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Today's Daf Yomi

January 2, 2022 | 讻状讟 讘讟讘转 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 21

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Marcia Baum in loving memory of her mother Helen Baum, Chaya Chana Alter bat Chana v’Yekutiel Aryeh on her sixth yartzeit. 鈥淢om was a lifelong learner and teacher and is sorely missed by those who knew and loved her. I hope we are doing her proud!鈥

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Sari Esserman in loving memory of her father Moshe Ben Yosef HaCohen.

Today’s daf is sponsored anonymously in refuah shleima for Hannah bat Shmuel v’Esther and Breina Bracha bat Rina.

The Mishna stated the general rule behind the cases listed (that mitzvot that are meant to be done in the day can be performed all day long and one that can be done at night can be performed all night), even though the rule was obvious. Why? One can either sit or stand when reading the Megillah. One follows one’s custom regarding the blessings of the Megillah – some recite the blessing after the Megillah while others do not. On Mondays, Thursdays and mincha on Shabbat, there are three aliyot to the Torah. On days when there is musaf, but it is not a Yom Tov, there are four aliyot. On a Yom Tov, there are 5, on Yom Kippur there are 6 and on Shabbat, 7. The first one to get an aliya makes the blessing before and the last one makes a blessing after the reading. Haftara is recited on holidays, Yom Kippur and Shabbat. When reading the Torah, one must stand. Is this true also for learning Torah? On what does it depend? Two people can read the Megillah together but that is not the case for reading from the Torah. Why? What are the blessings that are recited before and after the Megillah? What do the three aliyot on Mondays, Thursday and Shabbat mincha correspond to? In every Torah reading, there must be at least ten verses read from the Torah. To what do the ten correspond? Is it better for the first aliya to include four verses and the other two to have three? Or the middle one? Or the last one? Reasons are given to support each possibility. Why was it changed that each person who gets an aliya makes a blessing before and after? What is the complication with the breakdown of the aliyot on Rosh Chodesh?

诪讛 诪砖驻讟 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘讬讜诐

Just as judgment may be done only by day, so too here, the sota is given the bitter waters to drink only by day.

讜诇注专讬驻转 讛注讙诇讛 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讻驻专讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讻拽讚砖讬诐 讜诇讟讛专转 诪爪讜专注 讚讻转讬讘 讝讗转 转讛讬讛 转讜专转 讛诪爪讜专注 讘讬讜诐 讟讛专转讜

And daytime is the time for breaking the neck of the heifer, as the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Atonement is written with regard to the heifer, teaching that it is treated like sacred offerings, and it has already been established that all actions relating to offerings must be performed during the day. And for purifying the leper, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淭his shall be the law of the leper on the day of his cleansing鈥 (Leviticus 14:2).

讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 诇拽爪讬专转 讛注讜诪专 讜讻讜壮 讚讗诪专 诪专 拽爪讬专讛 讜住驻讬专讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讛讘讗讛 讘讬讜诐 讜诇讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 注讚 讛讘讜拽专

It was taught in the mishna: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer,鈥 as the Master said in tractate Mena岣t: The reaping of the omer and the counting of the omer must be performed at night, whereas bringing the omer offering to the Temple must be done during the day. And for burning the fats and limbs of the offerings, it is derived as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淲hich shall be burning upon the altar all night until the morning鈥 (Leviticus 6:2).

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘讬讜诐 讻砖专 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 住讬讚讜专 讘讝讬讻讬谉 讜住诇讜拽 讘讝讬讻讬谉

搂 The mishna states: This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed any time during the entire day. The Gemara asks: As the mishna has seemingly mentioned all daytime mitzvot explicitly, the words: This is the principle, are to add what? The Gemara answers: This principle comes to include the arranging of the vessels of frankincense alongside the shewbread in the Temple, and the removal of those vessels at the end of the week, as the verse does not specify the time when these procedures should be performed.

讜讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 住讬诇拽 讗转 讛讬砖谞讛 砖讞专讬转 讜住讬讚专 讗转 讛讞讚砖讛 注专讘讬转 讗讬谉 讘讻讱 讻诇讜诐

And this mishna would consequently be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: If one removed the old shewbread and frankincense in the morning and arranged the new ones toward the evening, i.e., at the end of the day, there is nothing wrong with this, as it suffices if the changeover is made any time over the course of the same day. The Sages, however, maintain that the new ones must be set in place immediately after the old ones have been removed.

讜诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 (诇驻谞讬 讛壮 转诪讬讚) 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 砖讜诇讞谉 讘诇讗 诇讞诐

And, according to Rabbi Yosei, how do I uphold that which is written with regard to the shewbread: 鈥淗e shall set it in order before the Lord continually鈥 (Leviticus 24:8), implying that the bread must be on the table at all times? It means only that the table should not be an entire day without the bread, but if there is bread on the table for even a part of the day, it is considered as being there 鈥渃ontinually.鈥

讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬

搂 The mishna concludes: Something that it is a mitzva to perform at night may be performed the entire night. The Gemara asks: What does this principle come to add that has not already been mentioned explicitly?

诇讗转讜讬讬 讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞讬诐 讜讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讻诇讜 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜注讘专转讬 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注讚 讞爪讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讚 讞爪讜转

The Gemara answers: It comes to include the eating of the Paschal offering, and consequently this mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as it is taught in a baraita that it is written: 鈥淎nd they shall eat the meat on that night鈥 (Exodus 12:8). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: It is stated here: 鈥淥n that night,鈥 and it is stated further on: 鈥淎nd I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night鈥 (Exodus 12:12). Just as there, when God passed through the land of Egypt, it was until midnight, so too here, the Paschal offering may be eaten only until midnight. The mishna, which asserts that the Paschal offering may be eaten all night, is not in accordance with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛拽讜专讗 诇诪驻专注

 

诪转谞讬壮 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 注讜诪讚 讜讬讜砖讘 拽专讗讛 讗讞讚 拽专讗讜讛 砖谞讬诐 讬爪讗讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讘专讱 讬讘专讱 讜砖诇讗 诇讘专讱 诇讗 讬讘专讱

MISHNA: One who reads the Megilla may position himself as he wishes, either standing or sitting. Whether one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation. In a place where the people are accustomed to recite a blessing over the reading, one should recite a blessing. And in a place where it is customary not to recite a blessing, one should not recite a blessing.

讘砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 拽讜专讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The mishna records several laws governing public Torah readings. On Mondays and Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] on these occasions. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle reader does not recite a blessing.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

On the days of the New Moon and on the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing. The first reader recites a blessing before the beginning of the reading, and the last reader recites a blessing after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讬砖 讘讜 诪讜住祝 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The mishna formulates a general principle with regard to the number of people who read from the Torah on different occasions. This is the principle: Any day on which there is an additional offering sacrificed in the Temple and that is not a Festival, i.e., the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; on a Festival, five people read; on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. And on these days one concludes with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讻谉 讘转讜专讛 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讚 注诪讚讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇诪诇讗 诪拽专讗 讻转讜讘 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讗讜诪专讜 讻讘讬讻讜诇 讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注诪讬讚讛

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may read the Megilla while sitting. It was taught in a baraita: This is not the case with regard to reading the Torah, as one must stand when reading the Torah. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Abbahu said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淏ut as for you, stand here with Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments and the statutes鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:28), which indicates that the Torah must be received while standing. And Rabbi Abbahu said: Were the verse not written in this manner, it would be impossible to utter it, in deference to God. The phrase 鈥渨ith Me鈥 indicates that, as it were, even the Holy One, Blessed be He, was standing at the giving of the Torah.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪谞讬谉 诇专讘 砖诇讗 讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟讛 讜讬砖谞讛 诇转诇诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讚 注诪讚讬

And Rabbi Abbahu also said: From where is it derived that the teacher should not sit on a couch and teach his disciple while he is sitting on the ground? It is as it is stated: 鈥淏ut as for you, stand here with Me,鈥 which indicates that the teacher and his disciples should be in the same position.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬诪讜转 诪砖讛 讜注讚 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 诇诪讚讬谉 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪注讜诪讚 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讬专讚 讞讜诇讬 诇注讜诇诐 讜讛讬讜 诇诪讚讬谉 转讜专讛 诪讬讜砖讘 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚转谞谉 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛

With regard to Torah study while standing, the Sages taught: From the days of Moses until the time of Rabban Gamliel, they would study Torah only while standing, as learning from one鈥檚 teacher is comparable to receiving the Torah at Sinai, during which the Jewish people stood. When Rabban Gamliel died, weakness descended to the world, and they would study Torah while sitting. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Sota 49a): When Rabban Gamliel died, honor for the Torah ceased, as standing while learning is an expression of honor for the Torah.

讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讜讗砖讘 讘讛专 讜讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讜讗谞讻讬 注诪讚转讬 讘讛专 讗诪专 专讘 注讜诪讚 讜诇讜诪讚 讬讜砖讘 讜砖讜谞讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讗 注讜诪讚 讜诇讗 讬讜砖讘 讗诇讗 砖讜讞讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讬砖讬讘讛 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 注讻讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜转砖讘讜 讘拽讚砖 讬诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讻讜转 诪注讜诪讚 讜拽砖讜转 诪讬讜砖讘

The Gemara points out an apparent contradiction with regard to this very issue. One verse says: 鈥淎nd I sat [va鈥檈shev] on the mount鈥 (Deuteronomy 9:9), and another verse says: 鈥淎nd I stood on the mount鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:10). The Gemara cites several possible resolutions. Rav said: Moses would stand and learn the Torah from God, and then sit and review what he had learned. Rabbi 岣nina said: Moses was not standing or sitting, but rather bowing. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The term yeshiva is nothing more than an expression of remaining in one place, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you dwelled [vateshvu] in Kadesh for many days鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:46). Rava said: Moses studied easy material while standing and difficult material while sitting.

拽专讗讛 讗讞讚 拽专讗讜讛 砖谞讬诐 讬爪讗讜 讜讻讜壮

We learned in the mishna: If one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation.

转谞讗 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讻谉 讘转讜专讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘转讜专讛 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜讗讞讚 诪转专讙诐 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘谞讘讬讗 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘讛诇诇 讜讘诪讙讬诇讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 拽讜专讬谉 讜注砖专讛 诪转专讙诪讬谉

It was taught: This is not the case with regard to reading the Torah, which may be read only by a single person. The Sages taught (Tosefta, Megilla 3:20): When reading from the Torah, one person reads and one may translate the reading into Aramaic for the congregation, provided that there are not one person reading and two people translating, because two voices cannot be heard simultaneously. And when reading from the Prophets, one person reads and two may translate, as there is less of a need to ensure that everyone hears the precise translation, as the Prophets do not teach halakha. This is the case provided that there are not two people reading and two translating. And when reciting hallel and reading the Megilla, even ten people may read and ten may translate.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘讛 讬讛讘讬 讚注转讬讬讛讜 讜砖诪注讬

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Megilla may be read by several people at once? Since the Megilla is cherished by the congregation, they will pay close attention and hear it, and they will not become distracted by the different voices.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讘专讱 讬讘专讱 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讛 讗讘诇 诇驻谞讬讛 诪爪讜讛 诇讘专讱 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讛诪爪讜转 讻讜诇谉 诪讘专讱 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讘专 诇注砖讬讬转谉

搂 We learned in the mishna: In a place where the people are accustomed to recite a blessing over the reading, one should recite a blessing. Abaye said: They taught that the matter depends upon local custom only with regard to the blessing that is recited after the reading of the Megilla. But as for the blessing that is recited before the reading, it is a mitzva to recite the blessing according to all opinions, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to all the mitzvot, one recites a blessing over them prior to [over] their performance.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 注讜讘专 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗拽讚讜诪讬 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬专抓 讗讞讬诪注抓 讚专讱 讛讻讻专 讜讬注讘专 讗转 讛讻讜砖讬 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讛讜讗 注讘专 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讬注讘专 诪诇讻诐 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讜讛壮 讘专讗砖诐

The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that the word over is the language of precedence? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said that the verse states: 鈥淎nd Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain, and overran [vaya鈥檃vor] the Cushite鈥 (II聽Samuel 18:23), i.e., Ahimaaz overtook the Cushite. Abaye said: It is derived from here: 鈥淎nd he passed [avar] before them鈥 (Genesis 33:3). And if you wish, say instead that the proof is from here: 鈥淎nd their king passed [vaya鈥檃vor] before them and the Lord at their head鈥 (Micah 2:13).

诇驻谞讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 专讘 砖砖转 诪拽讟专讝讬讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 讜讘专讬讱 诪谞讞

The Gemara asks: What blessing is recited before the reading of the Megilla? The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet from Katrazya once happened to come before Rav Ashi, and he recited three blessings, alluded to by the letters mem, nun, 岣t: Concerning the reading [mikra] of the Megilla; Who has performed miracles [nissim] for our fathers; and Who has given us life [shehe岣yanu].

诇讗讞专讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 诪诇讱 讛注讜诇诐 (讛讗诇) 讛专讘 讗转 专讬讘谞讜 讜讛讚谉 讗转 讚讬谞谞讜 讜讛谞讜拽诐 讗转 谞拽诪转谞讜 讜讛谞驻专注 诇谞讜 诪爪专讬谞讜 讜讛诪砖诇诐 讙诪讜诇 诇讻诇 讗讜讬讘讬 谞驻砖谞讜 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛谞驻专注 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇 爪专讬讛诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗诇 讛诪讜砖讬注 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛诇讻讱 谞讬诪专讬谞讛讜 诇转专讜讬讬讛讜 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛谞驻专注 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇 爪专讬讛诐 讛讗诇 讛诪讜砖讬注

The Gemara asks: What blessing is recited after the reading of the Megilla in places where it is customary to recite such a blessing? The Gemara answers that the following blessing is recited: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, the God Who pleads our cause, and Who judges our claim, and Who avenges our vengeance, and Who punishes our foes, and Who brings retribution to our enemies. Blessed are You, Lord, Who, on behalf of Israel, exacts punishment from all of their foes. Rava said: The conclusion of the blessing is as follows: Blessed are you, Lord, the God who brings salvation. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, since there are two opinions on the matter, we should say both of them: Blessed are you, Lord, Who, on behalf of Israel, exacts punishment from all their foes; the God Who brings salvation.

讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 拽讜专讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讜讻讜壮 讛谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讻谞讙讚 转讜专讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讻转讜讘讬诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐

We learned in the mishna: On Mondays and on Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah. The Gemara asks: Corresponding to what were these three readers instituted? Rav Asi said: They correspond to the three sections of the Bible: Pentateuch, Prophets, and Writings. Rava said: They correspond to the three components of the Jewish people: Priests, Levites, and Israelites.

讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘 砖讬诪讬 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜讬讚讘专 注讜诇讛 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讛谞讬 注砖专讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬

The Gemara raises a question: But with regard to this baraita that Rav Shimi taught: One may not decrease to fewer than ten the number of verses read during a public Torah reading in the synagogue, and a generic verse, e.g., 鈥淎nd God spoke to Moses saying,鈥 is included in the count, to what do these ten verses correspond? Why specifically the number ten?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讘讟诇谞讬谉 砖讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专转 讛讚讘专讜转 砖谞讗诪专讜 诇诪砖讛 讘住讬谞讬 (专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讛讬诇讜诇讬谉 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐) 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 诪讗诪专讜转 砖讘讛谉 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: They correspond to the ten idlers that are in the synagogue, i.e., ten men who have the leisure not to work, and instead sit in the synagogue and are available to attend to communal needs. Rav Yosef said: They correspond to the Ten Commandments that were spoken to Moses at Sinai. Rabbi Levi said: They correspond to the ten psalms of praise that David said in the book of Psalms. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: They correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created.

讛讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讬讗诪专 讚讘专讗砖讬转 讛谞讬 转砖注讛 讛讜讜 讘专讗砖讬转 谞诪讬 诪讗诪专 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讚讘专 讛壮 砖诪讬诐 谞注砖讜 讜讘专讜讞 驻讬讜 讻诇 爪讘讗诐

The Gemara asks: What are these ten utterances? Presumably, they are the utterances introduced by the words 鈥渁nd God said鈥 in the story of Creation in the first chapter of Genesis. However, there are only nine of these utterances and not ten. The Gemara answers: The expression: 鈥淚n the beginning鈥 (Genesis 1:1) is also considered an utterance, as it is written: 鈥淏y the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth鈥 (Psalms 33:6), which indicates that the first utterance of Creation was the general creation of the entire universe.

讗诪专 专讘讗 专讗砖讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 砖谞讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 砖诇讬砖讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞

Rava said: Since ten verses must be read, if the first of the three readers called to the Torah read four verses, he is praiseworthy; if the second one read four verses, he is praiseworthy; and if the third one read four verses, he is praiseworthy.

专讗砖讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 讚转谞谉 讘砖诇砖 拽讜驻讜转 砖诇 砖诇砖 住讗讬谉 砖讘讛谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讗转 讛诇砖讻讛 讜讛讬讛 讻转讜讘 注诇讬讛谉 讗讘讙 诇讬讚注 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 谞转专诪讛 专讗砖讜谉 诇讛拽专讬讘 诪诪谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 砖诪爪讜讛 讘专讗砖讜谉

Rava explains: If the first of the three readers called to the Torah read four verses, he is praiseworthy because the first in a series is privileged, as we learned in a mishna (Shekalim 8a): One removes the funds from the Temple treasury chamber, in order to use them for purchasing communal offerings and attending to other needs of the Temple, with three large baskets, each measuring three se鈥檃. On the baskets is written, respectively, alef, beit, gimmel, in order to know which of them was removed first, in order to sacrifice offerings purchased with money from that basket first, as it is a mitzva to use the money collected with the first basket before the money collected with the others.

讗诪爪注讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 讚转谞讬讗 讗诇 诪讜诇 驻谞讬 讛诪谞讜专讛 讬讗讬专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖诪爪讚讚 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 谞专 诪注专讘讬 讜谞专 诪注专讘讬 讻诇驻讬 砖讻讬谞讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讻讗谉 砖讗诪爪注讬 诪砖讜讘讞

If the middle one read four verses, he is also praiseworthy, as the middle position is also dignified, as it is taught in a baraita: 鈥淭he seven lamps shall give light in front of the candelabrum鈥 (Numbers 8:2); this teaches that the priest turns the front of each lamp toward the western lamp of the candelabrum, i.e., the middle lamp, and the western lamp faces toward the Divine Presence. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is derived from here that the middle one is especially praiseworthy.

讜讗讞专讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 诪砖讜诐 诪注诇讬谉 讘拽讚砖 讜诇讗 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讚讗讘讬 讙讜讘专 讜拽专讗 专讗砖讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讜砖讘讞讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗

And if the last one called to the Torah read four verses, he too is praiseworthy, due to the principle that one elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. If the last reader reads more verses than did the first two, this is an elevation in sanctity. The Gemara relates that Rav Pappa happened to come to the synagogue of the place called Avi Gover, and the first person called to the Torah read four verses, and Rav Pappa praised him.

讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 转谞讗 讛驻讜转讞 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜讛讞讜转诐 诪讘专讱 诇讗讞专讬讛

We learned in the mishna that one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. The one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah each recite a blessing. It is taught in a baraita: The one who begins the reading recites a blessing before reading from the Torah, and the one who concludes the reading recites a blessing after the reading.

讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讻讜诇讛讜 诪讘专讻讬 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讝讬专讛 诪砖讜诐 讛谞讻谞住讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 讛讬讜爪讗讬谉

The Gemara comments: And now that all who read from the Torah recite blessings both before and after reading from the Torah, this is the reason that the Sages instituted this policy: It is a decree due to both those who enter the synagogue in middle of the reading and do not hear the first reader鈥檚 initial blessing and due to those who leave the synagogue early and do not hear the final reader鈥檚 concluding blessing, lest they come to the erroneous conclusion that one blessing suffices.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讜讻讜壮 讘注讗 诪讬谞讬讛 注讜诇讗 讘专 专讘 诪专讘讗 驻专砖转 专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讻讬爪讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 爪讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗诪专转 讗诇讬讛诐 讗转 拽专讘谞讬 诇讞诪讬 讚讛讜讬讬谉 转诪谞讬讗 驻住讜拽讬 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚

We learned in the mishna: On the days of the New Moon and on the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah. Ulla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Rava: The Torah portion read on the New Moon consists of three short consecutive paragraphs (Numbers 28:1鈥8, 9鈥10, 11鈥15). How does one read it in order to divide it among four readers? With regard to the first paragraph, which includes the verse: 鈥淐ommand the children of Israel and say to them, My offering, the provision of My sacrifices made by fire鈥 (Numbers 28:2), and which is eight verses, what shall we do?

谞讬拽专讬 转专讬 转诇转讗 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬谉 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 转专讬 讜讗讬谉 诪砖讬讬专讬谉 讘驻专砖讛 驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讛 驻住讜拽讬谉 谞讬拽专讬 讗专讘注讛 讗专讘注讛 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 砖讘注讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 讛讜讬讬谉 转专讬 讜讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬讻诐 讛讜讬讬谉 讞诪砖讛 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞讬拽专讬 转专讬 诪讛讗 讜讞讚 诪讛谞讱

If you say that the first two readers should read three verses each, there will remain only two more verses until the end of the paragraph, and one may not leave fewer than three verses before the end of a paragraph at the conclusion of a reading. If you say that the first two readers should read four verses each and complete the first paragraph, then seven verses will be left until the end of entire portion; the second paragraph of 鈥淎nd on Shabbat day鈥 (Numbers 28:9) is two verses, and the third paragraph of 鈥淎nd on the beginnings of your months鈥 (Numbers 28:11) is five verses. What shall we do with them? If the third reader reads the two verses from this paragraph and one of those verses in the following paragraph, this is improper due to the principle that

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah: 17-23 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn the entire second chapter of Masechet Megillah. This chapter deals with the laws of reading...
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Megillah 21

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Megillah 21

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Megillah 21

诪讛 诪砖驻讟 讘讬讜诐 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘讬讜诐

Just as judgment may be done only by day, so too here, the sota is given the bitter waters to drink only by day.

讜诇注专讬驻转 讛注讙诇讛 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讻驻专讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 讻拽讚砖讬诐 讜诇讟讛专转 诪爪讜专注 讚讻转讬讘 讝讗转 转讛讬讛 转讜专转 讛诪爪讜专注 讘讬讜诐 讟讛专转讜

And daytime is the time for breaking the neck of the heifer, as the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Atonement is written with regard to the heifer, teaching that it is treated like sacred offerings, and it has already been established that all actions relating to offerings must be performed during the day. And for purifying the leper, it is derived as it is written: 鈥淭his shall be the law of the leper on the day of his cleansing鈥 (Leviticus 14:2).

讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 诇拽爪讬专转 讛注讜诪专 讜讻讜壮 讚讗诪专 诪专 拽爪讬专讛 讜住驻讬专讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讛讘讗讛 讘讬讜诐 讜诇讛拽讟专 讞诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 注讚 讛讘讜拽专

It was taught in the mishna: The entire night is a valid time for reaping the omer,鈥 as the Master said in tractate Mena岣t: The reaping of the omer and the counting of the omer must be performed at night, whereas bringing the omer offering to the Temple must be done during the day. And for burning the fats and limbs of the offerings, it is derived as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淲hich shall be burning upon the altar all night until the morning鈥 (Leviticus 6:2).

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘讬讜诐 讻砖专 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讝讛 讛讻诇诇 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 住讬讚讜专 讘讝讬讻讬谉 讜住诇讜拽 讘讝讬讻讬谉

搂 The mishna states: This is the principle: Something that it is a mitzva to perform during the day is valid if performed any time during the entire day. The Gemara asks: As the mishna has seemingly mentioned all daytime mitzvot explicitly, the words: This is the principle, are to add what? The Gemara answers: This principle comes to include the arranging of the vessels of frankincense alongside the shewbread in the Temple, and the removal of those vessels at the end of the week, as the verse does not specify the time when these procedures should be performed.

讜讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 住讬诇拽 讗转 讛讬砖谞讛 砖讞专讬转 讜住讬讚专 讗转 讛讞讚砖讛 注专讘讬转 讗讬谉 讘讻讱 讻诇讜诐

And this mishna would consequently be in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: If one removed the old shewbread and frankincense in the morning and arranged the new ones toward the evening, i.e., at the end of the day, there is nothing wrong with this, as it suffices if the changeover is made any time over the course of the same day. The Sages, however, maintain that the new ones must be set in place immediately after the old ones have been removed.

讜诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 (诇驻谞讬 讛壮 转诪讬讚) 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 砖讜诇讞谉 讘诇讗 诇讞诐

And, according to Rabbi Yosei, how do I uphold that which is written with regard to the shewbread: 鈥淗e shall set it in order before the Lord continually鈥 (Leviticus 24:8), implying that the bread must be on the table at all times? It means only that the table should not be an entire day without the bread, but if there is bread on the table for even a part of the day, it is considered as being there 鈥渃ontinually.鈥

讚讘专 砖诪爪讜转讜 讘诇讬诇讛 讻砖专 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬

搂 The mishna concludes: Something that it is a mitzva to perform at night may be performed the entire night. The Gemara asks: What does this principle come to add that has not already been mentioned explicitly?

诇讗转讜讬讬 讗讻讬诇转 驻住讞讬诐 讜讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚转谞讬讗 讜讗讻诇讜 讗转 讛讘砖专 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 讜注讘专转讬 讘讗专抓 诪爪专讬诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讝讛 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 注讚 讞爪讜转 讗祝 讻讗谉 注讚 讞爪讜转

The Gemara answers: It comes to include the eating of the Paschal offering, and consequently this mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, as it is taught in a baraita that it is written: 鈥淎nd they shall eat the meat on that night鈥 (Exodus 12:8). Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: It is stated here: 鈥淥n that night,鈥 and it is stated further on: 鈥淎nd I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night鈥 (Exodus 12:12). Just as there, when God passed through the land of Egypt, it was until midnight, so too here, the Paschal offering may be eaten only until midnight. The mishna, which asserts that the Paschal offering may be eaten all night, is not in accordance with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛拽讜专讗 诇诪驻专注

 

诪转谞讬壮 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 注讜诪讚 讜讬讜砖讘 拽专讗讛 讗讞讚 拽专讗讜讛 砖谞讬诐 讬爪讗讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讘专讱 讬讘专讱 讜砖诇讗 诇讘专讱 诇讗 讬讘专讱

MISHNA: One who reads the Megilla may position himself as he wishes, either standing or sitting. Whether one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation. In a place where the people are accustomed to recite a blessing over the reading, one should recite a blessing. And in a place where it is customary not to recite a blessing, one should not recite a blessing.

讘砖谞讬 讜讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 拽讜专讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The mishna records several laws governing public Torah readings. On Mondays and Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] on these occasions. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle reader does not recite a blessing.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

On the days of the New Moon and on the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. And one does not conclude with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing. The first reader recites a blessing before the beginning of the reading, and the last reader recites a blessing after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

讝讛 讛讻诇诇 讻诇 砖讬砖 讘讜 诪讜住祝 讜讗讬谞讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讘讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讞诪砖讛 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖砖讛 讘砖讘转 砖讘注讛 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讗讘诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 讜诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘谞讘讬讗 讛驻讜转讞 讜讛讞讜转诐 讘转讜专讛 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛

The mishna formulates a general principle with regard to the number of people who read from the Torah on different occasions. This is the principle: Any day on which there is an additional offering sacrificed in the Temple and that is not a Festival, i.e., the New Moon and the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah; on a Festival, five people read; on Yom Kippur, six people read; and on Shabbat, seven people read. One may not decrease the number of readers, but one may add to them. And on these days one concludes with a reading from the Prophets. Both the one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah recite a blessing; one recites before the beginning of the reading and one recites after its conclusion, but the middle readers do not recite a blessing.

讙诪壮 转谞讗 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讻谉 讘转讜专讛 诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讚 注诪讚讬 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诇诪诇讗 诪拽专讗 讻转讜讘 讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇讗讜诪专讜 讻讘讬讻讜诇 讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘注诪讬讚讛

GEMARA: We learned in the mishna that one may read the Megilla while sitting. It was taught in a baraita: This is not the case with regard to reading the Torah, as one must stand when reading the Torah. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rabbi Abbahu said: It is as the verse states: 鈥淏ut as for you, stand here with Me, and I will speak to you all the commandments and the statutes鈥 (Deuteronomy 5:28), which indicates that the Torah must be received while standing. And Rabbi Abbahu said: Were the verse not written in this manner, it would be impossible to utter it, in deference to God. The phrase 鈥渨ith Me鈥 indicates that, as it were, even the Holy One, Blessed be He, was standing at the giving of the Torah.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪谞讬谉 诇专讘 砖诇讗 讬砖讘 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟讛 讜讬砖谞讛 诇转诇诪讬讚讜 注诇 讙讘讬 拽专拽注 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗转讛 驻讛 注诪讚 注诪讚讬

And Rabbi Abbahu also said: From where is it derived that the teacher should not sit on a couch and teach his disciple while he is sitting on the ground? It is as it is stated: 鈥淏ut as for you, stand here with Me,鈥 which indicates that the teacher and his disciples should be in the same position.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪讬诪讜转 诪砖讛 讜注讚 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 诇诪讚讬谉 转讜专讛 讗诇讗 诪注讜诪讚 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讬专讚 讞讜诇讬 诇注讜诇诐 讜讛讬讜 诇诪讚讬谉 转讜专讛 诪讬讜砖讘 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚转谞谉 诪砖诪转 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讘讟诇 讻讘讜讚 转讜专讛

With regard to Torah study while standing, the Sages taught: From the days of Moses until the time of Rabban Gamliel, they would study Torah only while standing, as learning from one鈥檚 teacher is comparable to receiving the Torah at Sinai, during which the Jewish people stood. When Rabban Gamliel died, weakness descended to the world, and they would study Torah while sitting. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Sota 49a): When Rabban Gamliel died, honor for the Torah ceased, as standing while learning is an expression of honor for the Torah.

讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讜讗砖讘 讘讛专 讜讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讜讗谞讻讬 注诪讚转讬 讘讛专 讗诪专 专讘 注讜诪讚 讜诇讜诪讚 讬讜砖讘 讜砖讜谞讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇讗 注讜诪讚 讜诇讗 讬讜砖讘 讗诇讗 砖讜讞讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讬砖讬讘讛 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 注讻讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜转砖讘讜 讘拽讚砖 讬诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 专讻讜转 诪注讜诪讚 讜拽砖讜转 诪讬讜砖讘

The Gemara points out an apparent contradiction with regard to this very issue. One verse says: 鈥淎nd I sat [va鈥檈shev] on the mount鈥 (Deuteronomy 9:9), and another verse says: 鈥淎nd I stood on the mount鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:10). The Gemara cites several possible resolutions. Rav said: Moses would stand and learn the Torah from God, and then sit and review what he had learned. Rabbi 岣nina said: Moses was not standing or sitting, but rather bowing. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The term yeshiva is nothing more than an expression of remaining in one place, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd you dwelled [vateshvu] in Kadesh for many days鈥 (Deuteronomy 1:46). Rava said: Moses studied easy material while standing and difficult material while sitting.

拽专讗讛 讗讞讚 拽专讗讜讛 砖谞讬诐 讬爪讗讜 讜讻讜壮

We learned in the mishna: If one person reads the Megilla or two people read it together, they have fulfilled their obligation.

转谞讗 诪讛 砖讗讬谉 讻谉 讘转讜专讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘转讜专讛 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜讗讞讚 诪转专讙诐 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讗 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘谞讘讬讗 讗讞讚 拽讜专讗 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 砖谞讬诐 拽讜专讬谉 讜砖谞讬诐 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讘讛诇诇 讜讘诪讙讬诇讛 讗驻讬诇讜 注砖专讛 拽讜专讬谉 讜注砖专讛 诪转专讙诪讬谉

It was taught: This is not the case with regard to reading the Torah, which may be read only by a single person. The Sages taught (Tosefta, Megilla 3:20): When reading from the Torah, one person reads and one may translate the reading into Aramaic for the congregation, provided that there are not one person reading and two people translating, because two voices cannot be heard simultaneously. And when reading from the Prophets, one person reads and two may translate, as there is less of a need to ensure that everyone hears the precise translation, as the Prophets do not teach halakha. This is the case provided that there are not two people reading and two translating. And when reciting hallel and reading the Megilla, even ten people may read and ten may translate.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讘讬讘讛 讬讛讘讬 讚注转讬讬讛讜 讜砖诪注讬

The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Megilla may be read by several people at once? Since the Megilla is cherished by the congregation, they will pay close attention and hear it, and they will not become distracted by the different voices.

诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇讘专讱 讬讘专讱 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇讗讞专讬讛 讗讘诇 诇驻谞讬讛 诪爪讜讛 诇讘专讱 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻诇 讛诪爪讜转 讻讜诇谉 诪讘专讱 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讘专 诇注砖讬讬转谉

搂 We learned in the mishna: In a place where the people are accustomed to recite a blessing over the reading, one should recite a blessing. Abaye said: They taught that the matter depends upon local custom only with regard to the blessing that is recited after the reading of the Megilla. But as for the blessing that is recited before the reading, it is a mitzva to recite the blessing according to all opinions, as Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to all the mitzvot, one recites a blessing over them prior to [over] their performance.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 注讜讘专 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗拽讚讜诪讬 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬专抓 讗讞讬诪注抓 讚专讱 讛讻讻专 讜讬注讘专 讗转 讛讻讜砖讬 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讛讜讗 注讘专 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讜讬注讘专 诪诇讻诐 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讜讛壮 讘专讗砖诐

The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that the word over is the language of precedence? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said that the verse states: 鈥淎nd Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain, and overran [vaya鈥檃vor] the Cushite鈥 (II聽Samuel 18:23), i.e., Ahimaaz overtook the Cushite. Abaye said: It is derived from here: 鈥淎nd he passed [avar] before them鈥 (Genesis 33:3). And if you wish, say instead that the proof is from here: 鈥淎nd their king passed [vaya鈥檃vor] before them and the Lord at their head鈥 (Micah 2:13).

诇驻谞讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 专讘 砖砖转 诪拽讟专讝讬讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗砖讬 讜讘专讬讱 诪谞讞

The Gemara asks: What blessing is recited before the reading of the Megilla? The Gemara relates that Rav Sheshet from Katrazya once happened to come before Rav Ashi, and he recited three blessings, alluded to by the letters mem, nun, 岣t: Concerning the reading [mikra] of the Megilla; Who has performed miracles [nissim] for our fathers; and Who has given us life [shehe岣yanu].

诇讗讞专讬讛 诪讗讬 诪讘专讱 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 诪诇讱 讛注讜诇诐 (讛讗诇) 讛专讘 讗转 专讬讘谞讜 讜讛讚谉 讗转 讚讬谞谞讜 讜讛谞讜拽诐 讗转 谞拽诪转谞讜 讜讛谞驻专注 诇谞讜 诪爪专讬谞讜 讜讛诪砖诇诐 讙诪讜诇 诇讻诇 讗讜讬讘讬 谞驻砖谞讜 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛谞驻专注 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇 爪专讬讛诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗诇 讛诪讜砖讬注 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛诇讻讱 谞讬诪专讬谞讛讜 诇转专讜讬讬讛讜 讘专讜讱 讗转讛 讛壮 讛谞驻专注 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇 爪专讬讛诐 讛讗诇 讛诪讜砖讬注

The Gemara asks: What blessing is recited after the reading of the Megilla in places where it is customary to recite such a blessing? The Gemara answers that the following blessing is recited: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, the God Who pleads our cause, and Who judges our claim, and Who avenges our vengeance, and Who punishes our foes, and Who brings retribution to our enemies. Blessed are You, Lord, Who, on behalf of Israel, exacts punishment from all of their foes. Rava said: The conclusion of the blessing is as follows: Blessed are you, Lord, the God who brings salvation. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, since there are two opinions on the matter, we should say both of them: Blessed are you, Lord, Who, on behalf of Israel, exacts punishment from all their foes; the God Who brings salvation.

讘砖谞讬 讜讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讘诪谞讞讛 拽讜专讬谉 砖诇砖讛 讜讻讜壮 讛谞讬 砖诇砖讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗住讬 讻谞讙讚 转讜专讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讻转讜讘讬诐 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 讻讛谞讬诐 诇讜讬诐 讜讬砖专讗诇讬诐

We learned in the mishna: On Mondays and on Thursdays during the morning service and on Shabbat during the afternoon service, three people read from the Torah. The Gemara asks: Corresponding to what were these three readers instituted? Rav Asi said: They correspond to the three sections of the Bible: Pentateuch, Prophets, and Writings. Rava said: They correspond to the three components of the Jewish people: Priests, Levites, and Israelites.

讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘 砖讬诪讬 讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪注砖专讛 驻住讜拽讬谉 讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讜讬讚讘专 注讜诇讛 诪谉 讛诪谞讬谉 讛谞讬 注砖专讛 讻谞讙讚 诪讬

The Gemara raises a question: But with regard to this baraita that Rav Shimi taught: One may not decrease to fewer than ten the number of verses read during a public Torah reading in the synagogue, and a generic verse, e.g., 鈥淎nd God spoke to Moses saying,鈥 is included in the count, to what do these ten verses correspond? Why specifically the number ten?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讘讟诇谞讬谉 砖讘讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专转 讛讚讘专讜转 砖谞讗诪专讜 诇诪砖讛 讘住讬谞讬 (专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 讛讬诇讜诇讬谉 砖讗诪专 讚讜讚 讘住驻专 转讛诇讬诐) 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讻谞讙讚 注砖专讛 诪讗诪专讜转 砖讘讛谉 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: They correspond to the ten idlers that are in the synagogue, i.e., ten men who have the leisure not to work, and instead sit in the synagogue and are available to attend to communal needs. Rav Yosef said: They correspond to the Ten Commandments that were spoken to Moses at Sinai. Rabbi Levi said: They correspond to the ten psalms of praise that David said in the book of Psalms. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: They correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created.

讛讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讬讗诪专 讚讘专讗砖讬转 讛谞讬 转砖注讛 讛讜讜 讘专讗砖讬转 谞诪讬 诪讗诪专 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讚讘专 讛壮 砖诪讬诐 谞注砖讜 讜讘专讜讞 驻讬讜 讻诇 爪讘讗诐

The Gemara asks: What are these ten utterances? Presumably, they are the utterances introduced by the words 鈥渁nd God said鈥 in the story of Creation in the first chapter of Genesis. However, there are only nine of these utterances and not ten. The Gemara answers: The expression: 鈥淚n the beginning鈥 (Genesis 1:1) is also considered an utterance, as it is written: 鈥淏y the word of the Lord were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth鈥 (Psalms 33:6), which indicates that the first utterance of Creation was the general creation of the entire universe.

讗诪专 专讘讗 专讗砖讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 砖谞讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 砖诇讬砖讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞

Rava said: Since ten verses must be read, if the first of the three readers called to the Torah read four verses, he is praiseworthy; if the second one read four verses, he is praiseworthy; and if the third one read four verses, he is praiseworthy.

专讗砖讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 讚转谞谉 讘砖诇砖 拽讜驻讜转 砖诇 砖诇砖 住讗讬谉 砖讘讛谉 转讜专诪讬谉 讗转 讛诇砖讻讛 讜讛讬讛 讻转讜讘 注诇讬讛谉 讗讘讙 诇讬讚注 讗讬讝讜 诪讛谉 谞转专诪讛 专讗砖讜谉 诇讛拽专讬讘 诪诪谞讛 专讗砖讜谉 砖诪爪讜讛 讘专讗砖讜谉

Rava explains: If the first of the three readers called to the Torah read four verses, he is praiseworthy because the first in a series is privileged, as we learned in a mishna (Shekalim 8a): One removes the funds from the Temple treasury chamber, in order to use them for purchasing communal offerings and attending to other needs of the Temple, with three large baskets, each measuring three se鈥檃. On the baskets is written, respectively, alef, beit, gimmel, in order to know which of them was removed first, in order to sacrifice offerings purchased with money from that basket first, as it is a mitzva to use the money collected with the first basket before the money collected with the others.

讗诪爪注讬 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 讚转谞讬讗 讗诇 诪讜诇 驻谞讬 讛诪谞讜专讛 讬讗讬专讜 诪诇诪讚 砖诪爪讚讚 驻谞讬讛诐 讻诇驻讬 谞专 诪注专讘讬 讜谞专 诪注专讘讬 讻诇驻讬 砖讻讬谞讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讻讗谉 砖讗诪爪注讬 诪砖讜讘讞

If the middle one read four verses, he is also praiseworthy, as the middle position is also dignified, as it is taught in a baraita: 鈥淭he seven lamps shall give light in front of the candelabrum鈥 (Numbers 8:2); this teaches that the priest turns the front of each lamp toward the western lamp of the candelabrum, i.e., the middle lamp, and the western lamp faces toward the Divine Presence. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: It is derived from here that the middle one is especially praiseworthy.

讜讗讞专讜谉 砖拽专讗 讗专讘注讛 诪砖讜讘讞 诪砖讜诐 诪注诇讬谉 讘拽讚砖 讜诇讗 诪讜专讬讚讬谉 专讘 驻驻讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 讻谞讬砖转讗 讚讗讘讬 讙讜讘专 讜拽专讗 专讗砖讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讜砖讘讞讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗

And if the last one called to the Torah read four verses, he too is praiseworthy, due to the principle that one elevates to a higher level of sanctity and does not downgrade. If the last reader reads more verses than did the first two, this is an elevation in sanctity. The Gemara relates that Rav Pappa happened to come to the synagogue of the place called Avi Gover, and the first person called to the Torah read four verses, and Rav Pappa praised him.

讗讬谉 驻讜讞转讬谉 诪讛谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 转谞讗 讛驻讜转讞 诪讘专讱 诇驻谞讬讛 讜讛讞讜转诐 诪讘专讱 诇讗讞专讬讛

We learned in the mishna that one may neither decrease the number of readers nor add to them. The one who begins the reading and the one who concludes the reading from the Torah each recite a blessing. It is taught in a baraita: The one who begins the reading recites a blessing before reading from the Torah, and the one who concludes the reading recites a blessing after the reading.

讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讚讻讜诇讛讜 诪讘专讻讬 诇驻谞讬讛 讜诇讗讞专讬讛 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚转拽讬谞讜 专讘谞谉 讙讝讬专讛 诪砖讜诐 讛谞讻谞住讬谉 讜诪砖讜诐 讛讬讜爪讗讬谉

The Gemara comments: And now that all who read from the Torah recite blessings both before and after reading from the Torah, this is the reason that the Sages instituted this policy: It is a decree due to both those who enter the synagogue in middle of the reading and do not hear the first reader鈥檚 initial blessing and due to those who leave the synagogue early and do not hear the final reader鈥檚 concluding blessing, lest they come to the erroneous conclusion that one blessing suffices.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗专讘注讛 讜讻讜壮 讘注讗 诪讬谞讬讛 注讜诇讗 讘专 专讘 诪专讘讗 驻专砖转 专讗砖 讞讜讚砖 讻讬爪讚 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 爪讜 讗转 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗诪专转 讗诇讬讛诐 讗转 拽专讘谞讬 诇讞诪讬 讚讛讜讬讬谉 转诪谞讬讗 驻住讜拽讬 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚

We learned in the mishna: On the days of the New Moon and on the intermediate days of a Festival, four people read from the Torah. Ulla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Rava: The Torah portion read on the New Moon consists of three short consecutive paragraphs (Numbers 28:1鈥8, 9鈥10, 11鈥15). How does one read it in order to divide it among four readers? With regard to the first paragraph, which includes the verse: 鈥淐ommand the children of Israel and say to them, My offering, the provision of My sacrifices made by fire鈥 (Numbers 28:2), and which is eight verses, what shall we do?

谞讬拽专讬 转专讬 转诇转讗 转诇转讗 驻住讜拽讬谉 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 转专讬 讜讗讬谉 诪砖讬讬专讬谉 讘驻专砖讛 驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讛 驻住讜拽讬谉 谞讬拽专讬 讗专讘注讛 讗专讘注讛 驻砖讜 诇讛讜 砖讘注讛 讜讘讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 讛讜讬讬谉 转专讬 讜讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬讻诐 讛讜讬讬谉 讞诪砖讛 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞讬拽专讬 转专讬 诪讛讗 讜讞讚 诪讛谞讱

If you say that the first two readers should read three verses each, there will remain only two more verses until the end of the paragraph, and one may not leave fewer than three verses before the end of a paragraph at the conclusion of a reading. If you say that the first two readers should read four verses each and complete the first paragraph, then seven verses will be left until the end of entire portion; the second paragraph of 鈥淎nd on Shabbat day鈥 (Numbers 28:9) is two verses, and the third paragraph of 鈥淎nd on the beginnings of your months鈥 (Numbers 28:11) is five verses. What shall we do with them? If the third reader reads the two verses from this paragraph and one of those verses in the following paragraph, this is improper due to the principle that

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