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Today's Daf Yomi

September 22, 2023 | 讝壮 讘转砖专讬 转砖驻状讚

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

Kiddushin 40

Today’s daf is sponsored by Heather Stone in loving memory of her mother Ellie, Esther Bina bat Avraham v鈥橰achel Leah on her 12th yahrzeit. “I learned to be strong and resilient from mom. She used strength and resilience to serve the Jewish community of NJ for decades.”

Today’s daf is sponsored by Shira Dicker in honor of Ari’s 74th birthday. “To Ari, my life partner, may your love of learning and Judaism grow and deepen and may all who engage in the study of the sacred books of our tradition find strength and sustenance therein. Mazel tov!!!!!”

Anyone who is tempted to sin and then refrains from committing the transgression receives a reward as one would have received for doing a mitzva. Three stories are given to illustrate this concept. Rava raises a difficulty on the Mishna in Peah 1:1 which mentions all the mitzvot for which one receives a reward in this world and in the next world – why is the sending of the mother bird not mentioned there as well? Rav Nachman answers that this refers only to mitzvot that are good for heaven (God) and good for others (humans), which is not the case with sending the mother bird, which is only a commandment that relates to God. The reward of a mitzvah is greater than the punishment for transgressions in several matters – in rewards there is a principle and fruits (extra/bonus) and in punishments only a principle, except for offenses that include blasphemy. By performing a mitzva, one is rewarded even for the thought of performing a mitzva even if in the end one is unable to fulfill the mitzva, and in punishments, one is not punished for the thought alone. However, there are some exceptions 鈥 a premeditated sin that one commits will come with a more severe punishment. One who thinks to worship idols is punished. According to Ulla, one is punished for the thought of committing an offense after one has already committed the same sin twice and it became thought of as permitted in one鈥檚 mind. There is power in one mitzvah to tip the scales – both personally and for the whole world. A righteous person who rebels at the end of his/her days or a wicked person who repents is judged by the end. On what does this depend? What is greater – learning Torah or actions? Rabbi Tarfon and Rabbi Akiva disagree on the matter and the sages decided that the Talmud is greater because it leads to actions.

谞讜砖讗讬 拽讬住专 砖诪专讜谞讬 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讚讘专 注专讜讛 讘讗 诇讬讚讱 讜谞讬爪诇转 讛讬诪谞讜 讚转谞讬谞讗 讻诇 讛讘讗 讚讘专 注专讜讛 诇讬讚讜 讜谞讬爪诇 讛讬诪谞讜 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 讙讘专讬 讻讞 注砖讬 讚讘专讜 诇砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 讚讘专讜 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讜讞讘讬专讬讜


soldiers [nosei keisar] who guarded me all night. They said to him: Perhaps a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to you and you were saved from it, which is why a miracle occurred for you. As we learned: With regard to anyone to whom a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to him and he was saved from it, a miracle is performed for him. As it says: 鈥淢ighty in strength who fulfill His word, hearkening to the voice of His word鈥 (Psalms 103:20). This is referring to one such as Rabbi Tzadok and his colleagues.


专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讞诇砖 诇讬 诇讬讘讗讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讬谞讗 讗讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 诇诪讬讻诇 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讘专 讟诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛 诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讚注讘讬讚 讛讗 讗讻讜诇 讛讗 砖讙专转 转谞讜专讗 拽讗 诪谞讞讗 诇讬讛 住诇讬拽 讜讬转讬讘 讘讙讜讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讚注讘讬讚 讛讗 谞驻讬诇 讘讛讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗讬 讬讚注讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 爪注专转讬讱


To what is this referring? Rabbi Tzadok was enticed by a certain noblewoman to engage in sexual intercourse with her. He said to her: My heart is weak and I am incapable at present; is there something to eat that can strengthen me? She said to him: There is something non-kosher. He said to her: What difference is there? One who performs such an act eats such food as well. She lit the oven and placed the non-kosher food in it to roast. He climbed and sat in the oven. She said to him: What is the meaning of this? He said to her: One who performs this act falls into this, i.e., the fires of Gehenna. She said to him: If I had known that the matter was so serious for you, I would not have caused you such anguish.


专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 拽诪讝讘讬谉 讚讬拽讜诇讬 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬拽砖讬讟 谞驻砖讗讬 住诇讬拽 讜拽谞驻讬诇 诪讗讬讙专讗 诇讗专注讗 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 拽讘诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟专讞转谉 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 驻专住讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讬 诇讗讜 注谞讬讜转讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 砖讬驻讗 讚讚讬谞专讬


The Gemara further relates: Rav Kahana would sell baskets woven from palm leaves to women. He was enticed by a certain noblewoman to engage in intercourse with her. He said to her: Let me go and adorn myself beforehand. He ascended to the roof and fell from the roof toward the ground. Elijah the prophet came and caught him. Elijah the prophet said to Rav Kahana: You have troubled me to travel four hundred parasangs [parsei] to save you. Rav Kahana said to him: What caused me to be in this situation of temptation? Was it not poverty, as I am forced to engage in a trade that leads me to come into contact with women? Elijah gave him a basket [shifa] full of dinars, to spare him from having to work as a salesman.


专诪讬 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 转谞谉 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讚诐 注讜砖讛 讗讜转谉 讜讗讜讻诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛拽专谉 拽讬讬诪转 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗诇讜 讛谉 讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇诐


Rava raises a contradiction to Rav Na岣an and asks: We learned in a mishna (Pe鈥檃 1:1): These are the matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal reward remains for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, acts of loving kindness, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them.


讘讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 讜诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讻转讬讘 专讚祝 爪讚拽讛 讜讞住讚 讬诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐 爪讚拽讛 讜讻讘讜讚


Rava cites the source for each of these assertions. With regard to honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, it is written: 鈥淭hat your days may be long, and that it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16), which indicates that one is rewarded in this world. With regard to acts of loving kindness it is written: 鈥淗e who pursues righteousness and kindness shall find life, prosperity, and honor鈥 (Proverbs 21:21), all of which apply in this world.


讜讘讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 讻转讬讘 讘拽砖 砖诇讜诐 讜专讚驻讛讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗转讬讗 专讚讬驻讛 专讚讬驻讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讘拽砖 砖诇讜诐 讜专讚驻讛讜 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 专讚祝 爪讚拽讛 讜讞住讚 讘转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛讜讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗专讱 讬诪讬讱


And with regard to bringing peace it is written: 鈥淪eek peace and pursue it鈥 (Psalms 34:15). And Rabbi Abbahu says: This is derived through a verbal analogy between the term pursuing written with regard to pursuing peace and the term pursuing written in another verse. It is written here: 鈥淪eek peace and pursue it,鈥 and it is written there, with regard to acts of kindness: 鈥淧ursues righteousness and kindness.鈥 This teaches that one who pursues peace will also merit life, prosperity, and honor. With regard to Torah study it is written: 鈥淔or that is your life and the length of your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:20).


讘砖讬诇讜讞 讛拽谉 谞诪讬 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讜讛讗专讻转 讬诪讬诐 诇讬转谞讬 谞诪讬 讛讗 转谞讗 讜砖讬讬专 转谞讬 转谞讗 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 讜讗转 讗诪专转 转谞讗 讜砖讬讬专


Rava asked: With regard to the dispatch of the mother bird from the nest it is also written: 鈥淭hat it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:7), so let him also teach this mitzva. Rav Na岣an answered: He taught some cases and omitted others, i.e., the tanna did not list everything. Rava said to him: The tanna taught: These are the matters, which indicates that only these mitzvot are included, and yet you say that he taught some and omitted others?


讗诪专 专讘讗 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗住讘专讗 诇讬 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘 讻讬 驻专讬 诪注诇诇讬讛诐 讬讗讻诇讜 讜讻讬 讬砖 爪讚讬拽 讟讜讘 讜讬砖 爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讟讜讘 讗诇讗 讟讜讘 诇砖诪讬诐 讜诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 爪讚讬拽 讟讜讘 讟讜讘 诇砖诪讬诐 讜专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讟讜讘


Rather, Rava said: Rav Idi explained the matter to me. The verse states: 鈥淪ay you of the righteous who is good, that they shall eat the fruit of their actions鈥 (Isaiah 3:10). And this verse is difficult, as is there a righteous person who is good and is there a righteous person who is not good? Rather, this verse should be understood as follows: One who is good both toward Heaven and toward people is a good righteous person; one who is good toward Heaven but bad toward people is a righteous person who is not good.


讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讗讜讬 诇专砖注 专注 讻讬 讙诪讜诇 讬讚讬讜 讬注砖讛 诇讜 讜讻讬 讬砖 专砖注 专注 讜讬砖 砖讗讬谞讜 专注 讗诇讗 专注 诇砖诪讬诐 讜专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讛讜讗 专砖注 专注 专注 诇砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 专砖注 砖讗讬谞讜 专注


Rava continues: On a similar note, it is written: 鈥淲oe to the evil wicked one, for the work of his hands shall be done to him鈥 (Isaiah 3:11). And is there a wicked man who is evil and is there one who is not evil? Rather, one who is evil toward Heaven and evil toward people is an evil wicked person; and one who is evil toward Heaven and not evil toward people is a wicked person who is not evil. With regard to the issue at hand, only one who performs mitzvot that benefit others receives the profits of his mitzvot in this world. This does not apply to dispatching the mother bird, which is an act that does not benefit other people.


讛讝讻讜转 讬砖 诇讛 拽专谉 讜讬砖 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讙讜壮 注讘讬专讛 讬砖 诇讛 拽专谉 讜讗讬谉 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇专砖注 专注 讜讙讜壮


搂 With regard to the mishna in Pe鈥檃, the Gemara states: An act of merit has a principal reward and it has profits, i.e., one receives additional reward beyond that which is granted for the mitzva itself, parallel to a principal sum and profits, as it is stated: 鈥淪ay you of the righteous who is good, that they shall eat the fruit of their actions鈥 (Isaiah 3:10). A sin has a principal penalty but it has no profits, i.e., no punishment beyond that, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to the evil wicked one, for the work of his hands shall be done to him鈥 (Isaiah 3:11), but no more than the work of his hands.


讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讜讬讗讻诇讜 诪驻专讬 讚专讻诐 讜诪诪注爪转讬讛诐 讬砖讘注讜 注讘讬专讛 砖注讜砖讛 驻讬专讜转 讬砖 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 讜砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讛 驻讬专讜转 讗讬谉 诇讛 驻讬专讜转


But how do I realize the meaning of the following verse that deals with sinners: 鈥淭herefore they shall eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices鈥 (Proverbs 1:31)? This verse indicates that the penalty for sin goes beyond its principal, and the wicked receive additional punishments. The Gemara answers that this applies to a sin that produces profits, i.e., a case where there are practical consequences to one鈥檚 sin. For example, if others learn to act in a similar manner, one鈥檚 actions have profits with regard to punishment as well. Conversely, a sin that does not produce profits does not have profits as a punishment either.


诪讞砖讘讛 讟讜讘讛 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗讝 谞讚讘专讜 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讗讬砖 讗诇 专注讛讜 讜讬拽砖讘 讛壮 讜讬砖诪注 讜讬讻转讘 住驻专 讝讻专讜谉 诇驻谞讬讜 诇讬专讗讬 讛壮 讜诇讞砖讘讬 砖诪讜 诪讗讬 讜诇讞砖讘讬 砖诪讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讞砖讘 讗讚诐 诇注砖讜转 诪爪讜讛 讜谞讗谞住 讜诇讗 注砖讗讛 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 注砖讗讛


The Gemara further teaches: The Holy One, Blessed be He, links a good thought to an action, as it is stated: 鈥淭hen they that feared the Lord spoke one with the other, and the Lord listened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that fear the Lord, and that think upon His name鈥 (Malachi 3:16). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渁nd that think upon His name鈥? Rav Asi said: Even if a person intended to perform a mitzva but due to circumstances beyond his control he did not perform it, the verse ascribes him credit as if he performed the mitzva, as he is among those that think upon His name.


诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗讜谉 讗诐 专讗讬转讬 讘诇讘讬 诇讗 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬诐 讛谞谞讬 诪讘讬讗 讗诇 讛注诐 讛讝讛 专注讛 驻专讬 诪讞砖讘讜转诐 诪讞砖讘讛 砖注讜砖讛 驻专讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 诪讞砖讘讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 驻专讬 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛


But the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link an evil thought to an action, as it is stated: 鈥淚f I had regarded iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not hear鈥 (Psalms 66:18). But how do I realize the meaning of the verse: 鈥淏ehold I will bring upon these people evil, even the fruit of their thoughts鈥 (Jeremiah 6:19)? In the case of an evil thought that produces fruit, i.e., that leads to an action, the Holy One, Blessed be He, links it to the action and one is punished for the thought as well. If it is a thought that does not produce fruit, the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link it to the action.


讜讗诇讗 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 转驻砖 讗转 [讘讬转] 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讛讛讜讗 讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 讞诪讜专讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 砖讻诇 讛讻讜驻专 讘讛 讻诪讜讚讛 讘讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛


The Gemara asks: But with regard to that which is written: 鈥淪o I may take the house of Israel in their own heart鈥 (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one can be punished for thoughts alone, to what is this verse referring? Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: That is written with regard to idol worship, as the Master says: Idol worship is very severe, as anyone who denies it is like one who admits the truth of the entire Torah. Conversely, one who embraces idolatry is considered to have rejected the entire Torah. Due to the severity of idol worship, one is punished even for contemplating this transgression.


注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 讻讛讬转专


Ulla said: This should be explained in accordance with a statement of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: When a person transgresses and repeats his transgression, it is permitted to him. The Gemara questions this statement: Can it enter your mind that the transgression is permitted to him because he has sinned twice? Rather, it becomes as if it were permitted to him, as he becomes accustomed to this behavior and no longer senses that it is a sin.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬注讘讜专 注讘讬专讛 讘住转专 讜讗诇 讬讞诇诇 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转诐 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗讬砖 讙诇讜诇讬讜 诇讻讜 注讘讚讜 [讜讗讞专] 讗诐 讗讬谞讻诐 砖诪注讬诐 讗诇讬 讜讗转 砖诐 拽讚砖讬 诇讗 转讞诇诇讜


Rabbi Abbahu says in the name of Rabbi 岣nina: It is preferable for a person to transgress in secret and not to desecrate the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya], as it is stated: 鈥淎s for you, house of Israel, so says the Lord God: Go you, serve everyone his idols, even because you will not hearken to Me, but My sacred name you shall not profane鈥 (Ezekiel 20:39).


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 讛讝拽谉 讗诐 专讜讗讛 讗讚诐 砖讬爪专讜 诪转讙讘专 注诇讬讜 讬诇讱 诇诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讬诇讘砖 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬转讻住讛 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬注砖讛 讻诪讜 砖诇讘讜 讞驻抓 讜讗诇 讬讞诇诇 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗


Rabbi Ilai the Elder says: If a person sees that his evil inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is not known, and wear black clothes, and he should cover himself in simple black garments, and he should do as his heart desires, but he should not desecrate the name of Heaven in public.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻诇 砖诇讗 讞住 注诇 讻讘讜讚 拽讜谞讜 专讗讜讬 诇讜 砖诇讗 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪讛 讛讬讗 专讘讛 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛诪住转讻诇 讘拽砖转 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛注讜讘专 注讘讬专讛 讘住转专


The Gemara asks: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to anyone who does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor, it is fitting for him not to have come into the world. What is this? Who is considered to be one who does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor? Rabba says: This is one who gazes at a rainbow, which is described as: 鈥淭he likeness of the glory of the Lord鈥 (Ezekiel 1:28). Rav Yosef says: This is one who transgresses in secret, which shows that he fears other people but does not care about the honor of his Creator.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚诪爪讬 讻讬讬祝 诇讬爪专讬讛 讜讛讗 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 讻讬讬祝 诇讬爪专讬讛


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this source, which says that one who transgresses in secret does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor, is referring to one who can overcome his evil inclination but nevertheless chooses to transgress in secret. And that source, which states that it is preferable for him to transgress in secret, is referring to one who cannot overcome his evil inclination.


转谞谉 讛转诐 讗讬谉 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讘讞讬诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讗讞讚 砖讜讙讙 讜讗讞讚 诪讝讬讚 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讬诐 讻讞谞讜讜谞讬 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘谞讗 讗诪专 诇讜诪专 砖讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖拽讜诇讛 诪讻专注转


We learned in a mishna there (see Avot 4:5): Credit is not given with regard to the desecration of God鈥檚 name, whether one sinned unintentionally or intentionally. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: Credit is not given [makkifin]? Mar Zutra says: This means that God does not act like a storekeeper and provide credit. Rather, one is punished without delay. Mar, son of Rabbana, says: This means to say that if one鈥檚 merit and sins were equal, the sin of the desecration of God鈥檚 name tilts the balance of the scales toward the side of his sins. In other words, if his sins include the transgression of desecrating God鈥檚 name, God does not wait for this individual to perform a mitzva to balance out the sin.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇注讜诇诐


The Sages taught: Always


讬专讗讛 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讞爪讬讜 讞讬讬讘 讜讞爪讬讜 讝讻讗讬 注砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗砖专讬讜 砖讛讻专讬注 注爪诪讜 诇讻祝 讝讻讜转 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讞转 讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 诇讻祝 讞讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讞讜讟讗 讗讞讚 讬讗讘讚 讟讜讘讛 讛专讘讛 讘砖讘讬诇 讞讟讗 讬讞讬讚讬 砖讞讟讗 讗讜讘讚 诪诪谞讜 讟讜讘讜转 讛专讘讛


a person should view himself as though he were exactly half-liable and half-meritorious. In other words he should act as though the plates of his scale are balanced, so that if he performs one mitzva he is fortunate, as he tilts his balance to the scale of merit. If he transgresses one prohibition, woe to him, as he tilts his balance to the scale of liability, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut one sin destroys much good鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:18), which means that due to one sin that a person transgresses he squanders much good.


专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讗讞专 专讜讘讜 讜讛讬讞讬讚 谞讬讚讜谉 讗讞专 专讜讘讜 注砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗砖专讬讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 讜讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 诇讻祝 讝讻讜转 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讞转 讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 讜讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 诇讻祝 讞讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讞讜讟讗 讗讞讚 讻讜壮 讘砖讘讬诇 讞讟讗 讬讞讬讚讬 砖注砖讛 讝讛 讗讘讚 诪诪谞讜 讜诪讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讟讜讘讛 讛专讘讛


Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: Since the world is judged by its majority, i.e., depending on whether people have performed a majority of mitzvot or a majority of sins, and an individual is likewise judged by his majority, each person must consider that if he performs one mitzva he is praiseworthy, as he tilts the balance of himself and the entire world to the scale of merit. Conversely, if he transgresses one prohibition, woe to him, as he tilts the balance for himself and the entire world to the scale of liability, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut one sin destroys much good,鈥 i.e., due to one sin that this individual commits, he squanders much goodness from himself and from the entire world.


专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讻诇 讬诪讬讜 讜诪专讚 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讗讬讘讚 讗转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讗诪专 爪讚拽转 讛爪讚讬拽 诇讗 转爪讬诇谞讜 讘讬讜诐 驻砖注讜 讜讗驻讬诇讜 专砖注 讙诪讜专 讻诇 讬诪讬讜 讜注砖讛 转砖讜讘讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讝讻讬专讬诐 诇讜 砖讜讘 专砖注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜专砖注转 讛专砖注 诇讗 讬讻砖诇 讘讛 讘讬讜诐 砖讜讘讜 诪专砖注讜


Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: Even if one was completely righteous all his life and he rebelled by sinning at the end of his life, he loses his early merit, as it is stated: 鈥淭he righteousness of the righteous shall not deliver him on the day of his transgression鈥 (Ezekiel 33:12). And similarly, even if one was completely wicked all his life and repented in the end, he is no longer reminded of his wickedness, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd as for the wickedness of the wicked, he shall not stumble over it on the day that he turns from his wickedness.鈥


讜谞讬讛讜讬 讻诪讞爪讛 注讜谞讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讝讻讬讜转 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘转讜讛讗 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转


The Gemara asks: But an individual who performed mitzvot all of his life and then sins should at least be like one whose acts have been half sins and half merits, i.e., each should be of equal weight. Why, then, is he pronounced guilty? Reish Lakish said: This is not referring to an individual who has merely sinned but to one who regrets all the initial mitzvot he performed in the past. In this case the mitzvot he performed are not taken into account.


诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 砖讬砖谞讜 讘诪拽专讗 讜讘诪砖谞讛 讜讘讚专讱 讗专抓 诇讗 讘诪讛专讛 讛讜讗 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讞讜讟 讛诪砖诇砖 诇讗 讘诪讛专讛 讬谞转拽 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 讘诪拽专讗 讜诇讗 讘诪砖谞讛 讜诇讗 讘讚专讱 讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛讬讬砖讜讘


MISHNA: Anyone who is engaged in the study of Bible, and in the study of Mishna, and in the desired mode of behavior, i.e., he performs labor and generally acts in an appropriate manner, will not be quick to sin, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a threefold cord is not quickly broken鈥 (Ecclesiastes 4:12). One who is involved in all three of these activities will not sin easily. And anyone who does not engage in the study of Bible, nor the study of Mishna, nor the desired mode of behavior, is not part of society, i.e., he is not considered a civilized person at all.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诇诪讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 谞诪砖诇讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讗讬诇谉 砖讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 讜谞讜驻讜 谞讜讟讛 诇诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 谞拽爪抓 谞讜驻讜 讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 讻讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讘讬讗 讬住讜专讬诐 注诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚讬 砖讬讬专砖讜 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 专讗砖讬转讱 诪爪注专 讜讗讞专讬转讱 讬砖讙讛 诪讗讚


GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: To what are the righteous in this world compared? To a tree that is standing entirely in a pure place and its branches hang over an impure place. If its branches are cut, it will stand entirely in a pure place. So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings afflictions upon the righteous in this world to cleanse them of their few sins. He makes them suffer so that they will inherit the World-to-Come entirely, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your beginning was in pain, your end shall greatly increase鈥 (Job 8:7).


讜诇诪讛 专砖注讬诐 讚讜诪讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讗讬诇谉 砖讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 讜谞讜驻讜 谞讜讟讛 诇诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 谞拽爪抓 谞讜驻讜 讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 讻讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讬注 诇讛谉 讟讜讘讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚讬 诇讟讜专讚谉 讜诇讛讜专讬砖谉 诇诪讚专讬讙讛 讛转讞转讜谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖 讚专讱 讬砖专 诇驻谞讬 讗讬砖 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讚专讻讬 诪讜转


And to what are the wicked in this world compared? To a tree that stands entirely in an impure place and whose branches hang over a pure place. If its branches are cut off, it stands entirely in an impure place. So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestows good upon the wicked in this world for the few mitzvot they have performed, in order to expel them and banish them to the lowest level of Gehenna in the future, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is a way which seems right to a man, but its end are the ways of death鈥 (Proverbs 14:12).


讜讻讘专 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讝拽谞讬诐 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬转 讘讬转 谞转讝讛 讘诇讜讚 谞砖讗诇讛 砖讗讬诇讛 讝讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 讗讜 诪注砖讛 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗诪专 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讜 讻讜诇诐 讜讗诪专讜 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 砖讛转诇诪讜讚 诪讘讬讗 诇讬讚讬 诪注砖讛


In connection to the mishna鈥檚 statement about the importance of Torah study, the Gemara relates the following incident: And there already was an incident in which Rabbi Tarfon and the Elders were reclining in the loft of the house of Nit鈥檢a in Lod, when this question was asked of them: Is study greater or is action greater? Rabbi Tarfon answered and said: Action is greater. Rabbi Akiva answered and said: Study is greater. Everyone answered and said: Study is greater, but not as an independent value; rather, it is greater as study leads to action.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讙讚讜诇 转诇诪讜讚 砖拽讚诐 诇讞诇讛 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 诇转专讜诪讜转 讜诇诪注砖专讜转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注 诇砖诪讬讟讬诐 砖砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诇讬讜讘诇讜转 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Torah study is greater, as it preceded the mitzva of separating 岣lla by forty years. The Torah was given to the Jewish people soon after they left Egypt, whereas the mitzva of separating 岣lla came into effect only after they entered Eretz Yisrael. And it preceded the mitzva of terumot and tithes by fifty-four years, as the Jews become obligated in these mitzvot only fourteen years after they entered Eretz Yisrael, once they had conquered and divided the land. Furthermore, the Torah preceded the observance of Sabbatical Years by sixty-one years, as they began to count the seven-year cycle only once they had divided the land. Finally, it preceded the Jubilee Years by 103 years, as the fifty-year count to the first Jubilee Year began only after they had divided Eretz Yisrael.


诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 诪讗讛 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 拽住讘专 讬讜讘诇 诪转讞讬诇转讜 讛讜讗 诪砖诪讟


The Gemara asks: Why does the baraita state 103 years? It was actually 104 years. If one adds fifty to the fifty-four years that passed before the Jews began fulfilling the mitzvot dependent on the land, one arrives at a total of 104. The Gemara answers: This tanna maintains that the Jubilee Year releases slaves and returns fields to their original owners from the start of the year. Therefore, 103 years passed before the mitzva of the Jubilee Year took effect.


讜讻砖诐 砖讛诇讬诪讜讚 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讱 讚讬谞讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬谉 转讞讬诇转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 驻讜讟专 诪讬诐 专讗砖讬转 诪讚讜谉


And just as study comes before action, i.e., the mitzva of Torah study takes precedence over other mitzvot, so too, the judgment concerning Torah study precedes the judgment for an action of the performance of a mitzva. This is in accordance with the statement of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: The beginning of a person鈥檚 judgment is only concerning matters of Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淭he beginning of judgment is as one lets out water鈥 (Proverbs 17:14). This is understood to refer to the sin of neglecting Torah, as the Torah is compared to water, which brings life to the world.


讜讻砖诐 砖讚讬谞讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讱 砖讻专讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬转谉 诇讛诐 讗专爪讜转 讙讜讬诐 讜注诪诇 诇讗诪讬诐 讬讬专砖讜 讘注讘讜专 讬砖诪专讜 讞拽讬讜 讜转讜专转讬讜 讬谞爪专讜


And just as the judgment concerning Torah study precedes the judgment for an action of the performance of a mitzva, so too does the reward for Torah study precede the reward for an action of the performance of a mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He gave them the lands of nations, and they took the labor of peoples in possession, that they might observe His statutes and protect His laws鈥 (Psalms 105:44鈥45). The first reward is for observing the statutes, and as explained on 37a, this is a reference to Torah study.


讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 讘诪拽专讗 讜诇讗 讘诪砖谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜驻住讜诇 诇注讚讜转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讗讜讻诇 讘砖讜拽 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讜诪讛 诇讻诇讘 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 驻住讜诇 诇注讚讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛诇讻讛 讻讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐


搂 The mishna teaches that anyone who does not engage in the study of Bible, nor the study of Mishna, nor the desired mode of behavior, is not part of society. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: And he is disqualified from bearing witness, as this individual cannot be trusted. The Sages taught: One who eats in the marketplace is comparable to a dog, as he disrespects himself through his lack of embarrassment over eating in public. And some say he is even disqualified from bearing witness. Rabbi Idi bar Avin said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion cited in the name of: Some say.


讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 专讙讝谉


Similarly, bar Kappara taught: An angry person


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Kiddushin 40

谞讜砖讗讬 拽讬住专 砖诪专讜谞讬 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 砖诪讗 讚讘专 注专讜讛 讘讗 诇讬讚讱 讜谞讬爪诇转 讛讬诪谞讜 讚转谞讬谞讗 讻诇 讛讘讗 讚讘专 注专讜讛 诇讬讚讜 讜谞讬爪诇 讛讬诪谞讜 注讜砖讬谉 诇讜 谞住 讙讘专讬 讻讞 注砖讬 讚讘专讜 诇砖诪注 讘拽讜诇 讚讘专讜 讻讙讜谉 专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讜讞讘讬专讬讜


soldiers [nosei keisar] who guarded me all night. They said to him: Perhaps a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to you and you were saved from it, which is why a miracle occurred for you. As we learned: With regard to anyone to whom a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to him and he was saved from it, a miracle is performed for him. As it says: 鈥淢ighty in strength who fulfill His word, hearkening to the voice of His word鈥 (Psalms 103:20). This is referring to one such as Rabbi Tzadok and his colleagues.


专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讞诇砖 诇讬 诇讬讘讗讬 讜诇讗 诪爪讬谞讗 讗讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 诇诪讬讻诇 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗讬讻讗 讚讘专 讟诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛 诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 讚注讘讬讚 讛讗 讗讻讜诇 讛讗 砖讙专转 转谞讜专讗 拽讗 诪谞讞讗 诇讬讛 住诇讬拽 讜讬转讬讘 讘讙讜讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讛讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讚注讘讬讚 讛讗 谞驻讬诇 讘讛讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讗讬 讬讚注讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诇讗 爪注专转讬讱


To what is this referring? Rabbi Tzadok was enticed by a certain noblewoman to engage in sexual intercourse with her. He said to her: My heart is weak and I am incapable at present; is there something to eat that can strengthen me? She said to him: There is something non-kosher. He said to her: What difference is there? One who performs such an act eats such food as well. She lit the oven and placed the non-kosher food in it to roast. He climbed and sat in the oven. She said to him: What is the meaning of this? He said to her: One who performs this act falls into this, i.e., the fires of Gehenna. She said to him: If I had known that the matter was so serious for you, I would not have caused you such anguish.


专讘 讻讛谞讗 讛讜讛 拽诪讝讘讬谉 讚讬拽讜诇讬 转讘注转讬讛 讛讛讬讗 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讗诪专 诇讛 讗讬讝讬诇 讗讬拽砖讬讟 谞驻砖讗讬 住诇讬拽 讜拽谞驻讬诇 诪讗讬讙专讗 诇讗专注讗 讗转讗 讗诇讬讛讜 拽讘诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讟专讞转谉 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 驻专住讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讬 讙专诐 诇讬 诇讗讜 注谞讬讜转讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 砖讬驻讗 讚讚讬谞专讬


The Gemara further relates: Rav Kahana would sell baskets woven from palm leaves to women. He was enticed by a certain noblewoman to engage in intercourse with her. He said to her: Let me go and adorn myself beforehand. He ascended to the roof and fell from the roof toward the ground. Elijah the prophet came and caught him. Elijah the prophet said to Rav Kahana: You have troubled me to travel four hundred parasangs [parsei] to save you. Rav Kahana said to him: What caused me to be in this situation of temptation? Was it not poverty, as I am forced to engage in a trade that leads me to come into contact with women? Elijah gave him a basket [shifa] full of dinars, to spare him from having to work as a salesman.


专诪讬 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 转谞谉 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讗讚诐 注讜砖讛 讗讜转谉 讜讗讜讻诇 驻讬专讜转讬讛谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜讛拽专谉 拽讬讬诪转 诇讜 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讗诇讜 讛谉 讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讜讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讜讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 砖讘讬谉 讗讚诐 诇讞讘讬专讜 讜转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻谞讙讚 讻讜诇诐


Rava raises a contradiction to Rav Na岣an and asks: We learned in a mishna (Pe鈥檃 1:1): These are the matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal reward remains for him for the World-to-Come, and they are: Honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, acts of loving kindness, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them.


讘讻讬讘讜讚 讗讘 讜讗诐 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讗专讬讻谉 讬诪讬讱 讜诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讻转讬讘 专讚祝 爪讚拽讛 讜讞住讚 讬诪爪讗 讞讬讬诐 爪讚拽讛 讜讻讘讜讚


Rava cites the source for each of these assertions. With regard to honoring one鈥檚 father and mother, it is written: 鈥淭hat your days may be long, and that it may go well with you鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:16), which indicates that one is rewarded in this world. With regard to acts of loving kindness it is written: 鈥淗e who pursues righteousness and kindness shall find life, prosperity, and honor鈥 (Proverbs 21:21), all of which apply in this world.


讜讘讛讘讗转 砖诇讜诐 讻转讬讘 讘拽砖 砖诇讜诐 讜专讚驻讛讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗转讬讗 专讚讬驻讛 专讚讬驻讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讘拽砖 砖诇讜诐 讜专讚驻讛讜 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 专讚祝 爪讚拽讛 讜讞住讚 讘转诇诪讜讚 转讜专讛 讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛讜讗 讞讬讬讱 讜讗专讱 讬诪讬讱


And with regard to bringing peace it is written: 鈥淪eek peace and pursue it鈥 (Psalms 34:15). And Rabbi Abbahu says: This is derived through a verbal analogy between the term pursuing written with regard to pursuing peace and the term pursuing written in another verse. It is written here: 鈥淪eek peace and pursue it,鈥 and it is written there, with regard to acts of kindness: 鈥淧ursues righteousness and kindness.鈥 This teaches that one who pursues peace will also merit life, prosperity, and honor. With regard to Torah study it is written: 鈥淔or that is your life and the length of your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 30:20).


讘砖讬诇讜讞 讛拽谉 谞诪讬 讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 讬讬讟讘 诇讱 讜讛讗专讻转 讬诪讬诐 诇讬转谞讬 谞诪讬 讛讗 转谞讗 讜砖讬讬专 转谞讬 转谞讗 讗诇讜 讚讘专讬诐 讜讗转 讗诪专转 转谞讗 讜砖讬讬专


Rava asked: With regard to the dispatch of the mother bird from the nest it is also written: 鈥淭hat it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:7), so let him also teach this mitzva. Rav Na岣an answered: He taught some cases and omitted others, i.e., the tanna did not list everything. Rava said to him: The tanna taught: These are the matters, which indicates that only these mitzvot are included, and yet you say that he taught some and omitted others?


讗诪专 专讘讗 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗住讘专讗 诇讬 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘 讻讬 驻专讬 诪注诇诇讬讛诐 讬讗讻诇讜 讜讻讬 讬砖 爪讚讬拽 讟讜讘 讜讬砖 爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讟讜讘 讗诇讗 讟讜讘 诇砖诪讬诐 讜诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 爪讚讬拽 讟讜讘 讟讜讘 诇砖诪讬诐 讜专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 爪讚讬拽 砖讗讬谞讜 讟讜讘


Rather, Rava said: Rav Idi explained the matter to me. The verse states: 鈥淪ay you of the righteous who is good, that they shall eat the fruit of their actions鈥 (Isaiah 3:10). And this verse is difficult, as is there a righteous person who is good and is there a righteous person who is not good? Rather, this verse should be understood as follows: One who is good both toward Heaven and toward people is a good righteous person; one who is good toward Heaven but bad toward people is a righteous person who is not good.


讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 讗讜讬 诇专砖注 专注 讻讬 讙诪讜诇 讬讚讬讜 讬注砖讛 诇讜 讜讻讬 讬砖 专砖注 专注 讜讬砖 砖讗讬谞讜 专注 讗诇讗 专注 诇砖诪讬诐 讜专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讛讜讗 专砖注 专注 专注 诇砖诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞讜 专注 诇讘专讬讜转 讝讛讜 专砖注 砖讗讬谞讜 专注


Rava continues: On a similar note, it is written: 鈥淲oe to the evil wicked one, for the work of his hands shall be done to him鈥 (Isaiah 3:11). And is there a wicked man who is evil and is there one who is not evil? Rather, one who is evil toward Heaven and evil toward people is an evil wicked person; and one who is evil toward Heaven and not evil toward people is a wicked person who is not evil. With regard to the issue at hand, only one who performs mitzvot that benefit others receives the profits of his mitzvot in this world. This does not apply to dispatching the mother bird, which is an act that does not benefit other people.


讛讝讻讜转 讬砖 诇讛 拽专谉 讜讬砖 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讗诪专讜 爪讚讬拽 讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讙讜壮 注讘讬专讛 讬砖 诇讛 拽专谉 讜讗讬谉 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 砖谞讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇专砖注 专注 讜讙讜壮


搂 With regard to the mishna in Pe鈥檃, the Gemara states: An act of merit has a principal reward and it has profits, i.e., one receives additional reward beyond that which is granted for the mitzva itself, parallel to a principal sum and profits, as it is stated: 鈥淪ay you of the righteous who is good, that they shall eat the fruit of their actions鈥 (Isaiah 3:10). A sin has a principal penalty but it has no profits, i.e., no punishment beyond that, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to the evil wicked one, for the work of his hands shall be done to him鈥 (Isaiah 3:11), but no more than the work of his hands.


讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 讜讬讗讻诇讜 诪驻专讬 讚专讻诐 讜诪诪注爪转讬讛诐 讬砖讘注讜 注讘讬专讛 砖注讜砖讛 驻讬专讜转 讬砖 诇讛 驻讬专讜转 讜砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讛 驻讬专讜转 讗讬谉 诇讛 驻讬专讜转


But how do I realize the meaning of the following verse that deals with sinners: 鈥淭herefore they shall eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices鈥 (Proverbs 1:31)? This verse indicates that the penalty for sin goes beyond its principal, and the wicked receive additional punishments. The Gemara answers that this applies to a sin that produces profits, i.e., a case where there are practical consequences to one鈥檚 sin. For example, if others learn to act in a similar manner, one鈥檚 actions have profits with regard to punishment as well. Conversely, a sin that does not produce profits does not have profits as a punishment either.


诪讞砖讘讛 讟讜讘讛 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗讝 谞讚讘专讜 讬专讗讬 讛壮 讗讬砖 讗诇 专注讛讜 讜讬拽砖讘 讛壮 讜讬砖诪注 讜讬讻转讘 住驻专 讝讻专讜谉 诇驻谞讬讜 诇讬专讗讬 讛壮 讜诇讞砖讘讬 砖诪讜 诪讗讬 讜诇讞砖讘讬 砖诪讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讞砖讘 讗讚诐 诇注砖讜转 诪爪讜讛 讜谞讗谞住 讜诇讗 注砖讗讛 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 注砖讗讛


The Gemara further teaches: The Holy One, Blessed be He, links a good thought to an action, as it is stated: 鈥淭hen they that feared the Lord spoke one with the other, and the Lord listened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that fear the Lord, and that think upon His name鈥 (Malachi 3:16). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of the phrase 鈥渁nd that think upon His name鈥? Rav Asi said: Even if a person intended to perform a mitzva but due to circumstances beyond his control he did not perform it, the verse ascribes him credit as if he performed the mitzva, as he is among those that think upon His name.


诪讞砖讘讛 专注讛 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗讜谉 讗诐 专讗讬转讬 讘诇讘讬 诇讗 讬砖诪注 讛壮 讜讗诇讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬诐 讛谞谞讬 诪讘讬讗 讗诇 讛注诐 讛讝讛 专注讛 驻专讬 诪讞砖讘讜转诐 诪讞砖讘讛 砖注讜砖讛 驻专讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛 诪讞砖讘讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 驻专讬 讗讬谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪爪专驻讛 诇诪注砖讛


But the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link an evil thought to an action, as it is stated: 鈥淚f I had regarded iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not hear鈥 (Psalms 66:18). But how do I realize the meaning of the verse: 鈥淏ehold I will bring upon these people evil, even the fruit of their thoughts鈥 (Jeremiah 6:19)? In the case of an evil thought that produces fruit, i.e., that leads to an action, the Holy One, Blessed be He, links it to the action and one is punished for the thought as well. If it is a thought that does not produce fruit, the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link it to the action.


讜讗诇讗 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 诇诪注谉 转驻砖 讗转 [讘讬转] 讬砖专讗诇 讘诇讘诐 讗诪专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讛讛讜讗 讘注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讚讗诪专 诪专 讞诪讜专讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 砖讻诇 讛讻讜驻专 讘讛 讻诪讜讚讛 讘讻诇 讛转讜专讛 讻讜诇讛


The Gemara asks: But with regard to that which is written: 鈥淪o I may take the house of Israel in their own heart鈥 (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one can be punished for thoughts alone, to what is this verse referring? Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: That is written with regard to idol worship, as the Master says: Idol worship is very severe, as anyone who denies it is like one who admits the truth of the entire Torah. Conversely, one who embraces idolatry is considered to have rejected the entire Torah. Due to the severity of idol worship, one is punished even for contemplating this transgression.


注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讻讬讜谉 砖注讘专 讗讚诐 注讘讬专讛 讜砖谞讛 讘讛 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 讛讜转专讛 诇讜 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诇讗 谞注砖讬转 诇讜 讻讛讬转专


Ulla said: This should be explained in accordance with a statement of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: When a person transgresses and repeats his transgression, it is permitted to him. The Gemara questions this statement: Can it enter your mind that the transgression is permitted to him because he has sinned twice? Rather, it becomes as if it were permitted to him, as he becomes accustomed to this behavior and no longer senses that it is a sin.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 谞讜讞 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 砖讬注讘讜专 注讘讬专讛 讘住转专 讜讗诇 讬讞诇诇 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转诐 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讗讬砖 讙诇讜诇讬讜 诇讻讜 注讘讚讜 [讜讗讞专] 讗诐 讗讬谞讻诐 砖诪注讬诐 讗诇讬 讜讗转 砖诐 拽讚砖讬 诇讗 转讞诇诇讜


Rabbi Abbahu says in the name of Rabbi 岣nina: It is preferable for a person to transgress in secret and not to desecrate the name of Heaven in public [befarhesya], as it is stated: 鈥淎s for you, house of Israel, so says the Lord God: Go you, serve everyone his idols, even because you will not hearken to Me, but My sacred name you shall not profane鈥 (Ezekiel 20:39).


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讗讬 讛讝拽谉 讗诐 专讜讗讛 讗讚诐 砖讬爪专讜 诪转讙讘专 注诇讬讜 讬诇讱 诇诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讻讬专讬谉 讗讜转讜 讜讬诇讘砖 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬转讻住讛 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜讬注砖讛 讻诪讜 砖诇讘讜 讞驻抓 讜讗诇 讬讞诇诇 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讘驻专讛住讬讗


Rabbi Ilai the Elder says: If a person sees that his evil inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is not known, and wear black clothes, and he should cover himself in simple black garments, and he should do as his heart desires, but he should not desecrate the name of Heaven in public.


讗讬谞讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讻诇 砖诇讗 讞住 注诇 讻讘讜讚 拽讜谞讜 专讗讜讬 诇讜 砖诇讗 讘讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪讛 讛讬讗 专讘讛 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛诪住转讻诇 讘拽砖转 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗讜诪专 讝讛 讛注讜讘专 注讘讬专讛 讘住转专


The Gemara asks: Is that so? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: With regard to anyone who does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor, it is fitting for him not to have come into the world. What is this? Who is considered to be one who does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor? Rabba says: This is one who gazes at a rainbow, which is described as: 鈥淭he likeness of the glory of the Lord鈥 (Ezekiel 1:28). Rav Yosef says: This is one who transgresses in secret, which shows that he fears other people but does not care about the honor of his Creator.


诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚诪爪讬 讻讬讬祝 诇讬爪专讬讛 讜讛讗 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 讻讬讬祝 诇讬爪专讬讛


The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this source, which says that one who transgresses in secret does not care about his Creator鈥檚 honor, is referring to one who can overcome his evil inclination but nevertheless chooses to transgress in secret. And that source, which states that it is preferable for him to transgress in secret, is referring to one who cannot overcome his evil inclination.


转谞谉 讛转诐 讗讬谉 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讘讞讬诇讜诇 讛砖诐 讗讞讚 砖讜讙讙 讜讗讞讚 诪讝讬讚 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 诪拽讬驻讬谉 讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 砖讗讬谉 注讜砖讬诐 讻讞谞讜讜谞讬 诪专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘谞讗 讗诪专 诇讜诪专 砖讗诐 讛讬转讛 砖拽讜诇讛 诪讻专注转


We learned in a mishna there (see Avot 4:5): Credit is not given with regard to the desecration of God鈥檚 name, whether one sinned unintentionally or intentionally. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: Credit is not given [makkifin]? Mar Zutra says: This means that God does not act like a storekeeper and provide credit. Rather, one is punished without delay. Mar, son of Rabbana, says: This means to say that if one鈥檚 merit and sins were equal, the sin of the desecration of God鈥檚 name tilts the balance of the scales toward the side of his sins. In other words, if his sins include the transgression of desecrating God鈥檚 name, God does not wait for this individual to perform a mitzva to balance out the sin.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇注讜诇诐


The Sages taught: Always


讬专讗讛 讗讚诐 注爪诪讜 讻讗讬诇讜 讞爪讬讜 讞讬讬讘 讜讞爪讬讜 讝讻讗讬 注砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗砖专讬讜 砖讛讻专讬注 注爪诪讜 诇讻祝 讝讻讜转 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讞转 讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 诇讻祝 讞讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讞讜讟讗 讗讞讚 讬讗讘讚 讟讜讘讛 讛专讘讛 讘砖讘讬诇 讞讟讗 讬讞讬讚讬 砖讞讟讗 讗讜讘讚 诪诪谞讜 讟讜讘讜转 讛专讘讛


a person should view himself as though he were exactly half-liable and half-meritorious. In other words he should act as though the plates of his scale are balanced, so that if he performs one mitzva he is fortunate, as he tilts his balance to the scale of merit. If he transgresses one prohibition, woe to him, as he tilts his balance to the scale of liability, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut one sin destroys much good鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:18), which means that due to one sin that a person transgresses he squanders much good.


专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讗讞专 专讜讘讜 讜讛讬讞讬讚 谞讬讚讜谉 讗讞专 专讜讘讜 注砖讛 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讗砖专讬讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 讜讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 诇讻祝 讝讻讜转 注讘专 注讘讬专讛 讗讞转 讗讜讬 诇讜 砖讛讻专讬注 讗转 注爪诪讜 讜讗转 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 诇讻祝 讞讜讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讞讜讟讗 讗讞讚 讻讜壮 讘砖讘讬诇 讞讟讗 讬讞讬讚讬 砖注砖讛 讝讛 讗讘讚 诪诪谞讜 讜诪讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讟讜讘讛 讛专讘讛


Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: Since the world is judged by its majority, i.e., depending on whether people have performed a majority of mitzvot or a majority of sins, and an individual is likewise judged by his majority, each person must consider that if he performs one mitzva he is praiseworthy, as he tilts the balance of himself and the entire world to the scale of merit. Conversely, if he transgresses one prohibition, woe to him, as he tilts the balance for himself and the entire world to the scale of liability, as it is stated: 鈥淏ut one sin destroys much good,鈥 i.e., due to one sin that this individual commits, he squanders much goodness from himself and from the entire world.


专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讚讬拽 讙诪讜专 讻诇 讬诪讬讜 讜诪专讚 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讗讬讘讚 讗转 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转 砖谞讗诪专 爪讚拽转 讛爪讚讬拽 诇讗 转爪讬诇谞讜 讘讬讜诐 驻砖注讜 讜讗驻讬诇讜 专砖注 讙诪讜专 讻诇 讬诪讬讜 讜注砖讛 转砖讜讘讛 讘讗讞专讜谞讛 讗讬谉 诪讝讻讬专讬诐 诇讜 砖讜讘 专砖注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜专砖注转 讛专砖注 诇讗 讬讻砖诇 讘讛 讘讬讜诐 砖讜讘讜 诪专砖注讜


Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i says: Even if one was completely righteous all his life and he rebelled by sinning at the end of his life, he loses his early merit, as it is stated: 鈥淭he righteousness of the righteous shall not deliver him on the day of his transgression鈥 (Ezekiel 33:12). And similarly, even if one was completely wicked all his life and repented in the end, he is no longer reminded of his wickedness, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: 鈥淎nd as for the wickedness of the wicked, he shall not stumble over it on the day that he turns from his wickedness.鈥


讜谞讬讛讜讬 讻诪讞爪讛 注讜谞讜转 讜诪讞爪讛 讝讻讬讜转 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讘转讜讛讗 注诇 讛专讗砖讜谞讜转


The Gemara asks: But an individual who performed mitzvot all of his life and then sins should at least be like one whose acts have been half sins and half merits, i.e., each should be of equal weight. Why, then, is he pronounced guilty? Reish Lakish said: This is not referring to an individual who has merely sinned but to one who regrets all the initial mitzvot he performed in the past. In this case the mitzvot he performed are not taken into account.


诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 砖讬砖谞讜 讘诪拽专讗 讜讘诪砖谞讛 讜讘讚专讱 讗专抓 诇讗 讘诪讛专讛 讛讜讗 讞讜讟讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讞讜讟 讛诪砖诇砖 诇讗 讘诪讛专讛 讬谞转拽 讜讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 讘诪拽专讗 讜诇讗 讘诪砖谞讛 讜诇讗 讘讚专讱 讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 诪谉 讛讬讬砖讜讘


MISHNA: Anyone who is engaged in the study of Bible, and in the study of Mishna, and in the desired mode of behavior, i.e., he performs labor and generally acts in an appropriate manner, will not be quick to sin, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd a threefold cord is not quickly broken鈥 (Ecclesiastes 4:12). One who is involved in all three of these activities will not sin easily. And anyone who does not engage in the study of Bible, nor the study of Mishna, nor the desired mode of behavior, is not part of society, i.e., he is not considered a civilized person at all.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 诇诪讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 谞诪砖诇讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讗讬诇谉 砖讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 讜谞讜驻讜 谞讜讟讛 诇诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 谞拽爪抓 谞讜驻讜 讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 讻讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讘讬讗 讬住讜专讬诐 注诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚讬 砖讬讬专砖讜 讛注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 专讗砖讬转讱 诪爪注专 讜讗讞专讬转讱 讬砖讙讛 诪讗讚


GEMARA: Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, says: To what are the righteous in this world compared? To a tree that is standing entirely in a pure place and its branches hang over an impure place. If its branches are cut, it will stand entirely in a pure place. So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings afflictions upon the righteous in this world to cleanse them of their few sins. He makes them suffer so that they will inherit the World-to-Come entirely, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd your beginning was in pain, your end shall greatly increase鈥 (Job 8:7).


讜诇诪讛 专砖注讬诐 讚讜诪讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讗讬诇谉 砖讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 讜谞讜驻讜 谞讜讟讛 诇诪拽讜诐 讟讛专讛 谞拽爪抓 谞讜驻讜 讻讜诇讜 注讜诪讚 讘诪拽讜诐 讟讜诪讗讛 讻讱 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讬注 诇讛谉 讟讜讘讛 诇专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻讚讬 诇讟讜专讚谉 讜诇讛讜专讬砖谉 诇诪讚专讬讙讛 讛转讞转讜谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖 讚专讱 讬砖专 诇驻谞讬 讗讬砖 讜讗讞专讬转讛 讚专讻讬 诪讜转


And to what are the wicked in this world compared? To a tree that stands entirely in an impure place and whose branches hang over a pure place. If its branches are cut off, it stands entirely in an impure place. So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, bestows good upon the wicked in this world for the few mitzvot they have performed, in order to expel them and banish them to the lowest level of Gehenna in the future, as it is stated: 鈥淭here is a way which seems right to a man, but its end are the ways of death鈥 (Proverbs 14:12).


讜讻讘专 讛讬讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讝拽谞讬诐 诪住讜讘讬谉 讘注诇讬转 讘讬转 谞转讝讛 讘诇讜讚 谞砖讗诇讛 砖讗讬诇讛 讝讜 讘驻谞讬讛诐 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 讗讜 诪注砖讛 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讗诪专 诪注砖讛 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗诪专 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 谞注谞讜 讻讜诇诐 讜讗诪专讜 转诇诪讜讚 讙讚讜诇 砖讛转诇诪讜讚 诪讘讬讗 诇讬讚讬 诪注砖讛


In connection to the mishna鈥檚 statement about the importance of Torah study, the Gemara relates the following incident: And there already was an incident in which Rabbi Tarfon and the Elders were reclining in the loft of the house of Nit鈥檢a in Lod, when this question was asked of them: Is study greater or is action greater? Rabbi Tarfon answered and said: Action is greater. Rabbi Akiva answered and said: Study is greater. Everyone answered and said: Study is greater, but not as an independent value; rather, it is greater as study leads to action.


转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讙讚讜诇 转诇诪讜讚 砖拽讚诐 诇讞诇讛 讗专讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 诇转专讜诪讜转 讜诇诪注砖专讜转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗专讘注 诇砖诪讬讟讬诐 砖砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诇讬讜讘诇讜转 诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖


It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: Torah study is greater, as it preceded the mitzva of separating 岣lla by forty years. The Torah was given to the Jewish people soon after they left Egypt, whereas the mitzva of separating 岣lla came into effect only after they entered Eretz Yisrael. And it preceded the mitzva of terumot and tithes by fifty-four years, as the Jews become obligated in these mitzvot only fourteen years after they entered Eretz Yisrael, once they had conquered and divided the land. Furthermore, the Torah preceded the observance of Sabbatical Years by sixty-one years, as they began to count the seven-year cycle only once they had divided the land. Finally, it preceded the Jubilee Years by 103 years, as the fifty-year count to the first Jubilee Year began only after they had divided Eretz Yisrael.


诪讗讛 讜砖诇砖 诪讗讛 讜讗专讘注 讛讜讬讬谉 拽住讘专 讬讜讘诇 诪转讞讬诇转讜 讛讜讗 诪砖诪讟


The Gemara asks: Why does the baraita state 103 years? It was actually 104 years. If one adds fifty to the fifty-four years that passed before the Jews began fulfilling the mitzvot dependent on the land, one arrives at a total of 104. The Gemara answers: This tanna maintains that the Jubilee Year releases slaves and returns fields to their original owners from the start of the year. Therefore, 103 years passed before the mitzva of the Jubilee Year took effect.


讜讻砖诐 砖讛诇讬诪讜讚 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讱 讚讬谞讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讚专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讗讬谉 转讞讬诇转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 注诇 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 驻讜讟专 诪讬诐 专讗砖讬转 诪讚讜谉


And just as study comes before action, i.e., the mitzva of Torah study takes precedence over other mitzvot, so too, the judgment concerning Torah study precedes the judgment for an action of the performance of a mitzva. This is in accordance with the statement of Rav Hamnuna, as Rav Hamnuna says: The beginning of a person鈥檚 judgment is only concerning matters of Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淭he beginning of judgment is as one lets out water鈥 (Proverbs 17:14). This is understood to refer to the sin of neglecting Torah, as the Torah is compared to water, which brings life to the world.


讜讻砖诐 砖讚讬谞讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 讻讱 砖讻专讜 拽讜讚诐 诇诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬转谉 诇讛诐 讗专爪讜转 讙讜讬诐 讜注诪诇 诇讗诪讬诐 讬讬专砖讜 讘注讘讜专 讬砖诪专讜 讞拽讬讜 讜转讜专转讬讜 讬谞爪专讜


And just as the judgment concerning Torah study precedes the judgment for an action of the performance of a mitzva, so too does the reward for Torah study precede the reward for an action of the performance of a mitzva, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd He gave them the lands of nations, and they took the labor of peoples in possession, that they might observe His statutes and protect His laws鈥 (Psalms 105:44鈥45). The first reward is for observing the statutes, and as explained on 37a, this is a reference to Torah study.


讻诇 砖讗讬谞讜 诇讗 讘诪拽专讗 讜诇讗 讘诪砖谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜驻住讜诇 诇注讚讜转 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讗讜讻诇 讘砖讜拽 讛专讬 讝讛 讚讜诪讛 诇讻诇讘 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 驻住讜诇 诇注讚讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬讚讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讛诇讻讛 讻讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐


搂 The mishna teaches that anyone who does not engage in the study of Bible, nor the study of Mishna, nor the desired mode of behavior, is not part of society. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: And he is disqualified from bearing witness, as this individual cannot be trusted. The Sages taught: One who eats in the marketplace is comparable to a dog, as he disrespects himself through his lack of embarrassment over eating in public. And some say he is even disqualified from bearing witness. Rabbi Idi bar Avin said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion cited in the name of: Some say.


讚专砖 讘专 拽驻专讗 专讙讝谉


Similarly, bar Kappara taught: An angry person


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