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Today's Daf Yomi

January 5, 2022 | ื’ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 24

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Tzivia Ross Korn for the refuah shleima of Yenta Bat Zelda.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Devorah Saban for the refuah shleima of Neriya Yosef Hoshea Ben Avital.ย 

One who reads from the Torah needs to read a minimum of three verses. But one who translates does that one verse at a time. For the prophets, one can translate three verses at a time, provided they are all within one section. One can skip to a different section in the prophets but not in the Torah. Are there qualifications to these rules? What benefits are given to the person who reads the haftarah? Why does he need these incentives? What parts of the prayer/Torah reading can a minor do? And what can he not do? If oneโ€™s legs are not covered, what prayers is one allowed/not allowed to say? Can a blind person say the blessings before Shema (poress shema) and say the translation of the Torah? Why or why not? A kohen who has a blemish cannot say the blessing of the kohanim. Rabbi Yehuda adds that one whose hands are red can also not, as both of these will attract attention and one is not supposed to look at the kohanim while they are blessing the people. The Gemara lists other issues that would prevent a kohen from being able to say the blessing of the kohanim. An exception is made for people who are well known in the city as they will no longer attract attention as people know them. There are certain actions that are indicative that one may be a heretic and therefore a person who does one of those things cannot be a chazan. One should not wear round tefillin as it is dangerous.

ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืื—ื“

And with regard to the Prophets, one may read to the translator three verses at a time. With respect to the Torah, an incorrect translation might lead to an error in practice, but this concern does not apply to the Prophets. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, that is to say, if each verse is a paragraph in itself, one must read them to the translator one by one.

ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืœื’ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation while the reader is still rolling the scroll to the new location. The reader may not cause the congregation to wait for him after the translator has finished, as that would be disrespectful to the congregation.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ืŸ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Corresponding to what were these three verses, i.e., the minimal Torah reading, instituted? Rav Asi said: They correspond to the Torah, Prophets, and Writings.

ื•ืœื ื™ืงืจื ืœืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืคืกื•ืง ืื—ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื•ืื ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ืงื•ืจื ืื—ื“ ืื—ื“ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ื—ื ื ื ืžื›ืจืชื ื›ื™ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืฆืจื™ื ื™ืจื“ ืขืžื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืขืชื” ืžื” ืœื™ ืคื” ื ืื ื”ืณ

We learned in the mishna: And when it is being translated, one should not read to the translator more than one verse at a time. And with regard to the Prophets, he may read to the translator three verses at a time. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, he must read them to the translator separately, for example, the verses: โ€œFor thus says the Lord, You were sold for naughtโ€ (Isaiah 52:3); โ€œFor thus says the Lord God, at first My people went down to Egyptโ€ (Isaiah 52:4); โ€œNow therefore what have I here, says the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 52:5). These are three adjacent verses, each one constituting an independent paragraph.

ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ืงื•ืจื ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืช ื•ืืš ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื“ืœื’

ยง We learned further in the mishna: One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Yoma 68b): On Yom Kippur, the High Priest reads the section beginning with the verse: โ€œAfter the deathโ€ (Leviticus 16:1), and then he reads the section beginning with the verse: โ€œOnly on the tenth dayโ€ (Leviticus 23:27). Doesnโ€™t he skip from the first section to the second section?

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ื•ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

Abaye said: This is not difficult. Here, where it says that one may not skip in the Torah, the translator will conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. There, where it is permitted to skip, the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

ื•ื”ื ืขืœื” ืงืชื ื™ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืœื’ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืœ ื›ืœืœ ืœื

The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t it taught in the mishna with regard to that issue: One may skip while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. This applies to reading the Prophets; it therefore proves by inference that while reading the Torah one may not skip at all.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื•ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

Rather, Abaye said it is not difficult for a different reason: Here, where it says that the High Priest skipped from one section to another, it was permitted because the two sections address one topic. There, where the mishna says one may not skip while reading the Torah, it is where the two sections address two distinct topics. And so it is explicitly taught in a baraita: One may skip from one section to another while reading the Torah if the two sections address one topic, and in the Prophets one may skip even if the two sections address two distinct topics. Both here and there, with regard to the Torah and the Prophets, one may skip only if the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ืžื ื‘ื™ื ืœื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืžื“ืœื’ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื“ืœื’ ืžืกื•ืฃ ื”ืกืคืจ ืœืชื—ื™ืœืชื•

It is taught in another baraita: One may not skip from prophet to prophet, i.e., from one book of Prophets to another, even if the selections address the same topic. However, one may skip from one prophet to another among the twelve books of Prophets, which are grouped together, provided that he does not skip from the end of the book to the beginning, i.e., that he does not read a later section and then an earlier section.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืจื‘ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื•

MISHNA: The one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] is also the one who is honored to recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he passes before the ark to repeat the Amida prayer, and if he is a priest he lifts his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, who may read the haftara but is not qualified to lead the congregation in prayer, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place.

ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

A minor may read the Torah in public and also translate the text for the congregation into Aramaic, but he may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer, and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction.

ืคื•ื—ื— ืคื•ืจืก ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

One whose limbs are exposed [poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ] may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah out of respect for the Torah; he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer; and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction out of respect for the congregation.

ืกื•ืžื ืคื•ืจืก ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉืœื ืจืื” ืžืื•ืจื•ืช ืžื™ืžื™ื• ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข

One who is blind may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries, the sun, moon, and stars, in his life, i.e., he was blind from birth, may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema. The first of the blessings before Shema is the blessing over the luminaries, and one who has never seen them cannot recite the blessing at all.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืชื™ ืœืื™ื ืฆื•ื™ื™

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the one who reads the haftara is honored with these other roles? Rav Pappa said: It is due to a desire to grant him honor. Since even minors are qualified to read the haftara, it was considered an insult for a person to be called up to read the haftara rather than be called up as one of those needed to read the Torah. Since he was willing to serve in this role, he is granted other, more honorable roles in the synagogue. Rabba bar Shimi said a different reason: It is due to a concern that they will come to quarrel, as the individual who read the haftara will quarrel with the individual honored to lead the congregation in prayer.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื—ื ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them where the one who passes before the ark does so free of charge. In that case, there is still a need to grant the one who read the haftara honor, but it is not likely that they will quarrel.

ืชื ืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืจื‘ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื• ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื

We learned in the mishna: And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place. If you say that the reason the reader of the haftara passes before the ark is due to a concern that they will quarrel, will a minor engage in quarreling? He has no valid claim to the right to pass before the ark. Consequently, the concern for strife must not be the reason for the halakha stated in the mishna.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืจื‘ื•

The Gemara rejects this argument: Rather, what is the reason; is it due to honor? Does a minor have honor that is slighted when he reads the haftara and therefore must be assuaged? Rather, according to Rav Pappa it is a display of honor to his father and his teacher.

ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืจื‘ื•

Here, also, according to Rabba bar Shimi, it is to prevent his father or teacher from quarreling.

ืคื•ื—ื— ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื‘ื™ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืคื•ื—ื— ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

ยง We learned in the mishna: One whose limbs are exposed [poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ] may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah. Ulla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Abaye: What is the halakha with regard to whether a minor whose limbs are exposed may read from the Torah? Can it be argued that a minorโ€™s bare limbs do not fall under the category of nakedness, and therefore it is permitted for him to read the Torah despite the fact that parts of his body are exposed?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืขืจื•ื ืขืจื•ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

Abaye said to him: And according to this reasoning, raise the dilemma with regard to a minor who is totally naked. What is the reason that a minor who is naked may not read the Torah? It is due to respect for the public. Here, too, a poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ may not read from the Torah due to respect for the public.

ืกื•ืžื ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฆืคื• ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ื‘ืžืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืจืื• ืื•ืชื” ืžื™ืžื™ื”ื

The mishna continues: One who is blind may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries in his life may not recite the first of the blessings before Shema, which is the blessing over the luminaries. It is taught in a baraita that they said to Rabbi Yehuda: Many have seen enough with their mind to expound upon the Divine Chariot, although they have never actually seen it. Similarly, even one who has never seen the luminaries may recite the blessing.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืชื ื‘ืื‘ื ืชื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื ืชืœื™ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื“ืข ื”ื›ื ืžืฉื•ื ื”ื ืื” ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ื ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืื”

And how does Rabbi Yehuda counter this argument? He can say that there, with regard to the Chariot, the matter depends upon the heartโ€™s comprehension, and one can concentrate his mind and understand the Chariot even if he has never actually seen it. But here, with regard to the luminaries, the blessing is recited due to the benefit one derives from them, and one who is blind does not derive any benefit from them, and therefore he may not recite a blessing over them.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ืช ืžืžืฉืฉ ื‘ืฆื”ืจื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืžืฉืฉ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื‘ืืคืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืื›ืคืช ืœื™ื” ืœืขื•ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื” ืœืื•ืจื”

And the Rabbis maintain that even a blind man derives benefit from the luminaries, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: All of my life I was troubled by this verse, which I did not understand: โ€œAnd you shall grope at noon as the blind man gropes in the darknessโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:29). I was perplexed: What does it matter to a blind person whether it is dark or light? He cannot see in any event, so why does the verse speak about a blind man in the darkness?

ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืžืขืฉื” ืœื™ื“ื™ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืื™ืฉื•ืŸ ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืืคืœื” ื•ืจืื™ืชื™ ืกื•ืžื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ื“ืจืš ื•ืื‘ื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื‘ื•ืงื” ื–ื• ืœืžื” ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื‘ื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืจื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ื•ืžืฆื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืคื—ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืจืงื ื™ืŸ

I continued to ponder the matter until the following incident occurred to me. I was once walking in the absolute darkness of the night, and I saw a blind man who was walking on his way with a torch in his hands. I said to him: My son, why do you need this torch if you are blind? He said to me: As long as I have a torch in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles. Even a blind man derives at least indirect benefit from the light, and therefore he may recite the blessing over the heavenly luminaries.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื• ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฆื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืกื˜ื™ืก ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืขื ืžืกืชื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื•

MISHNA: A priest who has blemishes on his hands may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. Because of his blemish, people will look at his hands, and it is prohibited to look at the hands of the priests during the Priestly Benediction. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one whose hands were colored with satis, a blue dye, may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction because the congregation will look at him.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืืžืจื• ื‘ืคื ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื”ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื”ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืขืงื•ืžื•ืช ืขืงื•ืฉื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: The blemishes that the Sages said disqualify a priest from reciting the Priestly Benediction include any blemishes found on his face, hands, and feet, but not blemishes that are not visible to others. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: If his hands are spotted with white blotches, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: If a priestโ€™s hands are spotted, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, if his hands are curved inward or bent sideways, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื—ื™ืคื ื™ (ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื ื™) ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ ื•ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื™ืคื” ื•ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืืœืคื™ืŸ ืขื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืขื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ืืœืคื™ืŸ

Apropos the previous discussion, Rav Asi said: A priest from Haifa or Beit Sheโ€™an may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction, as he does not know how to properly pronounce the guttural letters. This is also taught in a baraita: One may not allow the people of Beit Sheโ€™an, nor the people of Beit Haifa, nor the people of Tivonin to pass before the ark in order to lead the service because they pronounce alef as ayin and ayin as alef, and they thereby distort the meaning of the prayers.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืžืœื™ ืืชื” ืœื•ื™ ืคืกื•ืœ ืืชื” ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื™ ืงืœืš ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืืฆืœ ื•ื—ื›ื™ืชื™ ืœื”ืณ ืœื ื ืžืฆืืช ืžื—ืจืฃ ื•ืžื’ื“ืฃ

The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคiyya once said to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: If you were a Levite, you would be disqualified from singing on the platform in the Temple courtyard because your voice is thick. Offended by this remark, Rabbi Shimon went and told his father, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what Rabbi แธคiyya had said. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Go and say to him: When you study and reach the verse: โ€œAnd I will wait upon [veแธฅikkiti] the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 8:17), will you not be a maligner and a blasphemer? Rabbi แธคiyya, who was from Babylonia, was unable to differentiate between the letters แธฅet and heh, and he would therefore pronounce the word veแธฅikkiti as vehikkiti, which means: And I will strike.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื–ื‘ืœื’ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื”ื•ื” ืคืจื™ืก ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื–ื‘ืœื’ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rav Huna said: A priest whose eyes constantly run with tears may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t there a certain priest with this condition in the neighborhood of Rav Huna, and he would spread his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That priest was a familiar figure in his town. Since the other residents were accustomed to seeing him, he would not draw their attention during the Priestly Benediction. This is also taught in a baraita: One whose eyes run should not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is a familiar figure in his town, he is permitted to do so.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกื•ืžื ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืขื™ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืคืจื™ืก ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืกื•ืžื ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืขื™ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction because people will gaze at him. The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t there a certain priest who was blind in one eye in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and he would lift his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That priest was a familiar figure in his town, and therefore he would not attract attention during the Priestly Benediction. This is also taught in a baraita: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is a familiar figure in his town, he is permitted to do so.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฆื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื ืื ืจื•ื‘ ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืžืœืื›ืชืŸ ื‘ื›ืš ืžื•ืชืจ

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda said: One whose hands are colored should not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. It was taught in a baraita: If most of the townspeople are engaged in this occupation, dyeing, he is permitted to recite the Priestly Benediction, as the congregation will not pay attention to his stained hands.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื‘ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืกื ื“ืœ ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืœื ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ

MISHNA: One who says: I will not pass before the ark to lead the prayer service in colored garments, may not pass before the ark to lead the prayer service even in white garments. There is concern that one who insists on wearing clothing of a specific color during his prayers is a heretic and therefore unfit to lead the service. Similarly, if one says: I will not pass before the ark wearing sandals, he may not pass before it even barefoot, as he is not acting in accordance with the teachings of the Sages.

ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืขื’ื•ืœื” ืกื›ื ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื ืชื ื” ืขืœ ืžืฆื—ื• ืื• ืขืœ ืคืก ื™ื“ื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื™ืคืŸ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื ืชื ื” ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ืฉืœื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื

One who constructs his phylacteries in a round shape exposes himself to danger during times of persecution, when foreign governments impose a ban on the mitzva of phylacteries, and yet he does not fulfill the mitzva to don phylacteries, as phylacteries must be square. If one placed the phylacteries worn on the head on his forehead, and not in its proper place above his hairline, or if he placed the phylacteries worn on the arm on his palm, and not on his biceps, this is the way of the heretics, i.e., those who reject the tradition of the Sages with regard to the proper placement of the phylacteries. If one plated his phylacteries with gold or placed the phylacteries worn on the arm on the outside of his sleeve [unkeli], this is the way of the outsiders, i.e., those who do not take part in the traditions of the Jewish people.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžื ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื ื–ืจืงื” ื‘ื•

GEMARA: What is the reason that one who wishes to pray only with white clothes or barefoot is not permitted to lead the prayer? We are concerned that perhaps he has been imbued with heresy, as these are the practices of idolaters. He is therefore barred from leading the service.

ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืขื’ื•ืœื” ืกื›ื ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ืœื™ืžื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืคืœื™ืŸ ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืชืคืจืŸ ื•ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ื ืŸ

We learned in the mishna: One who constructs his phylacteries in a round shape exposes himself to danger and does not fulfill the mitzva to don phylacteries. The Gemara comments: Let us say that we already learned in this mishna that which the Sages taught in a baraita: The requirement that phylacteries must be square is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. And Rava said about this: Square means along their seams and their diagonals [alakhsonan], i.e., they must be perfectly square. It would seem that all this was already stated in the mishna, which says that round phylacteries are disqualified.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื›ื™ ืืžื’ื•ื–ื

Rav Pappa said: It is possible to understand that the mishna is referring to phylacteries that one constructed to be round like a nut, i.e., in the shape of a ball. However, the mishna does not indicate that the phylacteries must be square, as it does not address the case of phylacteries that are rounded but not a true sphere.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืื•ืžืจ

MISHNA: If one says in his prayers:

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Megillah 24

ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืื—ื“

And with regard to the Prophets, one may read to the translator three verses at a time. With respect to the Torah, an incorrect translation might lead to an error in practice, but this concern does not apply to the Prophets. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, that is to say, if each verse is a paragraph in itself, one must read them to the translator one by one.

ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืœื’ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation while the reader is still rolling the scroll to the new location. The reader may not cause the congregation to wait for him after the translator has finished, as that would be disrespectful to the congregation.

ื’ืžืณ ื”ื ื™ ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ืŸ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื›ื ื’ื“ ืชื•ืจื” ื ื‘ื™ืื™ื ื•ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Corresponding to what were these three verses, i.e., the minimal Torah reading, instituted? Rav Asi said: They correspond to the Torah, Prophets, and Writings.

ื•ืœื ื™ืงืจื ืœืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืคืกื•ืง ืื—ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœืฉื” ืคืกื•ืงื™ื ื•ืื ื”ื™ื• ืฉืœืฉืชืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืคืจืฉื™ื•ืช ืงื•ืจื ืื—ื“ ืื—ื“ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ื—ื ื ื ืžื›ืจืชื ื›ื™ ื›ื” ืืžืจ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ืžืฆืจื™ื ื™ืจื“ ืขืžื™ ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื•ืขืชื” ืžื” ืœื™ ืคื” ื ืื ื”ืณ

We learned in the mishna: And when it is being translated, one should not read to the translator more than one verse at a time. And with regard to the Prophets, he may read to the translator three verses at a time. If the three verses constitute three separate paragraphs, he must read them to the translator separately, for example, the verses: โ€œFor thus says the Lord, You were sold for naughtโ€ (Isaiah 52:3); โ€œFor thus says the Lord God, at first My people went down to Egyptโ€ (Isaiah 52:4); โ€œNow therefore what have I here, says the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 52:5). These are three adjacent verses, each one constituting an independent paragraph.

ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ืงื•ืจื ืื—ืจื™ ืžื•ืช ื•ืืš ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื“ืœื’

ยง We learned further in the mishna: One may skip from one place to another while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip from one place to another while reading the Torah. The Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Yoma 68b): On Yom Kippur, the High Priest reads the section beginning with the verse: โ€œAfter the deathโ€ (Leviticus 16:1), and then he reads the section beginning with the verse: โ€œOnly on the tenth dayโ€ (Leviticus 23:27). Doesnโ€™t he skip from the first section to the second section?

ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ื•ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

Abaye said: This is not difficult. Here, where it says that one may not skip in the Torah, the translator will conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. There, where it is permitted to skip, the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

ื•ื”ื ืขืœื” ืงืชื ื™ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ื”ื•ื ืžื“ืœื’ ืขื“ ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื›ืœืœ ื›ืœืœ ืœื

The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t it taught in the mishna with regard to that issue: One may skip while reading the Prophets, but one may not skip while reading the Torah. How far may he skip? As far as he can, provided that the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading. This applies to reading the Prophets; it therefore proves by inference that while reading the Torah one may not skip at all.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืฉืชื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื•ืช ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื‘ืขื ื™ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื‘ืฉื ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ื›ืืŸ ื•ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืฉืœื ื™ืคืกื•ืง ื”ืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ

Rather, Abaye said it is not difficult for a different reason: Here, where it says that the High Priest skipped from one section to another, it was permitted because the two sections address one topic. There, where the mishna says one may not skip while reading the Torah, it is where the two sections address two distinct topics. And so it is explicitly taught in a baraita: One may skip from one section to another while reading the Torah if the two sections address one topic, and in the Prophets one may skip even if the two sections address two distinct topics. Both here and there, with regard to the Torah and the Prophets, one may skip only if the translator will not conclude his translation before the reader is ready to continue reading.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื’ื™ืŸ ืžื ื‘ื™ื ืœื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ืฉืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ืžื“ืœื’ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื“ืœื’ ืžืกื•ืฃ ื”ืกืคืจ ืœืชื—ื™ืœืชื•

It is taught in another baraita: One may not skip from prophet to prophet, i.e., from one book of Prophets to another, even if the selections address the same topic. However, one may skip from one prophet to another among the twelve books of Prophets, which are grouped together, provided that he does not skip from the end of the book to the beginning, i.e., that he does not read a later section and then an earlier section.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืžืคื˜ื™ืจ ื‘ื ื‘ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื”ื•ื ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ื”ื•ื ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืจื‘ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื•

MISHNA: The one who concludes with a reading from the Prophets [haftara] is also the one who is honored to recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he passes before the ark to repeat the Amida prayer, and if he is a priest he lifts his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, who may read the haftara but is not qualified to lead the congregation in prayer, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place.

ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

A minor may read the Torah in public and also translate the text for the congregation into Aramaic, but he may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer, and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction.

ืคื•ื—ื— ืคื•ืจืก ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื ื• ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

One whose limbs are exposed [poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ] may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah out of respect for the Torah; he may not pass before the ark to lead the congregation in prayer; and he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction out of respect for the congregation.

ืกื•ืžื ืคื•ืจืก ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ืฉืœื ืจืื” ืžืื•ืจื•ืช ืžื™ืžื™ื• ืื™ื ื• ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข

One who is blind may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries, the sun, moon, and stars, in his life, i.e., he was blind from birth, may not recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema. The first of the blessings before Shema is the blessing over the luminaries, and one who has never seen them cannot recite the blessing at all.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืืชื™ ืœืื™ื ืฆื•ื™ื™

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the one who reads the haftara is honored with these other roles? Rav Pappa said: It is due to a desire to grant him honor. Since even minors are qualified to read the haftara, it was considered an insult for a person to be called up to read the haftara rather than be called up as one of those needed to read the Torah. Since he was willing to serve in this role, he is granted other, more honorable roles in the synagogue. Rabba bar Shimi said a different reason: It is due to a concern that they will come to quarrel, as the individual who read the haftara will quarrel with the individual honored to lead the congregation in prayer.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื‘ื—ื ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them where the one who passes before the ark does so free of charge. In that case, there is still a need to grant the one who read the haftara honor, but it is not likely that they will quarrel.

ืชื ืŸ ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ืงื˜ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ืื• ืจื‘ื• ืขื•ื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื• ืื™ ืืžืจืช ืžืฉื•ื ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื

We learned in the mishna: And if the one who reads the haftara is a minor, his father or teacher is honored to pass before the ark in his place. If you say that the reason the reader of the haftara passes before the ark is due to a concern that they will quarrel, will a minor engage in quarreling? He has no valid claim to the right to pass before the ark. Consequently, the concern for strife must not be the reason for the halakha stated in the mishna.

ืืœื ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ื•ื ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืจื‘ื•

The Gemara rejects this argument: Rather, what is the reason; is it due to honor? Does a minor have honor that is slighted when he reads the haftara and therefore must be assuaged? Rather, according to Rav Pappa it is a display of honor to his father and his teacher.

ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืื™ื›ื ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ื ืฆื•ื™ื™ ืจื‘ื•

Here, also, according to Rabba bar Shimi, it is to prevent his father or teacher from quarreling.

ืคื•ื—ื— ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืขื•ืœื ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ืžืื‘ื™ื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืคื•ื—ื— ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงืจื ื‘ืชื•ืจื”

ยง We learned in the mishna: One whose limbs are exposed [poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ] may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah. Ulla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Abaye: What is the halakha with regard to whether a minor whose limbs are exposed may read from the Torah? Can it be argued that a minorโ€™s bare limbs do not fall under the category of nakedness, and therefore it is permitted for him to read the Torah despite the fact that parts of his body are exposed?

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืชื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœืš ืขืจื•ื ืขืจื•ื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืœื ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

Abaye said to him: And according to this reasoning, raise the dilemma with regard to a minor who is totally naked. What is the reason that a minor who is naked may not read the Torah? It is due to respect for the public. Here, too, a poแธฅeโ€™aแธฅ may not read from the Torah due to respect for the public.

ืกื•ืžื ืคื•ืจืก ืขืœ ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจื• ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืจื‘ื” ืฆืคื• ืœื“ืจื•ืฉ ื‘ืžืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืจืื• ืื•ืชื” ืžื™ืžื™ื”ื

The mishna continues: One who is blind may recite the introductory prayers and blessing before Shema, and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries in his life may not recite the first of the blessings before Shema, which is the blessing over the luminaries. It is taught in a baraita that they said to Rabbi Yehuda: Many have seen enough with their mind to expound upon the Divine Chariot, although they have never actually seen it. Similarly, even one who has never seen the luminaries may recite the blessing.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ืชื ื‘ืื‘ื ืชื ื“ืœื™ื‘ื ืชืœื™ื ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ื”ื ืงื ืžื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื•ื™ื“ืข ื”ื›ื ืžืฉื•ื ื”ื ืื” ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ื ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืื”

And how does Rabbi Yehuda counter this argument? He can say that there, with regard to the Chariot, the matter depends upon the heartโ€™s comprehension, and one can concentrate his mind and understand the Chariot even if he has never actually seen it. But here, with regard to the luminaries, the blessing is recited due to the benefit one derives from them, and one who is blind does not derive any benefit from them, and therefore he may not recite a blessing over them.

ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื”ื ืื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื›ืœ ื™ืžื™ ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžืฆื˜ืขืจ ืขืœ ืžืงืจื ื–ื” ื•ื”ื™ื™ืช ืžืžืฉืฉ ื‘ืฆื”ืจื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื™ืžืฉืฉ ื”ืขื•ืจ ื‘ืืคืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ืžื” ืื›ืคืช ืœื™ื” ืœืขื•ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื” ืœืื•ืจื”

And the Rabbis maintain that even a blind man derives benefit from the luminaries, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei said: All of my life I was troubled by this verse, which I did not understand: โ€œAnd you shall grope at noon as the blind man gropes in the darknessโ€ (Deuteronomy 28:29). I was perplexed: What does it matter to a blind person whether it is dark or light? He cannot see in any event, so why does the verse speak about a blind man in the darkness?

ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืžืขืฉื” ืœื™ื“ื™ ืคืขื ืื—ืช ื”ื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ืื™ืฉื•ืŸ ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืืคืœื” ื•ืจืื™ืชื™ ืกื•ืžื ืฉื”ื™ื” ืžื”ืœืš ื‘ื“ืจืš ื•ืื‘ื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืืžืจืชื™ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ืื‘ื•ืงื” ื–ื• ืœืžื” ืœืš ืืžืจ ืœื™ ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื‘ื•ืงื” ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืจื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ื•ืžืฆื™ืœื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืคื—ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื‘ืจืงื ื™ืŸ

I continued to ponder the matter until the following incident occurred to me. I was once walking in the absolute darkness of the night, and I saw a blind man who was walking on his way with a torch in his hands. I said to him: My son, why do you need this torch if you are blind? He said to me: As long as I have a torch in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles. Even a blind man derives at least indirect benefit from the light, and therefore he may recite the blessing over the heavenly luminaries.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ื”ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ื• ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฆื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืกื˜ื™ืก ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืขื ืžืกืชื›ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื•

MISHNA: A priest who has blemishes on his hands may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. Because of his blemish, people will look at his hands, and it is prohibited to look at the hands of the priests during the Priestly Benediction. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one whose hands were colored with satis, a blue dye, may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction because the congregation will look at him.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ืžื•ืžื™ืŸ ืฉืืžืจื• ื‘ืคื ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื”ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ื•ื”ืงื ื™ื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืขืงื•ืžื•ืช ืขืงื•ืฉื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื•

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: The blemishes that the Sages said disqualify a priest from reciting the Priestly Benediction include any blemishes found on his face, hands, and feet, but not blemishes that are not visible to others. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: If his hands are spotted with white blotches, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: If a priestโ€™s hands are spotted, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, if his hands are curved inward or bent sideways, he may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืกื™ ื—ื™ืคื ื™ (ื•ื‘ืฉื™ื ื™) ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืืŸ ื•ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื™ืคื” ื•ืœื ืื ืฉื™ ื˜ื‘ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืœืืœืคื™ืŸ ืขื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ืœืขื™ื™ื ื™ืŸ ืืœืคื™ืŸ

Apropos the previous discussion, Rav Asi said: A priest from Haifa or Beit Sheโ€™an may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction, as he does not know how to properly pronounce the guttural letters. This is also taught in a baraita: One may not allow the people of Beit Sheโ€™an, nor the people of Beit Haifa, nor the people of Tivonin to pass before the ark in order to lead the service because they pronounce alef as ayin and ayin as alef, and they thereby distort the meaning of the prayers.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืžืœื™ ืืชื” ืœื•ื™ ืคืกื•ืœ ืืชื” ืžืŸ ื”ื“ื•ื›ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืขื‘ื™ ืงืœืš ืืชื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื‘ื•ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื–ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžื’ื™ืข ืืฆืœ ื•ื—ื›ื™ืชื™ ืœื”ืณ ืœื ื ืžืฆืืช ืžื—ืจืฃ ื•ืžื’ื“ืฃ

The Gemara relates that Rabbi แธคiyya once said to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: If you were a Levite, you would be disqualified from singing on the platform in the Temple courtyard because your voice is thick. Offended by this remark, Rabbi Shimon went and told his father, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what Rabbi แธคiyya had said. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Go and say to him: When you study and reach the verse: โ€œAnd I will wait upon [veแธฅikkiti] the Lordโ€ (Isaiah 8:17), will you not be a maligner and a blasphemer? Rabbi แธคiyya, who was from Babylonia, was unable to differentiate between the letters แธฅet and heh, and he would therefore pronounce the word veแธฅikkiti as vehikkiti, which means: And I will strike.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื–ื‘ืœื’ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื”ื•ื” ืคืจื™ืก ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื–ื‘ืœื’ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rav Huna said: A priest whose eyes constantly run with tears may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t there a certain priest with this condition in the neighborhood of Rav Huna, and he would spread his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That priest was a familiar figure in his town. Since the other residents were accustomed to seeing him, he would not draw their attention during the Priestly Benediction. This is also taught in a baraita: One whose eyes run should not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is a familiar figure in his town, he is permitted to do so.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืกื•ืžื ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืขื™ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ื”ื ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื‘ืฉื™ื‘ื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื”ื•ื” ืคืจื™ืก ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ื”ื•ื” ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืกื•ืžื ื‘ืื—ืช ืžืขื™ื ื™ื• ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ื•ืื ื”ื™ื” ื“ืฉ ื‘ืขื™ืจื• ืžื•ืชืจ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction because people will gaze at him. The Gemara asks: Wasnโ€™t there a certain priest who was blind in one eye in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and he would lift his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: That priest was a familiar figure in his town, and therefore he would not attract attention during the Priestly Benediction. This is also taught in a baraita: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands and recite the Priestly Benediction, but if he is a familiar figure in his town, he is permitted to do so.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ื“ื™ื• ืฆื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื›ืคื™ื• ืชื ื ืื ืจื•ื‘ ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืžืœืื›ืชืŸ ื‘ื›ืš ืžื•ืชืจ

We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda said: One whose hands are colored should not lift his hands to recite the Priestly Benediction. It was taught in a baraita: If most of the townspeople are engaged in this occupation, dyeing, he is permitted to recite the Priestly Benediction, as the congregation will not pay attention to his stained hands.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืชื™ื‘ื” ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื‘ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื‘ืกื ื“ืœ ืื™ื ื™ ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืืฃ ื™ื—ืฃ ืœื ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ

MISHNA: One who says: I will not pass before the ark to lead the prayer service in colored garments, may not pass before the ark to lead the prayer service even in white garments. There is concern that one who insists on wearing clothing of a specific color during his prayers is a heretic and therefore unfit to lead the service. Similarly, if one says: I will not pass before the ark wearing sandals, he may not pass before it even barefoot, as he is not acting in accordance with the teachings of the Sages.

ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืขื’ื•ืœื” ืกื›ื ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ื ืชื ื” ืขืœ ืžืฆื—ื• ืื• ืขืœ ืคืก ื™ื“ื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื™ืคืŸ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื ืชื ื” ืขืœ ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ืฉืœื• ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื

One who constructs his phylacteries in a round shape exposes himself to danger during times of persecution, when foreign governments impose a ban on the mitzva of phylacteries, and yet he does not fulfill the mitzva to don phylacteries, as phylacteries must be square. If one placed the phylacteries worn on the head on his forehead, and not in its proper place above his hairline, or if he placed the phylacteries worn on the arm on his palm, and not on his biceps, this is the way of the heretics, i.e., those who reject the tradition of the Sages with regard to the proper placement of the phylacteries. If one plated his phylacteries with gold or placed the phylacteries worn on the arm on the outside of his sleeve [unkeli], this is the way of the outsiders, i.e., those who do not take part in the traditions of the Jewish people.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื—ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืŸ ืฉืžื ืžื™ื ื•ืช ื ื–ืจืงื” ื‘ื•

GEMARA: What is the reason that one who wishes to pray only with white clothes or barefoot is not permitted to lead the prayer? We are concerned that perhaps he has been imbued with heresy, as these are the practices of idolaters. He is therefore barred from leading the service.

ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืชืคืœืชื• ืขื’ื•ืœื” ืกื›ื ื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืžืฆื•ื” ืœื™ืžื ืชื ื™ื ื ืœื”ื ื“ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชืคืœื™ืŸ ืžืจื•ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื‘ืชืคืจืŸ ื•ื‘ืืœื›ืกื•ื ืŸ

We learned in the mishna: One who constructs his phylacteries in a round shape exposes himself to danger and does not fulfill the mitzva to don phylacteries. The Gemara comments: Let us say that we already learned in this mishna that which the Sages taught in a baraita: The requirement that phylacteries must be square is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. And Rava said about this: Square means along their seams and their diagonals [alakhsonan], i.e., they must be perfectly square. It would seem that all this was already stated in the mishna, which says that round phylacteries are disqualified.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืžืชื ื™ืชื™ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื›ื™ ืืžื’ื•ื–ื

Rav Pappa said: It is possible to understand that the mishna is referring to phylacteries that one constructed to be round like a nut, i.e., in the shape of a ball. However, the mishna does not indicate that the phylacteries must be square, as it does not address the case of phylacteries that are rounded but not a true sphere.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื”ืื•ืžืจ

MISHNA: If one says in his prayers:

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