื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื

Rabbi Afes died, and Rabbi แธคanina, taking his place, sat at the head of the yeshiva. And Levi did not have anyone to sit and study with, and so he came to Babylonia. And this is the background to the incident in which they said to Rav: A great man came to Nehardeโ€™a, and he limps, and he taught: It is permitted for a woman who is wearing a kelila, a tiara-like ornament, to go out into the public domain on Shabbat. Rav then said: Conclude from this that Rabbi Afes died and Rabbi แธคanina, taking his place, sat at the head of the yeshiva, and Levi did not have anyone to sit and study with, and so he came to Babylonia.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื›ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœื•ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ืžื™ื›ืฃ ื”ื•ื” ื›ื™ื™ืฃ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: How did Rav know that it was Rabbi Afes who died? Say that Rabbi แธคanina was the one who died, and Rabbi Afes sat as he had sat, i.e., he continued to sit at the head of the yeshiva, and Levi did not have anyone to sit with, and so he came to Babylonia. The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Levi was subordinate to Rabbi Afes and would have sat before him as a student had Rabbi Afes still been alive, and the only reason why he sat outside in the first place was in deference to Rabbi แธคanina, who sat outside because he did not consider himself subordinate to Rabbi Afes.

ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืœื ืกื’ื™ ื“ืœื ืžืœื™ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื•ืชื’ื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืงื ืœืš

And if you wish, say instead that since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had said: แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva, it is not possible that he will not one day rule the yeshiva. Therefore, it must have been Rabbi Afes who died and Rabbi แธคanina who took his place, as it is written about the righteous: โ€œYou shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto youโ€ (Job 22:28).

ื•ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ ืงื‘ืจื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื”ื•ืจื“ืชื™ ืขืœื™ื• ื“ืžืขื•ืช ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara asks: But wasnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya there? Why didnโ€™t Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi appoint him as head of the yeshiva? The Gemara answers: He died before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya say: I saw the grave site of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and I shed tears over it? The Gemara answers: Reverse the names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who said that he saw the grave site of Rabbi แธคiyya.

ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืฉืžืช ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya say: On that day that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, sanctity ceased? The Gemara answers: Reverse the names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who made this statement about Rabbi แธคiyya.

ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืฆืœื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ื›ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืชื” ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืช ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื—ื•ืง ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ื›ื™ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืœืžืขืœื” ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืœืžื˜ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ืขื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ื™ืจื•ืงื™ืŸ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืžืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืช ืžื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื•ื‘ื ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืžื™ืชืชืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi fell ill, Rabbi แธคiyya entered to be with him and found him crying. He said to him: My teacher, for what reason are you crying? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita:
If one dies while laughing, it is a good sign for him; while crying, it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies with his face upward, it is a good sign for him; with his face downward, it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies with his face facing the people standing around him, it is a good sign for him; with his face facing the wall, it is a bad sign for him.
If oneโ€™s face is sallow, it is a bad sign for him; if his face is yellow or ruddy, it is a good sign for him.
If one dies on the Shabbat eve it is a good sign for him, because he is heading straight into the Shabbat rest; if one dies at the conclusion of Shabbat it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies on the eve of Yom Kippur, it is a bad sign for him, as his sins have not yet been forgiven; if one dies at the conclusion of Yom Kippur it is a good sign for him, because he died after his sins have been forgiven.
If one dies due to an intestinal disease, it is a good sign for him, because most of the righteous die due to intestinal disease.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืฆื•ืช ืงื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: I am crying for the Torah and the mitzvot that I will be unable to fulfill after I die. This indicates that Rabbi แธคiyya was present at the time of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s death.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืื™ืคื•ืš ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชื™ืคื•ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื ืืคื’ืจื™ื”

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that one must reverse the names and that it was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who came to visit Rabbi แธคiyya prior to his death. And if you wish, say instead that actually we do not need to reverse the names in all of the above statements, but rather explain that Rabbi แธคiyya was occupied with the performance of mitzvot and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi thought: I will not hold him back from his performance of mitzvot by appointing him head of the yeshiva.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ื ืฆื• ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ื ืฆืช ื“ืื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ื ืฉืชื›ื—ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื“ืจื ื ืœื™ื” ืžืคืœืคื•ืœื™

And this is the background to an exchange that took place when Rabbi แธคanina and Rabbi แธคiyya argued. Rabbi แธคanina said to Rabbi แธคiyya: You are arguing with me? If, Heaven forfend, the Torah would be forgotten from the Jewish people, I would restore it through my analyses, i.e., using my abilities of analysis I would be able to rediscover all that had been lost.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื“ืœื ืžืฉืชื›ื—ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืื™ื™ืชื™ื ื ื›ื™ืชื ื ื•ืฉื“ื™ื™ื ื ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื ื ื ื™ืฉื‘ื™ ื•ืฆื™ื™ื“ื ื ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžืื›ื™ืœื ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจื ืœื™ืชืžื™ ื•ืืจื™ื›ื ื ืžื’ื™ืœืชื ืžืžืฉื›ื™ ื“ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื•ืกืœื™ืงื ื ืœืžืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžืงืจื™ ื“ืจื“ืงื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื—ืžืฉื ื—ื•ืžืฉื™ ืœื—ืžืฉื ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ื•ืžืชื ื™ื ื ืฉื™ืชื ืกื™ื“ืจื™ ืœืฉื™ืชื ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืœื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืชื ื™ ืกื™ื“ืจืš ืœื—ื‘ืจืš

Rabbi แธคiyya said to Rabbi แธคanina: I am working to ensure that the Torah will not be forgotten from the Jewish people. For I bring flax and I plant it, and I then weave nets from the flax fibers. I then go out and trap deer, and I feed the meat to orphans, and I form scrolls from the skins of the deer. And I go to a town that has no teachers of children in it and I write the five books of the Torah for five children. And I teach the six orders of the Mishna to six children. To each and every one of these children I say: Teach your order to your friends. In this way all of the children will learn the whole of the Torah and the Mishna.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืžืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืœื ืชื”ื ื›ื–ืืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And this is what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi referred to when he said: How great are the actions of แธคiyya. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said to his father: Even greater than your works? He said to him: Yes. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Even greater than the work of Rabbi Yosei, my father? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Heaven forfend. Such comments should not be made among the Jewish people.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืฆืœื• ืžืกืจ ืœื• ืกื“ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื”

ยง The Gemara returns to the narrative of the impending death of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: He said to them: I need my younger son. Rabbi Shimon entered his presence. He transmitted to him the orders of wisdom, including how he should conduct himself and the essential principles of the Torah.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืฆืœื• ื•ืžืกืจ ืœื• ืกื“ืจื™ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ื ื”ื•ื’ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชืš ื‘ืจืžื™ื ื–ืจื•ืง ืžืจื” ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื

He said to them: I need my older son. Rabban Gamliel entered his presence, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi transmitted to him the procedures of the office of the Nasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabban Gamliel: My son, conduct your term as Nasi with assertiveness and cast fear upon your students, i.e., treat them in a firm manner so that they will fear you.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ื™ืจืื™ ื”ืณ ื™ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื” ื™ื”ื•ืฉืคื˜ ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื•ืื” ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ืžื›ืกืื• ื•ืžื—ื‘ืงื• ื•ืžื ืฉืงื• ื•ืงื•ืจื ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืจื™ ืžืจื™

The Gemara asks: Is that so that it is correct to behave in such a manner? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œBut he honors those that fear the Lordโ€ (Psalms 15:4), and the Master said: This is referring to Jehoshaphat, king of Judea. When he would see a Torah scholar he would rise from his throne and hug him and kiss him and call to him: My teacher, my teacher, my master, my master. This demonstrates that it is appropriate even for a king to behave with affection toward Torah scholars.

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ื”ื ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This display of affection should be applied in private, when only the teacher and student are present, and that stern demeanor should be applied in public, in order to ensure the teacherโ€™s authority.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื•ืžืงื•ื ืžื•ื›ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฆื“ืง ืฆื“ืง ืชืจื“ืฃ ื”ืœืš ืื—ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื

It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was lying ill in Tzippori and a burial site was ready for him in Beit Sheโ€™arim. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: โ€œJustice, justice shall you followโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:20); follow Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to Beit Sheโ€™arim, i.e., one should seek to have his case adjudicated by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s court in Beit Sheโ€™arim. This indicates that Beit Sheโ€™arim, not Tzippori, was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s place of residence, and therefore he must have been lying ill in Beit Sheโ€™arim.

ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ืœืฉ ืืžื˜ื™ื•ื”ื™ ืœืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was in Beit Sheโ€™arim, but when he became ill they transferred him to Tzippori,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

  • Masechet Ketubot is sponsored by Erica and Rob Schwartz in honor of the 50th wedding anniversary of Erica's parents Sheira and Steve Schacter.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Ketubot 103

ืžืื™ ืœืžืงื•ื ืฉืืžื” ืฉืžืขืช ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ืช ืืฆืœ ื”ืื ืœื ืฉื ื ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืœื ืฉื ื ืงื˜ื ื”

What is the purpose of emphasizing: To the place where her mother lives? Conclude from here that a daughter lives with her mother; it is no different if she is an adult woman, and it is no different if she is a minor girl.

ืœื ื™ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื•ื›ื•ืณ

ยง It was taught in the mishna that if two men are obligated to support this girl, both of them may not jointly say that they will be partners in her support. Rather, each one fulfills his obligation independently.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ืื•ื’ืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืœื—ื‘ืจื™ื” ืœื˜ื—ื™ื ื” ืœืกื•ืฃ ืื™ืขืชืจ ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื•ื—ืžืจื

The Gemara relates that there was a certain man who rented out a millstone to another for the price of grinding, i.e., the one who rented the millstone was to pay the cost of the rental by grinding whatever the owner needed to be ground. In the end, the owner of the millstone became rich, and he purchased another millstone and a donkey, and he no longer required the services of the renter to grind things for him.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืขื“ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื”ื•ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ื ื’ื‘ืš ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื‘ ืœื™ ืื’ืจื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื˜ื—ืŸ ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ื ืœืš

The owner of the millstone said to the renter: Until now I would have what I needed ground by you, and the service that you provided was in place of payment for the rental of the millstone. Now, since I no longer require this service, give me payment for the millstone. The renter said back to him: I will grind for you because that is what I agreed to, but I did not agree to have to pay money.

ืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืืžืจื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื”ืจื™ ืื ื• ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื›ืื—ื“ ืืœื ืื—ื“ ื–ื ื” ื•ืื—ื“ ื ื•ืชืŸ ืœื” ื“ืžื™ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

Ravina thought to say that this is the same as the mishna that states that both of them may not jointly say: We will sustain the girl as one in a partnership. Rather, one sustains her, providing her with food, while the other gives her the monetary value of the sustenance. In that case, although the original condition was to provide the girl with support in the form of food, when circumstances changed, the previous husband became obligated to pay her support in the form of money. So too here, due to the change in circumstances, the renter should pay the owner of the millstone with money.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืขื•ื™ืจื ืžื™ ื“ืžื™ ื”ืชื ื—ื“ ื›ืจื™ืกื ืื™ืช ืœื” ืชืจืชื™ ื›ืจื™ืกืชื ืœื™ืช ืœื” ื”ื›ื ืžืฆื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ื–ื‘ื™ืŸ ื˜ื—ื•ืŸ ื•ืื•ืชื™ื‘

Rav Avira said to Ravina: Are the two cases comparable? There, in the case of the girl, she has only one stomach; she does not have two stomachs. Therefore, it is impossible for both of them to support her with food. Here, in the case of the millstone, the renter is able to say to him: Grind and sell, grind and store for later use, i.e., the owner of the millstone can use his new millstone to grind for others at a profit, and at the same time the renter will continue grinding the ownerโ€™s grain as per their agreement. Therefore, the renter is not obligated to change the terms of the original agreement.

ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ืœืจื™ื—ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื˜ื—ื™ื ื ืœืจื™ื—ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื–ื• ื›ื•ืคื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืขืœ ืžื“ืช ืกื“ื•ื

The Gemara notes: We said this only in a case where the renter does not have any other grinding to do with the millstone and without the grinding that the renter does for the owner the mill will remain inoperative. However, if he has other grinding to do with the millstone, i.e., instead of grinding the ownerโ€™s grain he can grind the grain of others for a fee and thereby pay money for his rental, in a case such as this one forces him to cease his conduct characteristic of Sodom and to pay his rental fee in the form of money.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™ ืœื–ื•ื– ืžื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื” ืœื›ื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืื ื• ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืš ืืœื ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชื ื™ืŸ ืœื” ืžื“ื•ืจ ืœืคื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื”

MISHNA: In the case of a widow who said: I do not want to move from my husbandโ€™s house, but instead I wish to remain there, the heirs are not able to say to her: Go to your fatherโ€™s house and we will sustain you. Rather, they sustain her in her husbandโ€™s house and they give her living quarters befitting her dignity.

ืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™ ืœื–ื•ื– ืžื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื” ืื ืืช ืืฆืœื ื• ื™ืฉ ืœื™ืš ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืช ืืฆืœื ื• ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ืš ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

However, if she said: I do not want to move from my fatherโ€™s house, and you should bring me my support there, the heirs are able to say to her: If you are living with us, you will have sustenance from us, but if you are not living with us, you will not have sustenance from us.

ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ื˜ื•ืขื ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ื™ืœื“ื” ื•ื”ืŸ ื™ืœื“ื™ื ื–ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ื•ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืื‘ื™ื”

If she argued that she does not wish to live in her deceased husbandโ€™s house because she is young, and they, the heirs, are also young, and it is improper for them to be living in the same house together, then they sustain her and she stays in her fatherโ€™s house.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ืžื“ื•ืจ ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ื›ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืกืชื•ืช ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉืช ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ืฉื›ืš ื›ืชื‘ ืœื” ื•ืืช ืชื”ื ื™ืชื‘ืช ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืžื™ืชื–ื ื ืžื ื›ืกื™ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ืžื’ืจ ืืจืžืœื•ืชื™ืš ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™

GEMARA: The Sages taught: A widow that remains in her husbandโ€™s house uses the living quarters in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime. She uses the slaves and the maidservants in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime, the pillows and the sheets in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime, and the silver utensils and gold utensils in the same manner that she would use them in her husbandโ€™s lifetime. She maintains all the rights she had during her husbandโ€™s lifetime because this is what he wrote to her in the text of the marriage contract: And you will reside in my house and be sustained from my property all the days that you live in my house as a widow.

ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ ื•ืœื ื‘ื‘ืงืชื™

Rav Yosef taught: The husband stipulated in the marriage contract: You will reside in my house, with the implication: And not in my hut. Therefore, if the house is too small, she cannot obligate the heirs to allow her to live in the house with them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืœื ืขืฉื• ื•ืœื ื›ืœื•ื

Rav Naแธฅman said: Orphans who sold the living quarters of a widow did not do anything, i.e., the sale is invalid.

ื•ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื™ืชื•ืžื™ื ืฉืงื“ืžื• ื•ืžื›ืจื• ื‘ื ื›ืกื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืžื›ืจื•

The Gemara asks: And in what way is this case different from that which Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said? As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: With regard to orphans who preemptively sold from the small quantity of property left to them by their father before the court appropriated it for the purpose of providing for female children, who do not inherit, what they sold is sold, even though they acted improperly. Why, then, is the sale of a widowโ€™s living quarters invalid?

ื”ืชื ืœื ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื ื”ื›ื ืžืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื™ ืœื” ืžื—ื™ื™ื

The Gemara answers: There, in the case of orphans selling property that according to halakha should be retained in order to support the orphaned daughters, the property is not mortgaged to the orphaned daughters from the lifetime of their father, since the lien on the property arising from the obligation to provide support for the daughters occurs only after the fatherโ€™s death. Here, in the case of the widowโ€™s living quarters, the property is mortgaged to her from the lifetime of her husband, who was obligated even while he was alive to provide her with a place to live.

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื™ื˜ื™ื ืŸ ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉื ืคืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื•ืชื•

Abaye said: We hold on the authority of tradition that in the case of a widowโ€™s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it, since they are obligated to maintain her in the residence that was mortgaged to her and are not required to provide her with a place to live.

ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืžื“ื•ืจ ืืœืžื ื” ืฉื ืคืœ ืื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื•ืชื• ื•ืœื ืขื•ื“ ืืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื™ื ืื•ืžืจืช ื”ื ื™ื—ื•ื ื™ ื•ืื‘ื ื ื• ืžืฉืœื™ ืื™ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืขื™ืŸ ืœื”

This is also taught in a baraita: In the case of a widowโ€™s living quarters that collapsed, the heirs are not obligated to rebuild it. And not only this, but even if she says: Leave me be and I will rebuild it from my own funds, one does not listen to her, and the heirs do not have to let her rebuild it.

ื‘ืขื™ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉื™ืคืฆื” ืžืื™ ืชื™ืงื•

Abaye raised a dilemma: If she repaired the house, what is the halakha? Is it as though the house collapsed and was rebuilt, in which case she no longer has rights to it, or may she stay in the house as long as it remains standing? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืืžืจื” ืื™ ืืคืฉื™

ยง We learned in the mishna: If she said: I do not want to move from my fatherโ€™s house and you should bring me my support there, the heirs are not obligated to support her.

ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื• ืœื” ื›ื™ ื™ืชื‘ื” ื”ืชื ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืจื•ื‘ื”

The Gemara asks: And why is this so? They should give her support just as they would if she were living there, i.e., in her husbandโ€™s house. The Gemara answers: This supports the view of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: The blessing of the house is in its abundance of residents. This means that the amount of blessing in a home is proportionate to the number of people who live there. When there are many people living together in one home, the expenses per capita are decreased. The heirs can say to her that if she stays with them in the house, the expense of her upkeep will be less than if she lives on her own.

ื•ืœื™ืชื‘ื• ืœื” ืœืคื™ ื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™

The Gemara asks: And they should give her the support in her fatherโ€™s house according to the blessing of the house, i.e., according to the amount they would be required to pay if she lived with them. The Gemara answers: Indeed, the intent of the mishna is that they may pay her this amount, not that they may entirely avoid supporting her.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ื‘ืจื›ื” ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืขื•ืฉืจ ืœืฉื•ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžืจืคื ื‘ืจื›ื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจืŸ

Rav Huna said: The language of the Sages teaches blessing, the language of the Sages teaches wealth, and the language of the Sages teaches healing. One can learn important lessons about these matters from the manner in which the Sages formulated their halakhic rulings. How is this so? With regard to blessing, it is that which we said above about the blessings of the home.

ืขื•ืฉืจ ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžืฉืš ื•ืœื ืžื“ื“ ืงื ื” ืžื“ื“ ื•ืœื ืžืฉืš ืœื ืงื ื” ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืคืงื— ืฉื•ื›ืจ ืืช ืžืงื•ืžื•

The language of the Sages teaches about wealth, as we learned in a mishna (Bava Batra 84b): One who sells produce to another, if the buyer pulled the produce as an act of acquisition but did not measure it, he has acquired the produce. If he measured the produce but did not pull it, he has not acquired it. And if the buyer was perspicacious and wanted to ensure that the seller would not back out of the deal, he would rent the place where the produce was located, and he would thereby acquire the produce immediately from the time he measures it. This mishna teaches good counsel in money-related matters.

ืžืจืคื ื“ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืœืขื•ืก ืื“ื ื—ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื ื™ื— ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืžื›ืชื• ื‘ืคืกื— ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื—ืžื™ืฆื•ืช

The language of the Sages teaches about healing, as we learned in a mishna (Pesaแธฅim 39b): A person should not chew wheat and then place it on his wound during Passover because the wheat will become leavened as a result. This comment of the Sages indicates that chewed wheat is beneficial for treating a wound.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขืช ืคื˜ื™ืจืชื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืกื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืืฆืœื• ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืžื›ื ื ืจ ื™ื”ื ื“ืœื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืš ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืžื˜ื” ืชื”ื ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื—ืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคืจืชื™ ื”ื ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืชื™

ยง The Sages taught: At the time of the passing of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, he said: I need my sons. His sons entered his room. He said to them as a last will and testament: Be careful with the honor of your mother. He said further: My lamp should be lit in its usual place, my table should be set in its usual place, and the bed should be arranged in its usual place. Yosef แธคeifani and Shimon Efrati; they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death.

ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืืžื›ื ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ืืฉืช ืื‘ ื”ื•ืื™

The Gemara clarifies the various requests that he made of his sons: Be careful with the honor of your mother. The Gemara asks: Why would he need to say this? After all, this is required by Torah law, as it is written: โ€œHonor your father and your motherโ€ (Exodus 20:11)? The Gemara answers: She was their fatherโ€™s wife. She was not their mother, but their stepmother, and he therefore needed to caution them concerning her honor.

ืืฉืช ืื‘ ื ืžื™ ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื“ ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ืืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื–ื• ืืฉืช ืื‘ื™ืš ื•ืืช ืืžืš ื–ื• ื‘ืขืœ ืืžืš ื•ื™ื• ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืืช ืื—ื™ืš ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara asks: Honoring a fatherโ€™s wife is also required by Torah law, as it is taught in a baraita: Honor your father [et avikha] and your mother [veโ€™et immekha]. The preposition et in the phrase: Your father; this teaches that you must honor your fatherโ€™s wife. Similarly, the preposition et in the phrase: And your mother; this teaches that you must honor your motherโ€™s husband. And the extra letter vav, which is appended as a prefix in the phrase โ€œveโ€™et immekhaโ€ is included in order to add your older brother to those who must be honored.

ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื—ื™ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืœืื—ืจ ืžื™ืชื” ืœื

The Gemara answers: This halakha, that one is obligated by Torah law to respect his fatherโ€™s wife, applies only during his fatherโ€™s lifetime. While the father is alive, out of respect for him, his wife must also be treated with respect. However, following his death, no, there is no longer any obligation to honor a stepmother. It was for this reason that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to caution his sons in this matter.

ื ืจ ื™ื”ื ื“ืœื•ืง ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืฉื•ืœื—ืŸ ื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืš ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื• ืžื˜ื” ืชื”ื ืžื•ืฆืขืช ื‘ืžืงื•ืžื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ ืฉืžืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ืœื‘ื™ืชื™ื”

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi commanded his sons: My lamp should be lit in its usual place, my table should be set in its usual place, and the bed should be arranged in its usual place. The Gemara asks: What is the reason he made these requests? The Gemara explains: Every Shabbat eve, even after his passing, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would come to his house as he had done during his lifetime, and he therefore wished for everything to be set up as usual.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ ืฉืžืฉื ืืชืื™ ืฉื‘ื‘ืชื ืงื ืงืจื™ื” ืื‘ื‘ื ืืžืจื” ืืžืชื™ื” ืฉืชื™ืงื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืข ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื ืืชื ืฉืœื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืœืขื– ืขืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื™ื

The Gemara relates the following incident: It happened on a certain Shabbat eve that a neighbor came by and called and knocked at the door. His maidservant said to her: Be quiet, for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is sitting. When he heard his maidservant reveal his presence to the neighbor, he did not come again, so as not to cast aspersions on earlier righteous individuals who did not appear to their families following their death.

ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื—ืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคืจืชื™ ื”ื ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฉืžืฉื•ื ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืชื™ ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ื‘ื”ื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื• ื“ืงื“ื™ื ืขืจืกื™ื™ื”ื• ืœืขืจืกื™ื” ืืžืจื™ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ืขืœืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara elaborates on Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s statement: Yosef แธคeifani and Shimon Efrati, they served me during my lifetime and they will serve me in my death. It was understood from this statement that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was speaking of this world, that these two should serve him in his death and administer his burial. However, when they saw that their biers preceded his bier, i.e., they died before him, they said: Conclude from here that he was speaking of that world. They will attend to him in the World-to-Come.

ื•ื”ืื™ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืžืจื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื”ื•ืื™ ืœื”ื• ื•ืขื“ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืžื™ ื–ื›ื•ืชื• ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืื”ื ื™ื ืœื”ื•

And the reason he said this was so that people should not say: There was something wrong with them, and until now, too, it was the merit of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi that benefited them and prevented them from dying due to their sins. Now that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is dying, his merit no longer protects them. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi therefore clarified that the reason for their deaths was in order to enable them to escort him in death as in life.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืกื• ืืฆืœื• ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืืœ ืชืกืคื“ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said further to his attendants: I need the Sages of Israel. The Sages of Israel entered his room. He said to them: Do not eulogize me in the small towns

ื•ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื• ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ

and reconvene the study sessions at the yeshiva after thirty days of mourning. My son Shimon is a Sage. My son Gamliel should be the Nasi. แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva.

ืืœ ืชืกืคื“ื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื™ืจื•ืช ืกื‘ื•ืจ ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื˜ืจื—ื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ื–ื™ ื“ืงืกืคื“ื™ ื‘ื›ืจื›ื™ื ื•ืงืืชื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืืžืจื• ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืžืฉื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื”ื•ื ื“ืงืืžืจ

The Gemara explains the requests of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Do not eulogize me in the small towns. They understood from this statement that he said this due to the trouble that would be caused for many if he were eulogized in every town, since they would have to travel from the outlying villages to take part in the eulogies. However, when they saw that they were eulogizing him in the cities and everyone came despite the trouble, they said: Conclude from here that he said this due to considerations of honor. Had they eulogized him in the towns, the gatherings would have been small and unfitting for a man of his stature. He therefore requested that they arrange things in a way that large crowds would gather.

ื”ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื• ื™ืฉื™ื‘ื” ืœืื—ืจ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ื“ืœื ืขื“ื™ืคื ื ืžืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื™ื‘ื›ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืช ืžืฉื” ื‘ืขืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื•ืื‘ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืชืœืชื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืกืคื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื™ื ืžื›ืืŸ ื•ืื™ืœืš ืกืคื“ื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื•ื’ืจืกื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ืื• ืกืคื“ื• ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ื•ื’ืจืกื™ ื‘ื™ืžืžื ืขื“ ื“ืกืคื“ื™ ืชืจื™ืกืจ ื™ืจื—ื™ ืฉืชื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further instructed: Reconvene the study sessions at the yeshiva after thirty days of mourning. This is because I am not better than Moses, our teacher, as it is written: โ€œAnd the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty daysโ€ (Deuteronomy 34:8), which means that for thirty days they eulogized him by day and night. From this point forward they eulogized him by day and they studied by night, or they eulogized him by night and studied by day, until they eulogized him for twelve months of the year.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ื“ืืฉื›ื‘ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื ืคืงื ื‘ืช ืงืœื ื•ืืžืจื” ื›ืœ ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืืฉื›ื‘ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ื”ื•ื” ืืชื™ ืงืžื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื™ื•ืžื ืœื ืืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืžืข ื”ื›ื™ ืกืœื™ืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื•ื ืคืœ ืœืืจืขื ื•ืžื™ืช ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืืฃ ื”ื”ื•ื ื›ื•ื‘ืก ืžื–ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื•ื ืœื—ื™ื™ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื

The Gemara relates that on the day of the funeral of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, a Divine Voice emerged and said: Whoever was present at the funeral of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi is destined for life in the World-to-Come. There was a certain launderer who would come before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi every day. On that particular day, he did not come and was therefore not present at the funeral. When he heard this, that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had died, he was so full of grief that he ascended to the roof and fell to the ground and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: That launderer too is destined for life in the World-to-Come.

ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื—ื›ื ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื ืฉื™ื

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: My son Shimon is a Sage; my son Gamliel should be the Nasi. What was he saying, i.e., what did he mean by these remarks? The Gemara explains: This is what he was saying: Although my son Shimon is a greater Sage, my son Gamliel should be the Nasi.

ืืžืจ ืœื•ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื ืœืš ื•ืœืžื˜ืœืขืชืš ืžืื™ ืงืฉื™ื ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืงืจื ืงืืžืจ ื•ืืช ื”ืžืžืœื›ื” ื ืชืŸ ืœื™ื”ื•ืจื ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจ

Levi said: Need this be said? After all, Gamliel was the firstborn. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said: It is necessary for you and for your limp. The Gemara asks: What did Rabbi Shimon find difficult with Leviโ€™s question that caused him to scoff? Doesnโ€™t the verse state: โ€œBut the kingdom he gave to Jehoram because he was the firstbornโ€ (IIย Chronicles 21:3)? This indicates that the firstborn is the one who inherits his fatherโ€™s appointment, and so Levi legitimately asked why Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to leave specific instructions about this.

ื”ื”ื•ื ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื”

The Gemara explains: He, Jehoram, filled the place of his fathers, i.e., he was their equal in his personal attributes and leadership capabilities. However, Rabban Gamliel did not fill the place of his fathers, and for this reason Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to specifically command that he nevertheless be appointed as the Nasi.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ื ื”ื™ ื“ืื™ื ื• ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื‘ื™ืจืืช ื—ื˜ื ืžืžืœื ืžืงื•ื ืื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ื”ื•ื”

The Gemara asks: And if that is so, what is the reason that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did this? Why did he choose this son to be his successor if he was unfit for the position? The Gemara answers: Although he did not fill the place of his fathers with regard to wisdom, as he was not as great a Torah scholar as his father, he did fill the place of his fathers with regard to fear of sin and was therefore fit to be appointed as the Nasi.

ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืœื ืงื™ื‘ืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืื‘ืจืื™ ื•ืืชื ืœื•ื™ ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื”

ยง Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi instructed: แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva. The Gemara relates: Rabbi แธคanina did not accept this appointment, because Rabbi Afes was older than him by two and a half years and he did not want to precede him in accepting this position. Consequently, Rabbi Afes sat at the head of the yeshiva, and Rabbi แธคanina sat outside, as it was unbefitting for him to sit as a student before Rabbi Afes. And Levi came and sat and studied with him outside.

ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื’ื‘ืจื ืจื‘ื” ืืงืœืข ืœื ื”ืจื“ืขื ื•ืžื˜ืœืข ื•ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื›ืœื™ืœื ืฉืจื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื•ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจื™ืฉื ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื

Rabbi Afes died, and Rabbi แธคanina, taking his place, sat at the head of the yeshiva. And Levi did not have anyone to sit and study with, and so he came to Babylonia. And this is the background to the incident in which they said to Rav: A great man came to Nehardeโ€™a, and he limps, and he taught: It is permitted for a woman who is wearing a kelila, a tiara-like ornament, to go out into the public domain on Shabbat. Rav then said: Conclude from this that Rabbi Afes died and Rabbi แธคanina, taking his place, sat at the head of the yeshiva, and Levi did not have anyone to sit and study with, and so he came to Babylonia.

ื•ืื™ืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ื›ื“ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืœืœื•ื™ ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื™ืชื‘ ื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืงืืชื ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœื•ื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืืคืก ืžื™ื›ืฃ ื”ื•ื” ื›ื™ื™ืฃ ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: How did Rav know that it was Rabbi Afes who died? Say that Rabbi แธคanina was the one who died, and Rabbi Afes sat as he had sat, i.e., he continued to sit at the head of the yeshiva, and Levi did not have anyone to sit with, and so he came to Babylonia. The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Levi was subordinate to Rabbi Afes and would have sat before him as a student had Rabbi Afes still been alive, and the only reason why he sat outside in the first place was in deference to Rabbi แธคanina, who sat outside because he did not consider himself subordinate to Rabbi Afes.

ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืจืืฉ ืœื ืกื’ื™ ื“ืœื ืžืœื™ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื‘ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื•ืชื’ื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืงื ืœืš

And if you wish, say instead that since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had said: แธคanina bar แธคama will sit at the head of the yeshiva, it is not possible that he will not one day rule the yeshiva. Therefore, it must have been Rabbi Afes who died and Rabbi แธคanina who took his place, as it is written about the righteous: โ€œYou shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto youโ€ (Job 22:28).

ื•ื”ื ื”ื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื ื™ ืจืื™ืชื™ ืงื‘ืจื• ืฉืœ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื”ื•ืจื“ืชื™ ืขืœื™ื• ื“ืžืขื•ืช ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara asks: But wasnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya there? Why didnโ€™t Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi appoint him as head of the yeshiva? The Gemara answers: He died before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya say: I saw the grave site of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and I shed tears over it? The Gemara answers: Reverse the names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who said that he saw the grave site of Rabbi แธคiyya.

ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื ืฉืžืช ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื˜ืœื” ืงื“ื•ืฉื” ืื™ืคื•ืš

The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya say: On that day that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, sanctity ceased? The Gemara answers: Reverse the names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who made this statement about Rabbi แธคiyya.

ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื›ืฉื—ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืฆืœื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ืฉื”ื•ื ื‘ื•ื›ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ืืชื” ื‘ื•ื›ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžืช ืžืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื—ื•ืง ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ื›ื™ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืœืžืขืœื” ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืœืžื˜ื” ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ืขื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ื›ื•ืชืœ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ื™ืจื•ืงื™ืŸ ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืคื ื™ื• ืฆื”ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืื“ื•ืžื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ืช ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ืช ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ืžืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ืจืข ืœื• ื‘ืžื•ืฆืื™ ื™ื•ื ื”ื›ืคื•ืจื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืช ืžื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื ืกื™ืžืŸ ื™ืคื” ืœื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืจื•ื‘ื ืฉืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืžื™ืชืชืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื™ ืžืขื™ื™ื

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi fell ill, Rabbi แธคiyya entered to be with him and found him crying. He said to him: My teacher, for what reason are you crying? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita:
If one dies while laughing, it is a good sign for him; while crying, it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies with his face upward, it is a good sign for him; with his face downward, it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies with his face facing the people standing around him, it is a good sign for him; with his face facing the wall, it is a bad sign for him.
If oneโ€™s face is sallow, it is a bad sign for him; if his face is yellow or ruddy, it is a good sign for him.
If one dies on the Shabbat eve it is a good sign for him, because he is heading straight into the Shabbat rest; if one dies at the conclusion of Shabbat it is a bad sign for him.
If one dies on the eve of Yom Kippur, it is a bad sign for him, as his sins have not yet been forgiven; if one dies at the conclusion of Yom Kippur it is a good sign for him, because he died after his sins have been forgiven.
If one dies due to an intestinal disease, it is a good sign for him, because most of the righteous die due to intestinal disease.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืฆื•ืช ืงื ื‘ื›ื™ื ื

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: I am crying for the Torah and the mitzvot that I will be unable to fulfill after I die. This indicates that Rabbi แธคiyya was present at the time of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s death.

ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืื™ืคื•ืš ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืœื ืชื™ืคื•ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืขืกื•ืง ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื”ื•ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืกื‘ืจ ืœื ืืคื’ืจื™ื”

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that one must reverse the names and that it was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who came to visit Rabbi แธคiyya prior to his death. And if you wish, say instead that actually we do not need to reverse the names in all of the above statements, but rather explain that Rabbi แธคiyya was occupied with the performance of mitzvot and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi thought: I will not hold him back from his performance of mitzvot by appointing him head of the yeshiva.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื• ืžื™ื ืฆื• ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื“ื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ื ืฆืช ื“ืื ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ื ืฉืชื›ื—ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื”ื“ืจื ื ืœื™ื” ืžืคืœืคื•ืœื™

And this is the background to an exchange that took place when Rabbi แธคanina and Rabbi แธคiyya argued. Rabbi แธคanina said to Rabbi แธคiyya: You are arguing with me? If, Heaven forfend, the Torah would be forgotten from the Jewish people, I would restore it through my analyses, i.e., using my abilities of analysis I would be able to rediscover all that had been lost.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืื ื ืขื‘ื“ื™ ื“ืœื ืžืฉืชื›ื—ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืžื™ืฉืจืืœ ื“ืื™ื™ืชื™ื ื ื›ื™ืชื ื ื•ืฉื“ื™ื™ื ื ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื ื ื ื™ืฉื‘ื™ ื•ืฆื™ื™ื“ื ื ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื•ืžืื›ื™ืœื ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจื ืœื™ืชืžื™ ื•ืืจื™ื›ื ื ืžื’ื™ืœืชื ืžืžืฉื›ื™ ื“ื˜ื‘ื™ื ื•ืกืœื™ืงื ื ืœืžืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืžืงืจื™ ื“ืจื“ืงื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื—ืžืฉื ื—ื•ืžืฉื™ ืœื—ืžืฉื ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ื•ืžืชื ื™ื ื ืฉื™ืชื ืกื™ื“ืจื™ ืœืฉื™ืชื ื™ื ื•ืงื™ ืœื›ืœ ื—ื“ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืืชื ื™ ืกื™ื“ืจืš ืœื—ื‘ืจืš

Rabbi แธคiyya said to Rabbi แธคanina: I am working to ensure that the Torah will not be forgotten from the Jewish people. For I bring flax and I plant it, and I then weave nets from the flax fibers. I then go out and trap deer, and I feed the meat to orphans, and I form scrolls from the skins of the deer. And I go to a town that has no teachers of children in it and I write the five books of the Torah for five children. And I teach the six orders of the Mishna to six children. To each and every one of these children I say: Teach your order to your friends. In this way all of the children will learn the whole of the Torah and the Mishna.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืžื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืžืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ืก ื•ืฉืœื•ื ืœื ืชื”ื ื›ื–ืืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ

And this is what Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi referred to when he said: How great are the actions of แธคiyya. Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, said to his father: Even greater than your works? He said to him: Yes. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Even greater than the work of Rabbi Yosei, my father? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Heaven forfend. Such comments should not be made among the Jewish people.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืฆืœื• ืžืกืจ ืœื• ืกื“ืจื™ ื—ื›ืžื”

ยง The Gemara returns to the narrative of the impending death of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: He said to them: I need my younger son. Rabbi Shimon entered his presence. He transmitted to him the orders of wisdom, including how he should conduct himself and the essential principles of the Torah.

ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืœื‘ื ื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื™ ืฆืจื™ืš ื ื›ื ืก ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืืฆืœื• ื•ืžืกืจ ืœื• ืกื“ืจื™ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ื ื”ื•ื’ ื ืฉื™ืื•ืชืš ื‘ืจืžื™ื ื–ืจื•ืง ืžืจื” ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื

He said to them: I need my older son. Rabban Gamliel entered his presence, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi transmitted to him the procedures of the office of the Nasi. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to Rabban Gamliel: My son, conduct your term as Nasi with assertiveness and cast fear upon your students, i.e., treat them in a firm manner so that they will fear you.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืช ื™ืจืื™ ื”ืณ ื™ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื–ื” ื™ื”ื•ืฉืคื˜ ืžืœืš ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื›ืฉื”ื™ื” ืจื•ืื” ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ืžื›ืกืื• ื•ืžื—ื‘ืงื• ื•ืžื ืฉืงื• ื•ืงื•ืจื ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืจื™ ืžืจื™

The Gemara asks: Is that so that it is correct to behave in such a manner? But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œBut he honors those that fear the Lordโ€ (Psalms 15:4), and the Master said: This is referring to Jehoshaphat, king of Judea. When he would see a Torah scholar he would rise from his throne and hug him and kiss him and call to him: My teacher, my teacher, my master, my master. This demonstrates that it is appropriate even for a king to behave with affection toward Torah scholars.

ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ื”ื ื‘ืคืจื”ืกื™ื

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This display of affection should be applied in private, when only the teacher and student are present, and that stern demeanor should be applied in public, in order to ensure the teacherโ€™s authority.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืžื•ื˜ืœ ื‘ืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™ ื•ืžืงื•ื ืžื•ื›ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฆื“ืง ืฆื“ืง ืชืจื“ืฃ ื”ืœืš ืื—ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืœื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื

It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was lying ill in Tzippori and a burial site was ready for him in Beit Sheโ€™arim. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: โ€œJustice, justice shall you followโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:20); follow Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi to Beit Sheโ€™arim, i.e., one should seek to have his case adjudicated by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s court in Beit Sheโ€™arim. This indicates that Beit Sheโ€™arim, not Tzippori, was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s place of residence, and therefore he must have been lying ill in Beit Sheโ€™arim.

ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืขืจื™ื ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื—ืœืฉ ืืžื˜ื™ื•ื”ื™ ืœืฆื™ืคื•ืจื™

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was in Beit Sheโ€™arim, but when he became ill they transferred him to Tzippori,

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