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Today's Daf Yomi

December 14, 2021 | 讬壮 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讘

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.聽

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen z鈥漧 who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 2

This month’s learning is sponsored by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria Esther who is completing Masechet Megilla in honor of her Bat Mitzva this month. “Daria attended the Hadran siyum and there is no doubt that her attendance inspired her to learn each chapter with a different family member and begin her journey into the world of Gemara learning.” Mazal tov!聽

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Jessica Shklar on behalf of her sister, Ruth Leah Kahan鈥檚 birthday 鈥淗appy Birthday to a Hadran stalwart, Ruth Leah Kahan, from her sister Jessica, who loves sharing daf yomi with you from across the ocean.鈥

Today’s daf is sponsored by Sharon Russ and family, in loving memory of her father, David ben Avraham and Naomi, on his fourth yahrzeit. “May his memory be a blessing and his Neshama have an Aliya.鈥

On what days is it possible to read the Megillah? On what does it depend? Why is the law different for those who live in villages and why are they allowed to read it earlier than the dates specified in the Megillah? Where in the Megillah can one find an allusion to this? Is there an opinion that one is not allowed to read the Megillah before the 14th? From where do we know that walled cities read on the 15th and is it walled cities from the time of Yehoshua or from the time of Achashvarosh and the Purim story?

诪转谞讬壮 诪讙讬诇讛 谞拽专讗转 讘讗讞讚 注砖专 讘砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 诇讗 驻讞讜转 讜诇讗 讬讜转专 讻专讻讬谉 讛诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗诇讗 砖讛讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛

MISHNA: The Megilla is read on the eleventh, on the twelfth, on the thirteenth, on the fourteenth, or on the fifteenth of the month of Adar, not earlier and not later. The mishna explains the circumstances when the Megilla is read on each of these days. Cities [kerakin] that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar, whereas villages and large towns that have not been walled since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read it on the fourteenth. However, the Sages instituted that the villages may advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Monday or Thursday, when the rabbinical courts are in session and the Torah is read publicly, and the villagers therefore come to the larger towns.

讻讬爪讚 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘砖谞讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讗讜 讘专讘讬注讬 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专

How so? If the fourteenth of Adar occurs on Monday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Tuesday or Wednesday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Monday, the twelfth or thirteenth of Adar; the large towns read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 注专讘 砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

If the fourteenth occurs on Thursday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, the fourteenth, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the thirteenth of Adar; and the large towns and the walled cities read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar. Even the walled cities read the Megilla on the fourteenth rather than on the fifteenth, as they do not read it on Shabbat.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专

If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat, both the villages and large towns advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the twelfth of Adar; and the walled cities read it on the day after Purim, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Sunday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the eleventh of Adar; and the large towns read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar; and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth.

讙诪壮 诪讙讬诇讛 谞拽专讗转 讘讗讞讚 注砖专 诪谞诇谉 诪谞诇谉 讻讚讘注讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 诇拽诪谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛拽讬诇讜 注诇 讛讻驻专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬诐

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna: The Megilla is read on the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this halakha? The Gemara expresses surprise at the question: What room is there to ask: From where do we derive this halakha? The reason is as we intend to say further on: The Sages were lenient with the villages and allowed them to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, so that they would be free to supply water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. Accordingly, the Megilla is read on the eleventh due to a rabbinic enactment.

讗谞谉 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讻讚讬 讻讜诇讛讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讞诪砖讛 注砖专 转拽讜谉 讗转讜 专讘谞谉 讜注拽专讬 转拽谞转讗 讚转拽讬谞讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜讛转谞谉 讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讘讟诇 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诪谞讜 讘讞讻诪讛 讜讘诪谞讬谉

The Gemara explains: This is what we said, i.e., this is what we meant when we asked the question: Now, all of these days when the Megilla may be read were enacted by the members of the Great Assembly when they established the holiday of Purim itself. As, if it enters your mind to say that the members of the Great Assembly enacted only the fourteenth and fifteenth as days for reading the Megilla, is it possible that the later Sages came and uprooted an ordinance that was enacted by the members of the Great Assembly? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5) that a rabbinical court cannot rescind the statements of another rabbinical court, unless it is superior to it in wisdom and in number? No subsequent court was ever greater than the members of the Great Assembly, so it would be impossible for another court to rescind the enactments of the members of the Great Assembly.

讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讻讜诇讛讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 转拽讬谞讜 讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗

Rather, it is obvious that all these days were enacted by the members of the Great Assembly, and the question is: Where is the allusion to this in the Bible? The Megilla itself, which was approved by the members of the Great Assembly, mentions only the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar.

讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇拽讬讬诐 讗转 讬诪讬 讛驻讜专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讬诐 讛专讘讛 转拽谞讜 诇讛诐

Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is alluded to when the verse states: 鈥淭o confirm these days of Purim in their times鈥 (Esther 9:31). The phrase 鈥渋n their times鈥 indicates that they enacted many times for them and not only two days.

讛讗讬 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 诇讙讜驻讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讝诪谉 诪讗讬 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讬诐 讟讜讘讗

The Gemara objects: This verse is necessary for its own purpose, to teach that the days of Purim must be observed at the proper times. The Gemara responds: If so, let the verse say: To confirm these days of Purim in its time. What is the significance of the term 鈥渢heir times,鈥 in the plural? It indicates that many times were established for the reading of the Megilla.

讜讗讻转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讻讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讝诪谞诐 诪讗讬 讝诪谞讬讛诐 砖诪注转 诪讬谞讛 讻讜诇讛讜

The Gemara objects: But still, the plural term is necessary to indicate that the time of this walled city is not the same as the time of that unwalled town, i.e., Purim is celebrated on different days in different places. The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse say: Their time, indicating that each place celebrates Purim on its respective day. What is the significance of the compound plural 鈥渢heir times鈥? Learn from this term that although the verse (Esther 9:21) specifies only two days, the Megilla may, at times, be read on all of the days enumerated in the mishna.

讗讬诪讗 讝诪谞讬诐 讟讜讘讗 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讝诪谞诐 诪讛 讝诪谞诐 转专讬 讗祝 讝诪谞讬讛诐 转专讬

The Gemara asks: If so, say that the plural term indicates many times, and the Megilla may be read even earlier than the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara rejects this argument: The compound plural 鈥渢heir times,鈥 should be understood as similar to the simple plural term, their time. Just as the term their time can be understood to refer to two days, indicating that each location reads the Megilla in its respective time on the fourteenth or the fifteenth of Adar, so too, 鈥渢heir times鈥 should be understood as referring to only two additional days when the Megilla may be read.

讜讗讬诪讗 转专讬住专 讜转诇讬住专 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬

The Gemara asks: Say that these two added days are the twelfth and the thirteenth of Adar. How is it derived that the Megilla may be read on the eleventh as well? The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said in a different context: The thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, as it was on that day that the Jews assembled to fight their enemies, and the main miracle was performed on that day. Consequently, there is no need for a special derivation to include it as a day that is fit for reading the Megilla. Here too, since the thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, there is no need for a special derivation to include it among the days when the Megilla may be read.

讜讗讬诪讗 砖讬转住专 讜砖讬讘住专 讜诇讗 讬注讘讜专 讻转讬讘

The Gemara objects: And say that the two additional days are the sixteenth and the seventeenth of Adar. The Gemara responds: It is written: 鈥淎nd it shall not pass鈥 (Esther 9:27), indicating that the celebration of Purim is not delayed until a later date.

讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬诪讬诐 讗砖专 谞讞讜 讘讛诐 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讬诪讬诐 讻讬诪讬诐 诇专讘讜转 讗讞讚 注砖专 讜砖谞讬诐 注砖专

Having cited and discussed the opinion of Rav Shemen bar Abba, the Gemara cites another answer to the question of where the verses allude to the permissibility of reading the Megilla on the days enumerated in the mishna. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: These dates are alluded to when the verse states: 鈥淎s the days on which the Jews rested from their enemies鈥 (Esther 9:22). The term 鈥渄ays鈥 is referring to the two days that are explicitly mentioned in the previous verse, i.e., the fourteenth and the fifteenth. The term 鈥渁s the days鈥 comes to include two additional days, i.e., the eleventh and twelfth of Adar.

讜讗讬诪讗 转专讬住专 讜转诇讬住专 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬 讜讗讬诪讗 砖讬转住专 讜砖讬讘住专 讜诇讗 讬注讘讜专 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: And say that the two additional days are the twelfth and thirteenth of Adar. How is it derived that the Megilla may be read on the eleventh as well? In answer to this question, Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: The thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, and there is no need for a special derivation to include it as a day fit for reading. The Gemara objects: Say that these additional days are the sixteenth and seventeenth of Adar. This suggestion is rejected: It is written: 鈥淎nd it shall not pass.鈥

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谉 讝诪谞诐 讝诪谞讬讛诐 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讬讛

Since two derivations were offered for the same matter, the Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani did not state that the days enumerated in the mishna are fit for reading the Megilla based upon the term 鈥渋n their times,鈥 in accordance with the opinion of Rav Shemen bar Abba? The Gemara answers: He does not learn anything from the distinction between the terms time, their time, and their times. Therefore, the verse indicates only that there are two days when the Megilla may be read.

讜专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讻讬诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讛讜讗 诇讚讜专讜转 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: And what is the reason that Rav Shemen bar Abba did not state that the days enumerated in the mishna are fit for reading the Megilla based upon the term 鈥渁s the days,鈥 in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you: That verse is written as a reference to future generations, and it indicates that just as the Jews rested on these days at that time, they shall rest and celebrate on these days for all generations.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讚讚专讬砖 讝诪谉 讝诪谞诐 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

搂 With regard to the mishna鈥檚 ruling that the Megilla may be read on the day of assembly, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva the unattributed. Most unattributed statements of tanna鈥檌m were formulated by Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students and reflect his opinions. As, he derives halakhot based on the distinction that he draws between the terms time, their time, and their times. However, the Sages say: One may read the Megilla only in its designated time, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh to the fifteenth of Adar? One may read on these dates at a time when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their own land. However, nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, so as not to cause confusion with regard to the date of Passover, which is exactly one month from the day after Purim.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诇讬讘讗 讚诪讗谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讬转讗 诇讛讗讬 转拽谞转讗

The Gemara analyzes this baraita: In accordance with whose opinion did Rabbi Yehuda issue his ruling? If we say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, whose opinion is expressed in the mishna, there is a difficulty, as Rabbi Akiva holds that even nowadays this ordinance applies. According to Rabbi Akiva, it is permitted for residents of villages to read the Megilla on the day of assembly even nowadays, as he did not limit his ruling to times when the Jewish people dwell securely in their land.

讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘谞谉 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 诪讬讛讗 拽专讬谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗

Rather, is it not in accordance with the opinion of the Sages, who disagreed with Rabbi Akiva? And, nevertheless, at least when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their land, the Megilla is read even prior to the fourteenth, as the Sages disagree only about the halakha nowadays. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who holds that the Megilla could never be read earlier than the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan is indeed a conclusive refutation.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

There are those who say a different version of the previous passage. Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. However, the Sages said: Nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara comments: This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh to the fifteenth of Adar? At a time when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their own land. However, nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time. According to this version, Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 statement is consistent with the opinion of the Sages, as cited by Rabbi Yo岣nan.

专讘 讗砖讬 拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara adds: Rav Ashi poses a difficulty based on an apparent contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the aforementioned baraita and a ruling cited in a mishna in the name of Rabbi Yehuda,

讜诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

and he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, rather than Rabbi Yehuda.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara explains the apparent contradiction: And did Rabbi Yehuda actually say that nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (5a): Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讬讛讗 拽专讬谞谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讜诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

The mishna indicates that, at least in a place where the villagers enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar even nowadays. And due to this contradiction, Rav Ashi establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda.

讜诪砖讜诐 讚拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara expresses surprise: Because Rav Ashi poses a difficulty due to the apparent contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the baraita and the opinion cited in a mishna in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda? How could he have emended the text just because he had a difficulty that he did not know how to resolve?

专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 讚讗讬讻讗 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪讚拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗讜 讚讜讜拽讗 诪讗谉 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讜讜拽讗

The Gemara explains: Rav Ashi heard that there were those who taught the baraita in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, and there were those who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And since he had a difficulty with the apparent contradiction between one ruling of Rabbi Yehuda and another ruling of Rabbi Yehuda, he said: The one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yehuda is not precise, whereas the one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda is precise, and in this way he eliminated the contradiction.

讻专讻讬诐 讛诪讜拽驻讬诐 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讜讻讜壮 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 注诇 讻谉 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻专讝讬诐 讛讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘注专讬 讛驻专讝讜转 讜讙讜壮 诪讚驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

搂 We learned in the mishna: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, as they are not stated explicitly in the Megilla? Rava said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淭herefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns, make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar a day of gladness and feasting鈥 (Esther 9:19). From the fact that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, it may be derived that the walled cities celebrate Purim on the fifteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讻诇诇 讻诇诇 诇讗 讜诇讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞讬谞讛讜 讜注讜讚 诪讛讜讚讜 讜注讚 讻讜砖 讻转讬讘

The Gemara challenges this answer: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as indicated in the verse, and the walled cities do not celebrate it at all. The Gemara expresses astonishment: And are they not Jews? And furthermore: It is written that the kingdom of Ahasuerus was 鈥渇rom Hodu until Cush鈥 (Esther 1:1), and the celebration of Purim was accepted in all of the countries of his kingdom (Esther 9:20鈥23).

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘讬住专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讘讗专讘讬住专 讜讘讞诪讬住专 讻讚讻转讬讘 诇讛讬讜转 注讜砖讬诐 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讞讚砖 讗讚专 讜讗转 讬讜诐 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 [讘讜] 讘讻诇 砖谞讛

Rather, the following challenge may be raised: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth and the walled cities celebrate it on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth, as it is written: 鈥淭hat they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of the same, in every year鈥 (Esther 9:21). This verse can be understood to mean that there are places where Purim is celebrated on both days.

讗讬 讛讜讛 讻转讘 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讻讚拽讗诪专转 讛砖转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讗转 讬讜诐 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讗转讗 讗转 讜驻住讬拽 讛谞讬 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讛谞讬 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

The Gemara rejects this argument: If it had been written in the verse: The fourteenth day and [ve] the fifteenth, it would be as you originally said. However, now that it is written: The fourteenth day and [ve鈥檈t] the fifteenth day, the particle et used here to denote the accusative comes and interrupts, indicating that the two days are distinct. Therefore, residents of these locations celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, and residents of those locations celebrate it on the fifteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘讬住专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗讬 讘注讜 讘讗专讘讬住专 讗讬 讘注讜 讘讞诪讬住专 讗诪专 拽专讗 讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛

The Gemara suggests: Say that residents of unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as stated in the verse, and with regard to residents of walled cities, if they wish they may celebrate it on the fourteenth, and if they wish they may celebrate it on the fifteenth. The Gemara responds: The verse states: 鈥淚n their times鈥 (Esther 9:31), indicating that the time when the residents of this place celebrate Purim is not the time when the residents of that place celebrate Purim.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘转诇讬住专 讻砖讜砖谉

The Gemara raises another challenge: Say that the walled cities should celebrate Purim on the thirteenth of Adar and not on the fifteenth. The Gemara answers: It stands to reason that the residents of walled cities, who do not celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, celebrate it as it is celebrated in Shushan, and it is explicitly stated that Purim was celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth.

讗砖讻讞谉 注砖讬讬讛 讝讻讬专讛 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 讗讬转拽砖 讝讻讬专讛 诇注砖讬讬讛

The Gemara comments: We found a source for observing the holiday of Purim on the fourteenth of Adar in unwalled towns and on the fifteenth of Adar in walled cities; from where do we derive that remembering the story of Purim through the reading of the Megilla takes place on these days? The Gemara explains that the verse states: 鈥淭hat these days should be remembered and observed鈥 (Esther 9:28), from which it is derived that remembering is compared to observing.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讗讜诪专 讻专讻讬谉 讛诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

搂 The Gemara notes that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in the Tosefta (1:1) that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus read the Megilla on the fifteenth. According to the Tosefta, the status of walled cities is determined based upon whether they were walled in the time of Ahasuerus rather than the time of Joshua.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讻讬 砖讜砖谉 诪讛 砖讜砖谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讗祝 讻诇 砖诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣? The Gemara explains that the Megilla is read on the fifteenth in cities that are like Shushan: Just as Shushan is a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, and one reads the Megilla there on the fifteenth, so too every city that was walled since the days of Ahasuerus reads the Megilla on the fifteenth.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讬诇讬祝 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 注诇 讻谉 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻专讝讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 诇讘讚 诪注专讬 讛驻专讝讬 讛专讘讛 诪讗讚 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the tanna of our mishna? The Gemara explains: It is derived through a verbal analogy between one instance of the word unwalled and another instance of the word unwalled. It is written here: 鈥淭herefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns鈥 (Esther 9:19), and it is written there, in Moses鈥 statement to Joshua before the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael: 鈥淎ll these cities were fortified with high walls, gates and bars; besides unwalled towns, a great many鈥 (Deuteronomy聽3:5). Just as there, in Deuteronomy, the reference is to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, so too here it is referring to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun.

讘砖诇诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讗诇讗 转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛

The Gemara continues: Granted that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna because he did not hold that a verbal analogy can be established between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled. However, what is the reason that the tanna of our mishna did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣?

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讛讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诇讗 砖讜砖谉 讚注讘讚讗 讻诪讗谉 诇讗 讻驻专讝讬诐 讜诇讗 讻诪讜拽驻讬谉

The Gemara expresses astonishment: What is the reason? Isn鈥檛 it because he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one usage of the word unwalled and the other usage of the word unwalled? The Gemara explains: This is what he said, i.e., this was the question: According to the tanna of our mishna, in accordance with whom does Shushan observe Purim? Shushan is not like the unwalled towns and not like the walled cities, as residents of Shushan celebrate Purim on the fifteenth, but the city was not surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讻讚讬 砖讗谞讬 砖讜砖谉 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞注砖讛 讘讛 谞住

Rava said, and some say it unattributed to any particular Sage: Shushan is different since the miracle occurred in it on the fifteenth of Adar, and therefore Purim is celebrated on that day. However, other cities are only considered walled cities and read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar if they were walled since the days of Joshua.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 讜注讬专 讜注讬专 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 诇诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the tanna of our mishna, this is the meaning of what is written: 鈥淎nd these days should be remembered and observed throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city鈥 (Esther 9:28). The phrase 鈥渆very province [medina]鈥 is expressed in the verse using repetition, so that it reads literally: Every province and province, and therefore contains a superfluous usage of the word province, is meant to distinguish between cities that were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, where the Megilla is read on the fifteenth, and a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, where the Megilla is read on the fourteenth.

注讬专 讜注讬专 谞诪讬 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 砖讜砖谉 诇砖讗专 注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 砖讜砖谉 诇砖讗专 注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 注讬专 讜注讬专 诇诪讗讬 讗转讗

The phrase 鈥渆very city,鈥 which is similarly expressed through repetition and contains a superfluous usage of the word city, also serves to distinguish between Shushan and other cities, as Purim is celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth despite the fact that it was not walled since the time of Joshua. However, according to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣, granted that the phrase 鈥渆very province鈥 comes to distinguish between Shushan and other cities that were not walled since the days of Ahasuerus; but what does the phrase 鈥渆very city鈥 come to teach?

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讜诇转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诇讗 拽专讗 诇讚专砖讛 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 讜讻讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻专讱 讜讻诇 讛住诪讜讱 诇讜 讜讻诇 讛谞专讗讛 注诪讜 谞讬讚讜谉 讻讻专讱

The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 could have said to you: According to the tanna of our mishna, does it work out well? Since he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled, why do I need the phrase 鈥渆very province鈥? Rather, the verse comes for a midrashic exposition, and it comes to indicate that the halakha is in accordance with the ruling issued by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A walled city, and all settlements adjacent to it, and all settlements that can be seen with it, i.e., that can be seen from the walled city, are considered like the walled city, and the Megilla is read there on the fifteenth.

注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讻诪讞诪转谉 诇讟讘专讬讗 诪讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 诪讬诇 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚砖讬注讜专讗 讚诪讬诇 讻诪讛 讛讜讬 讻诪讞诪转谉 诇讟讘专讬讗

The Gemara asks: Up to what distance is considered adjacent? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The limit is like the distance from the town of 岣mtan to Tiberias, a mil. The Gemara asks: Let him say simply that the limit is a mil; why did he have to mention these places? The Gemara answers that the formulation of the answer teaches us this: How much distance comprises the measure of a mil? It is like the distance from 岣mtan to Tiberias.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诪谞爪驻讱 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专讜诐

搂 Having cited a statement of Rabbi Yirmeya, which some attribute to Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, the Gemara cites other statements attributed to these Sages. Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The Seers, i.e., the prophets, were the ones who said that the letters mem, nun, tzadi, peh, and kaf [mantzepakh], have a different form when they appear at the end of a word.

讜转住讘专讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讜注讜讚 讛讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转

The Gemara asks: And how can you understand it that way? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hese are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel in Mount Sinai鈥 (Leviticus聽27:34), which indicates that a prophet is not permitted to initiate or change any matter of halakha from now on? Consequently, how could the prophets establish new forms for the letters? And furthermore, didn鈥檛 Rav 岣sda say: The letters mem and samekh in the tablets of the covenant given at Sinai

This month's shiurim are dedicated聽by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

This month's shiurim are dedicated by the Hadran Women of Minneapolis in memory of the father of their organizer Shira Krebs, Jerry Katz, Gershon Pinya ben Yitzchak Lev haCohen z鈥漧 who will be greatly missed.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah 2

诪转谞讬壮 诪讙讬诇讛 谞拽专讗转 讘讗讞讚 注砖专 讘砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 诇讗 驻讞讜转 讜诇讗 讬讜转专 讻专讻讬谉 讛诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗诇讗 砖讛讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛

MISHNA: The Megilla is read on the eleventh, on the twelfth, on the thirteenth, on the fourteenth, or on the fifteenth of the month of Adar, not earlier and not later. The mishna explains the circumstances when the Megilla is read on each of these days. Cities [kerakin] that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar, whereas villages and large towns that have not been walled since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read it on the fourteenth. However, the Sages instituted that the villages may advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Monday or Thursday, when the rabbinical courts are in session and the Torah is read publicly, and the villagers therefore come to the larger towns.

讻讬爪讚 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘砖谞讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讗讜 讘专讘讬注讬 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专

How so? If the fourteenth of Adar occurs on Monday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Tuesday or Wednesday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Monday, the twelfth or thirteenth of Adar; the large towns read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 注专讘 砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐

If the fourteenth occurs on Thursday, the villages and large towns read it on that day, the fourteenth, and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat eve, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the thirteenth of Adar; and the large towns and the walled cities read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar. Even the walled cities read the Megilla on the fourteenth rather than on the fifteenth, as they do not read it on Shabbat.

讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讘砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 讜拽讜专讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专 讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转 讻驻专讬诐 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讜注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 拽讜专讬谉 讘讜 讘讬讜诐 讜诪讜拽驻讜转 讞讜诪讛 诇诪讞专

If the fourteenth occurs on Shabbat, both the villages and large towns advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the twelfth of Adar; and the walled cities read it on the day after Purim, the fifteenth. If the fourteenth occurs on Sunday, the villages advance their reading to the day of assembly, i.e., Thursday, the eleventh of Adar; and the large towns read it on that day, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar; and the walled cities read it on the next day, the fifteenth.

讙诪壮 诪讙讬诇讛 谞拽专讗转 讘讗讞讚 注砖专 诪谞诇谉 诪谞诇谉 讻讚讘注讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 诇拽诪谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛拽讬诇讜 注诇 讛讻驻专讬诐 诇讛讬讜转 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讻谞讬住讛 讻讚讬 砖讬住驻拽讜 诪讬诐 讜诪讝讜谉 诇讗讞讬讛诐 砖讘讻专讻讬诐

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna: The Megilla is read on the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this halakha? The Gemara expresses surprise at the question: What room is there to ask: From where do we derive this halakha? The reason is as we intend to say further on: The Sages were lenient with the villages and allowed them to advance their reading of the Megilla to the day of assembly, so that they would be free to supply water and food to their brethren in the cities on the day of Purim. Accordingly, the Megilla is read on the eleventh due to a rabbinic enactment.

讗谞谉 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讻讚讬 讻讜诇讛讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讞诪砖讛 注砖专 转拽讜谉 讗转讜 专讘谞谉 讜注拽专讬 转拽谞转讗 讚转拽讬谞讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜讛转谞谉 讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讘讟诇 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诪谞讜 讘讞讻诪讛 讜讘诪谞讬谉

The Gemara explains: This is what we said, i.e., this is what we meant when we asked the question: Now, all of these days when the Megilla may be read were enacted by the members of the Great Assembly when they established the holiday of Purim itself. As, if it enters your mind to say that the members of the Great Assembly enacted only the fourteenth and fifteenth as days for reading the Megilla, is it possible that the later Sages came and uprooted an ordinance that was enacted by the members of the Great Assembly? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5) that a rabbinical court cannot rescind the statements of another rabbinical court, unless it is superior to it in wisdom and in number? No subsequent court was ever greater than the members of the Great Assembly, so it would be impossible for another court to rescind the enactments of the members of the Great Assembly.

讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讻讜诇讛讜 讗谞砖讬 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 转拽讬谞讜 讛讬讻讗 专诪讬讝讗

Rather, it is obvious that all these days were enacted by the members of the Great Assembly, and the question is: Where is the allusion to this in the Bible? The Megilla itself, which was approved by the members of the Great Assembly, mentions only the fourteenth and fifteenth of Adar.

讗诪专 专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 诇拽讬讬诐 讗转 讬诪讬 讛驻讜专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讬诐 讛专讘讛 转拽谞讜 诇讛诐

Rav Shemen bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is alluded to when the verse states: 鈥淭o confirm these days of Purim in their times鈥 (Esther 9:31). The phrase 鈥渋n their times鈥 indicates that they enacted many times for them and not only two days.

讛讗讬 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 诇讙讜驻讬讛 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讝诪谉 诪讗讬 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讬诐 讟讜讘讗

The Gemara objects: This verse is necessary for its own purpose, to teach that the days of Purim must be observed at the proper times. The Gemara responds: If so, let the verse say: To confirm these days of Purim in its time. What is the significance of the term 鈥渢heir times,鈥 in the plural? It indicates that many times were established for the reading of the Megilla.

讜讗讻转讬 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讻讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬诪讗 拽专讗 讝诪谞诐 诪讗讬 讝诪谞讬讛诐 砖诪注转 诪讬谞讛 讻讜诇讛讜

The Gemara objects: But still, the plural term is necessary to indicate that the time of this walled city is not the same as the time of that unwalled town, i.e., Purim is celebrated on different days in different places. The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse say: Their time, indicating that each place celebrates Purim on its respective day. What is the significance of the compound plural 鈥渢heir times鈥? Learn from this term that although the verse (Esther 9:21) specifies only two days, the Megilla may, at times, be read on all of the days enumerated in the mishna.

讗讬诪讗 讝诪谞讬诐 讟讜讘讗 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讚讜诪讬讗 讚讝诪谞诐 诪讛 讝诪谞诐 转专讬 讗祝 讝诪谞讬讛诐 转专讬

The Gemara asks: If so, say that the plural term indicates many times, and the Megilla may be read even earlier than the eleventh of Adar. The Gemara rejects this argument: The compound plural 鈥渢heir times,鈥 should be understood as similar to the simple plural term, their time. Just as the term their time can be understood to refer to two days, indicating that each location reads the Megilla in its respective time on the fourteenth or the fifteenth of Adar, so too, 鈥渢heir times鈥 should be understood as referring to only two additional days when the Megilla may be read.

讜讗讬诪讗 转专讬住专 讜转诇讬住专 讻讚讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬

The Gemara asks: Say that these two added days are the twelfth and the thirteenth of Adar. How is it derived that the Megilla may be read on the eleventh as well? The Gemara answers: It is as Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said in a different context: The thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, as it was on that day that the Jews assembled to fight their enemies, and the main miracle was performed on that day. Consequently, there is no need for a special derivation to include it as a day that is fit for reading the Megilla. Here too, since the thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, there is no need for a special derivation to include it among the days when the Megilla may be read.

讜讗讬诪讗 砖讬转住专 讜砖讬讘住专 讜诇讗 讬注讘讜专 讻转讬讘

The Gemara objects: And say that the two additional days are the sixteenth and the seventeenth of Adar. The Gemara responds: It is written: 鈥淎nd it shall not pass鈥 (Esther 9:27), indicating that the celebration of Purim is not delayed until a later date.

讜专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬诪讬诐 讗砖专 谞讞讜 讘讛诐 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讬诪讬诐 讻讬诪讬诐 诇专讘讜转 讗讞讚 注砖专 讜砖谞讬诐 注砖专

Having cited and discussed the opinion of Rav Shemen bar Abba, the Gemara cites another answer to the question of where the verses allude to the permissibility of reading the Megilla on the days enumerated in the mishna. And Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani said: These dates are alluded to when the verse states: 鈥淎s the days on which the Jews rested from their enemies鈥 (Esther 9:22). The term 鈥渄ays鈥 is referring to the two days that are explicitly mentioned in the previous verse, i.e., the fourteenth and the fifteenth. The term 鈥渁s the days鈥 comes to include two additional days, i.e., the eleventh and twelfth of Adar.

讜讗讬诪讗 转专讬住专 讜转诇讬住专 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讝诪谉 拽讛讬诇讛 诇讻诇 讛讬讗 讜诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇专讘讜讬讬 讜讗讬诪讗 砖讬转住专 讜砖讬讘住专 讜诇讗 讬注讘讜专 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: And say that the two additional days are the twelfth and thirteenth of Adar. How is it derived that the Megilla may be read on the eleventh as well? In answer to this question, Rav Shmuel bar Yitz岣k said: The thirteenth of Adar is a time of assembly for all, and there is no need for a special derivation to include it as a day fit for reading. The Gemara objects: Say that these additional days are the sixteenth and seventeenth of Adar. This suggestion is rejected: It is written: 鈥淎nd it shall not pass.鈥

专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谉 讝诪谞诐 讝诪谞讬讛诐 诇讗 诪砖诪注 诇讬讛

Since two derivations were offered for the same matter, the Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani did not state that the days enumerated in the mishna are fit for reading the Megilla based upon the term 鈥渋n their times,鈥 in accordance with the opinion of Rav Shemen bar Abba? The Gemara answers: He does not learn anything from the distinction between the terms time, their time, and their times. Therefore, the verse indicates only that there are two days when the Megilla may be read.

讜专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 诪讻讬诪讬诐 讗诪专 诇讱 讛讛讜讗 诇讚讜专讜转 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: And what is the reason that Rav Shemen bar Abba did not state that the days enumerated in the mishna are fit for reading the Megilla based upon the term 鈥渁s the days,鈥 in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣ani? The Gemara answers: He could have said to you: That verse is written as a reference to future generations, and it indicates that just as the Jews rested on these days at that time, they shall rest and celebrate on these days for all generations.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讚讚专讬砖 讝诪谉 讝诪谞诐 讝诪谞讬讛诐 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

搂 With regard to the mishna鈥檚 ruling that the Megilla may be read on the day of assembly, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva the unattributed. Most unattributed statements of tanna鈥檌m were formulated by Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 students and reflect his opinions. As, he derives halakhot based on the distinction that he draws between the terms time, their time, and their times. However, the Sages say: One may read the Megilla only in its designated time, i.e., the fourteenth of Adar.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection based upon the following baraita. Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh to the fifteenth of Adar? One may read on these dates at a time when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their own land. However, nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, so as not to cause confusion with regard to the date of Passover, which is exactly one month from the day after Purim.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诇讬讘讗 讚诪讗谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讗讬转讗 诇讛讗讬 转拽谞转讗

The Gemara analyzes this baraita: In accordance with whose opinion did Rabbi Yehuda issue his ruling? If we say that it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, whose opinion is expressed in the mishna, there is a difficulty, as Rabbi Akiva holds that even nowadays this ordinance applies. According to Rabbi Akiva, it is permitted for residents of villages to read the Megilla on the day of assembly even nowadays, as he did not limit his ruling to times when the Jewish people dwell securely in their land.

讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讗诇讬讘讗 讚专讘谞谉 讜讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 诪讬讛讗 拽专讬谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 转讬讜讘转讗

Rather, is it not in accordance with the opinion of the Sages, who disagreed with Rabbi Akiva? And, nevertheless, at least when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their land, the Megilla is read even prior to the fourteenth, as the Sages disagree only about the halakha nowadays. This contradicts the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan, who holds that the Megilla could never be read earlier than the fourteenth of Adar. The Gemara concludes: The refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Yo岣nan is indeed a conclusive refutation.

讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 住转讬诪转讗讛 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

There are those who say a different version of the previous passage. Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva, the unattributed. However, the Sages said: Nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛砖谞讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉 讜讬砖专讗诇 砖专讜讬讬谉 注诇 讗讚诪转谉 讗讘诇 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara comments: This is also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh to the fifteenth of Adar? At a time when the years are established properly and the Jewish people dwell securely in their own land. However, nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time. According to this version, Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 statement is consistent with the opinion of the Sages, as cited by Rabbi Yo岣nan.

专讘 讗砖讬 拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara adds: Rav Ashi poses a difficulty based on an apparent contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the aforementioned baraita and a ruling cited in a mishna in the name of Rabbi Yehuda,

讜诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

and he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda, rather than Rabbi Yehuda.

讜诪讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讛讜讗讬诇 讜诪住转讻诇讬谉 讘讛 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讜专诪讬谞讛讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬诪转讬 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讘诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讗讬谉 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛

The Gemara explains the apparent contradiction: And did Rabbi Yehuda actually say that nowadays, since people look to the reading of the Megilla and use it to calculate when Passover begins, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time? The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (5a): Rabbi Yehuda said: When is one permitted to read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar? In a place where the villagers generally enter town on Monday and Thursday. However, in a place where they do not generally enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla only in its designated time, the fourteenth of Adar.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讻谞住讬谉 讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 诪讬讛讗 拽专讬谞谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘讝诪谉 讛讝讛 讜诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

The mishna indicates that, at least in a place where the villagers enter town on Monday and Thursday, one may read the Megilla from the eleventh of Adar even nowadays. And due to this contradiction, Rav Ashi establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda.

讜诪砖讜诐 讚拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讜拽讬诐 诇讛 诇讘专讬讬转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛

The Gemara expresses surprise: Because Rav Ashi poses a difficulty due to the apparent contradiction between the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the baraita and the opinion cited in a mishna in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, he establishes the baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda? How could he have emended the text just because he had a difficulty that he did not know how to resolve?

专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 讚讗讬讻讗 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪讚拽砖讬讗 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗讜 讚讜讜拽讗 诪讗谉 讚转谞讬 诇讛 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讜讜拽讗

The Gemara explains: Rav Ashi heard that there were those who taught the baraita in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, and there were those who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda. And since he had a difficulty with the apparent contradiction between one ruling of Rabbi Yehuda and another ruling of Rabbi Yehuda, he said: The one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yehuda is not precise, whereas the one who taught it in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda is precise, and in this way he eliminated the contradiction.

讻专讻讬诐 讛诪讜拽驻讬诐 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讜讻讜壮 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 注诇 讻谉 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻专讝讬诐 讛讬讜砖讘讬诐 讘注专讬 讛驻专讝讜转 讜讙讜壮 诪讚驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

搂 We learned in the mishna: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived, as they are not stated explicitly in the Megilla? Rava said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淭herefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns, make the fourteenth day of the month of Adar a day of gladness and feasting鈥 (Esther 9:19). From the fact that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, it may be derived that the walled cities celebrate Purim on the fifteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讻诇诇 讻诇诇 诇讗 讜诇讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 谞讬谞讛讜 讜注讜讚 诪讛讜讚讜 讜注讚 讻讜砖 讻转讬讘

The Gemara challenges this answer: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as indicated in the verse, and the walled cities do not celebrate it at all. The Gemara expresses astonishment: And are they not Jews? And furthermore: It is written that the kingdom of Ahasuerus was 鈥渇rom Hodu until Cush鈥 (Esther 1:1), and the celebration of Purim was accepted in all of the countries of his kingdom (Esther 9:20鈥23).

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘讬住专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讘讗专讘讬住专 讜讘讞诪讬住专 讻讚讻转讬讘 诇讛讬讜转 注讜砖讬诐 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讞讚砖 讗讚专 讜讗转 讬讜诐 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 [讘讜] 讘讻诇 砖谞讛

Rather, the following challenge may be raised: Say that the unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth and the walled cities celebrate it on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth, as it is written: 鈥淭hat they should keep the fourteenth day of the month of Adar and the fifteenth day of the same, in every year鈥 (Esther 9:21). This verse can be understood to mean that there are places where Purim is celebrated on both days.

讗讬 讛讜讛 讻转讘 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讻讚拽讗诪专转 讛砖转讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗转 讬讜诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讗转 讬讜诐 讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讗转讗 讗转 讜驻住讬拽 讛谞讬 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讛谞讬 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

The Gemara rejects this argument: If it had been written in the verse: The fourteenth day and [ve] the fifteenth, it would be as you originally said. However, now that it is written: The fourteenth day and [ve鈥檈t] the fifteenth day, the particle et used here to denote the accusative comes and interrupts, indicating that the two days are distinct. Therefore, residents of these locations celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, and residents of those locations celebrate it on the fifteenth.

讜讗讬诪讗 驻专讝讬诐 讘讗专讘讬住专 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讗讬 讘注讜 讘讗专讘讬住专 讗讬 讘注讜 讘讞诪讬住专 讗诪专 拽专讗 讘讝诪谞讬讛诐 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 诇讗 讝诪谞讜 砖诇 讝讛

The Gemara suggests: Say that residents of unwalled towns celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, as stated in the verse, and with regard to residents of walled cities, if they wish they may celebrate it on the fourteenth, and if they wish they may celebrate it on the fifteenth. The Gemara responds: The verse states: 鈥淚n their times鈥 (Esther 9:31), indicating that the time when the residents of this place celebrate Purim is not the time when the residents of that place celebrate Purim.

讜讗讬诪讗 讘转诇讬住专 讻砖讜砖谉

The Gemara raises another challenge: Say that the walled cities should celebrate Purim on the thirteenth of Adar and not on the fifteenth. The Gemara answers: It stands to reason that the residents of walled cities, who do not celebrate Purim on the fourteenth, celebrate it as it is celebrated in Shushan, and it is explicitly stated that Purim was celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth.

讗砖讻讞谉 注砖讬讬讛 讝讻讬专讛 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讛讬诪讬诐 讛讗诇讛 谞讝讻专讬诐 讜谞注砖讬诐 讗讬转拽砖 讝讻讬专讛 诇注砖讬讬讛

The Gemara comments: We found a source for observing the holiday of Purim on the fourteenth of Adar in unwalled towns and on the fifteenth of Adar in walled cities; from where do we derive that remembering the story of Purim through the reading of the Megilla takes place on these days? The Gemara explains that the verse states: 鈥淭hat these days should be remembered and observed鈥 (Esther 9:28), from which it is derived that remembering is compared to observing.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讗讜诪专 讻专讻讬谉 讛诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

搂 The Gemara notes that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in the Tosefta (1:1) that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Cities that have been surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus read the Megilla on the fifteenth. According to the Tosefta, the status of walled cities is determined based upon whether they were walled in the time of Ahasuerus rather than the time of Joshua.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讻讬 砖讜砖谉 诪讛 砖讜砖谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讜拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讗祝 讻诇 砖诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 拽讜专讬谉 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣? The Gemara explains that the Megilla is read on the fifteenth in cities that are like Shushan: Just as Shushan is a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, and one reads the Megilla there on the fifteenth, so too every city that was walled since the days of Ahasuerus reads the Megilla on the fifteenth.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讬诇讬祝 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 注诇 讻谉 讛讬讛讜讚讬诐 讛驻专讝讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 诇讘讚 诪注专讬 讛驻专讝讬 讛专讘讛 诪讗讚 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 讗祝 讻讗谉 诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of the tanna of our mishna? The Gemara explains: It is derived through a verbal analogy between one instance of the word unwalled and another instance of the word unwalled. It is written here: 鈥淭herefore the Jews of the villages, who dwell in the unwalled towns鈥 (Esther 9:19), and it is written there, in Moses鈥 statement to Joshua before the Jewish people entered Eretz Yisrael: 鈥淎ll these cities were fortified with high walls, gates and bars; besides unwalled towns, a great many鈥 (Deuteronomy聽3:5). Just as there, in Deuteronomy, the reference is to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun, so too here it is referring to a city that was surrounded by a wall from the days of Joshua, son of Nun.

讘砖诇诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 诇讗 讗诪专 讻转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讗诇讗 转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛

The Gemara continues: Granted that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of the tanna of our mishna because he did not hold that a verbal analogy can be established between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled. However, what is the reason that the tanna of our mishna did not state his explanation in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣?

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讛讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诇讗 砖讜砖谉 讚注讘讚讗 讻诪讗谉 诇讗 讻驻专讝讬诐 讜诇讗 讻诪讜拽驻讬谉

The Gemara expresses astonishment: What is the reason? Isn鈥檛 it because he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one usage of the word unwalled and the other usage of the word unwalled? The Gemara explains: This is what he said, i.e., this was the question: According to the tanna of our mishna, in accordance with whom does Shushan observe Purim? Shushan is not like the unwalled towns and not like the walled cities, as residents of Shushan celebrate Purim on the fifteenth, but the city was not surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讻讚讬 砖讗谞讬 砖讜砖谉 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞注砖讛 讘讛 谞住

Rava said, and some say it unattributed to any particular Sage: Shushan is different since the miracle occurred in it on the fifteenth of Adar, and therefore Purim is celebrated on that day. However, other cities are only considered walled cities and read the Megilla on the fifteenth of Adar if they were walled since the days of Joshua.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 讜注讬专 讜注讬专 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 诪讜拽驻讬谉 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 诇诪讜拽驻转 讞讜诪讛 诪讬诪讜转 讗讞砖讜专讜砖

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the tanna of our mishna, this is the meaning of what is written: 鈥淎nd these days should be remembered and observed throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city鈥 (Esther 9:28). The phrase 鈥渆very province [medina]鈥 is expressed in the verse using repetition, so that it reads literally: Every province and province, and therefore contains a superfluous usage of the word province, is meant to distinguish between cities that were surrounded by a wall since the days of Joshua, son of Nun, where the Megilla is read on the fifteenth, and a city that was surrounded by a wall since the days of Ahasuerus, where the Megilla is read on the fourteenth.

注讬专 讜注讬专 谞诪讬 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 砖讜砖谉 诇砖讗专 注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讘砖诇诪讗 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇讞诇拽 讘讬谉 砖讜砖谉 诇砖讗专 注讬讬专讜转 讗诇讗 注讬专 讜注讬专 诇诪讗讬 讗转讗

The phrase 鈥渆very city,鈥 which is similarly expressed through repetition and contains a superfluous usage of the word city, also serves to distinguish between Shushan and other cities, as Purim is celebrated in Shushan on the fifteenth despite the fact that it was not walled since the time of Joshua. However, according to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣, granted that the phrase 鈥渆very province鈥 comes to distinguish between Shushan and other cities that were not walled since the days of Ahasuerus; but what does the phrase 鈥渆very city鈥 come to teach?

讗诪专 诇讱 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讜诇转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 诪讬 谞讬讞讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬转 诇讬讛 驻专讝讬 驻专讝讬 诪讚讬谞讛 讜诪讚讬谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诇讗 拽专讗 诇讚专砖讛 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 讜讻讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻专讱 讜讻诇 讛住诪讜讱 诇讜 讜讻诇 讛谞专讗讛 注诪讜 谞讬讚讜谉 讻讻专讱

The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 could have said to you: According to the tanna of our mishna, does it work out well? Since he holds that it is derived from the verbal analogy between one verse that employs the word unwalled and the other verse that employs the word unwalled, why do I need the phrase 鈥渆very province鈥? Rather, the verse comes for a midrashic exposition, and it comes to indicate that the halakha is in accordance with the ruling issued by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: A walled city, and all settlements adjacent to it, and all settlements that can be seen with it, i.e., that can be seen from the walled city, are considered like the walled city, and the Megilla is read there on the fifteenth.

注讚 讻诪讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讻诪讞诪转谉 诇讟讘专讬讗 诪讬诇 讜诇讬诪讗 诪讬诇 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚砖讬注讜专讗 讚诪讬诇 讻诪讛 讛讜讬 讻诪讞诪转谉 诇讟讘专讬讗

The Gemara asks: Up to what distance is considered adjacent? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The limit is like the distance from the town of 岣mtan to Tiberias, a mil. The Gemara asks: Let him say simply that the limit is a mil; why did he have to mention these places? The Gemara answers that the formulation of the answer teaches us this: How much distance comprises the measure of a mil? It is like the distance from 岣mtan to Tiberias.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诪谞爪驻讱 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专讜诐

搂 Having cited a statement of Rabbi Yirmeya, which some attribute to Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba, the Gemara cites other statements attributed to these Sages. Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The Seers, i.e., the prophets, were the ones who said that the letters mem, nun, tzadi, peh, and kaf [mantzepakh], have a different form when they appear at the end of a word.

讜转住讘专讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讜注讜讚 讛讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转

The Gemara asks: And how can you understand it that way? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hese are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel in Mount Sinai鈥 (Leviticus聽27:34), which indicates that a prophet is not permitted to initiate or change any matter of halakha from now on? Consequently, how could the prophets establish new forms for the letters? And furthermore, didn鈥檛 Rav 岣sda say: The letters mem and samekh in the tablets of the covenant given at Sinai

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