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Daf Yomi

October 23, 2023 | ื—ืณ ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืคืดื“

  • Masechet Kiddushin is sponsored by Julie and Martin Mendelsohn in honor of their two children who were recently married

Kiddushin 71

Today’s daf is dedicated to the safe return of the hostages, the safety of our soldiers, the residents of the South and the North, and the whole country, and in memory of those who were murdered and for a refuah shleima to all those injured.ย 

A verse from Malachi 3:3 is explained in two different ways – that in the time of the Messiah, God will separate out all those from the tribe of Levi that have problematic lineage or that on account of wealth, mamzerim will intermarry and ultimately will be purified as no one will know who is a mamzer. According to the second interpretation, God will permit those mixed in to remain part of the nation and marry whomever they wish. Babylonia was known to have people of better lineage than in Israel, and in Israel it was better than outside of Israel. At certain times, some suggested that Jews in Israel had better lineage than in Babylonia but they were overruled. Rabbi Yochanan held that one should not try to find families with problematic lineage as even the leaders of the generation would be among them. There were some who told their children and students once or twice every seven years about which families one should not marry into. Another secret that was only revealed once or twice every seven years was the name of God with four letters. From where do we learn that it needs to be kept a secret? There are two other names of God – one with twelve letters and one with forty-two that were also kept a secret and only revealed to certain types of people. Can one rely on the presumptive status of ‘kosher’/disqualified in Israel, in Babylonia, and in other places? What were methods used to determine if one was Babylonian in order to know their lineage was good? Zeira avoided Rabbi Yochanan as Rabbi Yochanan wanted to marry him to his daughter and Zeira didn’t trust his lineage as he was from Israel. Rav Yehuda avoided marrying off his son as he was also concerned about marrying him off to a woman with a bad lineage. Ulla recommended he judge by the family’s demeanor – if they are quiet and give in while arguing, it is a sign of a good family. Babylonia was known for good lineage, but the rabbis debated what are considered the borders of Babylonia for these purposes.

ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื• ืฉืœ ืœื•ื™ ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืžืฆืจืฃ ื•ืžื˜ื”ืจ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื˜ื”ืจ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื•ื–ืงืง ืืชื ื›ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื›ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ืณ ืžื’ื™ืฉื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืฆื“ืงื”


purifies the tribes, i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will purify that of the tribe of Levi first, as it is stated with regard to the angel sent forth by God: โ€œAnd he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousnessโ€ (Malachi 3:3).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืžืฆืจืฃ ื•ืžื˜ื”ืจ ื›ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ืžื’ื™ืฉื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืฆื“ืงื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื“ืงื” ืขืฉื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies mamzerim. Money causes rich mamzerim to become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as mamzerim, as it is stated: โ€œAnd he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,โ€ which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. What, then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: โ€œThey that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousnessโ€? Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performed an act of righteousness with the Jewish people by establishing that a family that has become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage remains assimilated. They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.


ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืงื•ืฆื™ื ืืชื ืžืฉื™ืžื™ื ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ ืจืฆื•ื ื›ื ื™ื˜ืคืœ ืขืžื›ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื


ยง With regard to the matter itself that was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of the residents of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia. The Gemara relates: In the days of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, they sought to establish the lineage of the Jews in Babylonia as muddled relative to that of Eretz Yisrael. In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so he said to those who put forth this suggestion: Are you placing thorns between my eyes? Do you wish to insult me? If you wish, Rabbi แธคanina bar แธคama will join you and explain it to you.


ื ื˜ืคืœ ืขืžื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืื‘ื™ื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ


Rabbi แธคanina bar แธคama joined them and said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father, who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia.


ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืคื ื—ืก ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืœืขื‘ื“ื™ื• ื›ืฉืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื˜ืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขืจื™ืกื” ื•ืจื•ืฆื• ื›ื™ ืขื™ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ืœืขื•ืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื”


The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: In the days of Rabbi Pineแธฅas, they sought to establish the lineage of Babylonia as muddled relative to that of Eretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run, so that I will not be attacked for my statements. When he entered the house of study he said to those studying there: Slaughter of a bird is not obligatory by Torah law.


ืื“ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื•ืงืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื ื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ื‘ืขืจื™ืกื” ื•ืจืฆื• ืจืฆื• ืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื™ืขื•ื”ื• ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื•ื‘ื“ืงื• ืขื“ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœืกื›ื ื” ื•ืคื™ืจืฉื•


While they were sitting and scrutinizing this novel halakha, he said to them: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia. His servants picked him up on a stretcher and ran. Those that were in the house of study pursued him but could not catch him. Nevertheless, they sat and examined the lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, until they reached powerful families. It was dangerous to accuse them of flaws due to their power, and they withdrew from their inspections.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื›ืœื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืืขืฉื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื ื˜ืžืขื• ื‘ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says as an oath: By the Sanctuary! It is in our power to reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, but what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it? Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, as Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: A family that has become assimilated remains assimilated, and one should not reveal their flawed status.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืฃ ืื ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฆืจื™ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืจื™ื—ืงื” ื‘ืŸ ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืจื•ืข ืขื•ื“ ืื—ืจืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืงื™ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืŸ ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืจื•ืข ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื• ืืœื™ื”ื• ื‘ื ืœื˜ืžื ื•ืœื˜ื”ืจ ืœืจื—ืง ื•ืœืงืจื‘ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื• ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Abaye said: We too learn in the mishna (Eduyyot 8:7): There was a family known as Beit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, and a person called ben Tziyyon forcefully distanced it and proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. There was another one that ben Tziyyon forcefully drew near, although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families such as these, Elijah comes to declare impure and to declare pure, to distance and to draw near. Abaye continues: When the mishna states: Such as these, it means those whose status we know. But a family that has become assimilated, whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, has already become assimilated, and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.


ืชืื ื ืขื•ื“ ืื—ืจืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœื ืจืฆื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœื’ืœื•ืชื” ืื‘ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื•ืกืจื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืœื‘ื ื™ื”ื ื•ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจ ืื ืœื ืื’ืœื” ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื™ื”ื™ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ืœื ื™ื’ืœื” ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช


The Sage taught (Tosefta, Eduyyot 3:4): There was another family with flawed lineage, but the Sages did not want to reveal its identity to all. But the Sages transmit its name to their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years, to prevent them from marrying into their family. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says that they transmit it once every seven years, as it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Nazir 1:2): One who says: I am hereby a nazirite if I do not reveal the names of families of flawed lineage among the Jewish people, he should be a nazirite and not reveal the identity of such families. This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืืจื‘ืข ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ืฉืžื™ ืœืขืœื ืœืขืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ื“ืจืฉื™ื” ื‘ืคื™ืจืงื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืœืขืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘


ยง The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar halakha: Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: The Sages transmit the correct pronunciation of the four-letter name of God to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says that they transmit it once every seven years, as it is written: โ€œThis is My name forever [leโ€™olam]โ€ (Exodus 3:15), which is written so that it can be read leโ€™alem, to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: Rava planned to expound and explain the proper way to say the name in a public discourse. A certain elder said to him: It is written so that it can be read leโ€™alem, indicating that it must stay hidden.


ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ืฉืžื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื ื›ืฉืื ื™ ื ื›ืชื‘ ืื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื ื›ืชื‘ ืื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื“ ื”ื™ ื•ื ืงืจื ื‘ืืœืฃ ื“ืœื™ืช


Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: โ€œThis is My name,โ€ indicating that the name as written is that of God; and it is written: โ€œThis is My remembranceโ€ (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not Godโ€™s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written with the letters yod, heh, vav, heh, while My name is pronounced with the letters alef, dalet, nun, yod.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื›ืœ ืื“ื ืžืฉืจื‘ื• ื”ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืกืจื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืœืฆื ื•ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืฆื ื•ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžื‘ืœื™ืขื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื ืขื™ืžืช ืื—ื™ื”ื ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืขืœื™ืชื™ ืื—ืจ ืื—ื™ ืืžื™ ืœื“ื•ื›ืŸ ื•ื”ื˜ื™ืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ ืืฆืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืฉืžืขืชื™ ืฉื”ื‘ืœื™ืข ืฉื ื‘ื ืขื™ืžืช ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื


The Sages taught: Initially, the Sages would transmit the twelve-letter name of God to any person. When the uninhibited ones who used the name disrespectfully increased, they would transmit it only to discreet members of the priesthood, and the discreet members of the priesthood would pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would conceal it by saying it during the sweet melody of their priestly brothers, so that it would not become publicly known. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Tarfon, who was himself a priest, said: On one occasion I ascended after my motherโ€™s brother to the platform to give the Priestly Benediction, and I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweet melody of his priestly brothers.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืืœื ืœืžื™ ืฉืฆื ื•ืข ื•ืขื ื™ื• ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ื™ืžื™ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื›ื•ืขืก ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืฉืชื›ืจ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืขืžื™ื“ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื“ืขื• ื•ื”ื–ื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืจื• ื‘ื˜ื”ืจื” ืื”ื•ื‘ ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื ื—ืžื“ ืœืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ืžืชื• ืžื•ื˜ืœืช ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื ื•ื—ืœ ืฉื ื™ ืขื•ืœืžื™ื ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The forty-two-letter name of God may be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands at at least half his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rights but is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. And anyone who knows this name and is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.


ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืกื‘ื ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ื›ืฉืจื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ื‘ืžื” ื ืคืกืœื” ืฉืืจ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ื‘ืžื” ื ื›ืฉืจื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœืคืกื•ืœ ืคืกื•ืœ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœื›ืฉืจ ื›ืฉืจ


ยง The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: Shmuel says in the name of a certain elder: A family in Babylonia has a presumptive status of unflawed lineage until it becomes known to you in what way it was rendered of flawed lineage. Conversely, a family from other lands has a presumptive status of flawed lineage until it becomes known to you in what way it was rendered unflawed. As for families in Eretz Yisrael, one who has a presumptive status of flawed lineage is of flawed lineage, whereas one who has presumptive status of unflawed lineage is of unflawed lineage.


ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœืคืกื•ืœ ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื ืกืชืžื ื›ืฉืจ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืชื ื™ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœื›ืฉืจ ื›ืฉืจ ื”ื ืกืชืžื ืคืกื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื


The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: This matter itself is difficult: First, you said that a family that has a presumptive status of flawed lineage is of flawed lineage, indicating that a family with unspecified status is of unflawed lineage. And then you teach: A family that has a presumptive status of unflawed lineage is of unflawed lineage, indicating that a family with unspecified status is of flawed lineage. Rav Huna bar Taแธฅalifa said in the name of Rav: This is not difficult.


ื›ืืŸ ืœื”ืฉื™ืื• ืืฉื” ื›ืืŸ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืฉื” ืžื™ื“ื•


Here, in the final clause, it is referring to marrying a woman to him, and the halakha is that a family with no presumptive status requires investigation before one of them marries. There, in the penultimate clause, it is referring to the court removing a woman from him. The husband is not forced to divorce her unless it has been proven that they may not remain married.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉืกื™ื—ืชื• ื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ื•ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ืจืžืื™ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ


Rav Yosef says: Anyone whose speech is Babylonian, i.e., anyone who speaks the Babylonian language with a Babylonian accent, is allowed to marry a woman without having his lineage examined. The presumption is that he is Babylonian, and the lineage of Babylonian families is unflawed. The Gemara comments: But nowadays, when there are swindlers who may speak with Babylonian accents in order to avoid scrutiny, we are concerned even about those who speak like Babylonians.


ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืกื™ื‘ ื‘ืจืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื• ืงืื–ืœื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืžื˜ื• ืœืขื•ืจืงืžื ื“ืžื™ื ืืจื›ื‘ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชืŸ ื›ืฉืจื” ื‘ื ืชื™ืŸ ืœื ื›ืฉืจืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ืขืชื™ืš


The Gemara relates: The Sage Zeโ€™eiri, a Babylonian, was avoiding Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who was from Eretz Yisrael, since the latter kept saying to him: Marry my daughter. One day, when they were walking along the way, they arrived at a large puddle of water. Zeโ€™eiri lifted Rabbi Yoแธฅanan upon his shoulders and carried him over the puddle out of respect. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said to him: Our Torah is fit and worthy of honor in your eyes, and yet our daughters are not fit? What is your reason for not wanting to marry my daughter?


ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื“ืชื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ืขืœื• ืžื‘ื‘ืœ ื›ื”ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ื™ ืื˜ื• ื›ื”ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ื™ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกืœื™ืงื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืื™ืฉืชื™ื•ืจ ืžื”ื ื™ ืื™ืฉืชื™ื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ืžื”ื ื™ ืื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ืชื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœื ืขืœื” ืขื–ืจื ืžื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืขืฉืื” ื›ืกื•ืœืช ื ืงื™ื™ื” ื•ืขืœื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan continued: If we say a reason not to marry my daughter is from that which we learned in a mishna (69a): There were ten categories of lineage among the Jews who ascended from Babylonia: Priests, Levites, Israelites, as well as many of flawed lineage, and you are concerned about the mamzerim among those who live in Eretz Yisrael, is that to say that all of the priests, Levites, and Israelites ascended to Eretz Yisrael? Certainly, Jews of unflawed lineage remained in Babylonia. Just as there remained from these unflawed categories in Babylonia, there also remained individuals from these, the flawed categories. Therefore, marrying only Babylonians will not alleviate your concern. The Gemara comments: In fact, this statement of Rabbi Elazar escaped Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: Ezra did not ascend from Babylonia until he made it like fine flour, and then he ascended. Accordingly, the people who remained in Babylonia were all of unflawed lineage.


ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœืคื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืชื ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื’ื“ืœ ื•ืœื ื ืกื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืงื ืžื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืžืจ ืื™ืชืชื ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื ื ืžื”ื™ื›ื ืื ืกื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื˜ื• ืื ืŸ ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ืงืืชื™ื ืŸ ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื”ื ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืขื ื• ื‘ืชืœืช ื‘ืขืจื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


The Gemara relates another incident: Ulla arrived in Pumbedita to the house of Rav Yehuda. He observed that Rav Yitzแธฅak, son of Rav Yehuda, was grown up and was unmarried. Ulla said to Rav Yehuda: What is the reason that the Master does not marry a woman to his son? Rav Yehuda said to him: Do I know from where I can find a woman to marry him? I am concerned about flawed lineage. Ulla said to him: Is that to say that we know where we come from? Can we be sure that our lineage is unflawed? Perhaps we are from those about whom it is written: โ€œThey have ravished the women in Zion, the maidens in the cities of Judahโ€ (Lamentations 5:11). Perhaps we are descended from women ravished by gentiles.


ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื ื›ืจื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ืœื“ ื›ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื”ื ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื”ืฉื›ื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ืžื˜ื•ืช ืฉืŸ ื•ืกืจื—ื™ื ืขืœ ืขืจืฉื•ืชื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื”ืžืฉืชื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืžื™ื


And if you would say that you are not concerned about that possibility, since you maintain that in the case of a gentile or a slave who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Jewish woman, the lineage of the offspring is unflawed, perhaps we come from those about whom it is written: โ€œThat lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couchesโ€ (Amos 6:4), and Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi แธคanina, says in explanation of this verse: These are people who urinate naked before their couches.


ื•ืžื’ื“ืฃ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื›ืŸ ืขืชื” ื™ื’ืœื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ืœื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืฉืชื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืžื™ื ื™ื’ืœื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ื•ืœื™ื


And Rabbi Abbahu ridiculed this interpretation and said: If so, if this was their sin, is this what is written: โ€œTherefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captiveโ€ (Amos 6:7)? Could it be that because they urinated naked before their couches that they go captive at the head of them that go captive? That act is admittedly distasteful, but it is not so severe a transgression to warrant such a punishment.


ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื” ื•ืžื“ื‘ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื–ื• ื‘ื–ื• ื•ืžื—ืœื™ืคื™ืŸ ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื•ืžืกืจื™ื—ื™ื ืขืจืกื•ืชื ื‘ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฉืœื”ื


Rather, Rabbi Abbahu says: These are people who eat and drink together, and attach their beds together, and exchange their wives with each other, and befoul their couches with semen that is not theirs. The Jewish people include the descendants of such people, who are full-fledged mamzerim.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ื‘ื“ืงื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืขืจื‘ื ื›ื™ ืžื™ื ืฆื• ื‘ื™ ืชืจื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื• ื”ื™ ืžื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ืง ืืžืจื™ ื”ืื™ ืžื™ื•ื—ืก ื˜ืคื™


Rav Yehuda said to Ulla: If so, what shall we do? How can we clarify which families are of unflawed lineage? Ulla said to him: Go after the silence, like the way the people of the West, Eretz Yisrael, examine: When two people quarrel with each other, they observe which of them becomes silent first. Then they say: This silent party is of finer lineage.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื™ื—ื•ืกื ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืจื‘ ืœื‘ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืคื™ ื—ืœื ื•ื‘ื“ืง ื‘ื”ื• ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื—ืกื•ืชื ืœื ื‘ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื“ื•ืงื• ืื™ ืฉืชืงื™ ืื™ ืœื ืฉืชืงื™


Rav says: The silence of Babylonia is its lineage. In other words, this is an effective method of examining a personโ€™s lineage in Babylonia as well. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But Rav arrived at the house of the son of a vinegar strainer and examined them. What, is it not that he conducted an examination into their lineage? The Gemara answers: No, he conducted an examination into their silence. This is what Rav said to those conducting the examination: Examine whether they become silent when they quarrel or whether they do not become silent.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื ืจืื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืžืชื’ืจื™ื ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื™ื“ื‘ืง ืื—ื“ ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืื ืจืื™ืช ืฉืชื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืžืชื’ืจื•ืช ื–ื• ื‘ื–ื• ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœื™ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืชื”


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: If you see two people feuding with each other, there is a trace of unfitness in one of them. In other words, there are grounds to suspect that the lineage of one of them is flawed. Consequently, that one is prevented by Heaven from joining the other through marriage, and that leads them to feud with each other. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: If you see two families feuding with each other, there is a trace of unfitness in one of them, and that family is prevented by Heaven from joining the other.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืกื‘ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืžื™ืฉื•ืŸ ืžื™ืชื” ืžื“ื™ ื—ื•ืœื” ืขื™ืœื ื’ื•ืกืกืช ื•ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื’ื•ืกืกื™ืŸ ืจื•ื‘ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ื ืจื•ื‘ ื’ื•ืกืกื™ื ืœืžื™ืชื”


Rav Pappa the Elder says in the name of Rav: Babylonia is healthy with regard to lineage and clear of suspicion. Mishon is dead, meaning that all its inhabitants have flawed lineage. Media is sick, and Eilam is moribund. The Gemara clarifies: And what is the difference between sick and moribund? Most sick people recover to a healthy life, whereas most of those who are moribund are destined for death. Likewise, the majority of the residents of Media had unflawed lineage, while the majority of those living in Eilam had flawed lineage.


ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืœ ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื”ืจ ืขื–ืง ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื”ืจ ื™ื•ืื ื™ ืœืขื™ืœ ื‘ื“ื™ื’ืœืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื‘ื’ื“ื ื•ืื•ื•ื ื ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืœื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขื“ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื•ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืœ


After having determined that those from Babylonia are presumed to have unflawed lineage, the Gemara clarifies what the borders of Babylonia are with regard to this issue. Until where does the width of Babylonia extend? Rav said: Until the River Azak, which empties into the Euphrates. And Shmuel said: Until the River Yoโ€™ani, which also empties into the Euphrates. The Gemara asks: Until where does the border extend upward, meaning northward, on the Tigris? Rav said: Until the places called Bagda and Avna. And Shmuel said: Until Mushekanei. The Gemara asks: But according to Shmuel, isnโ€™t Mushekanei included in Babylonia? But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba say that Shmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile, meaning it is like Pumbedita in central Babylonia, with regard to lineage? Rather, Shmuel meant: Until and including Mushekanei.


ืœืชื—ืชื™ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื’ืœืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขื“ ืืคืžื™ื™ื ืชืชืื” ืชืจืชื™ ืืคืžื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื ืขื™ืœื™ืชื ื•ื—ื“ื ืชืชื™ื™ืชื ื—ื“ื ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ื—ื“ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื ืœื—ื“ื ืคืจืกื” ื•ืงื ืงืคื“ื™ ืื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื ื•ืจื ืœื ืžื•ืฉืœื™ ืื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ืš ื“ืคืกื•ืœืชื ื”ื ื“ืžื™ืฉืชืขื™ื ืžื™ืฉื ื™ืช


The Gemara asks: How far does the border extend downward, meaning southward, on the Tigris? Rav Shmuel said: Until the city of Lower Appamya. The Gemara comments: There are two cities called Appamya, the upper one and the lower one. In terms of the lineage of their residents, one is unflawed and the other is flawed, and they are separated by a distance of a parasang [parsa]. And they are particular with regard to one another. The residents of the two cities avoid each other to the extent that they do not even loan each other fire, to prevent them from developing a closeness with each other. And your mnemonic to remember which is which is that the unfit one is that one that speaks the Mishon dialect. As stated above, Mishon is considered dead with regard to lineage.


ืœืขื™ืœ ื‘ืคืจืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืืงืจื ื“ืชื•ืœื‘ืงื ื™ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื’ื™ืฉืจื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืžืขื‘ืจืช ื“ื’ื™ื–ืžื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื“ืจื‘


The Gemara further clarifies: How far does the border extend upward, meaning northward, on the Euphrates? Rav said: Until the fortress of Tulbaknei. And Shmuel said: Until the bridge over the Euphrates. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Until the crossing at Gizma. The Gemara relates: Abaye would curse, and some say it was Rav Yosef that would curse, one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, as he held that Rav extended the border too far north.


ืื“ืจื‘ ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืจื‘ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืื“ืจื‘ ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ื•ื’ื™ืฉืจื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจืช ืœืชืชืื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™


The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: Why did he curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, but he did not curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel? But the bridge over the Euphrates is further north than the fortress of Tulbaknei. Rather, he would curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and all the more so one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. And if you wish, say: In fact, he cursed one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, but he did not curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, and the bridge over the Euphrates actually stood lower down, i.e., farther south. In their times the bridge was to the south of Tulbaknei, and Abaye agreed that it was in Babylonia.


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Kiddushin 71

ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืฉื‘ื˜ื™ื ืฉื‘ื˜ื• ืฉืœ ืœื•ื™ ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืžืฆืจืฃ ื•ืžื˜ื”ืจ ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื˜ื”ืจ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ ื•ื–ืงืง ืืชื ื›ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื›ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืœื”ืณ ืžื’ื™ืฉื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืฆื“ืงื”


purifies the tribes, i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will purify that of the tribe of Levi first, as it is stated with regard to the angel sent forth by God: โ€œAnd he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousnessโ€ (Malachi 3:3).


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืžื˜ื”ืจ ืžืžื–ืจื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฉื‘ ืžืฆืจืฃ ื•ืžื˜ื”ืจ ื›ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ืžื’ื™ืฉื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื‘ืฆื“ืงื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืฆื“ืงื” ืขืฉื” ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies mamzerim. Money causes rich mamzerim to become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as mamzerim, as it is stated: โ€œAnd he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,โ€ which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. What, then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: โ€œThey that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousnessโ€? Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performed an act of righteousness with the Jewish people by establishing that a family that has become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage remains assimilated. They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.


ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ืŸ ืงื•ืฆื™ื ืืชื ืžืฉื™ืžื™ื ืœื™ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื™ื ื™ ืจืฆื•ื ื›ื ื™ื˜ืคืœ ืขืžื›ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื


ยง With regard to the matter itself that was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of the residents of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia. The Gemara relates: In the days of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, they sought to establish the lineage of the Jews in Babylonia as muddled relative to that of Eretz Yisrael. In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so he said to those who put forth this suggestion: Are you placing thorns between my eyes? Do you wish to insult me? If you wish, Rabbi แธคanina bar แธคama will join you and explain it to you.


ื ื˜ืคืœ ืขืžื”ื ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ื›ืš ืžืงื•ื‘ืœื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืื‘ื™ื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ


Rabbi แธคanina bar แธคama joined them and said to them: This is the tradition that I received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father, who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia.


ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืคื ื—ืก ื‘ืงืฉื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืœืขื‘ื“ื™ื• ื›ืฉืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉื ื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžื“ืจืฉ ื˜ืœื•ื ื™ ื‘ืขืจื™ืกื” ื•ืจื•ืฆื• ื›ื™ ืขื™ื™ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื”ื ืื™ืŸ ืฉื—ื™ื˜ื” ืœืขื•ืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืชื•ืจื”


The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: In the days of Rabbi Pineแธฅas, they sought to establish the lineage of Babylonia as muddled relative to that of Eretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run, so that I will not be attacked for my statements. When he entered the house of study he said to those studying there: Slaughter of a bird is not obligatory by Torah law.


ืื“ื™ืชื‘ื™ ื•ืงืžืขื™ื™ื ื™ ื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื›ืœ ืืจืฆื•ืช ืขื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืขื™ืกื” ืœื‘ื‘ืœ ื ื˜ืœื•ื”ื• ื‘ืขืจื™ืกื” ื•ืจืฆื• ืจืฆื• ืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื™ืขื•ื”ื• ื™ืฉื‘ื• ื•ื‘ื“ืงื• ืขื“ ืฉื”ื’ื™ืขื• ืœืกื›ื ื” ื•ืคื™ืจืฉื•


While they were sitting and scrutinizing this novel halakha, he said to them: The lineage of residents of all lands is muddled compared to that of Eretz Yisrael, and the lineage of residents of Eretz Yisrael is muddled compared to that of Babylonia. His servants picked him up on a stretcher and ran. Those that were in the house of study pursued him but could not catch him. Nevertheless, they sat and examined the lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, until they reached powerful families. It was dangerous to accuse them of flaws due to their power, and they withdrew from their inspections.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื›ืœื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืืขืฉื” ืฉื”ืจื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœื™ ื”ื“ื•ืจ ื ื˜ืžืขื• ื‘ื” ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says as an oath: By the Sanctuary! It is in our power to reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, but what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it? Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, as Rabbi Yitzแธฅak says: A family that has become assimilated remains assimilated, and one should not reveal their flawed status.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืฃ ืื ืŸ ื ืžื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ืžืฉืคื—ืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฆืจื™ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื™ืจื“ืŸ ื•ืจื™ื—ืงื” ื‘ืŸ ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืจื•ืข ืขื•ื“ ืื—ืจืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืงื™ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืŸ ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื–ืจื•ืข ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื• ืืœื™ื”ื• ื‘ื ืœื˜ืžื ื•ืœื˜ื”ืจ ืœืจื—ืง ื•ืœืงืจื‘ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืืœื• ื“ื™ื“ืขื™ืŸ ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉื ื˜ืžืขื” ื ื˜ืžืขื”


Abaye said: We too learn in the mishna (Eduyyot 8:7): There was a family known as Beit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, and a person called ben Tziyyon forcefully distanced it and proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. There was another one that ben Tziyyon forcefully drew near, although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families such as these, Elijah comes to declare impure and to declare pure, to distance and to draw near. Abaye continues: When the mishna states: Such as these, it means those whose status we know. But a family that has become assimilated, whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, has already become assimilated, and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.


ืชืื ื ืขื•ื“ ืื—ืจืช ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœื ืจืฆื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœื’ืœื•ืชื” ืื‘ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื•ืกืจื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืœื‘ื ื™ื”ื ื•ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื›ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืจื™ื ื™ ื ื–ื™ืจ ืื ืœื ืื’ืœื” ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื™ื”ื™ื” ื ื–ื™ืจ ื•ืœื ื™ื’ืœื” ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช


The Sage taught (Tosefta, Eduyyot 3:4): There was another family with flawed lineage, but the Sages did not want to reveal its identity to all. But the Sages transmit its name to their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years, to prevent them from marrying into their family. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says that they transmit it once every seven years, as it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Nazir 1:2): One who says: I am hereby a nazirite if I do not reveal the names of families of flawed lineage among the Jewish people, he should be a nazirite and not reveal the identity of such families. This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืืจื‘ืข ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ื”ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืคืขืžื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ื•ืข ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ืฉืžื™ ืœืขืœื ืœืขืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืจื‘ื ืกื‘ืจ ืœืžื™ื“ืจืฉื™ื” ื‘ืคื™ืจืงื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืกื‘ื ืœืขืœื ื›ืชื™ื‘


ยง The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar halakha: Rabba bar bar แธคana says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: The Sages transmit the correct pronunciation of the four-letter name of God to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says that they transmit it once every seven years, as it is written: โ€œThis is My name forever [leโ€™olam]โ€ (Exodus 3:15), which is written so that it can be read leโ€™alem, to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: Rava planned to expound and explain the proper way to say the name in a public discourse. A certain elder said to him: It is written so that it can be read leโ€™alem, indicating that it must stay hidden.


ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ืฉืžื™ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื–ื” ื–ื›ืจื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื ื›ืฉืื ื™ ื ื›ืชื‘ ืื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื ื›ืชื‘ ืื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื“ ื”ื™ ื•ื ืงืจื ื‘ืืœืฃ ื“ืœื™ืช


Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: โ€œThis is My name,โ€ indicating that the name as written is that of God; and it is written: โ€œThis is My remembranceโ€ (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not Godโ€™s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written with the letters yod, heh, vav, heh, while My name is pronounced with the letters alef, dalet, nun, yod.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ืขืฉืจื” ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื›ืœ ืื“ื ืžืฉืจื‘ื• ื”ืคืจื™ืฆื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื•ืกืจื™ื ืื•ืชื• ืœืฆื ื•ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืฆื ื•ืขื™ื ืฉื‘ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžื‘ืœื™ืขื™ื ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื ืขื™ืžืช ืื—ื™ื”ื ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื˜ืจืคื•ืŸ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ืขืœื™ืชื™ ืื—ืจ ืื—ื™ ืืžื™ ืœื“ื•ื›ืŸ ื•ื”ื˜ื™ืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ ืืฆืœ ื›ื”ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืฉืžืขืชื™ ืฉื”ื‘ืœื™ืข ืฉื ื‘ื ืขื™ืžืช ืื—ื™ื• ื”ื›ื”ื ื™ื


The Sages taught: Initially, the Sages would transmit the twelve-letter name of God to any person. When the uninhibited ones who used the name disrespectfully increased, they would transmit it only to discreet members of the priesthood, and the discreet members of the priesthood would pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would conceal it by saying it during the sweet melody of their priestly brothers, so that it would not become publicly known. It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Tarfon, who was himself a priest, said: On one occasion I ascended after my motherโ€™s brother to the platform to give the Priestly Benediction, and I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweet melody of his priestly brothers.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉื ื‘ืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ื ืื•ืชื™ื•ืช ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืืœื ืœืžื™ ืฉืฆื ื•ืข ื•ืขื ื™ื• ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ื—ืฆื™ ื™ืžื™ื• ื•ืื™ื ื• ื›ื•ืขืก ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืฉืชื›ืจ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžืขืžื™ื“ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื“ืขื• ื•ื”ื–ื”ื™ืจ ื‘ื• ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืจื• ื‘ื˜ื”ืจื” ืื”ื•ื‘ ืœืžืขืœื” ื•ื ื—ืžื“ ืœืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ืžืชื• ืžื•ื˜ืœืช ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื ื•ื—ืœ ืฉื ื™ ืขื•ืœืžื™ื ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื–ื” ื•ื”ืขื•ืœื ื”ื‘ื


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The forty-two-letter name of God may be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands at at least half his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rights but is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. And anyone who knows this name and is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.


ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืกื‘ื ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ื›ืฉืจื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ื‘ืžื” ื ืคืกืœื” ืฉืืจ ืืจืฆื•ืช ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ื•ื“ืข ืœืš ื‘ืžื” ื ื›ืฉืจื” ืืจืฅ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœืคืกื•ืœ ืคืกื•ืœ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœื›ืฉืจ ื›ืฉืจ


ยง The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: Shmuel says in the name of a certain elder: A family in Babylonia has a presumptive status of unflawed lineage until it becomes known to you in what way it was rendered of flawed lineage. Conversely, a family from other lands has a presumptive status of flawed lineage until it becomes known to you in what way it was rendered unflawed. As for families in Eretz Yisrael, one who has a presumptive status of flawed lineage is of flawed lineage, whereas one who has presumptive status of unflawed lineage is of unflawed lineage.


ื”ื ื’ื•ืคื ืงืฉื™ื ืืžืจืช ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœืคืกื•ืœ ืคืกื•ืœ ื”ื ืกืชืžื ื›ืฉืจ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืชื ื™ ืžื•ื—ื–ืง ืœื›ืฉืจ ื›ืฉืจ ื”ื ืกืชืžื ืคืกื•ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื


The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: This matter itself is difficult: First, you said that a family that has a presumptive status of flawed lineage is of flawed lineage, indicating that a family with unspecified status is of unflawed lineage. And then you teach: A family that has a presumptive status of unflawed lineage is of unflawed lineage, indicating that a family with unspecified status is of flawed lineage. Rav Huna bar Taแธฅalifa said in the name of Rav: This is not difficult.


ื›ืืŸ ืœื”ืฉื™ืื• ืืฉื” ื›ืืŸ ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืืฉื” ืžื™ื“ื•


Here, in the final clause, it is referring to marrying a woman to him, and the halakha is that a family with no presumptive status requires investigation before one of them marries. There, in the penultimate clause, it is referring to the court removing a woman from him. The husband is not forced to divorce her unless it has been proven that they may not remain married.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉืกื™ื—ืชื• ื‘ื‘ื‘ืœ ืžืฉื™ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืืฉื” ื•ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ืจืžืื™ ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ


Rav Yosef says: Anyone whose speech is Babylonian, i.e., anyone who speaks the Babylonian language with a Babylonian accent, is allowed to marry a woman without having his lineage examined. The presumption is that he is Babylonian, and the lineage of Babylonian families is unflawed. The Gemara comments: But nowadays, when there are swindlers who may speak with Babylonian accents in order to avoid scrutiny, we are concerned even about those who speak like Babylonians.


ื–ืขื™ืจื™ ื”ื•ื” ืงื ืžื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื ืกื™ื‘ ื‘ืจืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื• ืงืื–ืœื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ืžื˜ื• ืœืขื•ืจืงืžื ื“ืžื™ื ืืจื›ื‘ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืื›ืชืคื™ื” ื•ืงื ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชืŸ ื›ืฉืจื” ื‘ื ืชื™ืŸ ืœื ื›ืฉืจืŸ ืžืื™ ื“ืขืชื™ืš


The Gemara relates: The Sage Zeโ€™eiri, a Babylonian, was avoiding Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, who was from Eretz Yisrael, since the latter kept saying to him: Marry my daughter. One day, when they were walking along the way, they arrived at a large puddle of water. Zeโ€™eiri lifted Rabbi Yoแธฅanan upon his shoulders and carried him over the puddle out of respect. Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said to him: Our Torah is fit and worthy of honor in your eyes, and yet our daughters are not fit? What is your reason for not wanting to marry my daughter?


ืื™ืœื™ืžื ืžื“ืชื ืŸ ืขืฉืจื” ื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ืขืœื• ืžื‘ื‘ืœ ื›ื”ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ื™ ืื˜ื• ื›ื”ื ื™ ืœื•ื™ื™ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœื™ ื›ื•ืœื”ื• ืกืœื™ืงื• ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืื™ืฉืชื™ื•ืจ ืžื”ื ื™ ืื™ืฉืชื™ื•ืจ ื ืžื™ ืžื”ื ื™ ืื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ืชื™ื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืœื ืขืœื” ืขื–ืจื ืžื‘ื‘ืœ ืขื“ ืฉืขืฉืื” ื›ืกื•ืœืช ื ืงื™ื™ื” ื•ืขืœื”


Rabbi Yoแธฅanan continued: If we say a reason not to marry my daughter is from that which we learned in a mishna (69a): There were ten categories of lineage among the Jews who ascended from Babylonia: Priests, Levites, Israelites, as well as many of flawed lineage, and you are concerned about the mamzerim among those who live in Eretz Yisrael, is that to say that all of the priests, Levites, and Israelites ascended to Eretz Yisrael? Certainly, Jews of unflawed lineage remained in Babylonia. Just as there remained from these unflawed categories in Babylonia, there also remained individuals from these, the flawed categories. Therefore, marrying only Babylonians will not alleviate your concern. The Gemara comments: In fact, this statement of Rabbi Elazar escaped Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: Ezra did not ascend from Babylonia until he made it like fine flour, and then he ascended. Accordingly, the people who remained in Babylonia were all of unflawed lineage.


ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœืคื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืชื ืœื‘ื™ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ื’ื“ืœ ื•ืœื ื ืกื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืงื ืžื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืžืจ ืื™ืชืชื ืœื‘ืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื ื ืžื”ื™ื›ื ืื ืกื™ื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื˜ื• ืื ืŸ ืžื™ ื™ื“ืขื™ื ืŸ ืžื”ื™ื›ื ืงืืชื™ื ืŸ ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื”ื ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืฆื™ื•ืŸ ืขื ื• ื‘ืชืœืช ื‘ืขืจื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื”


The Gemara relates another incident: Ulla arrived in Pumbedita to the house of Rav Yehuda. He observed that Rav Yitzแธฅak, son of Rav Yehuda, was grown up and was unmarried. Ulla said to Rav Yehuda: What is the reason that the Master does not marry a woman to his son? Rav Yehuda said to him: Do I know from where I can find a woman to marry him? I am concerned about flawed lineage. Ulla said to him: Is that to say that we know where we come from? Can we be sure that our lineage is unflawed? Perhaps we are from those about whom it is written: โ€œThey have ravished the women in Zion, the maidens in the cities of Judahโ€ (Lamentations 5:11). Perhaps we are descended from women ravished by gentiles.


ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื ื›ืจื™ ื•ืขื‘ื“ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื‘ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื•ืœื“ ื›ืฉืจ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื”ื ืš ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื• ื”ืฉื›ื‘ื™ื ืขืœ ืžื˜ื•ืช ืฉืŸ ื•ืกืจื—ื™ื ืขืœ ืขืจืฉื•ืชื ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื”ืžืฉืชื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืžื™ื


And if you would say that you are not concerned about that possibility, since you maintain that in the case of a gentile or a slave who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Jewish woman, the lineage of the offspring is unflawed, perhaps we come from those about whom it is written: โ€œThat lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couchesโ€ (Amos 6:4), and Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi แธคanina, says in explanation of this verse: These are people who urinate naked before their couches.


ื•ืžื’ื“ืฃ ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืœื›ืŸ ืขืชื” ื™ื’ืœื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ืœื™ื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžืฉืชื™ื ื™ื ืžื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ืขืจื•ืžื™ื ื™ื’ืœื• ื‘ืจืืฉ ื’ื•ืœื™ื


And Rabbi Abbahu ridiculed this interpretation and said: If so, if this was their sin, is this what is written: โ€œTherefore now shall they go captive at the head of them that go captiveโ€ (Amos 6:7)? Could it be that because they urinated naked before their couches that they go captive at the head of them that go captive? That act is admittedly distasteful, but it is not so severe a transgression to warrant such a punishment.


ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื•ืชื™ืŸ ื–ื” ืขื ื–ื” ื•ืžื“ื‘ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื˜ื•ืชื™ื”ื ื–ื• ื‘ื–ื• ื•ืžื—ืœื™ืคื™ืŸ ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื”ื ื–ื” ืœื–ื” ื•ืžืกืจื™ื—ื™ื ืขืจืกื•ืชื ื‘ืฉื›ื‘ืช ื–ืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฉืœื”ื


Rather, Rabbi Abbahu says: These are people who eat and drink together, and attach their beds together, and exchange their wives with each other, and befoul their couches with semen that is not theirs. The Jewish people include the descendants of such people, who are full-fledged mamzerim.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ื‘ืชืจ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื›ื™ ื”ืื™ ื“ื‘ื“ืงื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืžืขืจื‘ื ื›ื™ ืžื™ื ืฆื• ื‘ื™ ืชืจื™ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ื”ื“ื“ื™ ื—ื–ื• ื”ื™ ืžื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ืง ืืžืจื™ ื”ืื™ ืžื™ื•ื—ืก ื˜ืคื™


Rav Yehuda said to Ulla: If so, what shall we do? How can we clarify which families are of unflawed lineage? Ulla said to him: Go after the silence, like the way the people of the West, Eretz Yisrael, examine: When two people quarrel with each other, they observe which of them becomes silent first. Then they say: This silent party is of finer lineage.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื™ื” ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื™ื—ื•ืกื ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืจื‘ ืœื‘ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืคื™ ื—ืœื ื•ื‘ื“ืง ื‘ื”ื• ืžืื™ ืœืื• ื‘ื™ื—ืกื•ืชื ืœื ื‘ืฉืชื™ืงื•ืชื ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื“ื•ืงื• ืื™ ืฉืชืงื™ ืื™ ืœื ืฉืชืงื™


Rav says: The silence of Babylonia is its lineage. In other words, this is an effective method of examining a personโ€™s lineage in Babylonia as well. The Gemara asks: Is that so? But Rav arrived at the house of the son of a vinegar strainer and examined them. What, is it not that he conducted an examination into their lineage? The Gemara answers: No, he conducted an examination into their silence. This is what Rav said to those conducting the examination: Examine whether they become silent when they quarrel or whether they do not become silent.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื ืจืื™ืช ืฉื ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืฉืžืชื’ืจื™ื ื–ื” ื‘ื–ื” ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื—ื“ ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืœื™ื“ื‘ืง ืื—ื“ ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืื ืจืื™ืช ืฉืชื™ ืžืฉืคื—ื•ืช ื”ืžืชื’ืจื•ืช ื–ื• ื‘ื–ื• ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ ื™ืฉ ื‘ืื—ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื” ืœื™ื“ื‘ืง ื‘ื—ื‘ืจืชื”


Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: If you see two people feuding with each other, there is a trace of unfitness in one of them. In other words, there are grounds to suspect that the lineage of one of them is flawed. Consequently, that one is prevented by Heaven from joining the other through marriage, and that leads them to feud with each other. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: If you see two families feuding with each other, there is a trace of unfitness in one of them, and that family is prevented by Heaven from joining the other.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืกื‘ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื‘ื‘ืœ ื‘ืจื™ืื” ืžื™ืฉื•ืŸ ืžื™ืชื” ืžื“ื™ ื—ื•ืœื” ืขื™ืœื ื’ื•ืกืกืช ื•ืžื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื’ื•ืกืกื™ืŸ ืจื•ื‘ ื—ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื—ื™ื™ื ืจื•ื‘ ื’ื•ืกืกื™ื ืœืžื™ืชื”


Rav Pappa the Elder says in the name of Rav: Babylonia is healthy with regard to lineage and clear of suspicion. Mishon is dead, meaning that all its inhabitants have flawed lineage. Media is sick, and Eilam is moribund. The Gemara clarifies: And what is the difference between sick and moribund? Most sick people recover to a healthy life, whereas most of those who are moribund are destined for death. Likewise, the majority of the residents of Media had unflawed lineage, while the majority of those living in Eilam had flawed lineage.


ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื‘ื‘ืœ ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื”ืจ ืขื–ืง ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื ื”ืจ ื™ื•ืื ื™ ืœืขื™ืœ ื‘ื“ื™ื’ืœืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื‘ื’ื“ื ื•ืื•ื•ื ื ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื”ืจื™ ื”ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืœื” ืœื™ื•ื—ืกื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขื“ ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื•ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื™ ื‘ื›ืœืœ


After having determined that those from Babylonia are presumed to have unflawed lineage, the Gemara clarifies what the borders of Babylonia are with regard to this issue. Until where does the width of Babylonia extend? Rav said: Until the River Azak, which empties into the Euphrates. And Shmuel said: Until the River Yoโ€™ani, which also empties into the Euphrates. The Gemara asks: Until where does the border extend upward, meaning northward, on the Tigris? Rav said: Until the places called Bagda and Avna. And Shmuel said: Until Mushekanei. The Gemara asks: But according to Shmuel, isnโ€™t Mushekanei included in Babylonia? But didnโ€™t Rabbi แธคiyya bar Abba say that Shmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile, meaning it is like Pumbedita in central Babylonia, with regard to lineage? Rather, Shmuel meant: Until and including Mushekanei.


ืœืชื—ืชื™ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื’ืœืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืขื“ ืืคืžื™ื™ื ืชืชืื” ืชืจืชื™ ืืคืžื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื ืขื™ืœื™ืชื ื•ื—ื“ื ืชืชื™ื™ืชื ื—ื“ื ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ื—ื“ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื—ื“ื ืœื—ื“ื ืคืจืกื” ื•ืงื ืงืคื“ื™ ืื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื ื•ืจื ืœื ืžื•ืฉืœื™ ืื”ื“ื“ื™ ื•ืกื™ืžื ื™ืš ื“ืคืกื•ืœืชื ื”ื ื“ืžื™ืฉืชืขื™ื ืžื™ืฉื ื™ืช


The Gemara asks: How far does the border extend downward, meaning southward, on the Tigris? Rav Shmuel said: Until the city of Lower Appamya. The Gemara comments: There are two cities called Appamya, the upper one and the lower one. In terms of the lineage of their residents, one is unflawed and the other is flawed, and they are separated by a distance of a parasang [parsa]. And they are particular with regard to one another. The residents of the two cities avoid each other to the extent that they do not even loan each other fire, to prevent them from developing a closeness with each other. And your mnemonic to remember which is which is that the unfit one is that one that speaks the Mishon dialect. As stated above, Mishon is considered dead with regard to lineage.


ืœืขื™ืœ ื‘ืคืจืช ืขื“ ื”ื™ื›ื ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืืงืจื ื“ืชื•ืœื‘ืงื ื™ ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ื’ื™ืฉืจื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจืช ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืขื“ ืžืขื‘ืจืช ื“ื’ื™ื–ืžื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืื“ืจื‘


The Gemara further clarifies: How far does the border extend upward, meaning northward, on the Euphrates? Rav said: Until the fortress of Tulbaknei. And Shmuel said: Until the bridge over the Euphrates. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Until the crossing at Gizma. The Gemara relates: Abaye would curse, and some say it was Rav Yosef that would curse, one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, as he held that Rav extended the border too far north.


ืื“ืจื‘ ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืจื‘ ื•ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืœืขื•ืœื ืื“ืจื‘ ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ื•ื’ื™ืฉืจื ื“ื‘ื™ ืคืจืช ืœืชืชืื™ื” ื”ื•ื” ืงืื™


The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: Why did he curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, but he did not curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel? But the bridge over the Euphrates is further north than the fortress of Tulbaknei. Rather, he would curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, and all the more so one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. And if you wish, say: In fact, he cursed one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Rav, but he did not curse one who ruled in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel, and the bridge over the Euphrates actually stood lower down, i.e., farther south. In their times the bridge was to the south of Tulbaknei, and Abaye agreed that it was in Babylonia.


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