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Today's Daf Yomi

January 6, 2022 | ื“ืณ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.ย 

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

Megillah 25

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Rivkah Isseroff in loving memory of her mother, Gittel Bas Sarah v’Rav Zev Friedman Ha’levi, on the occasion of her Shloshim. โ€œShe was the sole survivor of her family of 8 who were murdered in the Shoah. She survived 2 years in Auschwitz between the ages of 14 and16, and went on to fulfill her father’s tefillah asking for the survival of one family member so that the family would not be extinguished. She founded a new family now numbering 16 grandchildren and 30 great-grandchildren. May she be a Melitzat Yosher for all.โ€

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Harriet Hartman in loving memory of Baruch Wertzberger on his 3rd Yahrzeit โ€œHe was my husbandโ€™s (zโ€™l) longest and best friend, whose devotion to Torah learning and Tefillah inspired me to grow closer to the depth of understanding what Daf Yomi brings.โ€

The Mishna lists phrases that if said in one’s prayers, they could be misunderstood and therefore one is silenced. Some relate to things that may appear heretical (appearing to say there is more than one God) and others relate to misinterpretation of verses or of commandments. A few statements of Rabbi Chanina are brought. One should not add a list of praises to God in the first blessing of Shmone Esreh on top of the ones mentioned there. Why? In addition, he said that all is in the hands of God other than the fear of God. From where is this derived? There are certain texts from the Tanach that should not be read or can be read but not translated? For what reasons are there to censor parts of Tanach? A braita lists which sections can be read and translated can be read but not translated and neither. Why is it important to list ones that can be read and translated? Why would we have thought they couldn’t be read or translated? Verses that use words that are obscene or harsh are replaced by a milder version of the word. However, if they are used to describe idol worship, one can use the more harsh form.

 

ื™ื‘ืจื›ื•ืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ืš ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื–ื›ืจ ืฉืžืš ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื•

May the good bless You, this is a path of heresy, as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as Your mercy is extended to a birdโ€™s nest, as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6โ€“7), so too extend Your mercy to us; or: May Your name be mentioned with the good; or: We give thanks, we give thanks, twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they silence him.

ื”ืžื›ื ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื–ืจืขืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืœืžื•ืœืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœืืขื‘ืจื ื‘ืืจืžื™ื•ืชื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื ื–ื™ืคื”

If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, they silence him. Similarly, if one says while translating the verse: โ€œAnd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekhโ€ (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke.

ื’ืžืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื–ื™ ื›ืฉืชื™ ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื–ื›ืจ ืฉืžืš ื ืžื™ ื“ืžืฉืžืข ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ืจืข ืœื ื•ืชื ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ืจืขื” ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืืœื ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ืš ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

GEMARA: The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, they silence one who repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears like he is acknowledging and praying to two authorities. And, granted, they also silence one who says: May Your name be mentioned with the good, as this formulation indicates one is thanking God only for the good and not for the bad, and we learned in a mishna (Berakhot 54a): One is obligated to bless God for the bad just as he blesses Him for the good. However, in the case of one who recites: Just as Your mercy is extended to a birdโ€™s nest, what is the reason that they silence him?

ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืชืจื™ ืืžื•ืจืื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื˜ื™ืœ ืงื ืื” ื‘ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื—ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืืœื ื’ื–ื™ืจื•ืช

Two amoraโ€™im in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this question, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One said that this was because one who says this engenders jealousy among Godโ€™s creations, as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. And one said that saying this is prohibited because one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, into expressions of mercy, and they are nothing but decrees of the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื ื—ื™ืช ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืืชื” ื—ืกืช ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ืืชื” ื—ื•ืก ื•ืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื ื• (ืืชื” ื—ืกืช ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ื•ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืืชื” ื—ื•ืก ื•ืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื ื•) ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื›ืžื” ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื™ ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจืฆื•ื™ื™ ืœืžืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืชื ืŸ

The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabba, and said in his prayers: You have shown mercy to birds, as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its nest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercy to animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal and its offspring on the same day; have mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appease the Lord, his Master! Abaye said to him: Didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna that they silence him?

ื•ืจื‘ื” ืœื—ื“ื•ื“ื™ ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื

The Gemara explains: And Rabba, too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because he wanted to hone Abayeโ€™s intellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื ื—ื™ืช ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื”ืืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ื•ืจื ื”ืื“ื™ืจ ื•ื”ื—ื–ืง ื•ื”ืืžื™ืฅ

With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabbi แธคanina. He extended his prayer and said: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืกื™ื™ืžืชื™ื ื”ื• ืœืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื“ืžืจืš ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื ื™ ืชืœืชื ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืžืฉื” ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ืืชื• ื›ื ืกืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื•ืืช ืืžืจืช ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืืœืฃ ืืœืคื™ ืืœืคื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžืงืœืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• (ื‘ืืœืฃ) ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืœื ื’ื ืื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื•

When he finished, Rabbi แธคanina said to him: Have you concluded all of the praises of your Master? Even these three praises that we recite: The great, the mighty, and the awesome, had Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah (Deuteronomy 10:17), and had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated them into the Amida prayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), we would not be permitted to recite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him for owning a thousand silver ones. Isnโ€™t that deprecatory toward him? All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance Godโ€™s honor.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืชื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืฉื•ืืœ ืžืขืžืš ื›ื™ ืื ืœื™ืจืื”

Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi แธคanina, concerning principles of faith. Rabbi แธคanina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven. Man has free will to serve God or not, as it is stated: โ€œAnd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in manโ€™s ability to do so.

ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื™ืจืื” ืžื™ืœืชื ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ื”ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉืžื‘ืงืฉื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื›ืœื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื“ื•ืžื” ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื›ืœื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื“ื•ืžื” ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื›ืœื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara notes: This proves by inference that fear of Heaven is a minor matter, as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: Indeed, for Moses our teacher, fear of Heaven is a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he has one; it seems to him like a small vessel because he owns it. However, one who is asked for just a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel. Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืฉืžืข ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ืžื™

Rabbi Zeira said: One who repeats himself while reciting Shema and says: Listen Israel, listen Israel, is like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื’ื•ื ื” ืžื’ื•ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืฉืชื•ืงื™ ืœื ืžืฉืชืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืžื™ืœืชื ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ืชื ื™ ืœื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืคืกื•ืงื ืคืกื•ืงื ื•ืชื ื™ ืœื”

The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema and repeats it, it is reprehensible. One may infer: It is reprehensible, but they do not silence him. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This case, where one repeats Shema and it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to one who recites and repeats each individual word. In so doing, he ruins the recitation of Shema. However, that case, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats Shema, is referring to one who recites and repeats an entire verse, as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืจื‘ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื ื›ืœืคื™ ืฉืžื™ื ืื™ ืœื ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืžื—ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืืจื–ืคืชื ื“ื ืคื—ื ืขื“ ื“ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื”

Rav Pappa said to Rava with regard to this halakha: And perhaps initially he did not focus his attention on the recitation of Shema and therefore had to repeat it, and now he focused his attention. Rava said to him: Can one have that degree of familiarity with Heaven, to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? If he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmithโ€™s hammer until he focuses his attention, as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.

ื”ืžื›ื ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืชื ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืœื•ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืงืœื•ืŸ ืืžื•

We learned in the mishna: If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taught that this is referring to one who says: The shame of his father and the shame of his mother, instead of: โ€œThe nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncoverโ€ (Leviticus 18:7).

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื–ืจืขืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ืžืžื ื” ื‘ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ

We learned in the mishna: If one says, while translating the verse: โ€œAnd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekhโ€ (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that the verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a son who will be raised to engage in idol worship.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืขืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ืžืขืฉื” ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื ืงืจืื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ

MISHNA: The incident of Reuben, about which it says: โ€œAnd Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his fatherโ€™s concubineโ€ (Genesis 35:22), is read from the Torah in public but not translated, so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. The incident of Tamar (Genesis, chapter 38) is read in public and also translated. The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf, i.e., the Torahโ€™s account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1โ€“20), is read and translated, but the second narrative, i.e., Aaronโ€™s report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21โ€“24) is read but not translated. The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:24โ€“26) and the incident of David and Amnon (IIย Samuel, chapter 13) are read, but not translated.

ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืชื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื

One may not conclude the Torah reading with by reading from the Prophets the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel, chapterย 1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. And Rabbi Yehuda permits it. Rabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude with section from the Prophets beginning with: โ€œMake known to Jerusalem her abominationsโ€ (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืืœื• ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืœืช ืขืงืŸ ื ืฉืคื” ืกื™ืžืŸ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta (3:31): There are portions of the Bible that are read and translated; there are portions that are read but not translated; and there are portions that are neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated: The Hebrew acronym bet, lamed, tav; ayin, kuf, nun; nun, shin, peh, heh comprise a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.

ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืืชื• ืœืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ืžื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžื” ืœืžื˜ื”

The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section of the act of Creation [bereshit], alluded to by the letter bet, is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if the story of the Creation is read in public people will come to ask questions that should not be asked, for instance: What is above and what is below,

ื•ืžื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื” ืœืื—ื•ืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

what was before Creation and what is after, i.e., what will be at the end of time, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that the act of Creation is read in public.

ืžืขืฉื” ืœื•ื˜ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ืื‘ืจื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated. The name Lot begins with a lamed, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Abraham, as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืžืขืฉื” ืชืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื•ื“ื™

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Tamar, beginning with a tav, and Judah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Judah, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story is to his credit, as he confessed to his sin.

ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ื ื™ื—ื ืœื”ื• ื“ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ืคืจื”

The Tosefta continues: The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf [egel] is read and translated. Egel begins with the letter ayin, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that all the more so is it amenable to them that the matter be publicized, so that they will achieve atonement through their shame.

ืงืœืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ื“ืœืžื ืคื™ื™ื’ื ื“ืขืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta states: The curses [kelalot] and blessings are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayed by the many curses, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืื–ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื ืฉื™ืŸ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ื“ืœืžื ืืชื• ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืžื™ืจืื” ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The warnings and punishments [onashin], alluded to in the first nun of the mnemonic mentioned above, are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if this section is read aloud, people will come to act out of fear and keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืžืขืฉื” ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื [ืžืขืฉื” ืื‘ืฉืœื•ื ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื] ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื™ื” ื“ื“ื•ื“ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

It is further taught: The incident of Amnon and Tamar, alluded to in the second nun in the mnemonic mentioned above, is read and translated. Additionally, the incident of Absalom is read and translated, alluded to in the shin of the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of David, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

ืžืขืฉื” ืคื™ืœื’ืฉ ื‘ื’ื‘ืขื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The incident of the concubine [pilegesh] in Gibeah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the tribe of Benjamin, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืืช ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืจื ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืืช ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉืืชื” ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืฆื ื•ื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืช ืืžืš ื‘ื“ืงื• ืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ื‘ื• ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ

The Tosefta continues: The section of: โ€œMake known [hoda] to Jerusalem her abominationsโ€ (Ezekiel 16:2) is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: This is needed to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who held that this chapter may not be read as a haftara, as it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident with regard to a certain man who was reading the haftara in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he read the section of: โ€œMake known to Jerusalem her abominations.โ€ Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of your own mother. The Gemara relates that they examined his lineage and found him to have a stain of illegitimacy. His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.

ื•ืืœื• ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ (ืจืขื‘ื“ืŸ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ืžืขืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉื”ืœืš ืœื›ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืจื ื—ื–ืŸ ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืœืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ (ื”ืคืกืง) ืืœ ืชืชืจื’ื ืืœื ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื—ื•ื”ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื

The Tosefta also states: And these sections are read but are not translated. The acrostic composed of the letters reish, ayin, bet, dalet, nun is a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The Tosefta states that the incident of Reuben is read but not translated. The name Reuben begins with a reish, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was an incident involving Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel, who went to the village of Kavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: โ€œAnd it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his fatherโ€™s concubine; and Israel heard of itโ€ (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi แธคanina said to the translator: Stop, translate only the end of the verse. And the Sages praised him for this.

ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ืื™ื–ื” ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืฉื ื™ ืžืŸ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื•ื™ืจื ืžืฉื”

The Tosefta continues: The second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf is read but not translated. Egel, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an ayin, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: What is the second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf? Aaronโ€™s account of what had taken place, from โ€œAnd Moses said to Aaronโ€ (Exodus 32:21) until โ€œAnd Moses sawโ€ (Exodus 32:25).

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื”ื ืื“ื ื–ื”ื™ืจ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืžืชื•ืš ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉื”ืฉื™ื‘ื• ืื”ืจืŸ ืœืžืฉื” ืคืงืจื• ื”ืžืขืจืขืจื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืฉืœื™ื›ื”ื• ื‘ืืฉ ื•ื™ืฆื ื”ืขื’ืœ ื”ื–ื”

With regard to Aaronโ€™s account, the Gemara cites that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful in the way he formulates his responses, as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, as, for example, based on Aaronโ€™s response to Moses, the skeptics renounced their religious beliefs. It is stated in Aaronโ€™s response: โ€œAnd I cast it into the fire and this calf came forthโ€ (Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.

ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉื

We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction [birkat kohanim] are read but not translated. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara explains that it is because it is written: โ€œMay the Lord lift up His countenance to youโ€ (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.

ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืœื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืžืขืฉื” ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืกืชืžื

We also learned in the mishna: The incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated. Davidโ€™s name begins with a dalet, the next letter in the mnemonic; nun, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnonโ€™s name. The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t you say in the Tosefta that the incident of Amnon and Tamar is both read and translated? The Gemara explains that this is not difficult. This statement of the mishna applies where Amnonโ€™s name is written: Amnon, son of David. That statement of the Tosefta applies where it is written simply as Amnon.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื’ื ืื™ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืฉื‘ื— ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉื’ืœื ื” ื™ืฉื›ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืขืคื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื˜ื—ื•ืจื™ื ื—ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืืช ื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ ืฉื™ื ื™ื”ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืืช ืฆื•ืืชื ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: All of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example, the term โ€œshall lie with her [yishgalena]โ€ (Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said yishkavena, which is a more refined term. The term โ€œwith hemorrhoids [bafolim]โ€ (Deuteronomy 28:27) is read bateแธฅorim. The term โ€œdovesโ€™ dung [แธฅiryonim]โ€ (IIย Kings 6:25) is read divyonim. The phrase โ€œto eat their own excrement [แธฅoreihem] and drink their own urine [meimei shineihem]โ€ (IIย Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: To eat their own excrement [tzoโ€™atam] and drink their own urine [meimei ragleihem].

ืœืžื—ืจืื•ืช ืœืžื•ืฆืื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื—ืจืื•ืช ื›ืฉืžืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ื ืื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื”

The term โ€œinto latrines [lemoแธฅraโ€™ot]โ€ (IIย Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined lemotzaโ€™ot. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: Lemoแธฅaraโ€™ot is read as it is written because it is used here as an expression of contempt for idol worship, and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื›ืœ ืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื ืืกื™ืจื ื‘ืจ ืžืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ืฉืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืจืข ื‘ืœ ืงืจืก ื ื‘ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืงืจืกื• ื›ืจืขื• ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ื›ืœื• ืžืœื˜ ืžืฉื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ืœืขื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸ ื™ื’ื•ืจื• ืฉื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ืื‘ืœ ืขืœื™ื• ืขืžื• ื•ื›ืžืจื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื™ื’ื™ืœื• ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื›ื™ ื’ืœื” ืžืžื ื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ืืœื ื›ื‘ื™ื“ื•

Similarly, Rav Naแธฅman said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: โ€œBel bows down, Nevo stoopsโ€ (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: โ€œThey stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burdenโ€ (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: โ€œThe inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from itโ€ (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as โ€œits glory [kevodo],โ€ rather read it as its burden [keveido], meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ืžื ื•ื— ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื’ื•ื™ ืฉืงืœื™ื” ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ืื ื—ื™ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืŸ ืชื™ื• ืฉืœื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืกื ืื™ ืฉื•ืžืขื ื™ื” ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ื–ื•ื™ื™ื” ื‘ื’ื™ืžืœ ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉืคื™ืจ ืฉื•ืžืขื ื™ื” ืฉืจื™ ืœืฉื‘ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื™ื ื•ื—ื• ืœื• ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืขืœ ืจืืฉื•

Rav Huna bar Manoaแธฅ said in the name of Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your shin tav, i.e., shet, buttocks. Rav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished, i.e., he is known as a philanderer, it is permitted to humiliate him by calling him gimmel sin, an acronym for girta sarya, son of a putrid harlot. One whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted to publicly praise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ืขื•ืžื“

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืจื—ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืชื™ื‘ื” ืชื™ื‘ื” ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืคื—ื•ืช ืžื˜ืคื—ื•ืช

MISHNA: Residents of a town who sold the town square, which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore purchase a synagogue with the proceeds of the sale. If they sold a synagogue, they may purchase an ark in which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold an ark, they may purchase wrapping cloths for the sacred scrolls. If they sold wrapping cloths,

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicatedย by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

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Megillah 25

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 25

ื™ื‘ืจื›ื•ืš ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื”ืจื™ ื–ื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื ื•ืช ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ืš ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื–ื›ืจ ืฉืžืš ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื•

May the good bless You, this is a path of heresy, as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as Your mercy is extended to a birdโ€™s nest, as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6โ€“7), so too extend Your mercy to us; or: May Your name be mentioned with the good; or: We give thanks, we give thanks, twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they silence him.

ื”ืžื›ื ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื–ืจืขืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ืœืžื•ืœืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœืืขื‘ืจื ื‘ืืจืžื™ื•ืชื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื ื–ื™ืคื”

If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, they silence him. Similarly, if one says while translating the verse: โ€œAnd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekhโ€ (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke.

ื’ืžืณ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื–ื™ ื›ืฉืชื™ ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื•ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื™ื–ื›ืจ ืฉืžืš ื ืžื™ ื“ืžืฉืžืข ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืื™ืŸ ื•ืขืœ ืจืข ืœื ื•ืชื ืŸ ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืื“ื ืœื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ืจืขื” ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื‘ืจืš ืขืœ ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืืœื ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ื™ื’ื™ืขื• ืจื—ืžื™ืš ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

GEMARA: The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, they silence one who repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears like he is acknowledging and praying to two authorities. And, granted, they also silence one who says: May Your name be mentioned with the good, as this formulation indicates one is thanking God only for the good and not for the bad, and we learned in a mishna (Berakhot 54a): One is obligated to bless God for the bad just as he blesses Him for the good. However, in the case of one who recites: Just as Your mercy is extended to a birdโ€™s nest, what is the reason that they silence him?

ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืชืจื™ ืืžื•ืจืื™ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื–ื‘ื™ื“ื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื˜ื™ืœ ืงื ืื” ื‘ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืขื•ืฉื” ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื—ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ื ืŸ ืืœื ื’ื–ื™ืจื•ืช

Two amoraโ€™im in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this question, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One said that this was because one who says this engenders jealousy among Godโ€™s creations, as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. And one said that saying this is prohibited because one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, into expressions of mercy, and they are nothing but decrees of the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื ื—ื™ืช ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื” ืืžืจ ืืชื” ื—ืกืช ืขืœ ืงืŸ ืฆืคื•ืจ ืืชื” ื—ื•ืก ื•ืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื ื• (ืืชื” ื—ืกืช ืขืœ ืื•ืชื• ื•ืืช ื‘ื ื• ืืชื” ื—ื•ืก ื•ืจื—ื ืขืœื™ื ื•) ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื›ืžื” ื™ื“ืข ื”ืื™ ืžืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจืฆื•ื™ื™ ืœืžืจื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืชื ืŸ

The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabba, and said in his prayers: You have shown mercy to birds, as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its nest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercy to animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal and its offspring on the same day; have mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appease the Lord, his Master! Abaye said to him: Didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna that they silence him?

ื•ืจื‘ื” ืœื—ื“ื•ื“ื™ ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื

The Gemara explains: And Rabba, too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because he wanted to hone Abayeโ€™s intellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.

ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื ื—ื™ืช ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื”ืืœ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื”ื ื•ืจื ื”ืื“ื™ืจ ื•ื”ื—ื–ืง ื•ื”ืืžื™ืฅ

With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabbi แธคanina. He extended his prayer and said: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืกื™ื™ืžืชื™ื ื”ื• ืœืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื“ืžืจืš ื”ืฉืชื ื”ื ื™ ืชืœืชื ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืžืฉื” ื‘ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื•ืืชื• ื›ื ืกืช ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื•ืชืงื ื™ื ื”ื• ืื ืŸ ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื•ืืช ืืžืจืช ื›ื•ืœื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉื”ื™ื• ืœื• ืืœืฃ ืืœืคื™ ืืœืคื™ื ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื–ื”ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื• ืžืงืœืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• (ื‘ืืœืฃ) ื“ื™ื ืจื™ ื›ืกืฃ ืœื ื’ื ืื™ ื”ื•ื ืœื•

When he finished, Rabbi แธคanina said to him: Have you concluded all of the praises of your Master? Even these three praises that we recite: The great, the mighty, and the awesome, had Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah (Deuteronomy 10:17), and had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated them into the Amida prayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), we would not be permitted to recite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him for owning a thousand silver ones. Isnโ€™t that deprecatory toward him? All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance Godโ€™s honor.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื”ื›ืœ ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืžื™ืจืืช ืฉืžื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืชื” ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ืฉื•ืืœ ืžืขืžืš ื›ื™ ืื ืœื™ืจืื”

Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi แธคanina, concerning principles of faith. Rabbi แธคanina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven. Man has free will to serve God or not, as it is stated: โ€œAnd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in manโ€™s ability to do so.

ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื™ืจืื” ืžื™ืœืชื ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ื”ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืœื’ื‘ื™ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืžื™ืœืชื ื–ื•ื˜ืจืชื™ ื”ื™ื ืžืฉืœ ืœืื“ื ืฉืžื‘ืงืฉื™ืŸ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ื›ืœื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื“ื•ืžื” ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื›ืœื™ ืงื˜ืŸ ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ื“ื•ืžื” ืขืœื™ื• ื›ื›ืœื™ ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara notes: This proves by inference that fear of Heaven is a minor matter, as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: Indeed, for Moses our teacher, fear of Heaven is a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he has one; it seems to him like a small vessel because he owns it. However, one who is asked for just a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel. Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื”ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืžืข ืฉืžืข ื›ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ื“ื™ื ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื“ืžื™

Rabbi Zeira said: One who repeats himself while reciting Shema and says: Listen Israel, listen Israel, is like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ืฉืžืข ื•ื›ื•ืคืœื” ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื’ื•ื ื” ืžื’ื•ื ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื”ื•ื™ ืฉืชื•ืงื™ ืœื ืžืฉืชืงื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืžื™ืœืชื ืžื™ืœืชื ื•ืชื ื™ ืœื” ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืคืกื•ืงื ืคืกื•ืงื ื•ืชื ื™ ืœื”

The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema and repeats it, it is reprehensible. One may infer: It is reprehensible, but they do not silence him. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This case, where one repeats Shema and it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to one who recites and repeats each individual word. In so doing, he ruins the recitation of Shema. However, that case, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats Shema, is referring to one who recites and repeats an entire verse, as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืจื‘ื ื•ื“ืœืžื ืžืขื™ืงืจื ืœื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื—ื‘ืจื•ืชื ื›ืœืคื™ ืฉืžื™ื ืื™ ืœื ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื” ืžื—ื™ื ื ืœื™ื” ื‘ืืจื–ืคืชื ื“ื ืคื—ื ืขื“ ื“ืžื›ื•ื™ืŸ ื“ืขืชื™ื”

Rav Pappa said to Rava with regard to this halakha: And perhaps initially he did not focus his attention on the recitation of Shema and therefore had to repeat it, and now he focused his attention. Rava said to him: Can one have that degree of familiarity with Heaven, to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? If he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmithโ€™s hammer until he focuses his attention, as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.

ื”ืžื›ื ื” ื‘ืขืจื™ื•ืช ืžืฉืชืงื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ืชื ื ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืœื•ืŸ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืงืœื•ืŸ ืืžื•

We learned in the mishna: If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taught that this is referring to one who says: The shame of his father and the shame of his mother, instead of: โ€œThe nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncoverโ€ (Leviticus 18:7).

ื”ืื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื–ืจืขืš ืœื ืชืชืŸ ืœื”ืขื‘ื™ืจ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื‘ื ืขืœ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื” ื•ื”ื•ืœื™ื“ ืžืžื ื” ื‘ืŸ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืžื“ื‘ืจ

We learned in the mishna: If one says, while translating the verse: โ€œAnd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekhโ€ (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that the verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a son who will be raised to engage in idol worship.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžืขืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ืžืขืฉื” ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ื•ื”ืฉื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื ืงืจืื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ

MISHNA: The incident of Reuben, about which it says: โ€œAnd Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his fatherโ€™s concubineโ€ (Genesis 35:22), is read from the Torah in public but not translated, so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. The incident of Tamar (Genesis, chapter 38) is read in public and also translated. The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf, i.e., the Torahโ€™s account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1โ€“20), is read and translated, but the second narrative, i.e., Aaronโ€™s report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21โ€“24) is read but not translated. The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:24โ€“26) and the incident of David and Amnon (IIย Samuel, chapter 13) are read, but not translated.

ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืžืจื›ื‘ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืชื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืคื˜ื™ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื

One may not conclude the Torah reading with by reading from the Prophets the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel, chapterย 1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. And Rabbi Yehuda permits it. Rabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude with section from the Prophets beginning with: โ€œMake known to Jerusalem her abominationsโ€ (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื™ืฉ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืœื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืืœื• ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืœืช ืขืงืŸ ื ืฉืคื” ืกื™ืžืŸ

GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta (3:31): There are portions of the Bible that are read and translated; there are portions that are read but not translated; and there are portions that are neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated: The Hebrew acronym bet, lamed, tav; ayin, kuf, nun; nun, shin, peh, heh comprise a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.

ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืืชื• ืœืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ืžื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžื” ืœืžื˜ื”

The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section of the act of Creation [bereshit], alluded to by the letter bet, is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if the story of the Creation is read in public people will come to ask questions that should not be asked, for instance: What is above and what is below,

ื•ืžื” ืœืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื” ืœืื—ื•ืจ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

what was before Creation and what is after, i.e., what will be at the end of time, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that the act of Creation is read in public.

ืžืขืฉื” ืœื•ื˜ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื‘ื ื•ืชื™ื• ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ืื‘ืจื”ื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated. The name Lot begins with a lamed, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Abraham, as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืžืขืฉื” ืชืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื”ื•ื ื“ืื•ื“ื™

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Tamar, beginning with a tav, and Judah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Judah, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story is to his credit, as he confessed to his sin.

ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ื“ื ื™ื—ื ืœื”ื• ื“ื”ื•ื™ื ืœื”ื• ื›ืคืจื”

The Tosefta continues: The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf [egel] is read and translated. Egel begins with the letter ayin, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that all the more so is it amenable to them that the matter be publicized, so that they will achieve atonement through their shame.

ืงืœืœื•ืช ื•ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ื“ืœืžื ืคื™ื™ื’ื ื“ืขืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืฆื‘ื•ืจื ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta states: The curses [kelalot] and blessings are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayed by the many curses, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืื–ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ืขื•ื ืฉื™ืŸ ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ื ื™ื—ื•ืฉ ื“ืœืžื ืืชื• ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืžื™ืจืื” ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The warnings and punishments [onashin], alluded to in the first nun of the mnemonic mentioned above, are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if this section is read aloud, people will come to act out of fear and keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

ืžืขืฉื” ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื [ืžืขืฉื” ืื‘ืฉืœื•ื ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื] ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื™ืงืจื™ื” ื“ื“ื•ื“ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

It is further taught: The incident of Amnon and Tamar, alluded to in the second nun in the mnemonic mentioned above, is read and translated. Additionally, the incident of Absalom is read and translated, alluded to in the shin of the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of David, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

ืžืขืฉื” ืคื™ืœื’ืฉ ื‘ื’ื‘ืขื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืžื”ื• ื“ืชื™ืžื ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืœื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื“ื‘ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ืงื ืžืฉืžืข ืœืŸ

The Tosefta continues: The incident of the concubine [pilegesh] in Gibeah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the tribe of Benjamin, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืืช ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ืœืืคื•ืงื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื“ื ืื—ื“ ืฉื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืจื ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื•ื“ืข ืืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื ืืช ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ืขื“ ืฉืืชื” ื‘ื•ื“ืง ื‘ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืฆื ื•ื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืชื•ืขื‘ื•ืช ืืžืš ื‘ื“ืงื• ืื—ืจื™ื• ื•ืžืฆืื• ื‘ื• ืฉืžืฅ ืคืกื•ืœ

The Tosefta continues: The section of: โ€œMake known [hoda] to Jerusalem her abominationsโ€ (Ezekiel 16:2) is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: This is needed to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who held that this chapter may not be read as a haftara, as it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident with regard to a certain man who was reading the haftara in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he read the section of: โ€œMake known to Jerusalem her abominations.โ€ Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of your own mother. The Gemara relates that they examined his lineage and found him to have a stain of illegitimacy. His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.

ื•ืืœื• ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ (ืจืขื‘ื“ืŸ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ืžืขืฉื” ืจืื•ื‘ืŸ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืฉื”ืœืš ืœื›ื‘ื•ืœ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืงื•ืจื ื—ื–ืŸ ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ืฉื›ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืœืžืชื•ืจื’ืžืŸ (ื”ืคืกืง) ืืœ ืชืชืจื’ื ืืœื ืื—ืจื•ืŸ ื•ืฉื™ื‘ื—ื•ื”ื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื

The Tosefta also states: And these sections are read but are not translated. The acrostic composed of the letters reish, ayin, bet, dalet, nun is a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The Tosefta states that the incident of Reuben is read but not translated. The name Reuben begins with a reish, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was an incident involving Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel, who went to the village of Kavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: โ€œAnd it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his fatherโ€™s concubine; and Israel heard of itโ€ (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi แธคanina said to the translator: Stop, translate only the end of the verse. And the Sages praised him for this.

ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืฉื ื™ ื ืงืจื ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ื ืื™ื–ื” ืžืขืฉื” ืขื’ืœ ื”ืฉื ื™ ืžืŸ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ืžืฉื” ืขื“ ื•ื™ืจื ืžืฉื”

The Tosefta continues: The second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf is read but not translated. Egel, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an ayin, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: What is the second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf? Aaronโ€™s account of what had taken place, from โ€œAnd Moses said to Aaronโ€ (Exodus 32:21) until โ€œAnd Moses sawโ€ (Exodus 32:25).

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืœืขื•ืœื ื™ื”ื ืื“ื ื–ื”ื™ืจ ื‘ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืžืชื•ืš ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉื”ืฉื™ื‘ื• ืื”ืจืŸ ืœืžืฉื” ืคืงืจื• ื”ืžืขืจืขืจื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืืฉืœื™ื›ื”ื• ื‘ืืฉ ื•ื™ืฆื ื”ืขื’ืœ ื”ื–ื”

With regard to Aaronโ€™s account, the Gemara cites that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful in the way he formulates his responses, as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, as, for example, based on Aaronโ€™s response to Moses, the skeptics renounced their religious beliefs. It is stated in Aaronโ€™s response: โ€œAnd I cast it into the fire and this calf came forthโ€ (Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.

ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉื

We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction [birkat kohanim] are read but not translated. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara explains that it is because it is written: โ€œMay the Lord lift up His countenance to youโ€ (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.

ืžืขืฉื” ื“ื•ื“ ื•ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืœื ื ืงืจื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ืžืชืจื’ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืžืขืฉื” ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื•ืชืžืจ ื ืงืจื ื•ืžืชืจื’ื ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ื“ ื”ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืžื ื•ืŸ ืกืชืžื

We also learned in the mishna: The incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated. Davidโ€™s name begins with a dalet, the next letter in the mnemonic; nun, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnonโ€™s name. The Gemara asks: Didnโ€™t you say in the Tosefta that the incident of Amnon and Tamar is both read and translated? The Gemara explains that this is not difficult. This statement of the mishna applies where Amnonโ€™s name is written: Amnon, son of David. That statement of the Tosefta applies where it is written simply as Amnon.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืงืจืื•ืช ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื’ื ืื™ ืงื•ืจื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืฉื‘ื— ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื™ืฉื’ืœื ื” ื™ืฉื›ื‘ื ื” ื‘ืขืคื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื˜ื—ื•ืจื™ื ื—ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื ื“ื‘ื™ื•ื ื™ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืืช ื—ื•ืจื™ื”ื ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ ืฉื™ื ื™ื”ื ืœืื›ื•ืœ ืืช ืฆื•ืืชื ื•ืœืฉืชื•ืช ืืช ืžื™ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื”ื

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: All of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example, the term โ€œshall lie with her [yishgalena]โ€ (Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said yishkavena, which is a more refined term. The term โ€œwith hemorrhoids [bafolim]โ€ (Deuteronomy 28:27) is read bateแธฅorim. The term โ€œdovesโ€™ dung [แธฅiryonim]โ€ (IIย Kings 6:25) is read divyonim. The phrase โ€œto eat their own excrement [แธฅoreihem] and drink their own urine [meimei shineihem]โ€ (IIย Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: To eat their own excrement [tzoโ€™atam] and drink their own urine [meimei ragleihem].

ืœืžื—ืจืื•ืช ืœืžื•ืฆืื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืงืจื—ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœืžื—ืจืื•ืช ื›ืฉืžืŸ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ื•ื ื’ื ืื™ ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื”

The term โ€œinto latrines [lemoแธฅraโ€™ot]โ€ (IIย Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined lemotzaโ€™ot. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korแธฅa says: Lemoแธฅaraโ€™ot is read as it is written because it is used here as an expression of contempt for idol worship, and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื›ืœ ืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื ืืกื™ืจื ื‘ืจ ืžืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื ื“ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื“ืฉืจื™ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ืจืข ื‘ืœ ืงืจืก ื ื‘ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืงืจืกื• ื›ืจืขื• ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืœื ื™ื›ืœื• ืžืœื˜ ืžืฉื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืืžืจ ืžื”ื›ื ืœืขื’ืœื•ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืื•ืŸ ื™ื’ื•ืจื• ืฉื›ืŸ ืฉื•ืžืจื•ืŸ ื›ื™ ืื‘ืœ ืขืœื™ื• ืขืžื• ื•ื›ืžืจื™ื• ืขืœื™ื• ื™ื’ื™ืœื• ืขืœ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ื›ื™ ื’ืœื” ืžืžื ื• ืืœ ืชืงืจื™ ื›ื‘ื•ื“ื• ืืœื ื›ื‘ื™ื“ื•

Similarly, Rav Naแธฅman said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: โ€œBel bows down, Nevo stoopsโ€ (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: โ€œThey stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burdenโ€ (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: โ€œThe inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from itโ€ (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as โ€œits glory [kevodo],โ€ rather read it as its burden [keveido], meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ืžื ื•ื— ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื™ืงื ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ืจ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื’ื•ื™ ืฉืงืœื™ื” ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ื–ืจื” ื•ืื ื—ื™ื” ื‘ืฉื™ืŸ ืชื™ื• ืฉืœื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืกื ืื™ ืฉื•ืžืขื ื™ื” ืฉืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื‘ื–ื•ื™ื™ื” ื‘ื’ื™ืžืœ ื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื”ืื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉืคื™ืจ ืฉื•ืžืขื ื™ื” ืฉืจื™ ืœืฉื‘ื•ื—ื™ื” ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืฉื‘ื—ื™ื” ื™ื ื•ื—ื• ืœื• ื‘ืจื›ื•ืช ืขืœ ืจืืฉื•

Rav Huna bar Manoaแธฅ said in the name of Rav Aแธฅa, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your shin tav, i.e., shet, buttocks. Rav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished, i.e., he is known as a philanderer, it is permitted to humiliate him by calling him gimmel sin, an acronym for girta sarya, son of a putrid harlot. One whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted to publicly praise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ื”ืงื•ืจื ืืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืœื” ืขื•ืžื“

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืขื™ืจ ืฉืžื›ืจื• ืจื—ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื“ืžื™ื• ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืชื™ื‘ื” ืชื™ื‘ื” ืœื•ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื˜ืคื—ื•ืช ืžื˜ืคื—ื•ืช

MISHNA: Residents of a town who sold the town square, which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore purchase a synagogue with the proceeds of the sale. If they sold a synagogue, they may purchase an ark in which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold an ark, they may purchase wrapping cloths for the sacred scrolls. If they sold wrapping cloths,

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