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Today's Daf Yomi

September 21, 2018 | ื™ืดื‘ ื‘ืชืฉืจื™ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Menachot 42

How many strings? How far from the edge of the garment? How long do the strands need to hang down? Does one make a brachaย on stringing the tzitzit? Can a nonย Jew make tzitzit? Can a woman? What part of the process needs to be done for the sake of tzitzit?


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ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืœื•ืœื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื›ืœืœ

the baraita means that ritual fringes do not have a maximum measure, i.e., the strings can be as long as one wants; however, they do have a minimum measure, and if the strings are shorter than this measure they are not fit. As, if you do not say so, in a case similar to it, where it is taught that a lulav has no measure, is it possible that it also has no measure whatsoever?

ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืœื•ืœื‘ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื ืขื ืข ื‘ื• ื›ืฉืจ ืืœื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื”

But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Sukka 29b): A lulav that has three handbreadths in length, sufficient to enable one to wave with it, is fit for use in fulfilling the mitzva? This indicates that if the lulav is less than the measure, it is not fit. Rather, it must be that a lulav has no maximum measure, but it does have a minimum measure. So too, ritual fringes have no maximum measure, but they have a minimum measure.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฆื™ืฆืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืืœื ืขื ืฃ ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืงื—ื ื™ ื‘ืฆื™ืฆืช ืจืืฉื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืคืจื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ ืฆื•ืฆื™ืชื ื“ืืจืžืื™

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œThat they prepare for themselves stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). The term strings [tzitzit] means nothing other than strings that hang down [anaf], and so it states in the verse: โ€œI was taken by a lock [betzitzit] of my headโ€ (Ezekiel 8:3). And Abaye says: And one is required to separate the ritual fringes like a gentileโ€™s lock of hair, part of which is braided and the rest of which is allowed to hang loose.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืŸ ืื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ (ืื•ืžืจ) ืคื•ืกืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one affixed the ritual fringes to the tip of the corner or to the border [gadil], they are fit. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov disqualifies them in both cases.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืฉืชื”ื ื ื•ื˜ืคืช ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื›ื ืคื™ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rav Giddel says that Rav says: Ritual fringes must be inserted into a hole above the corner and hang down onto the corner of the garment, as it is stated: โ€œOn the corners of their garmentsโ€ (Numbers 15:38)? In accordance with whose opinion is this? The Gemara answers: It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืจื—ื™ืง ืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ

Rabbi Yaโ€™akov says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: And one must distance the hole through which the ritual fringes are inserted into the garment the length of a full thumb joint from the edge of the garment.

ื•ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืชื•ืš ืฉืœืฉ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืจื—ื™ืง ื˜ืคื™ ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ืžืงืจื‘ ืžืขืœื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara notes: And it was necessary to state the ruling of Rav Pappa (41b) that the ritual fringes must be inserted into a hole within three fingerbreadths of the edge of the garment, and it was also necessary to state the ruling of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov. This is because if the location of the hole was taught only from the statement of Rav Pappa, I would say that his ruling that the hole must be within three fingerbreadths of the edge of the garment was to teach that one may not distance the hole from the edge of the garment by more than this amount, but the closer the hole is to the edge of the garment, the better. Consequently, it was necessary to include the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov.

ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืงืจื‘ ื˜ืคื™ ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And if the location of the hole was taught only from the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov, I would say that his ruling that it must be a full thumb joint away from the edge of the garment was to teach that one may not situate the hole closer than that to the edge of the garment, but the further he places it, the better. Therefore, both statements were necessary.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืกืžื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืกืžื ืœืงืจื ื™ื” ื“ื’ืœื™ืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื“ืกืชืจ ื•ื‘ืฆืจ ืžืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืื™ืชืžืจ

The Gemara relates that Ravina and Rav Samma were sitting before Rav Ashi. Rav Samma saw that the corner of Ravinaโ€™s cloak was torn and therefore the hole through which the ritual fringes were inserted was less than the full length of a thumb joint from the edge of the garment. Rav Samma said to Ravina: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov that the hole must be at least the length of a thumb joint from the edge of the garment? Ravina said to Rav Samma: It was stated that this distance is required at the time when the ritual fringes are made. If the corner tears later, causing the hole to be closer to the edge of the garment, the ritual fringes remain fit.

ืื™ื›ืกื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœื ืชืชืงื™ืฃ ืœืš ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ืชืจื™ ืžื™ื ืŸ

Rav Samma became embarrassed because he had asked his question based on a mistaken assumption. Rav Ashi said to Rav Samma: Do not be upset that Ravina is a greater scholar than you are; one of them, i.e., the Sages of Eretz Yisrael, is like two of us, i.e., the Sages of Babylonia.

ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืจืžื™ ืืจื‘ืข ื•ืขื™ื™ืฃ ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืขืฃ ื•ืžืขื™ื™ืœ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืžื ื•ืื‘ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืžื™ื‘ืง ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืžื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ื”ื•ื™ ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื’ื“ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืคืชื™ืœ

ยง With regard to attaching ritual fringes to a garment, the Gemara relates that Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov would affix four strings to the garment, and he would first fold them in half and then insert them at the point of the folds into the hole of the garment, so that on one side there were eight strings and on the other side there were four loops. He would then take the eight strings and loop them through the four loops and pull them tight, thereby attaching them to the garment. The Gemara explains that he held that we require eight strings when they are initially placed in the garment, in order that there be twisted cord and โ€œtwisted cordsโ€ (Deuteronomy 22:12), i.e., four doubled strings, at the place, i.e., the time, when he creates the loose hanging string.

ืจื‘ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื“ืคืชื™ ืจืžื™ ืชืžื ื™ื ื“ืื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ื•ืœื ืื‘ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืžืจ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื›ื“ื™ื“ืŸ

Rav Yirmeya of Difti would affix eight strings that are sixteen strings after they are placed in the hole of the garment and half of each string hangs down on each side, and he would not loop them as Rav Aha bar Yaโ€™akov did. Mar, son of Ravina, would prepare ritual fringes like ours, placing four strings through the hole and allowing both ends of each string to hang down, thereby forming eight.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืจืžื™ ื—ื•ื˜ื™ ื•ืงื ืžื‘ืจืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืฆื™ืฆื™ ืฉืžืขื ื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื‘ืจื›ื”

ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Naแธฅman found Rav Adda bar Ahava affixing strings to a garment and reciting the blessing that concludes: To prepare ritual fringes [tzitzit]. Rav Naแธฅman said to Rav Adda bar Ahava: What is this tzitzi sound that I hear? This is what Rav says: Ritual fringes do not require a blessing when one attaches them to the garment.

ื›ื™ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืขืœ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœืžื™ืจืžื ื“ืจื‘ ืื“ืจื‘ ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ืจื›ื” ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืฆื™ืฆืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืขืฉื• ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื™ืขืฉื•

With regard to this statement of Rav, the Gemara relates that when Rav Huna died, Rav แธคisda went into the study hall to raise a contradiction from one statement of Rav to another statement of Rav, as follows: Did Rav actually say that ritual fringes do not require a blessing when one attaches them to the garment? But doesnโ€™t Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: From where is it derived that ritual fringes attached by a gentile are unfit? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œSpeak unto the children of Israel and command them that they prepare for themselves stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). The Sages derive from here that the children of Israel shall prepare ritual fringes, but the gentiles shall not prepare ritual fringes.

ื•ื”ื ืžืื™ ืจื•ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืคืกื•ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš

The Gemara asks: But what is the contradiction between these two statements of Rav? Rav Yosef said: Rav แธคisda held that in the case of any mitzva for which the necessary item is fit when produced by a gentile, if it is produced by a Jew, he does not need to recite a blessing. Conversely, any mitzva for which the necessary item is unfit when produced by a gentile, if it is produced by a Jew, he needs to recite a blessing when he produces the item.

ื•ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืžื™ืœื” ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืขื™ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืจื•ืคื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืจื•ืคื ืืจืžืื™ ื•ืจื•ืคื ื›ื•ืชื™ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืืจืžืื™ ื•ืืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืืจืžืื™

The Gemara asks: And is this an established principle? But what about circumcision, which is valid if performed by a gentile, as it is taught in a baraita: In a city in which there is no Jewish physician, and in which there is an Aramean, i.e., a gentile, physician and a Samaritan physician, it is preferable that the Aramean circumcise the Jewish boys of the city and the Samaritan not circumcise them; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is preferable that the Samaritan circumcise the boys and the Aramean not circumcise them. Nevertheless, all agree that a circumcision performed by a gentile is valid.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื”ืžืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ืœื”

And despite the fact that circumcision performed by a gentile is valid, when it is performed by a Jew, he must recite a blessing, as the Master said: The one who circumcises a child says: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and has commanded us concerning circumcision.

ืžื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื ื˜ืขืžื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ืจื‘ ืžื™ืคืกื™ืœ ืคืกื™ืœ ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉืคืกื•ืœื” ื“ืจื• ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ

The Gemara answers: Is there reason to resolve the contradiction according to anyone but Rav? Rav himself invalidates circumcision performed by a gentile, as it was stated: From where is it derived that circumcision performed by a gentile is not valid? Daru bar Pappa says in the name of Rav: This is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd God said unto Abraham: And as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generationsโ€ (Genesis 17:9). The verse indicates that only the descendants of Abraham may perform circumcision.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื”ืžืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that this halakha is derived from the doubled verb in the verse: โ€œMust be circumcised [himmol yimmol]โ€ (Genesis 17:13), which he interprets to mean: Only one who is circumcised [hammal] may circumcise [yamul] others.

ืกื•ื›ื” ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื™ื”

The Gemara notes that the halakha with regard to a sukka supports the opinion of Rav แธคisda, who holds that when an item used for a mitzva can be created by a gentile, a Jew who creates it does not recite a blessing. And the halakha with regard to phylacteries is a conclusive refutation of his opinion.

ื”ืจื™ ืกื•ื›ื” ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื’ื•ื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื ืฉื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื‘ื”ืžื” ืกื•ื›ืช ื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื ืกื•ื›ื” ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืชื”ื ืžืกื•ื›ื›ืช ื›ื”ื™ืœื›ืชื

The Gemara explains: A sukka is fit even if it was built by a gentile, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to a booth built by gentiles, a booth built by women, a booth for domesticated animals, a booth built by Samaritans, a booth of any sort, each is fit for use as a sukka, provided that it is roofed in accordance with the halakha.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืกื•ื›ื” ืœืขืฆืžื• ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืžืœืš ื”ืขื•ืœื ืฉื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ืงื™ืžื ื• ื•ื”ื’ื™ืขื ื• ืœื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืžืœืš ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืœื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืกื•ื›ื” ื•ืื™ืœื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืกื•ื›ื” ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš

And if a sukka was built by a Jew, he is not required to recite a blessing upon its construction, as it is taught in a baraita: One who constructs a sukka for himself recites: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. When he comes to sit in the sukka, he recites: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us to reside in the sukka. The Gemara notes that the baraita indicates that he recites a blessing at the time of construction, whereas he does not recite a blessing including the words: To construct a sukka, which confirms the opinion of Rav แธคisda.

ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื™ื” ื•ื”ืจื™ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื“ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื

By contrast, the halakha with regard to phylacteries is a conclusive refutation of Rav แธคisdaโ€™s opinion. Phylacteries are unfit when written by a gentile, as it is taught by Rav แธคinnana, son of Rava,

ืžืคืฉืจื•ื ื™ื ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื–ื•ื–ื•ืช ืฉื›ืชื‘ืŸ ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื’ื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื•ืžื“ ืคืกื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืงืฉืจืชื ื•ื›ืชื‘ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ืงืฉื™ืจื” ื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงืฉื™ืจื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื›ืชื™ื‘ื”

of Pashronya: A Torah scroll, phylacteries, or mezuzot that were written by a heretic, a Samaritan, a gentile, a Canaanite slave, a woman, a minor, or a Jewish apostate [meshummad] are unfit, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall bind them for a sign on your armโ€ฆand you shall write them on the doorposts of your houseโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:8โ€“9). From this juxtaposition, one can derive the following: Anyone who is included in the mitzva of binding the phylacteries, i.e., one who is both obligated and performs the mitzva, is included in the class of people who may write Torah scrolls, phylacteries, and mezuzot; and anyone who is not included in the mitzva of binding is not included in the class of people who may write sacred texts.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืขืœ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืจืืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืขืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืœื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš

And despite the fact that phylacteries written by a gentile are unfit, a Jew who writes them does not have to recite a blessing. As Rav แธคiyya, son of Rav Huna, sent a ruling in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: On phylacteries of the arm one says the blessing: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us to don phylacteries. On phylacteries of the head one says the blessing: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us concerning the mitzva of phylacteries. The implication of this is that one recites blessings only when he dons the phylacteries, whereas when he writes the phylacteries he does not recite a blessing: To prepare phylacteries.

ืืœื ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ื’ืžืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืžื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ืœืื• ื’ืžืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš

Rather, isnโ€™t this the reason for the distinction between different mitzvot: For any mitzva whose performance is the completion of the mitzva, such as circumcision, even though it is valid when performed by a gentile, when it is performed by a Jew he must recite a blessing. But for any mitzva where the performance of a particular act is not the completion of the mitzva, such as writing phylacteries, where one does not complete the mitzva until he dons them, even though it is not valid when performed by a gentile, when it is performed by a Jew he does not need to recite a blessing.

ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื•ื‘ืช ื˜ืœื™ืช ื”ื•ื ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื•ื‘ืช ื’ื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื

And with regard to reciting a blessing when one attaches ritual fringes to a garment, the Sages disagree about this: One Sage, Rav Adda bar Ahava, holds that it is an obligation pertaining to the cloak. Therefore, when one attaches the ritual fringes he is completing the mitzva, and he should recite a blessing: To prepare ritual fringes. And one Sage, Rav Naแธฅman, citing Rav, holds that it is an obligation incumbent upon the man. Consequently, the mitzva is not complete until he wears the garment, and he should not recite a blessing when he attaches the ritual fringes to the garment.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืชื•ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืชื ื™ืชื• ืœื”

Rav Mordekhai said to Rav Ashi: You teach this halakha about gentiles attaching ritual fringes to a garment in this manner, citing Rav Yehuda in the name of Rav that the ritual fringes are invalid. Consequently, Rav แธคisda raises a contradiction between this ruling and another ruling of Rav.

ืื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืชื ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื›ืฉื™ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื™ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืื—ืจื™ื

We teach it in this way, according to which there is no contradiction: Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: From where is it derived that if ritual fringes are attached to a garment by a gentile they are valid? It is derived from that which is stated: โ€œSpeak unto the children of Israel and command them that they prepare for themselves [lahem] stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). From the fact that the verse does not merely state: That they prepare [veโ€™asu], but rather states โ€œveโ€™asu lahem,โ€ which can be translated as: That they prepare for them, the indication is that even others, i.e., gentiles, shall prepare ritual fringes for them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขืฉืืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืฆื™ื ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ื›ืฉื™ืจื”

ยง Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: If one prepared ritual fringes from threads that protrude from the fabric like thorns [kotzim], or if he prepared them from threads [nimin] that were used to sew the garment and remain attached to it, or from the strings [geradin] that hang from the bottom of a garment, the ritual fringes are unfit, as one must attach ritual fringes to a garment for the sake of the mitzva. But if he prepared ritual fringes from swatches of wool that were not spun for the sake of the mitzva, they are fit.

ื›ื™ ืืžืจื™ืชื” ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื” ืœืฉืžื”

Rav Yehuda continues: When I stated this halakha in the name of Rav before Shmuel, he said to me: Even ritual fringes tied from swatches of wool that were not spun for the sake of the mitzva are unfit, as we require the spinning of the string to be for the sake of the mitzva.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ืฆื™ืคืŸ ื–ื”ื‘ ืื• ืฉื˜ืœื” ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ืžืื” ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื›ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืœื ืขื™ื‘ื“ืŸ ืœืฉืžืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ืŸ ืœืฉืžืŸ

The Gemara notes that this dispute is like a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: If one took phylacteries and coated them with gold or patched them with the skin of a non-kosher animal, then they are unfit. But if one patched them with the skin of a kosher animal, then they are fit, and this is so even though he did not prepare the skin for their sake, i.e., for the sake of its use in a mitzva. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even if he patched them with the skin of a kosher animal they are unfit, until he prepares them for their sake.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืชื›ื™ืœืชื ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืฆื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ื“ื ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืกืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ืจืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื™ื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื ื ืคื•ืจืชื ื‘ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื•ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืื•ื“ืจื ื•ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื•ืงืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœืื•ื“ืจื

ยง Abaye said to Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda: How do you dye this sky-blue wool to be used for ritual fringes? Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda said to Abaye: We bring blood of a แธฅilazon and various herbs and put them in a pot and boil them. And then we take a bit of the resulting dye in an egg shell and test it by using it to dye a wad of wool to see if it has attained the desired hue. And then we throw away that egg shell and its contents and burn the wad of wool.

ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืœืช ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื” ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกืœื”

The Gemara comments: Learn from this statement three halakhot: Learn from it that wool that was dyed for the purpose of testing the dye and not for use as ritual fringes is unfit for ritual fringes. Consequently, one burns the wad of wool so that no one will use it for ritual fringes. And learn from it that we require dyeing for the sake of the mitzva. And learn from it that using dye for testing renders all the dye in that vessel unfit. Therefore, some of the dye is removed from the pot before it is tested.

ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงืืžืจ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื”

The Gemara challenges: The halakha that wool dyed for the purpose of testing the dye is unfit is the same as the requirement of dyeing for the sake of the mitzva. It is only because the sky-blue strings must be dyed for the sake of the mitzva that wool dyed as a test is unfit for use as ritual fringes, so why are these stated as two halakhot? Rav Ashi said: The statement about learning three halakhot employs the style known as: What is the reason, and it means: What is the reason that wool that was dyed for the purpose of testing is unfit? It is because we require dyeing for the sake of the mitzva.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœื™ืœ ืชื›ืœืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

The Gemara notes that the halakha that using the dye for testing renders all the dye in the pot unfit is subject to a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: Tekhelet dye that was used for testing is unfit, as it is stated concerning the priestly vestments: โ€œAnd you shall make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue [kelil tekhelet]โ€ (Exodus 28:31), which indicates that the dye must be used exclusively for this purpose, i.e., this must be the first item it is being used to dye. This is the statement of Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื”ื‘ืื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืจืื” ืฉื ื™ ืฉื‘ื” ื›ืฉืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืชื•ืœืขืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Dahavai says: Even a second appearance caused by the dye is fit, meaning even if it is the second time that the dye is being used, it is still fit. As it is stated in the verse: โ€œAnd scarlet wool [ushni tolaโ€™at]โ€ (Leviticus 14:4), which is interpreted to mean that this may be the second [sheni] usage of the dye.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชื›ืœืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืงื—ื™ืช ืืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืกืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื–ื•ื–ื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ื ื™ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื›ืœ ืื“ื

The Sages taught in a baraita: There is no reliable method of testing sky-blue wool, and therefore it may be purchased only from an expert. There is a method of testing phylacteries to ensure they were written properly, but nevertheless they may be purchased only from an expert. There is a method of testing Torah scrolls and mezuzot, and they may be purchased from anyone.

ื•ืชื›ืœืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื“ื™ืง ืœื™ื” (ืกื™ืžืŸ ื‘ื’ืฉื) ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื’ื‘ื™ื ื’ื™ืœื ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืฉื‘ืœื™ืœืชื ื•ืžื™ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื

The Gemara asks: And is there no method for testing sky-blue wool? But didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak, son of Rav Yehuda, test it to ensure it was dyed with tekhelet? The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the test, which was carried out with items whose names contain the letters gimmel, shin, or mem. He would bring alum clay [megavya gila], and water of fenugreek [shavlilta], and urine [meimei raglayim]

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.ย 

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Menachot 42

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 42

ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ื“ืื™ ืœื ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืœื•ืœื‘ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื›ืœืœ

the baraita means that ritual fringes do not have a maximum measure, i.e., the strings can be as long as one wants; however, they do have a minimum measure, and if the strings are shorter than this measure they are not fit. As, if you do not say so, in a case similar to it, where it is taught that a lulav has no measure, is it possible that it also has no measure whatsoever?

ื•ื”ืชื ืŸ ืœื•ืœื‘ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื ืขื ืข ื‘ื• ื›ืฉืจ ืืœื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžืขืœื” ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœืžื˜ื”

But didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Sukka 29b): A lulav that has three handbreadths in length, sufficient to enable one to wave with it, is fit for use in fulfilling the mitzva? This indicates that if the lulav is less than the measure, it is not fit. Rather, it must be that a lulav has no maximum measure, but it does have a minimum measure. So too, ritual fringes have no maximum measure, but they have a minimum measure.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฆื™ืฆืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืืœื ืขื ืฃ ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื™ืงื—ื ื™ ื‘ืฆื™ืฆืช ืจืืฉื™ ื•ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืคืจื•ื“ื” ื›ื™ ืฆื•ืฆื™ืชื ื“ืืจืžืื™

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œThat they prepare for themselves stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). The term strings [tzitzit] means nothing other than strings that hang down [anaf], and so it states in the verse: โ€œI was taken by a lock [betzitzit] of my headโ€ (Ezekiel 8:3). And Abaye says: And one is required to separate the ritual fringes like a gentileโ€™s lock of hair, part of which is braided and the rest of which is allowed to hang loose.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืŸ ืื• ืขืœ ื”ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ (ืื•ืžืจ) ืคื•ืกืœ ื‘ืฉืชื™ื”ืŸ

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one affixed the ritual fringes to the tip of the corner or to the border [gadil], they are fit. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov disqualifies them in both cases.

ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืฉืชื”ื ื ื•ื˜ืคืช ืขืœ ื”ืงืจืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืœ ื›ื ืคื™ ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื”ื ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rav Giddel says that Rav says: Ritual fringes must be inserted into a hole above the corner and hang down onto the corner of the garment, as it is stated: โ€œOn the corners of their garmentsโ€ (Numbers 15:38)? In accordance with whose opinion is this? The Gemara answers: It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื™ืจื—ื™ืง ืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ

Rabbi Yaโ€™akov says that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says: And one must distance the hole through which the ritual fringes are inserted into the garment the length of a full thumb joint from the edge of the garment.

ื•ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืชื•ืš ืฉืœืฉ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืจื—ื™ืง ื˜ืคื™ ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ืžืงืจื‘ ืžืขืœื™ ืื™ืฆื˜ืจื™ืš ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘

The Gemara notes: And it was necessary to state the ruling of Rav Pappa (41b) that the ritual fringes must be inserted into a hole within three fingerbreadths of the edge of the garment, and it was also necessary to state the ruling of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov. This is because if the location of the hole was taught only from the statement of Rav Pappa, I would say that his ruling that the hole must be within three fingerbreadths of the edge of the garment was to teach that one may not distance the hole from the edge of the garment by more than this amount, but the closer the hole is to the edge of the garment, the better. Consequently, it was necessary to include the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov.

ื•ืื™ ืžื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื”ื•ื” ืืžื™ื ื ืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ื“ืœื ืœื™ืงืจื‘ ื˜ืคื™ ื•ื›ืžื” ื“ืจื—ื™ืง ืžืขืœื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื

And if the location of the hole was taught only from the statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov, I would say that his ruling that it must be a full thumb joint away from the edge of the garment was to teach that one may not situate the hole closer than that to the edge of the garment, but the further he places it, the better. Therefore, both statements were necessary.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ ืกืžื ื”ื•ื• ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืจื‘ ืกืžื ืœืงืจื ื™ื” ื“ื’ืœื™ืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื“ืกืชืจ ื•ื‘ืฆืจ ืžืžืœื ืงืฉืจ ื’ื•ื“ืœ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื‘ืฉืขืช ืขืฉื™ื™ื” ืื™ืชืžืจ

The Gemara relates that Ravina and Rav Samma were sitting before Rav Ashi. Rav Samma saw that the corner of Ravinaโ€™s cloak was torn and therefore the hole through which the ritual fringes were inserted was less than the full length of a thumb joint from the edge of the garment. Rav Samma said to Ravina: Doesnโ€™t the Master hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yaโ€™akov that the hole must be at least the length of a thumb joint from the edge of the garment? Ravina said to Rav Samma: It was stated that this distance is required at the time when the ritual fringes are made. If the corner tears later, causing the hole to be closer to the edge of the garment, the ritual fringes remain fit.

ืื™ื›ืกื™ืฃ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืœื ืชืชืงื™ืฃ ืœืš ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ืชืจื™ ืžื™ื ืŸ

Rav Samma became embarrassed because he had asked his question based on a mistaken assumption. Rav Ashi said to Rav Samma: Do not be upset that Ravina is a greater scholar than you are; one of them, i.e., the Sages of Eretz Yisrael, is like two of us, i.e., the Sages of Babylonia.

ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืจืžื™ ืืจื‘ืข ื•ืขื™ื™ืฃ ืœื”ื• ืžื™ืขืฃ ื•ืžืขื™ื™ืœ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื’ืœื™ืžื ื•ืื‘ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืžื™ื‘ืง ืงืกื‘ืจ ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืชืžื ื™ื ื‘ื’ืœื™ืžื ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ื“ืœื™ื”ื•ื™ ื’ื“ื™ืœ ื’ื“ื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืคืชื™ืœ

ยง With regard to attaching ritual fringes to a garment, the Gemara relates that Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov would affix four strings to the garment, and he would first fold them in half and then insert them at the point of the folds into the hole of the garment, so that on one side there were eight strings and on the other side there were four loops. He would then take the eight strings and loop them through the four loops and pull them tight, thereby attaching them to the garment. The Gemara explains that he held that we require eight strings when they are initially placed in the garment, in order that there be twisted cord and โ€œtwisted cordsโ€ (Deuteronomy 22:12), i.e., four doubled strings, at the place, i.e., the time, when he creates the loose hanging string.

ืจื‘ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžื“ืคืชื™ ืจืžื™ ืชืžื ื™ื ื“ืื™ื ื”ื• ืฉื™ืชืกืจ ื•ืœื ืื‘ื™ืง ืœื”ื• ืžืจ ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื›ื“ื™ื“ืŸ

Rav Yirmeya of Difti would affix eight strings that are sixteen strings after they are placed in the hole of the garment and half of each string hangs down on each side, and he would not loop them as Rav Aha bar Yaโ€™akov did. Mar, son of Ravina, would prepare ritual fringes like ours, placing four strings through the hole and allowing both ends of each string to hang down, thereby forming eight.

ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืจืžื™ ื—ื•ื˜ื™ ื•ืงื ืžื‘ืจืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ืฆื™ืฆื™ ืฉืžืขื ื ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื‘ืจื›ื”

ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Naแธฅman found Rav Adda bar Ahava affixing strings to a garment and reciting the blessing that concludes: To prepare ritual fringes [tzitzit]. Rav Naแธฅman said to Rav Adda bar Ahava: What is this tzitzi sound that I hear? This is what Rav says: Ritual fringes do not require a blessing when one attaches them to the garment.

ื›ื™ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืขืœ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ืœืžื™ืจืžื ื“ืจื‘ ืื“ืจื‘ ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ื‘ืจื›ื” ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื”ื™ื ืคืกื•ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืฆื™ืฆืช ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื™ืขืฉื• ื•ืœื ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ื™ืขืฉื•

With regard to this statement of Rav, the Gemara relates that when Rav Huna died, Rav แธคisda went into the study hall to raise a contradiction from one statement of Rav to another statement of Rav, as follows: Did Rav actually say that ritual fringes do not require a blessing when one attaches them to the garment? But doesnโ€™t Rav Yehuda say that Rav says: From where is it derived that ritual fringes attached by a gentile are unfit? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: โ€œSpeak unto the children of Israel and command them that they prepare for themselves stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). The Sages derive from here that the children of Israel shall prepare ritual fringes, but the gentiles shall not prepare ritual fringes.

ื•ื”ื ืžืื™ ืจื•ืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืงืกื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ืฉืคืกื•ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš

The Gemara asks: But what is the contradiction between these two statements of Rav? Rav Yosef said: Rav แธคisda held that in the case of any mitzva for which the necessary item is fit when produced by a gentile, if it is produced by a Jew, he does not need to recite a blessing. Conversely, any mitzva for which the necessary item is unfit when produced by a gentile, if it is produced by a Jew, he needs to recite a blessing when he produces the item.

ื•ื›ืœืœื ื”ื•ื ื•ื”ืจื™ ืžื™ืœื” ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืขื™ืจ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืจื•ืคื ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื™ืฉ ื‘ื” ืจื•ืคื ืืจืžืื™ ื•ืจื•ืคื ื›ื•ืชื™ ื™ืžื•ืœ ืืจืžืื™ ื•ืืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื ืืจืžืื™

The Gemara asks: And is this an established principle? But what about circumcision, which is valid if performed by a gentile, as it is taught in a baraita: In a city in which there is no Jewish physician, and in which there is an Aramean, i.e., a gentile, physician and a Samaritan physician, it is preferable that the Aramean circumcise the Jewish boys of the city and the Samaritan not circumcise them; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: It is preferable that the Samaritan circumcise the boys and the Aramean not circumcise them. Nevertheless, all agree that a circumcision performed by a gentile is valid.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื”ืžืœ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ืœื”

And despite the fact that circumcision performed by a gentile is valid, when it is performed by a Jew, he must recite a blessing, as the Master said: The one who circumcises a child says: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and has commanded us concerning circumcision.

ืžื™ื“ื™ ื”ื•ื ื˜ืขืžื ืืœื ืœืจื‘ ืจื‘ ืžื™ืคืกื™ืœ ืคืกื™ืœ ื“ืื™ืชืžืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ืœื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉืคืกื•ืœื” ื“ืจื• ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ื•ืืชื” ืืช ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ืชืฉืžืจ

The Gemara answers: Is there reason to resolve the contradiction according to anyone but Rav? Rav himself invalidates circumcision performed by a gentile, as it was stated: From where is it derived that circumcision performed by a gentile is not valid? Daru bar Pappa says in the name of Rav: This is derived from the verse: โ€œAnd God said unto Abraham: And as for you, you shall keep My covenant, you, and your seed after you throughout their generationsโ€ (Genesis 17:9). The verse indicates that only the descendants of Abraham may perform circumcision.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ ื”ืžืœ ื™ืžื•ืœ

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan says that this halakha is derived from the doubled verb in the verse: โ€œMust be circumcised [himmol yimmol]โ€ (Genesis 17:13), which he interprets to mean: Only one who is circumcised [hammal] may circumcise [yamul] others.

ืกื•ื›ื” ืžืกื™ื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื™ื”

The Gemara notes that the halakha with regard to a sukka supports the opinion of Rav แธคisda, who holds that when an item used for a mitzva can be created by a gentile, a Jew who creates it does not recite a blessing. And the halakha with regard to phylacteries is a conclusive refutation of his opinion.

ื”ืจื™ ืกื•ื›ื” ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื’ื•ื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื ืฉื™ื ืกื•ื›ืช ื‘ื”ืžื” ืกื•ื›ืช ื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื ืกื•ื›ื” ืžื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืชื”ื ืžืกื•ื›ื›ืช ื›ื”ื™ืœื›ืชื

The Gemara explains: A sukka is fit even if it was built by a gentile, as it is taught in a baraita: With regard to a booth built by gentiles, a booth built by women, a booth for domesticated animals, a booth built by Samaritans, a booth of any sort, each is fit for use as a sukka, provided that it is roofed in accordance with the halakha.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืขื•ืฉื” ืกื•ื›ื” ืœืขืฆืžื• ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืžืœืš ื”ืขื•ืœื ืฉื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ืงื™ืžื ื• ื•ื”ื’ื™ืขื ื• ืœื–ืžืŸ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื ืœื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืชื” ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ื ื• ืžืœืš ื”ืขื•ืœื ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืœื™ืฉื‘ ื‘ืกื•ื›ื” ื•ืื™ืœื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืกื•ื›ื” ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš

And if a sukka was built by a Jew, he is not required to recite a blessing upon its construction, as it is taught in a baraita: One who constructs a sukka for himself recites: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has given us life, sustained us, and brought us to this time. When he comes to sit in the sukka, he recites: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us to reside in the sukka. The Gemara notes that the baraita indicates that he recites a blessing at the time of construction, whereas he does not recite a blessing including the words: To construct a sukka, which confirms the opinion of Rav แธคisda.

ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื™ื” ื•ื”ืจื™ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื“ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื“ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื

By contrast, the halakha with regard to phylacteries is a conclusive refutation of Rav แธคisdaโ€™s opinion. Phylacteries are unfit when written by a gentile, as it is taught by Rav แธคinnana, son of Rava,

ืžืคืฉืจื•ื ื™ื ืกืคืจ ืชื•ืจื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžื–ื•ื–ื•ืช ืฉื›ืชื‘ืŸ ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื™ ื’ื•ื™ ืขื‘ื“ ืืฉื” ื•ืงื˜ืŸ ื•ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžืฉื•ืžื“ ืคืกื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืงืฉืจืชื ื•ื›ืชื‘ืชื ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ืงืฉื™ืจื” ื™ืฉื ื• ื‘ื›ืชื™ื‘ื” ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืงืฉื™ืจื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื›ืชื™ื‘ื”

of Pashronya: A Torah scroll, phylacteries, or mezuzot that were written by a heretic, a Samaritan, a gentile, a Canaanite slave, a woman, a minor, or a Jewish apostate [meshummad] are unfit, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall bind them for a sign on your armโ€ฆand you shall write them on the doorposts of your houseโ€ (Deuteronomy 6:8โ€“9). From this juxtaposition, one can derive the following: Anyone who is included in the mitzva of binding the phylacteries, i.e., one who is both obligated and performs the mitzva, is included in the class of people who may write Torah scrolls, phylacteries, and mezuzot; and anyone who is not included in the mitzva of binding is not included in the class of people who may write sacred texts.

ื•ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื“ืฉืœื— ืจื‘ ื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืขืœ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ื™ื“ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืœื”ื ื™ื— ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืขืœ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœ ืจืืฉ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืฉืจ ืงื“ืฉื ื• ื‘ืžืฆื•ืชื™ื• ื•ืฆื•ื ื• ืขืœ ืžืฆื•ืช ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืœื• ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš

And despite the fact that phylacteries written by a gentile are unfit, a Jew who writes them does not have to recite a blessing. As Rav แธคiyya, son of Rav Huna, sent a ruling in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: On phylacteries of the arm one says the blessing: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us to don phylacteries. On phylacteries of the head one says the blessing: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us through His mitzvot and commanded us concerning the mitzva of phylacteries. The implication of this is that one recites blessings only when he dons the phylacteries, whereas when he writes the phylacteries he does not recite a blessing: To prepare phylacteries.

ืืœื ืœืื• ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขืžื ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ื’ืžืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืžื™ืœื” ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ื›ืฉื™ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš ื•ื›ืœ ืžืฆื•ื” ื“ืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ืœืื• ื’ืžืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื‘ืจืš

Rather, isnโ€™t this the reason for the distinction between different mitzvot: For any mitzva whose performance is the completion of the mitzva, such as circumcision, even though it is valid when performed by a gentile, when it is performed by a Jew he must recite a blessing. But for any mitzva where the performance of a particular act is not the completion of the mitzva, such as writing phylacteries, where one does not complete the mitzva until he dons them, even though it is not valid when performed by a gentile, when it is performed by a Jew he does not need to recite a blessing.

ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื”ื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื•ื‘ืช ื˜ืœื™ืช ื”ื•ื ื•ืžืจ ืกื‘ืจ ื—ื•ื‘ืช ื’ื‘ืจื ื”ื•ื

And with regard to reciting a blessing when one attaches ritual fringes to a garment, the Sages disagree about this: One Sage, Rav Adda bar Ahava, holds that it is an obligation pertaining to the cloak. Therefore, when one attaches the ritual fringes he is completing the mitzva, and he should recite a blessing: To prepare ritual fringes. And one Sage, Rav Naแธฅman, citing Rav, holds that it is an obligation incumbent upon the man. Consequently, the mitzva is not complete until he wears the garment, and he should not recite a blessing when he attaches the ritual fringes to the garment.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืžืจื“ื›ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืชื•ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืชื ื™ืชื• ืœื”

Rav Mordekhai said to Rav Ashi: You teach this halakha about gentiles attaching ritual fringes to a garment in this manner, citing Rav Yehuda in the name of Rav that the ritual fringes are invalid. Consequently, Rav แธคisda raises a contradiction between this ruling and another ruling of Rav.

ืื ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ืžืชื ื™ื ืŸ ืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื™ ืฉื›ืฉื™ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืฆื™ืฆื™ืช ื™ืขืฉื• ืœื”ื ืื—ืจื™ื

We teach it in this way, according to which there is no contradiction: Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: From where is it derived that if ritual fringes are attached to a garment by a gentile they are valid? It is derived from that which is stated: โ€œSpeak unto the children of Israel and command them that they prepare for themselves [lahem] stringsโ€ (Numbers 15:38). From the fact that the verse does not merely state: That they prepare [veโ€™asu], but rather states โ€œveโ€™asu lahem,โ€ which can be translated as: That they prepare for them, the indication is that even others, i.e., gentiles, shall prepare ritual fringes for them.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขืฉืืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงื•ืฆื™ื ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื•ืžืŸ ื”ื’ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ื›ืฉื™ืจื”

ยง Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: If one prepared ritual fringes from threads that protrude from the fabric like thorns [kotzim], or if he prepared them from threads [nimin] that were used to sew the garment and remain attached to it, or from the strings [geradin] that hang from the bottom of a garment, the ritual fringes are unfit, as one must attach ritual fringes to a garment for the sake of the mitzva. But if he prepared ritual fringes from swatches of wool that were not spun for the sake of the mitzva, they are fit.

ื›ื™ ืืžืจื™ืชื” ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืžืŸ ื”ืกื™ืกื™ืŸ ืคืกื•ืœื” ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ื˜ื•ื™ื™ื” ืœืฉืžื”

Rav Yehuda continues: When I stated this halakha in the name of Rav before Shmuel, he said to me: Even ritual fringes tied from swatches of wool that were not spun for the sake of the mitzva are unfit, as we require the spinning of the string to be for the sake of the mitzva.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ืฆื™ืคืŸ ื–ื”ื‘ ืื• ืฉื˜ืœื” ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ืžืื” ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ื›ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืœื ืขื™ื‘ื“ืŸ ืœืฉืžืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ืขื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื˜ื”ื•ืจื” ืคืกื•ืœื•ืช ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขื‘ื“ืŸ ืœืฉืžืŸ

The Gemara notes that this dispute is like a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: If one took phylacteries and coated them with gold or patched them with the skin of a non-kosher animal, then they are unfit. But if one patched them with the skin of a kosher animal, then they are fit, and this is so even though he did not prepare the skin for their sake, i.e., for the sake of its use in a mitzva. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even if he patched them with the skin of a kosher animal they are unfit, until he prepares them for their sake.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื ืชื›ื™ืœืชื ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืฆื‘ืขื™ืชื• ืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ื™ืชื™ื ืŸ ื“ื ื—ืœื–ื•ืŸ ื•ืกืžื ื™ืŸ ื•ืจืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ื™ื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืงืœื™ื ื ืคื•ืจืชื ื‘ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื•ื˜ืขืžื™ื ืŸ ืœื”ื• ื‘ืื•ื“ืจื ื•ืฉื“ื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื‘ื™ืขืชื ื•ืงืœื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืœืื•ื“ืจื

ยง Abaye said to Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda: How do you dye this sky-blue wool to be used for ritual fringes? Rav Shmuel bar Rav Yehuda said to Abaye: We bring blood of a แธฅilazon and various herbs and put them in a pot and boil them. And then we take a bit of the resulting dye in an egg shell and test it by using it to dye a wad of wool to see if it has attained the desired hue. And then we throw away that egg shell and its contents and burn the wad of wool.

ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ืชืœืช ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื” ื•ืฉืžืข ืžื™ื ื” ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกืœื”

The Gemara comments: Learn from this statement three halakhot: Learn from it that wool that was dyed for the purpose of testing the dye and not for use as ritual fringes is unfit for ritual fringes. Consequently, one burns the wad of wool so that no one will use it for ritual fringes. And learn from it that we require dyeing for the sake of the mitzva. And learn from it that using dye for testing renders all the dye in that vessel unfit. Therefore, some of the dye is removed from the pot before it is tested.

ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ืงืืžืจ ืžื” ื˜ืขื ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืฆื‘ื™ืขื” ืœืฉืžื”

The Gemara challenges: The halakha that wool dyed for the purpose of testing the dye is unfit is the same as the requirement of dyeing for the sake of the mitzva. It is only because the sky-blue strings must be dyed for the sake of the mitzva that wool dyed as a test is unfit for use as ritual fringes, so why are these stated as two halakhot? Rav Ashi said: The statement about learning three halakhot employs the style known as: What is the reason, and it means: What is the reason that wool that was dyed for the purpose of testing is unfit? It is because we require dyeing for the sake of the mitzva.

ื›ืชื ืื™ ื˜ืขื™ืžื” ืคืกื•ืœื” ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœื™ืœ ืชื›ืœืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

The Gemara notes that the halakha that using the dye for testing renders all the dye in the pot unfit is subject to a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: Tekhelet dye that was used for testing is unfit, as it is stated concerning the priestly vestments: โ€œAnd you shall make the robe of the ephod entirely of blue [kelil tekhelet]โ€ (Exodus 28:31), which indicates that the dye must be used exclusively for this purpose, i.e., this must be the first item it is being used to dye. This is the statement of Rabbi แธคanina ben Gamliel.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื“ื”ื‘ืื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืจืื” ืฉื ื™ ืฉื‘ื” ื›ืฉืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฉื ื™ ืชื•ืœืขืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan ben Dahavai says: Even a second appearance caused by the dye is fit, meaning even if it is the second time that the dye is being used, it is still fit. As it is stated in the verse: โ€œAnd scarlet wool [ushni tolaโ€™at]โ€ (Leviticus 14:4), which is interpreted to mean that this may be the second [sheni] usage of the dye.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืชื›ืœืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ืงื—ื™ืช ืืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืชืคื™ืœื™ืŸ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื ื™ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ืžื—ื” ืกืคืจื™ื ื•ืžื–ื•ื–ื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืŸ ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ื ื™ืงื—ื™ืŸ ืžื›ืœ ืื“ื

The Sages taught in a baraita: There is no reliable method of testing sky-blue wool, and therefore it may be purchased only from an expert. There is a method of testing phylacteries to ensure they were written properly, but nevertheless they may be purchased only from an expert. There is a method of testing Torah scrolls and mezuzot, and they may be purchased from anyone.

ื•ืชื›ืœืช ืื™ืŸ ืœื” ื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื“ื™ืง ืœื™ื” (ืกื™ืžืŸ ื‘ื’ืฉื) ืžื™ื™ืชื™ ืžื’ื‘ื™ื ื’ื™ืœื ื•ืžื™ื ื“ืฉื‘ืœื™ืœืชื ื•ืžื™ืžื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื

The Gemara asks: And is there no method for testing sky-blue wool? But didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak, son of Rav Yehuda, test it to ensure it was dyed with tekhelet? The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the test, which was carried out with items whose names contain the letters gimmel, shin, or mem. He would bring alum clay [megavya gila], and water of fenugreek [shavlilta], and urine [meimei raglayim]

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