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Today's Daf Yomi

January 6, 2022 | 讚壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah.聽

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Megillah 25

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Rivkah Isseroff in loving memory of her mother, Gittel Bas Sarah v’Rav Zev Friedman Ha’levi, on the occasion of her Shloshim. 鈥淪he was the sole survivor of her family of 8 who were murdered in the Shoah. She survived 2 years in Auschwitz between the ages of 14 and16, and went on to fulfill her father’s tefillah asking for the survival of one family member so that the family would not be extinguished. She founded a new family now numbering 16 grandchildren and 30 great-grandchildren. May she be a Melitzat Yosher for all.鈥

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Harriet Hartman in loving memory of Baruch Wertzberger on his 3rd Yahrzeit 鈥淗e was my husband鈥檚 (z鈥檒) longest and best friend, whose devotion to Torah learning and Tefillah inspired me to grow closer to the depth of understanding what Daf Yomi brings.鈥

The Mishna lists phrases that if said in one’s prayers, they could be misunderstood and therefore one is silenced. Some relate to things that may appear heretical (appearing to say there is more than one God) and others relate to misinterpretation of verses or of commandments. A few statements of Rabbi Chanina are brought. One should not add a list of praises to God in the first blessing of Shmone Esreh on top of the ones mentioned there. Why? In addition, he said that all is in the hands of God other than the fear of God. From where is this derived? There are certain texts from the Tanach that should not be read or can be read but not translated? For what reasons are there to censor parts of Tanach? A braita lists which sections can be read and translated can be read but not translated and neither. Why is it important to list ones that can be read and translated? Why would we have thought they couldn’t be read or translated? Verses that use words that are obscene or harsh are replaced by a milder version of the word. However, if they are used to describe idol worship, one can use the more harsh form.

 

讬讘专讻讜讱 讟讜讘讬诐 讛专讬 讝讜 讚专讱 讛诪讬谞讜转 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讬讙讬注讜 专讞诪讬讱 讜注诇 讟讜讘 讬讝讻专 砖诪讱 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜

May the good bless You, this is a path of heresy, as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird鈥檚 nest, as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6鈥7), so too extend Your mercy to us; or: May Your name be mentioned with the good; or: We give thanks, we give thanks, twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they silence him.

讛诪讻谞讛 讘注专讬讜转 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讗讜诪专 讜诪讝专注讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讛注讘讬专 诇诪讜诇讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讗注讘专讗 讘讗专诪讬讜转讗 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘谞讝讬驻讛

If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, they silence him. Similarly, if one says while translating the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh鈥 (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇诪讗 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖转讬 专砖讜讬讜转 讜注诇 讟讜讘 讬讝讻专 砖诪讱 谞诪讬 讚诪砖诪注 注诇 讟讜讘 讗讬谉 讜注诇 专注 诇讗 讜转谞谉 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讘专讱 注诇 讛专注讛 讻砖诐 砖讛讜讗 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗诇讗 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讬讙讬注讜 专讞诪讬讱 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

GEMARA: The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, they silence one who repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears like he is acknowledging and praying to two authorities. And, granted, they also silence one who says: May Your name be mentioned with the good, as this formulation indicates one is thanking God only for the good and not for the bad, and we learned in a mishna (Berakhot 54a): One is obligated to bless God for the bad just as he blesses Him for the good. However, in the case of one who recites: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird鈥檚 nest, what is the reason that they silence him?

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 转专讬 讗诪讜专讗讬 讘诪注专讘讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讝讘讬讚讗 讞讚 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讟讬诇 拽谞讗讛 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖注讜砖讛 诪讚讜转讬讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讞诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讙讝讬专讜转

Two amora鈥檌m in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this question, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One said that this was because one who says this engenders jealousy among God鈥檚 creations, as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. And one said that saying this is prohibited because one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, into expressions of mercy, and they are nothing but decrees of the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.

讛讛讜讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗诪专 讗转讛 讞住转 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讗转讛 讞讜住 讜专讞诐 注诇讬谞讜 (讗转讛 讞住转 注诇 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 讘谞讜 讗转讛 讞讜住 讜专讞诐 注诇讬谞讜) 讗诪专 专讘讛 讻诪讛 讬讚注 讛讗讬 诪专讘谞谉 诇专爪讜讬讬 诇诪专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞谉

The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabba, and said in his prayers: You have shown mercy to birds, as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its nest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercy to animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal and its offspring on the same day; have mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appease the Lord, his Master! Abaye said to him: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that they silence him?

讜专讘讛 诇讞讚讜讚讬 诇讗讘讬讬 讛讜讗 讚讘注讗

The Gemara explains: And Rabba, too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because he wanted to hone Abaye鈥檚 intellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.

讛讛讜讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讛讗诇 讛讙讚讜诇 讛讙讘讜专 讜讛谞讜专讗 讛讗讚讬专 讜讛讞讝拽 讜讛讗诪讬抓

With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabbi 岣nina. He extended his prayer and said: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 住讬讬诪转讬谞讛讜 诇砖讘讞讬讛 讚诪专讱 讛砖转讗 讛谞讬 转诇转讗 讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讻转讘讬谞讛讜 诪砖讛 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜讗转讜 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讗谞谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讛讜 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讜 诇讜 讗诇祝 讗诇驻讬 讗诇驻讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讜讛讬讜 诪拽诇住讬谉 讗讜转讜 (讘讗诇祝) 讚讬谞专讬 讻住祝 诇讗 讙谞讗讬 讛讜讗 诇讜

When he finished, Rabbi 岣nina said to him: Have you concluded all of the praises of your Master? Even these three praises that we recite: The great, the mighty, and the awesome, had Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah (Deuteronomy 10:17), and had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated them into the Amida prayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), we would not be permitted to recite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him for owning a thousand silver ones. Isn鈥檛 that deprecatory toward him? All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance God鈥檚 honor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讻诇 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讞讜抓 诪讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 砖讜讗诇 诪注诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 诇讬专讗讛

Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi 岣nina, concerning principles of faith. Rabbi 岣nina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven. Man has free will to serve God or not, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in man鈥檚 ability to do so.

诪讻诇诇 讚讬专讗讛 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专转讬 讛讬讗 讗讬谉 诇讙讘讬 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专转讬 讛讬讗 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讘拽砖讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 讻诇讬 讙讚讜诇 讜讬砖 诇讜 讚讜诪讛 注诇讬讜 讻讻诇讬 拽讟谉 拽讟谉 讜讗讬谉 诇讜 讚讜诪讛 注诇讬讜 讻讻诇讬 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara notes: This proves by inference that fear of Heaven is a minor matter, as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: Indeed, for Moses our teacher, fear of Heaven is a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he has one; it seems to him like a small vessel because he owns it. However, one who is asked for just a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel. Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讗讜诪专 砖诪注 砖诪注 讻讗讜诪专 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 讚诪讬

Rabbi Zeira said: One who repeats himself while reciting Shema and says: Listen Israel, listen Israel, is like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 讜讻讜驻诇讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙讜谞讛 诪讙讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讛讜讬 砖转讜拽讬 诇讗 诪砖转拽讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜转谞讬 诇讛 讛讗 讚讗诪专 驻住讜拽讗 驻住讜拽讗 讜转谞讬 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema and repeats it, it is reprehensible. One may infer: It is reprehensible, but they do not silence him. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This case, where one repeats Shema and it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to one who recites and repeats each individual word. In so doing, he ruins the recitation of Shema. However, that case, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats Shema, is referring to one who recites and repeats an entire verse, as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜讚诇诪讗 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬讛 讜讛砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讘专讜转讗 讻诇驻讬 砖诪讬讗 讗讬 诇讗 诪讻讜讬谉 讚注转讬讛 诪讞讬谞讗 诇讬讛 讘讗专讝驻转讗 讚谞驻讞讗 注讚 讚诪讻讜讬谉 讚注转讬讛

Rav Pappa said to Rava with regard to this halakha: And perhaps initially he did not focus his attention on the recitation of Shema and therefore had to repeat it, and now he focused his attention. Rava said to him: Can one have that degree of familiarity with Heaven, to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? If he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmith鈥檚 hammer until he focuses his attention, as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.

讛诪讻谞讛 讘注专讬讜转 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 拽诇讜谉 讗讘讬讜 讜拽诇讜谉 讗诪讜

We learned in the mishna: If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taught that this is referring to one who says: The shame of his father and the shame of his mother, instead of: 鈥淭he nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncover鈥 (Leviticus 18:7).

讛讗讜诪专 讜诪讝专注讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讛注讘讬专 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讬砖专讗诇 讛讘讗 注诇 讛讙讜讬讛 讜讛讜诇讬讚 诪诪谞讛 讘谉 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

We learned in the mishna: If one says, while translating the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh鈥 (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that the verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a son who will be raised to engage in idol worship.

诪转谞讬壮 诪注砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 诪注砖讛 转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 讜讛砖谞讬 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 诪注砖讛 讚讜讚 讜讗诪谞讜谉 谞拽专讗讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉

MISHNA: The incident of Reuben, about which it says: 鈥淎nd Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father鈥檚 concubine鈥 (Genesis 35:22), is read from the Torah in public but not translated, so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. The incident of Tamar (Genesis, chapter 38) is read in public and also translated. The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf, i.e., the Torah鈥檚 account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1鈥20), is read and translated, but the second narrative, i.e., Aaron鈥檚 report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21鈥24) is read but not translated. The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:24鈥26) and the incident of David and Amnon (II聽Samuel, chapter 13) are read, but not translated.

讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘诪专讻讘讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐

One may not conclude the Torah reading with by reading from the Prophets the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel, chapter聽1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. And Rabbi Yehuda permits it. Rabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude with section from the Prophets beginning with: 鈥淢ake known to Jerusalem her abominations鈥 (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讬砖 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讬砖 诇讗 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讗诇讜 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 讘诇转 注拽谉 谞砖驻讛 住讬诪谉

GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta (3:31): There are portions of the Bible that are read and translated; there are portions that are read but not translated; and there are portions that are neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated: The Hebrew acronym bet, lamed, tav; ayin, kuf, nun; nun, shin, peh, heh comprise a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.

诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讗转讜 诇砖讬讜诇讬 诪讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪讛 诇诪讟讛

The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section of the act of Creation [bereshit], alluded to by the letter bet, is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if the story of the Creation is read in public people will come to ask questions that should not be asked, for instance: What is above and what is below,

讜诪讛 诇驻谞讬诐 讜诪讛 诇讗讞讜专 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

what was before Creation and what is after, i.e., what will be at the end of time, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that the act of Creation is read in public.

诪注砖讛 诇讜讟 讜砖转讬 讘谞讜转讬讜 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讗讘专讛诐 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated. The name Lot begins with a lamed, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Abraham, as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a concern.

诪注砖讛 转诪专 讜讬讛讜讚讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讬讛讜讚讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 砖讘讞讬讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讜讚讬

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Tamar, beginning with a tav, and Judah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Judah, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story is to his credit, as he confessed to his sin.

诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚谞讬讞讗 诇讛讜 讚讛讜讬讗 诇讛讜 讻驻专讛

The Tosefta continues: The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf [egel] is read and translated. Egel begins with the letter ayin, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that all the more so is it amenable to them that the matter be publicized, so that they will achieve atonement through their shame.

拽诇诇讜转 讜讘专讻讜转 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 讚诇诪讗 驻讬讬讙讗 讚注转讬讬讛讜 讚爪讘讜专讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta states: The curses [kelalot] and blessings are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayed by the many curses, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

讗讝讛专讜转 讜注讜谞砖讬谉 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 讚诇诪讗 讗转讜 诇诪注讘讚 诪讬专讗讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The warnings and punishments [onashin], alluded to in the first nun of the mnemonic mentioned above, are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if this section is read aloud, people will come to act out of fear and keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

诪注砖讛 讗诪谞讜谉 讜转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 [诪注砖讛 讗讘砖诇讜诐 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐] 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讬拽专讬讛 讚讚讜讚 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

It is further taught: The incident of Amnon and Tamar, alluded to in the second nun in the mnemonic mentioned above, is read and translated. Additionally, the incident of Absalom is read and translated, alluded to in the shin of the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of David, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

诪注砖讛 驻讬诇讙砖 讘讙讘注讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讘谞讬诪讬谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The incident of the concubine [pilegesh] in Gibeah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the tribe of Benjamin, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讗转 转讜注讘讜转讬讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讗转 转讜注讘讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 注讚 砖讗转讛 讘讜讚拽 讘转讜注讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 爪讗 讜讘讚讜拽 讘转讜注讘讜转 讗诪讱 讘讚拽讜 讗讞专讬讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讘讜 砖诪抓 驻住讜诇

The Tosefta continues: The section of: 鈥淢ake known [hoda] to Jerusalem her abominations鈥 (Ezekiel 16:2) is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: This is needed to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who held that this chapter may not be read as a haftara, as it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident with regard to a certain man who was reading the haftara in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he read the section of: 鈥淢ake known to Jerusalem her abominations.鈥 Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of your own mother. The Gemara relates that they examined his lineage and found him to have a stain of illegitimacy. His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.

讜讗诇讜 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 (专注讘讚谉 住讬诪谉) 诪注砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讜诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讛诇讱 诇讻讘讜诇 讜讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讞讝谉 讛讻谞住转 讜讬讛讬 讘砖讻讜谉 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诇诪转讜专讙诪谉 (讛驻住拽) 讗诇 转转专讙诐 讗诇讗 讗讞专讜谉 讜砖讬讘讞讜讛讜 讞讻诪讬诐

The Tosefta also states: And these sections are read but are not translated. The acrostic composed of the letters reish, ayin, bet, dalet, nun is a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The Tosefta states that the incident of Reuben is read but not translated. The name Reuben begins with a reish, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was an incident involving Rabbi 岣nina ben Gamliel, who went to the village of Kavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father鈥檚 concubine; and Israel heard of it鈥 (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi 岣nina said to the translator: Stop, translate only the end of the verse. And the Sages praised him for this.

诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛砖谞讬 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讗讬讝讛 诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛砖谞讬 诪谉 讜讬讗诪专 诪砖讛 注讚 讜讬专讗 诪砖讛

The Tosefta continues: The second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf is read but not translated. Egel, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an ayin, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: What is the second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf? Aaron鈥檚 account of what had taken place, from 鈥淎nd Moses said to Aaron鈥 (Exodus 32:21) until 鈥淎nd Moses saw鈥 (Exodus 32:25).

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转砖讜讘讜转讬讜 砖诪转讜讱 转砖讜讘讛 砖讛砖讬讘讜 讗讛专谉 诇诪砖讛 驻拽专讜 讛诪注专注专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗砖诇讬讻讛讜 讘讗砖 讜讬爪讗 讛注讙诇 讛讝讛

With regard to Aaron鈥檚 account, the Gemara cites that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful in the way he formulates his responses, as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, as, for example, based on Aaron鈥檚 response to Moses, the skeptics renounced their religious beliefs. It is stated in Aaron鈥檚 response: 鈥淎nd I cast it into the fire and this calf came forth鈥 (Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.

讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讬砖讗

We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction [birkat kohanim] are read but not translated. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara explains that it is because it is written: 鈥淢ay the Lord lift up His countenance to you鈥 (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.

诪注砖讛 讚讜讚 讜讗诪谞讜谉 诇讗 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 诪注砖讛 讗诪谞讜谉 讜转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪谞讜谉 讘谉 讚讜讚 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪谞讜谉 住转诪讗

We also learned in the mishna: The incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated. David鈥檚 name begins with a dalet, the next letter in the mnemonic; nun, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnon鈥檚 name. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 you say in the Tosefta that the incident of Amnon and Tamar is both read and translated? The Gemara explains that this is not difficult. This statement of the mishna applies where Amnon鈥檚 name is written: Amnon, son of David. That statement of the Tosefta applies where it is written simply as Amnon.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛诪拽专讗讜转 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘转讜专讛 诇讙谞讗讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 讻讙讜谉 讬砖讙诇谞讛 讬砖讻讘谞讛 讘注驻讜诇讬诐 讘讟讞讜专讬诐 讞专讬讜谞讬诐 讚讘讬讜谞讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讗转 讞讜专讬讛诐 讜诇砖转讜转 讗转 诪讬诪讬 砖讬谞讬讛诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讗转 爪讜讗转诐 讜诇砖转讜转 讗转 诪讬诪讬 专讙诇讬讛诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: All of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example, the term 鈥渟hall lie with her [yishgalena]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said yishkavena, which is a more refined term. The term 鈥渨ith hemorrhoids [bafolim]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:27) is read bate岣rim. The term 鈥渄oves鈥 dung [岣ryonim]鈥 (II聽Kings 6:25) is read divyonim. The phrase 鈥渢o eat their own excrement [岣reihem] and drink their own urine [meimei shineihem]鈥 (II聽Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: To eat their own excrement [tzo鈥檃tam] and drink their own urine [meimei ragleihem].

诇诪讞专讗讜转 诇诪讜爪讗讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讗讜诪专 诇诪讞专讗讜转 讻砖诪谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 讙谞讗讬 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛

The term 鈥渋nto latrines [lemo岣a鈥檕t]鈥 (II聽Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined lemotza鈥檕t. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Lemo岣ra鈥檕t is read as it is written because it is used here as an expression of contempt for idol worship, and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻诇 诇讬爪谞讜转讗 讗住讬专讗 讘专 诪诇讬爪谞讜转讗 讚注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚砖专讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讻专注 讘诇 拽专住 谞讘讜 讜讻转讬讘 拽专住讜 讻专注讜 讬讞讚讬讜 诇讗 讬讻诇讜 诪诇讟 诪砖讗 讜讙讜壮 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 诇注讙诇讜转 讘讬转 讗讜谉 讬讙讜专讜 砖讻谉 砖讜诪专讜谉 讻讬 讗讘诇 注诇讬讜 注诪讜 讜讻诪专讬讜 注诇讬讜 讬讙讬诇讜 注诇 讻讘讜讚讜 讻讬 讙诇讛 诪诪谞讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讻讘讜讚讜 讗诇讗 讻讘讬讚讜

Similarly, Rav Na岣an said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: 鈥淏el bows down, Nevo stoops鈥 (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: 鈥淭hey stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden鈥 (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: 鈥淭he inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from it鈥 (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as 鈥渋ts glory [kevodo],鈥 rather read it as its burden [keveido], meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 诪谞讜讞 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 砖专讬 诇讬讛 诇讘专 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇讙讜讬 砖拽诇讬讛 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗谞讞讬讛 讘砖讬谉 转讬讜 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚住谞讗讬 砖讜诪注谞讬讛 砖专讬 诇讬讛 诇讘讝讜讬讬讛 讘讙讬诪诇 讜砖讬谉 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚砖驻讬专 砖讜诪注谞讬讛 砖专讬 诇砖讘讜讞讬讛 讜诪讗谉 讚砖讘讞讬讛 讬谞讜讞讜 诇讜 讘专讻讜转 注诇 专讗砖讜

Rav Huna bar Manoa岣 said in the name of Rav A岣, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your shin tav, i.e., shet, buttocks. Rav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished, i.e., he is known as a philanderer, it is permitted to humiliate him by calling him gimmel sin, an acronym for girta sarya, son of a putrid harlot. One whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted to publicly praise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 注讜诪讚

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 砖诪讻专讜 专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讚诪讬讜 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讜拽讞讬谉 转讬讘讛 转讬讘讛 诇讜拽讞讬谉 诪讟驻讞讜转 诪讟驻讞讜转

MISHNA: Residents of a town who sold the town square, which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore purchase a synagogue with the proceeds of the sale. If they sold a synagogue, they may purchase an ark in which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold an ark, they may purchase wrapping cloths for the sacred scrolls. If they sold wrapping cloths,

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

This month's shiurim are dedicated聽by Jordana and Kalman Schoor on behalf of their daughter Daria who is learning Masechet Megilla for her bat mitzvah. Mazal tov Daria!

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Censorship – Gefet 21

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Megillah 25

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Megillah 25

讬讘专讻讜讱 讟讜讘讬诐 讛专讬 讝讜 讚专讱 讛诪讬谞讜转 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讬讙讬注讜 专讞诪讬讱 讜注诇 讟讜讘 讬讝讻专 砖诪讱 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜

May the good bless You, this is a path of heresy, as heretics divide the world into two domains, good and evil. If one says the following in his prayers: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird鈥檚 nest, as You have commanded us to send away the mother before taking her chicks or eggs (see Deuteronomy 22:6鈥7), so too extend Your mercy to us; or: May Your name be mentioned with the good; or: We give thanks, we give thanks, twice, he is suspected of heretical beliefs and they silence him.

讛诪讻谞讛 讘注专讬讜转 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讛讗讜诪专 讜诪讝专注讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讛注讘讬专 诇诪讜诇讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讗注讘专讗 讘讗专诪讬讜转讗 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘谞讝讬驻讛

If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, i.e., he introduces euphemisms out of a sense of propriety, they silence him. Similarly, if one says while translating the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh鈥 (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke.

讙诪壮 讘砖诇诪讗 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 讚诪讬讞讝讬 讻砖转讬 专砖讜讬讜转 讜注诇 讟讜讘 讬讝讻专 砖诪讱 谞诪讬 讚诪砖诪注 注诇 讟讜讘 讗讬谉 讜注诇 专注 诇讗 讜转谞谉 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讘专讱 注诇 讛专注讛 讻砖诐 砖讛讜讗 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗诇讗 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讬讙讬注讜 专讞诪讬讱 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗

GEMARA: The mishna cites three instances where the communal prayer leader is silenced. The Gemara clarifies: Granted, they silence one who repeats: We give thanks, we give thanks, as it appears like he is acknowledging and praying to two authorities. And, granted, they also silence one who says: May Your name be mentioned with the good, as this formulation indicates one is thanking God only for the good and not for the bad, and we learned in a mishna (Berakhot 54a): One is obligated to bless God for the bad just as he blesses Him for the good. However, in the case of one who recites: Just as Your mercy is extended to a bird鈥檚 nest, what is the reason that they silence him?

驻诇讬讙讬 讘讛 转专讬 讗诪讜专讗讬 讘诪注专讘讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讗讘讬谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讝讘讬讚讗 讞讚 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖诪讟讬诇 拽谞讗讛 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 讜讞讚 讗诪专 诪驻谞讬 砖注讜砖讛 诪讚讜转讬讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讞诪讬诐 讜讗讬谞谉 讗诇讗 讙讝讬专讜转

Two amora鈥檌m in the West, Eretz Yisrael, disagree about this question, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida. One said that this was because one who says this engenders jealousy among God鈥檚 creations, as it appears as though he is indicating that God favored one creature over all others. And one said that saying this is prohibited because one transforms the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, into expressions of mercy, and they are nothing but decrees of the King that must be fulfilled without inquiring into the reasons behind them.

讛讛讜讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讗诪专 讗转讛 讞住转 注诇 拽谉 爪驻讜专 讗转讛 讞讜住 讜专讞诐 注诇讬谞讜 (讗转讛 讞住转 注诇 讗讜转讜 讜讗转 讘谞讜 讗转讛 讞讜住 讜专讞诐 注诇讬谞讜) 讗诪专 专讘讛 讻诪讛 讬讚注 讛讗讬 诪专讘谞谉 诇专爪讜讬讬 诇诪专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜讛讗 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞谉

The Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabba, and said in his prayers: You have shown mercy to birds, as expressed through the mitzva to chase away the mother bird before taking eggs from its nest; have mercy and pity upon us. You have shown mercy to animals, as expressed through the prohibition against slaughtering an animal and its offspring on the same day; have mercy and pity upon us. Rabba said: How much does this rabbi know to appease the Lord, his Master! Abaye said to him: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that they silence him?

讜专讘讛 诇讞讚讜讚讬 诇讗讘讬讬 讛讜讗 讚讘注讗

The Gemara explains: And Rabba, too, held in accordance with this mishna but merely acted this way because he wanted to hone Abaye鈥檚 intellect. Rabba did not make his statement to praise the rabbi, but simply to test his nephew and student, Abaye, and to encourage him to articulate what he knows about the mishna.

讛讛讜讗 讚谞讞讬转 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专 讛讗诇 讛讙讚讜诇 讛讙讘讜专 讜讛谞讜专讗 讛讗讚讬专 讜讛讞讝拽 讜讛讗诪讬抓

With regard to additions to prayers formulated by the Sages, the Gemara relates that a particular individual descended before the ark as prayer leader in the presence of Rabbi 岣nina. He extended his prayer and said: God, the great, the mighty, and the awesome, the powerful, and the strong, and the fearless.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 住讬讬诪转讬谞讛讜 诇砖讘讞讬讛 讚诪专讱 讛砖转讗 讛谞讬 转诇转讗 讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讻转讘讬谞讛讜 诪砖讛 讘讗讜专讬讬转讗 讜讗转讜 讻谞住转 讛讙讚讜诇讛 讜转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讗谞谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讛讜 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讛讬讜 诇讜 讗诇祝 讗诇驻讬 讗诇驻讬诐 讚讬谞专讬 讝讛讘 讜讛讬讜 诪拽诇住讬谉 讗讜转讜 (讘讗诇祝) 讚讬谞专讬 讻住祝 诇讗 讙谞讗讬 讛讜讗 诇讜

When he finished, Rabbi 岣nina said to him: Have you concluded all of the praises of your Master? Even these three praises that we recite: The great, the mighty, and the awesome, had Moses our teacher not written them in the Torah (Deuteronomy 10:17), and had the members of the Great Assembly not come and incorporated them into the Amida prayer (see Nehemiah 9:32), we would not be permitted to recite them. And you went on and recited all of these. It is comparable to a man who possessed many thousands of golden dinars, yet they were praising him for owning a thousand silver ones. Isn鈥檛 that deprecatory toward him? All of the praises one can lavish upon the Lord are nothing but a few silver dinars relative to many thousands of gold dinars. Reciting a litany of praise does not enhance God鈥檚 honor.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讻诇 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讞讜抓 诪讬专讗转 砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 讬砖专讗诇 诪讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬讱 砖讜讗诇 诪注诪讱 讻讬 讗诐 诇讬专讗讛

Tangentially, the Gemara cites an additional statement by Rabbi 岣nina, concerning principles of faith. Rabbi 岣nina said: Everything is in the hands of Heaven, except for fear of Heaven. Man has free will to serve God or not, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd now, Israel, what does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear the Lord your God鈥 (Deuteronomy 10:12). The fact that God asks man to fear Him indicates that it is in man鈥檚 ability to do so.

诪讻诇诇 讚讬专讗讛 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专转讬 讛讬讗 讗讬谉 诇讙讘讬 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诪讬诇转讗 讝讜讟专转讬 讛讬讗 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖诪讘拽砖讬谉 讛讬诪谞讜 讻诇讬 讙讚讜诇 讜讬砖 诇讜 讚讜诪讛 注诇讬讜 讻讻诇讬 拽讟谉 拽讟谉 讜讗讬谉 诇讜 讚讜诪讛 注诇讬讜 讻讻诇讬 讙讚讜诇

The Gemara notes: This proves by inference that fear of Heaven is a minor matter, as the verse is formulated as though God is not asking anything significant. Can it in fact be maintained that fear of Heaven is a minor matter? The Gemara responds: Indeed, for Moses our teacher, fear of Heaven is a minor matter. It is comparable to one who is asked for a large vessel and he has one; it seems to him like a small vessel because he owns it. However, one who is asked for just a small vessel and he does not have one, it seems to him like a large vessel. Therefore, Moses could say: What does the Lord your God ask of you other than to fear, because in his eyes it was a minor matter.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讗讜诪专 砖诪注 砖诪注 讻讗讜诪专 诪讜讚讬诐 诪讜讚讬诐 讚诪讬

Rabbi Zeira said: One who repeats himself while reciting Shema and says: Listen Israel, listen Israel, is like one who says: We give thanks, we give thanks.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 砖诪注 讜讻讜驻诇讛 讛专讬 讝讛 诪讙讜谞讛 诪讙讜谞讛 讛讜讗 讚讛讜讬 砖转讜拽讬 诇讗 诪砖转拽讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜转谞讬 诇讛 讛讗 讚讗诪专 驻住讜拽讗 驻住讜拽讗 讜转谞讬 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection: It was taught in a baraita: One who recites Shema and repeats it, it is reprehensible. One may infer: It is reprehensible, but they do not silence him. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This case, where one repeats Shema and it is reprehensible but they do not silence him, is referring to one who recites and repeats each individual word. In so doing, he ruins the recitation of Shema. However, that case, where Rabbi Zeira holds that they silence one who repeats Shema, is referring to one who recites and repeats an entire verse, as it appears that he is worshipping separate authorities.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜讚诇诪讗 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬讛 讜讛砖转讗 讻讬讜谉 讚注转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讘专讜转讗 讻诇驻讬 砖诪讬讗 讗讬 诇讗 诪讻讜讬谉 讚注转讬讛 诪讞讬谞讗 诇讬讛 讘讗专讝驻转讗 讚谞驻讞讗 注讚 讚诪讻讜讬谉 讚注转讬讛

Rav Pappa said to Rava with regard to this halakha: And perhaps initially he did not focus his attention on the recitation of Shema and therefore had to repeat it, and now he focused his attention. Rava said to him: Can one have that degree of familiarity with Heaven, to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? If he did not focus his attention, we beat him with a blacksmith鈥檚 hammer until he focuses his attention, as conduct of that sort is unacceptable.

讛诪讻谞讛 讘注专讬讜转 诪砖转拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 转谞讗 专讘 讬讜住祝 拽诇讜谉 讗讘讬讜 讜拽诇讜谉 讗诪讜

We learned in the mishna: If one modifies the text while reading the laws of forbidden sexual relations, they silence him. Rav Yosef taught that this is referring to one who says: The shame of his father and the shame of his mother, instead of: 鈥淭he nakedness of your father and the nakedness of your mother you shall not uncover鈥 (Leviticus 18:7).

讛讗讜诪专 讜诪讝专注讱 诇讗 转转谉 诇讛注讘讬专 讜讻讜壮 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讬砖专讗诇 讛讘讗 注诇 讛讙讜讬讛 讜讛讜诇讬讚 诪诪谞讛 讘谉 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

We learned in the mishna: If one says, while translating the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall not give any of your seed to set them apart to Molekh鈥 (Leviticus 18:21): And you shall not give any of your seed to impregnate an Aramean woman, he is silenced with rebuke. A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: One who translates the verse in this manner maintains that the verse speaks of a Jew who has relations with a gentile woman and fathered from her a son who will be raised to engage in idol worship.

诪转谞讬壮 诪注砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 诪注砖讛 转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 讜讛砖谞讬 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 诪注砖讛 讚讜讚 讜讗诪谞讜谉 谞拽专讗讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉

MISHNA: The incident of Reuben, about which it says: 鈥淎nd Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father鈥檚 concubine鈥 (Genesis 35:22), is read from the Torah in public but not translated, so that the uneducated not come to denigrate Reuben. The incident of Tamar (Genesis, chapter 38) is read in public and also translated. The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf, i.e., the Torah鈥檚 account of the incident itself (Exodus 32:1鈥20), is read and translated, but the second narrative, i.e., Aaron鈥檚 report to Moses of what had taken place (Exodus 32:21鈥24) is read but not translated. The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:24鈥26) and the incident of David and Amnon (II聽Samuel, chapter 13) are read, but not translated.

讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘诪专讻讘讛 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪转讬专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪驻讟讬专讬谉 讘讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐

One may not conclude the Torah reading with by reading from the Prophets the account of the Divine Chariot (Ezekiel, chapter聽1), so as not to publicize that which was meant to remain hidden. And Rabbi Yehuda permits it. Rabbi Eliezer says: One may not conclude with section from the Prophets beginning with: 鈥淢ake known to Jerusalem her abominations鈥 (Ezekiel 16:2), because it speaks derogatively of the Jewish people.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬砖 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讬砖 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讬砖 诇讗 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讗诇讜 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 讘诇转 注拽谉 谞砖驻讛 住讬诪谉

GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta (3:31): There are portions of the Bible that are read and translated; there are portions that are read but not translated; and there are portions that are neither read nor translated. The following are read and translated: The Hebrew acronym bet, lamed, tav; ayin, kuf, nun; nun, shin, peh, heh comprise a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain.

诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 讗转讜 诇砖讬讜诇讬 诪讛 诇诪注诇讛 诪讛 诇诪讟讛

The Gemara enumerates the sections indicated by the letters of the mnemonic. The section of the act of Creation [bereshit], alluded to by the letter bet, is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if the story of the Creation is read in public people will come to ask questions that should not be asked, for instance: What is above and what is below,

讜诪讛 诇驻谞讬诐 讜诪讛 诇讗讞讜专 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

what was before Creation and what is after, i.e., what will be at the end of time, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that the act of Creation is read in public.

诪注砖讛 诇讜讟 讜砖转讬 讘谞讜转讬讜 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讗讘专讛诐 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated. The name Lot begins with a lamed, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Abraham, as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a concern.

诪注砖讛 转诪专 讜讬讛讜讚讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讬讛讜讚讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 砖讘讞讬讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讜讚讬

The Tosefta continues: The incident of Tamar, beginning with a tav, and Judah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of Judah, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story is to his credit, as he confessed to his sin.

诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛专讗砖讜谉 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻诇 砖讻谉 讚谞讬讞讗 诇讛讜 讚讛讜讬讗 诇讛讜 讻驻专讛

The Tosefta continues: The first report of the incident of the Golden Calf [egel] is read and translated. Egel begins with the letter ayin, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that all the more so is it amenable to them that the matter be publicized, so that they will achieve atonement through their shame.

拽诇诇讜转 讜讘专讻讜转 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 讚诇诪讗 驻讬讬讙讗 讚注转讬讬讛讜 讚爪讘讜专讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta states: The curses [kelalot] and blessings are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that one should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayed by the many curses, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

讗讝讛专讜转 讜注讜谞砖讬谉 谞拽专讬谉 讜诪转专讙诪讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 谞讬讞讜砖 讚诇诪讗 讗转讜 诇诪注讘讚 诪讬专讗讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The warnings and punishments [onashin], alluded to in the first nun of the mnemonic mentioned above, are read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that if this section is read aloud, people will come to act out of fear and keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this is not a concern.

诪注砖讛 讗诪谞讜谉 讜转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 [诪注砖讛 讗讘砖诇讜诐 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐] 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讬拽专讬讛 讚讚讜讚 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

It is further taught: The incident of Amnon and Tamar, alluded to in the second nun in the mnemonic mentioned above, is read and translated. Additionally, the incident of Absalom is read and translated, alluded to in the shin of the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of David, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

诪注砖讛 驻讬诇讙砖 讘讙讘注讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 诇讻讘讜讚讜 讚讘谞讬诪讬谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Tosefta continues: The incident of the concubine [pilegesh] in Gibeah is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara explains: Lest you say that one should be concerned for the honor of the tribe of Benjamin, therefore the Tosefta teaches us that this section is read and translated.

讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讗转 转讜注讘讜转讬讛 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚转谞讬讗 诪注砖讛 讘讗讚诐 讗讞讚 砖讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 诇诪注诇讛 诪专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讜讚注 讗转 讬专讜砖诇诐 讗转 转讜注讘讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诇讜 注讚 砖讗转讛 讘讜讚拽 讘转讜注讘讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 爪讗 讜讘讚讜拽 讘转讜注讘讜转 讗诪讱 讘讚拽讜 讗讞专讬讜 讜诪爪讗讜 讘讜 砖诪抓 驻住讜诇

The Tosefta continues: The section of: 鈥淢ake known [hoda] to Jerusalem her abominations鈥 (Ezekiel 16:2) is read and translated. The Gemara comments: This is obvious. The Gemara answers: This is needed to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who held that this chapter may not be read as a haftara, as it is taught in a baraita: There was an incident with regard to a certain man who was reading the haftara in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he read the section of: 鈥淢ake known to Jerusalem her abominations.鈥 Rabbi Eliezer said to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of your own mother. The Gemara relates that they examined his lineage and found him to have a stain of illegitimacy. His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.

讜讗诇讜 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 (专注讘讚谉 住讬诪谉) 诪注砖讛 专讗讜讘谉 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讜诪注砖讛 讘专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 砖讛诇讱 诇讻讘讜诇 讜讛讬讛 拽讜专讗 讞讝谉 讛讻谞住转 讜讬讛讬 讘砖讻讜谉 讬砖专讗诇 讜讗诪专 诇讜 诇诪转讜专讙诪谉 (讛驻住拽) 讗诇 转转专讙诐 讗诇讗 讗讞专讜谉 讜砖讬讘讞讜讛讜 讞讻诪讬诐

The Tosefta also states: And these sections are read but are not translated. The acrostic composed of the letters reish, ayin, bet, dalet, nun is a mnemonic for the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The Tosefta states that the incident of Reuben is read but not translated. The name Reuben begins with a reish, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was an incident involving Rabbi 岣nina ben Gamliel, who went to the village of Kavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: 鈥淎nd it came to pass, while Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father鈥檚 concubine; and Israel heard of it鈥 (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi 岣nina said to the translator: Stop, translate only the end of the verse. And the Sages praised him for this.

诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛砖谞讬 谞拽专讗 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诐 讗讬讝讛 诪注砖讛 注讙诇 讛砖谞讬 诪谉 讜讬讗诪专 诪砖讛 注讚 讜讬专讗 诪砖讛

The Tosefta continues: The second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf is read but not translated. Egel, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an ayin, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: What is the second narrative of the incident of the Golden Calf? Aaron鈥檚 account of what had taken place, from 鈥淎nd Moses said to Aaron鈥 (Exodus 32:21) until 鈥淎nd Moses saw鈥 (Exodus 32:25).

转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讗诇注讝专 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 讝讛讬专 讘转砖讜讘讜转讬讜 砖诪转讜讱 转砖讜讘讛 砖讛砖讬讘讜 讗讛专谉 诇诪砖讛 驻拽专讜 讛诪注专注专讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗砖诇讬讻讛讜 讘讗砖 讜讬爪讗 讛注讙诇 讛讝讛

With regard to Aaron鈥檚 account, the Gemara cites that which is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful in the way he formulates his responses, as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, as, for example, based on Aaron鈥檚 response to Moses, the skeptics renounced their religious beliefs. It is stated in Aaron鈥檚 response: 鈥淎nd I cast it into the fire and this calf came forth鈥 (Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.

讘专讻转 讻讛谞讬诐 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讬砖讗

We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting the Priestly Benediction [birkat kohanim] are read but not translated. The Gemara asks: What is the reason for this? The Gemara explains that it is because it is written: 鈥淢ay the Lord lift up His countenance to you鈥 (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.

诪注砖讛 讚讜讚 讜讗诪谞讜谉 诇讗 谞拽专讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转专讙诪讬谉 讜讛讗 讗诪专转 诪注砖讛 讗诪谞讜谉 讜转诪专 谞拽专讗 讜诪转专讙诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪谞讜谉 讘谉 讚讜讚 讛讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗诪谞讜谉 住转诪讗

We also learned in the mishna: The incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated. David鈥檚 name begins with a dalet, the next letter in the mnemonic; nun, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnon鈥檚 name. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 you say in the Tosefta that the incident of Amnon and Tamar is both read and translated? The Gemara explains that this is not difficult. This statement of the mishna applies where Amnon鈥檚 name is written: Amnon, son of David. That statement of the Tosefta applies where it is written simply as Amnon.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛诪拽专讗讜转 讛讻转讜讘讬谉 讘转讜专讛 诇讙谞讗讬 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转谉 诇砖讘讞 讻讙讜谉 讬砖讙诇谞讛 讬砖讻讘谞讛 讘注驻讜诇讬诐 讘讟讞讜专讬诐 讞专讬讜谞讬诐 讚讘讬讜谞讬诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讗转 讞讜专讬讛诐 讜诇砖转讜转 讗转 诪讬诪讬 砖讬谞讬讛诐 诇讗讻讜诇 讗转 爪讜讗转诐 讜诇砖转讜转 讗转 诪讬诪讬 专讙诇讬讛诐

The Sages taught in a baraita: All of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example, the term 鈥渟hall lie with her [yishgalena]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said yishkavena, which is a more refined term. The term 鈥渨ith hemorrhoids [bafolim]鈥 (Deuteronomy 28:27) is read bate岣rim. The term 鈥渄oves鈥 dung [岣ryonim]鈥 (II聽Kings 6:25) is read divyonim. The phrase 鈥渢o eat their own excrement [岣reihem] and drink their own urine [meimei shineihem]鈥 (II聽Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: To eat their own excrement [tzo鈥檃tam] and drink their own urine [meimei ragleihem].

诇诪讞专讗讜转 诇诪讜爪讗讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 拽专讞讛 讗讜诪专 诇诪讞专讗讜转 讻砖诪谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 讙谞讗讬 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛

The term 鈥渋nto latrines [lemo岣a鈥檕t]鈥 (II聽Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined lemotza鈥檕t. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Kor岣 says: Lemo岣ra鈥檕t is read as it is written because it is used here as an expression of contempt for idol worship, and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讻诇 诇讬爪谞讜转讗 讗住讬专讗 讘专 诪诇讬爪谞讜转讗 讚注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讚砖专讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讻专注 讘诇 拽专住 谞讘讜 讜讻转讬讘 拽专住讜 讻专注讜 讬讞讚讬讜 诇讗 讬讻诇讜 诪诇讟 诪砖讗 讜讙讜壮 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 诇注讙诇讜转 讘讬转 讗讜谉 讬讙讜专讜 砖讻谉 砖讜诪专讜谉 讻讬 讗讘诇 注诇讬讜 注诪讜 讜讻诪专讬讜 注诇讬讜 讬讙讬诇讜 注诇 讻讘讜讚讜 讻讬 讙诇讛 诪诪谞讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讻讘讜讚讜 讗诇讗 讻讘讬讚讜

Similarly, Rav Na岣an said: All mockery and obscenity is forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: 鈥淏el bows down, Nevo stoops鈥 (Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, it is written: 鈥淭hey stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden鈥 (Isaiah 46:2). Rabbi Yannai said: This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived from here: 鈥淭he inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from it鈥 (Hosea 10:5). Do not read it is as 鈥渋ts glory [kevodo],鈥 rather read it as its burden [keveido], meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专 诪谞讜讞 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬拽讗 砖专讬 诇讬讛 诇讘专 讬砖专讗诇 诇诪讬诪专 诇讬讛 诇讙讜讬 砖拽诇讬讛 诇注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗谞讞讬讛 讘砖讬谉 转讬讜 砖诇讜 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚住谞讗讬 砖讜诪注谞讬讛 砖专讬 诇讬讛 诇讘讝讜讬讬讛 讘讙讬诪诇 讜砖讬谉 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚砖驻讬专 砖讜诪注谞讬讛 砖专讬 诇砖讘讜讞讬讛 讜诪讗谉 讚砖讘讞讬讛 讬谞讜讞讜 诇讜 讘专讻讜转 注诇 专讗砖讜

Rav Huna bar Manoa岣 said in the name of Rav A岣, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your shin tav, i.e., shet, buttocks. Rav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished, i.e., he is known as a philanderer, it is permitted to humiliate him by calling him gimmel sin, an acronym for girta sarya, son of a putrid harlot. One whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted to publicly praise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head.

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛拽讜专讗 讗转 讛诪讙讬诇讛 注讜诪讚

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘谞讬 讛注讬专 砖诪讻专讜 专讞讜讘讛 砖诇 注讬专 诇讜拽讞讬谉 讘讚诪讬讜 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讜拽讞讬谉 转讬讘讛 转讬讘讛 诇讜拽讞讬谉 诪讟驻讞讜转 诪讟驻讞讜转

MISHNA: Residents of a town who sold the town square, which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore purchase a synagogue with the proceeds of the sale. If they sold a synagogue, they may purchase an ark in which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold an ark, they may purchase wrapping cloths for the sacred scrolls. If they sold wrapping cloths,

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