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Today's Daf Yomi

October 2, 2018 | 讻状讙 讘转砖专讬 转砖注状讟

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Menachot 53

How are the leavened meal offerings prepared? How does one know that meal offerings that were meant to be unleavened and become leavened are disqualified? An interchange between Rabbi Preida and Rabbi Ezra ensues which relates to the importance of zechut avot聽– is that a value or not?


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讝讗转 转讜专转 讛诪谞讞讛 讛拽专讘 讗转讛 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇 驻谞讬 讛诪讝讘讞 讜讛谞讜转专转 诪诪谞讛 讬讗讻诇讜 讗讛专谉 讜讘谞讬讜 诪爪讜转 转讗讻诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 讻讬 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 诇注讻讘

鈥淎nd this is the law of the meal offering: The sons of Aaron shall sacrifice it before the Lord in front of the altar鈥nd that which is left of it Aaron and his sons shall eat; it shall be eaten as matzot (Leviticus 6:7鈥9). These verses demonstrate that there is a general requirement that meal offerings must be brought as matza. Rabbi Perida said to Rabbi Ami: I do not raise the dilemma with regard to the source of the mitzva ab initio, as that is clearly derived from these verses. Where I raise the dilemma, it is with regard to the source that indicates this requirement is indispensable, i.e., that if one violated the mitzva and brought a meal offering not as matza the offering is not valid.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇注讻讘 谞诪讬 讻转讬讘 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 诪爪讛

Rabbi Ami said to Rabbi Perida: With regard to the halakha that the requirement that meal offerings must come as matza is indispensable, it is also written: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread鈥 (Leviticus 6:10), but rather must come as matza. This additional verse indicates that even after the fact, if a meal offering was not made as matza it is not valid.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 砖讬讗讜专

Rav 岣sda objects to this: But one can say that the verse should be interpreted as follows: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 i.e., fully leavened, but it can be brought even if it has been leavened slightly with leavening [siur] dough. Although it does not have the status of leavened bread and is therefore not prohibited by the verse, it also does not have the status of matza.

砖讬讗讜专 讚诪讗谉 讗讬 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪爪讛 诪注诇讬讗 讛讬讗 讗讬 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞诪抓 诪注诇讬讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara analyzes Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection, as there is a dispute among the Sages with regard to the definition of siur (see Pesa岣m 48b). According to Rabbi Meir, siur is dough at the beginning of the leavening process, when its surface has become pale. Conversely, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that siur is dough that has been leavened to the point that it has cracks that look like the antennae of locusts. In this light, the Gemara inquires: This siur, mentioned by Rav 岣sda in his suggested interpretation of the verse, is in accordance with whose opinion? If he is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Meir, then according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection does not arise, as Rabbi Yehuda maintains this is full-fledged matza. And if Rav 岣sda is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Yehuda, then according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection does not arise either, as Rabbi Meir holds that it is full-fledged leavened bread.

讗讬 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪讚诇拽讬 注诇讬讛 讞诪抓 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

Furthermore, if Rav 岣sda is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Meir, then even according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir himself the objection does not arise. The reason is that from the fact that Rabbi Meir rules that one who eats this siur on Passover is flogged for it, this indicates that it is deemed full-fledged leavened bread. Rather, Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection arises with regard to leavening dough as defined by Rabbi Yehuda, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who maintains that this dough is not considered full-fledged leavened bread.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 讞诇讜讟 讞诇讜讟 诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 专讘讬讻讛 讗讬 讚讗讬讻讗 专讘讬讻讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 讜讛讗 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k also objects to Rabbi Ami鈥檚 explanation: But one can say that the verse can be interpreted as follows: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 but one may bring a meal offering that has been boiled, as this is not leavened bread; although it is also not matza. The Gemara asks: This boiled dough, what is it? It is poached [revikha], as described in the verse: 鈥淚n a pan it shall be made of oil, when it is soaked [murbekhet]鈥 (Leviticus 6:14). If so, there is no need to derive the halakha of boiled dough from the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread.鈥 If it is a meal offering that must be poached, it is explicitly written with regard to it that it must be poached. And if it is a meal offering that is not to be poached, it is not written with regard to it that it is poached.

讜讗讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 诪爪讜讛 讘专讘讬讻讛 讜讚诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 讗讬 讘注讬 专讘讬讻讛 诇讬讬转讬 讗讬 讘注讬 诪爪讛 诇讬讬转讬

The Gemara challenges: But one can say that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 indicates that with regard to a meal offering about which it is written explicitly that it must be poached, it is a mitzva that it be poached, and with regard to a meal offering about which it is not written that it must be poached, the one who brings the offering can decide: If he wants, let him bring it poached, and if he wants, let him bring it as matza. Accordingly, Rabbi Ami鈥檚 proof from the verse is inconclusive.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 诇诪讬拽诐 讙讘专讗 讘诇讗讜 讘注诇诪讗 讜讗讬驻住讜诇讬 诇讗 诪讬驻住诇讗

Ravina also objects to Rabbi Ami鈥檚 explanation: But one can say that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 serves to determine that this man who brings a meal offering as leavened bread is liable for violating a mere prohibition, but the meal offering itself is not invalid.

讗诇讗 诪谞诇谉 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪爪讛 讬讻讜诇 诪爪讜讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 转讛讬讛 讛讻转讜讘 拽讘注讛 讞讜讘讛

All these objections indicate that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 can be interpreted in ways other than that suggested by Rabbi Ami. Accordingly, the Gemara asks: Rather, from where do we derive that all meal offerings not brought as matza are not valid? The Gemara answers: We derive it as it is taught in a baraita discussing a verse concerning meal offerings: 鈥淚t shall be of matza (Leviticus 2:5): One might have thought that it is only a mitzva ab initio for a meal offering to be of matza. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be,鈥 which indicates that the verse established it as an obligation, i.e., if the meal offering was not brought as matza it is not valid.

讘注讗 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 驻专讬讚讗 诪专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪谞讬谉 诇讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 砖谞讬诇讜砖讜转 讘驻讜砖专讬谉 讜诪砖诪专谉 砖诇讗 讬讞诪讬爪讜 谞诇诪讚谞讛 诪驻住讞 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诪专转诐 讗转 讛诪爪讜转

Rabbi Perida raised another dilemma before Rabbi Ami: From where is it derived with regard to all the meal offerings that must be brought as matza that they are kneaded with lukewarm water so that the dough will be baked well, as only a small amount of oil is added, and that one must watch over them to ensure that they do not become leavened while kneading and shaping them? Shall we derive this halakha from the prohibition concerning leavened bread on the festival of Passover, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall watch over the matzot (Exodus 12:17), which indicates that one must watch over any dough that is supposed to be made into matza, to ensure that it does not become leavened?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讙讜驻讛 讻转讬讘 诪爪讛 转讛讬讛 讛讞讬讬讛

Rabbi Ami said to Rabbi Perida: The halakha of meal offerings is not derived from Passover, as it is written in the context of a meal offering itself: 鈥淚t shall be [tehiye] of matza (Leviticus 2:5), which can be read as meaning: Preserve [ha岣ye] matza, i.e., preserve the matza as it is, and do not let it become leavened.

讜讛讗 讗驻讬拽转讬讛 诇注讻讘 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬讻转讜讘 拽专讗 诪爪讛 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 转讛讬讛 砖诪注转 诪讬谞讛 转专转讬

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you already derive from the term 鈥渋t shall be鈥 that the requirement that a meal offering must be made as matza is indispensable? The Gemara answers: If so, that this term serves to teach only one halakha, let the verse write: It is matza. What is the reason that it writes: 鈥淚t shall be of matza鈥? Learn from it two conclusions, both that the requirement that it be made as matza is indispensable and that one must watch over the matza to ensure that it does not become leavened.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 驻专讬讚讗 专讘讬 注讝专讗 讘专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讟讜诇住 讚讛讜讗 注砖讬专讬 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚讛讜讗 注砖讬专讬 诇注讝专讗 拽讗讬 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬

搂 The Gemara relates an incident that involves the aforementioned Rabbi Perida. The Sages said to Rabbi Perida: The Sage Rabbi Ezra, who is of especially fine lineage, a grandson of Rabbi Avtolus, who in turn is a tenth-generation descendant of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who is a tenth-generation descendant of Ezra the Scribe, is standing and waiting at the gate of the house and seeks entry. Rabbi Perida said to the Sages: What is the need for all this detail about Rabbi Ezra鈥檚 lineage?

讗讬 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讬讗讬 讗讬 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讜讘专 讗讘讛谉 讬讗讬 讜讗讬 讘专 讗讘讛谉 讜诇讗 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讗讬砖讗 转讬讻诇讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬注讜诇 讜诇讬转讬

Rabbi Perida elaborated: If he is a man of Torah study, he is worthy of entry on his own account, regardless of his ancestors. And if he is both a man of Torah study and a man of lineage, he is also worthy of entry. But if he is a man of lineage and not a man of Torah, better for fire to devour him than for him to enter my house. In this case, his lineage is to his detriment, as it highlights his failure to become a Sage like his ancestors. The Sages said to Rabbi Perida: Rabbi Ezra is a man of Torah study. Rabbi Perida said to them: If so, let him enter and come.

讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 注讻讬专讗 讚注转讬讛 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讗诪专转 诇讛壮 讗讚谞讬 讗转讛 讟讜讘转讬 讘诇 注诇讬讱 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讞讝拽 诇讬 讟讜讘讛 砖讛讜讚注转讬讱 讘注讜诇诐

When Rabbi Ezra entered his house, Rabbi Perida saw that Rabbi Ezra鈥檚 mind was troubled with embarrassment at having to wait outside. Therefore, Rabbi Perida taught a homily to comfort Rabbi Ezra. He began and said an interpretation of the verse: 鈥淚 have said to the Lord: You are my Lord; I have no good but in You [tovati bal alekha]鈥 (Psalms 16:2). Rabbi Perida interpreted: The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, give me credit, as I made Your Name known in the world, as indicated by the phrase: 鈥淵ou are my Lord.鈥

讗诪专 诇讛 讟讜讘转讬 讘诇 注诇讬讱 讗讬谞讬 诪讞讝讬拽 讟讜讘讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖讛讜讚讬注讜谞讬 转讞诇讛 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇拽讚讜砖讬诐 讗砖专 讘讗专抓 讛诪讛 讜讗讚讬专讬 讻诇 讞驻爪讬 讘诐

God said to the congregation of Israel: I give no credit to you [tovati bal alekha]. God explained: I give credit only to the three Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were the first who made My Name known in the world, as it is stated: 鈥淎s for the holy that are in the earth, they are the excellent [ve鈥檃ddirei] in whom is all My delight鈥 (Psalms 16:3). The holy in the earth are the Patriarchs, in whom God delights. In this manner Rabbi Perida alluded to the importance of the ancestors of the Jewish people, including Ezra the Scribe, from whom Rabbi Ezra was descended.

讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讬讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讚讬专 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讬讘讗 讗讚讬专 讜讬驻专注 诇讗讚讬专讬诐 诪讗讚讬专讬诐 讘讗讚讬专讬诐

When Rabbi Ezra heard Rabbi Perida say the word: Excellent [addir], he too began a homily, one that plays with different forms of this term, and said: Let the Addir come and exact punishment for the addirim from the addirim in the addirim.

讬讘讗 讗讚讬专 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗讚讬专 讘诪专讜诐 讛壮 讜讬驻专注 诇讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讚讬专讬 讻诇 讞驻爪讬 讘诐 诪讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 讛诪爪专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 爪诇诇讜 讻注讜驻专转 讘诪讬诐 讗讚讬专讬诐 讘讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪拽诇讜转 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讗讚讬专讬诐 诪砖讘专讬 讬诐

Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to Addir in the phrase: Let the Addir come, this is the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord on high is mighty [addir]鈥 (Psalms 93:4). In the phrase: And exact punishment for the addirim, these addirim are the Jews, as it is stated: 鈥淭he excellent [ve鈥檃ddirei] in whom is all My delight鈥 (Psalms 16:3). In the phrase: From the addirim, these addirim are the Egyptians, as it is written with regard to the splitting of the Red Sea: 鈥淭he mighty [addirim] sank as lead in the waters鈥 (Exodus 15:10). In the phrase: In the addirim, these addirim are the waters, as it is stated: 鈥淎bove the voices of many waters, the mighty [addirim] breakers of the sea鈥 (Psalms 93:4).

讬讘讗 讬讚讬讚 讘谉 讬讚讬讚 讜讬讘谞讛 讬讚讬讚 诇讬讚讬讚 讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讬讚讬讚 讜讬转讻驻专讜 讘讜 讬讚讬讚讬诐

Rabbi Ezra stated another, similar, homiletic interpretation: Let yadid, son of yadid, come and build yadid for yadid in the portion of yadid, and let yedidim achieve atonement through it.

讬讘讗 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 砖诇诪讛 讛诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞 讘讬讚 谞转谉 讛谞讘讬讗 讜讬拽专讗 砖诪讜 讬讚讬讚讬讛 讘注讘讜专 讛壮

Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to yadid in the phrase: Let yadid, this is King Solomon, as it is written after Solomon鈥檚 birth: 鈥淎nd He sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and he called his name Yedidya, for the Lord鈥檚 sake鈥 (II聽Samuel 12:25).

讘谉 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 诇讬讚讬讚讬 讘讘讬转讬 讜讬讘谞讛 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬讚讬讚讜转 诪砖讻谞讜转讬讱 诇讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖讬专讛 谞讗 诇讬讚讬讚讬

In the phrase: Son of yadid, this yadid is Abraham, as it is written: 鈥淲hat has My beloved [lididi] to do in My house鈥 (Jeremiah 11:15). This verse is referring to Abraham, as will be explained. In the phrase: And build yadid, this yadid is the Temple, as it is written: 鈥淗ow lovely [yedidot] are Your tabernacles鈥 (Psalms 84:2). And with regard to the term in the phrase: For Yadid, this is the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淟et me sing of my Beloved [lididi]鈥 (Isaiah 5:1).

讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讘谞讬诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇讘谞讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 讬讚讬讚 讛壮 讬砖讻谉 诇讘讟讞 注诇讬讜 讜讬转讻驻专讜 讘讜 讬讚讬讚讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 谞转转讬 讗转 讬讚讬讚讜转 谞驻砖讬 讘讻祝 讗讜讬讘讬讛

In the portion of yadid; this yadid is the tribe of Benjamin, in whose territory the Temple was built, as it is stated that Moses blessed Benjamin in the following terms: 鈥淥f Benjamin he said: The beloved [yedid] of the Lord shall dwell in safety by Him鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:12). And let yedidim achieve atonement through it; these yedidim are the Jewish people, as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淚 have given the dearly beloved [yedidut] of My soul into the hand of her enemies鈥 (Jeremiah 12:7).

讬讘讗 讟讜讘 讜讬拽讘诇 讟讜讘 诪讟讜讘 诇讟讜讘讬诐 讬讘讗 讟讜讘 讝讛 诪砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜转专讗 讗讜转讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讛讜讗 讜讬拽讘诇 讟讜讘 讝讜 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇拽讞 讟讜讘 谞转转讬 诇讻诐 诪讟讜讘 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讟讜讘 讛壮 诇讻诇 诇讟讜讘讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 讛讟讬讘讛 讛壮 诇讟讜讘讬诐

Rabbi Ezra stated another, similar homily: Let the good one come and receive the good from the Good for the good ones. He explained: Let the good one come; this good is Moses, as it is written about him: 鈥淎nd when she saw him that he was a goodly child鈥 (Exodus 2:2). And receive the good; this good is the Torah, as it is written about the Torah: 鈥淔or I give you a good doctrine; do not forsake my Torah鈥 (Proverbs 4:2). From the Good; this is referring to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord is good to all鈥 (Psalms 145:9). For the good ones; these good ones are the Jews, as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淒o good, Lord, to the good ones鈥 (Psalms 125:4).

讬讘讗 讝讛 讜讬拽讘诇 讝讗转 诪讝讛 诇注诐 讝讜 讬讘讗 讝讛 讝讛 诪砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讝讛 诪砖讛 讛讗讬砖 讜讬拽讘诇 讝讗转 讝讜 讛转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讝讗转 讛转讜专讛 讗砖专 砖诐 诪砖讛 诪讝讛 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讝讛 讗诇讬 讜讗谞讜讛讜 诇注诐 讝讜 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转

Rabbi Ezra stated yet another homily structured in a similar manner. Let this one come and receive this from this One for this people. He explained: Let this one come; this is referring to Moses, as it is written about him: 鈥淔or as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 32:1). And receive this; this is referring to the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淎nd this is the Torah which Moses set before the children of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:44). From this One; this is referring to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭his is my God and I will glorify Him鈥 (Exodus 15:2). For this people; these people are the Jews, as it is stated about them: 鈥淭his people that You have gotten鈥 (Exodus 15:16).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘砖注讛 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 诪爪讗讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 砖讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 诇讬讚讬讚讬 讘讘讬转讬

搂 It was stated above that the verse: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house,鈥 is a reference to Abraham. The Gemara homiletically interprets the complete verse and the one after it: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house, seeing that she has performed lewdness with many, and the hallowed flesh is passed from you? When you do evil, then you rejoice. The Lord called your name a leafy olive tree, fair with goodly fruit; with the sound of a great tumult He has kindled fire upon it, and its branches are broken鈥 (Jeremiah 11:15鈥16). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: At the time when the First Temple was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, found Abraham standing in the Temple. He said to Abraham: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house?鈥

讗诪专 诇讜 注诇 注讬住拽讬 讘谞讬 讘讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬讱 讞讟讗讜 讜讙诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讘砖讜讙讙 讞讟讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 注砖讜转讛 讛诪讝诪转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 诪讬注讜讟谉 讞讟讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讘讬诐

Abraham said to God: I have come over matters concerning my children, to discover why God is destroying the Temple and exiling them from Eretz Yisrael. God said to Abraham: The reason is that your children sinned, and therefore they are being exiled from the land. Abraham said to God: Perhaps they sinned unwittingly, and they do not deserve such a terrible punishment. God said to him: 鈥淪eeing that she has performed lewdness [hamzimmata],鈥 i.e., her evil actions were intentional. Abraham further said to God: Perhaps only a minority of Jews sinned, and the rest of the people should be spared punishment. God said to him: 鈥淲ith many,鈥 i.e., the majority of the people are culpable.

讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讝讻讜专 讘专讬转 诪讬诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讜讘砖专 拽讚砖 讬注讘专讜 诪注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讗诐 讛诪转谞转 诇讛诐 讛讬讜 讞讜讝专讬谉 讘转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 专注转讻讬 讗讝 转注诇讝讬

Abraham continued to contend: Even so, You should have remembered the merit of the covenant of circumcision, which would have protected them from retribution. God said to him: 鈥淎nd the hallowed flesh is passed from you,鈥 as they neglected the mitzva of circumcision. Abraham persisted and said to God: Perhaps if You would have waited for them, they would have returned in repentance. God said to him: 鈥淲hen you do evil then you rejoice.鈥 That is, it is proper for them to be punished without delay, and they should not be given time to repent, since when they sin and are not punished they rejoice and live at ease, and rather than repent they are encouraged to do more evil.

诪讬讚 讛谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜讛讬讛 爪讜注拽 讜讘讜讻讛 讜讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 转拽谞讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讝讬转 专注谞谉 讬驻讛 驻专讬 转讗专 拽专讗 讛壮 砖诪讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讝讜 讗讞专讬转讜 讘住讜驻讜 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讞专讬转谉 讘住讜驻谉

Once all his arguments had been refuted, Abraham immediately placed his hands on his head in an act of mourning, and was screaming and crying. And he said to God: Is it conceivable, Heaven forbid, that the Jewish people have no further opportunity for remedy? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him the continuation of the verse: 鈥淭he Lord called your name a leafy olive tree, fair with goodly fruit.鈥 Just as with regard to this olive tree, its final purpose is fulfilled at its end, when its fruit is picked, so too, with regard to the Jewish people, their final purpose will be fulfilled at their end, i.e., they will ultimately repent and return to Me.

诇拽讜诇 讛诪讜诇讛 讙讚诇讛 讛爪讬转 讗砖 注诇讬讛 讜专注讜 讚诇讬讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诇拽讜诇 诪讬诇讬讛谉 砖诇 诪专讙诇讬诐 谞讬转专讜注注讜 讚诇讬讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 讚讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚讘专讜 诪专讙诇讬诐 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讻讬 讞讝拽 讛讜讗 诪诪谞讜 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 诪诪谞讜 讗诇讗 诪诪谞讜 讻讘讬讻讜诇 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讻诇讬讜 诪砖诐

The Gemara analyzes the last part of the same verse: 鈥淲ith the sound of a great tumult [hamulla] He has kindled fire upon it, and its branches [daliyyotav] are broken鈥 (Jeremiah 11:16). Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa says: From the sound of the words [milleihen] of the spies that Moses sent to Eretz Yisrael and who brought back an evil report, the branches of the Jewish people were broken. As Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment: 鈥淭hey are stronger than us鈥 (Numbers 13:31). Do not read the phrase as: 鈥淪tronger than us [mimmenu],鈥 but rather read it as: Stronger than Him [mimmennu], meaning that even the Homeowner, God, is unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were. The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讛讗讬 诇拽讜诇 讛诪讜诇讛 讙讚诇讛 诇拽讜诇 诪诇讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 拽讜诇讱 砖诪注转讬 讜讞诪诇转讬 注诇讬讛诐 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讬砖转注讘讚讜 讘讗专讘注 诪诇讻讬讜转 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讻砖讬注讜专 讗专讘注 诪诇讻讬讜转

Rabbi 岣yya, son of Rabbi 岣nnana, objects to this interpretation. This phrase: 鈥淲ith the sound of a great tumult [hamulla],鈥 is problematic according to your claim that it is a reference to the words of the spies. According to your interpretation, it should have stated: With the sound of a word [mila]. Rather, Rabbi 岣yya interprets this phrase in accordance with the earlier explanation that these verses are referring to Abraham鈥檚 discussion with God at the time of the destruction of the Temple. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham: I heard your voice, and I took pity [岣malti] on the Jewish people and will punish them less harshly. I had previously said that the Jews will be subjugated by four kingdoms: Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, and each and every one of these kingdoms will subjugate them for the measure of time I had originally set for their subjugation to all four kingdoms put together.

讛砖转讗 讻诇 讞讚讗 讜讞讚讗 诪讗讬 讚驻住讬拽 诇讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讘讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 注讻砖讬讜 讘讘转 讗讞转

But now that you have prayed for them, the Jewish people will be subjugated to each one of these four kingdoms only for the amount of time stipulated for each one separately. And there are those who say that God said the following to Abraham: I initially said that these kingdoms will rule over the Jews one after the other, each of them for a separate period. Now I decree that their dominion shall occur simultaneously in different geographical regions, which will shorten the overall duration of the subjugation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讝讬转 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讗讬谉 注诇讬讜 谞讜砖专讬谉 诇讗 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讘讟讬诇讛 注讜诇诪讬转 诇讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讝讬转 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 砖诪谞讜 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讻转讬转讛 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 讞讜讝专讬谉 诇诪讜讟讘 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讬住讜专讬谉

The verse in Jeremiah compares the Jewish people to an olive tree: 鈥淭he Lord called your name a leafy olive tree.鈥 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Why were the Jewish people likened to an olive tree? It is to tell you that just as the leaves of an olive tree never fall off, neither in the summer nor in the rainy season, so too, the Jewish people will never be nullified, neither in this world nor in the World-to-Come. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Why were the Jewish people likened to an olive tree? It is to tell you that just as an olive tree brings forth its oil only by means of crushing and breaking, so too, the Jewish people, if they sin, return to good ways only by means of suffering.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛砖讗讜专 讘讜讚讛 诇讛谉 诪转讜讻谉 讜诪讞诪讬爪谉 [讜讻讜壮] 诪讗讬 讞住讬专讛 讗讜 讬转讬专讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Meir says: With regard to the leaven added to the dough to facilitate leavening, one separates part of the flour for the meal offerings from within the flour of the meal offerings themselves and leavens the meal offerings with it. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that one brings the leaven from another, aged, dough. The Rabbis subsequently questioned Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 opinion, claiming that according to his ruling the measure of the meal offering would be lacking or would be greater than required. The Gemara inquires: What is the meaning of: Lacking or greater?

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讬住转 讛砖讗讜专 注讘讛 谞诪爪讗转 讬转讬专讛 诪讚转 讛注砖专讜谉 专讻讛 谞诪爪讗转 讞住讬专讛

Rav 岣sda said: If the leavening dough that was brought from elsewhere is stiff, as its flour was mixed with a small amount of water, and it is relatively small in volume, when this stiff leaven is measured with the fine flour, the amount of fine flour for the meal offering is found to be greater than a tenth of an ephah when the measuring vessel is filled. This is because it will be necessary to add more flour to make up for the small volume of leavening dough. Conversely, if the leavening dough is soft, i.e., its flour was mixed with a larger amount of water, its volume will be larger than it should be, which will mean that the measuring vessel will be filled with less fine flour than normal, and the amount of flour is found to be lacking.

住讜祝 住讜祝 讻讬 拽讗 讻讬讬诇 诇注砖专讜谉 拽讗 讻讬讬诇

The Gemara raises a difficulty with the interpretation of Rav 岣sda: Why does it matter if the leavening dough is stiff or soft? Ultimately, when the one preparing the meal offering measures the leaven brought from elsewhere together with the fine flour used for the meal offering, he measures and reaches the requisite amount of a tenth of an ephah, as the measure is full either way.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛谉 讛讬转讛 诪砖注专讬谞谉

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: In order to achieve the appropriate measure it is necessary to know how much flour the substance contained before water was added and it became dough. The reason is that one measures the tenth of an ephah in accordance with the amount there was of the flour of the leavening dough before it was mixed with water, together with the fine flour of the meal offering, and not in accordance with their present volume.

讜诇讬砖拽讜诇 驻讜专转讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讬讞诪爪讬讛 诪讗讘专讗讬 讜诇讬转讬讛 讜谞讬诇讜砖讬讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讙讝讬专讛 讚诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 诪注诇诪讗

The Gemara asks: But even according to the opinion of Rabbis, who hold that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 method may not be used because the amount might be lacking or be greater than it should be, let him take a little fine flour from the tenth of an ephah after it has been measured and found to be the requisite amount, and leaven it thoroughly outside the rest of the dough, and afterward bring it and knead it together with the rest of the dough. In this way it is possible to bring leaven from the outside and to be certain that the meal offering contains exactly the correct measure. The Gemara answers: One cannot proceed in this manner, due to a rabbinic decree. The reason for this decree is that people who would see this practice might mistakenly think that the leavened portion was not part of the original fine flour, and perhaps they will come to bring leavening dough for their meal offerings from elsewhere, i.e., leavening dough that has not been consecrated for the meal offering.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讞诪讬爪讬谉

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not leaven the meal offerings that come as leavened bread

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

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Menachot 53

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 53

讝讗转 转讜专转 讛诪谞讞讛 讛拽专讘 讗转讛 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讗诇 驻谞讬 讛诪讝讘讞 讜讛谞讜转专转 诪诪谞讛 讬讗讻诇讜 讗讛专谉 讜讘谞讬讜 诪爪讜转 转讗讻诇 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 讻讬 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 诇注讻讘

鈥淎nd this is the law of the meal offering: The sons of Aaron shall sacrifice it before the Lord in front of the altar鈥nd that which is left of it Aaron and his sons shall eat; it shall be eaten as matzot (Leviticus 6:7鈥9). These verses demonstrate that there is a general requirement that meal offerings must be brought as matza. Rabbi Perida said to Rabbi Ami: I do not raise the dilemma with regard to the source of the mitzva ab initio, as that is clearly derived from these verses. Where I raise the dilemma, it is with regard to the source that indicates this requirement is indispensable, i.e., that if one violated the mitzva and brought a meal offering not as matza the offering is not valid.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇注讻讘 谞诪讬 讻转讬讘 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 诪爪讛

Rabbi Ami said to Rabbi Perida: With regard to the halakha that the requirement that meal offerings must come as matza is indispensable, it is also written: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread鈥 (Leviticus 6:10), but rather must come as matza. This additional verse indicates that even after the fact, if a meal offering was not made as matza it is not valid.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 砖讬讗讜专

Rav 岣sda objects to this: But one can say that the verse should be interpreted as follows: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 i.e., fully leavened, but it can be brought even if it has been leavened slightly with leavening [siur] dough. Although it does not have the status of leavened bread and is therefore not prohibited by the verse, it also does not have the status of matza.

砖讬讗讜专 讚诪讗谉 讗讬 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪爪讛 诪注诇讬讗 讛讬讗 讗讬 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讞诪抓 诪注诇讬讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara analyzes Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection, as there is a dispute among the Sages with regard to the definition of siur (see Pesa岣m 48b). According to Rabbi Meir, siur is dough at the beginning of the leavening process, when its surface has become pale. Conversely, Rabbi Yehuda maintains that siur is dough that has been leavened to the point that it has cracks that look like the antennae of locusts. In this light, the Gemara inquires: This siur, mentioned by Rav 岣sda in his suggested interpretation of the verse, is in accordance with whose opinion? If he is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Meir, then according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection does not arise, as Rabbi Yehuda maintains this is full-fledged matza. And if Rav 岣sda is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Yehuda, then according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection does not arise either, as Rabbi Meir holds that it is full-fledged leavened bread.

讗讬 讚专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪讚诇拽讬 注诇讬讛 讞诪抓 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

Furthermore, if Rav 岣sda is referring to siur as defined by Rabbi Meir, then even according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir himself the objection does not arise. The reason is that from the fact that Rabbi Meir rules that one who eats this siur on Passover is flogged for it, this indicates that it is deemed full-fledged leavened bread. Rather, Rav 岣sda鈥檚 objection arises with regard to leavening dough as defined by Rabbi Yehuda, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who maintains that this dough is not considered full-fledged leavened bread.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 讗诇讗 讞诇讜讟 讞诇讜讟 诪讗讬 谞讬讛讜 专讘讬讻讛 讗讬 讚讗讬讻讗 专讘讬讻讛 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 讜讛讗 诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k also objects to Rabbi Ami鈥檚 explanation: But one can say that the verse can be interpreted as follows: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 but one may bring a meal offering that has been boiled, as this is not leavened bread; although it is also not matza. The Gemara asks: This boiled dough, what is it? It is poached [revikha], as described in the verse: 鈥淚n a pan it shall be made of oil, when it is soaked [murbekhet]鈥 (Leviticus 6:14). If so, there is no need to derive the halakha of boiled dough from the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread.鈥 If it is a meal offering that must be poached, it is explicitly written with regard to it that it must be poached. And if it is a meal offering that is not to be poached, it is not written with regard to it that it is poached.

讜讗讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 诪爪讜讛 讘专讘讬讻讛 讜讚诇讗 讻转讬讘 讘讛 专讘讬讻讛 讗讬 讘注讬 专讘讬讻讛 诇讬讬转讬 讗讬 讘注讬 诪爪讛 诇讬讬转讬

The Gemara challenges: But one can say that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 indicates that with regard to a meal offering about which it is written explicitly that it must be poached, it is a mitzva that it be poached, and with regard to a meal offering about which it is not written that it must be poached, the one who brings the offering can decide: If he wants, let him bring it poached, and if he wants, let him bring it as matza. Accordingly, Rabbi Ami鈥檚 proof from the verse is inconclusive.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬谞讗 讜讗讬诪讗 诇讗 转讗驻讛 讞诪抓 诇诪讬拽诐 讙讘专讗 讘诇讗讜 讘注诇诪讗 讜讗讬驻住讜诇讬 诇讗 诪讬驻住诇讗

Ravina also objects to Rabbi Ami鈥檚 explanation: But one can say that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 serves to determine that this man who brings a meal offering as leavened bread is liable for violating a mere prohibition, but the meal offering itself is not invalid.

讗诇讗 诪谞诇谉 讻讚转谞讬讗 诪爪讛 讬讻讜诇 诪爪讜讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 转讛讬讛 讛讻转讜讘 拽讘注讛 讞讜讘讛

All these objections indicate that the verse: 鈥淚t shall not be baked as leavened bread,鈥 can be interpreted in ways other than that suggested by Rabbi Ami. Accordingly, the Gemara asks: Rather, from where do we derive that all meal offerings not brought as matza are not valid? The Gemara answers: We derive it as it is taught in a baraita discussing a verse concerning meal offerings: 鈥淚t shall be of matza (Leviticus 2:5): One might have thought that it is only a mitzva ab initio for a meal offering to be of matza. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be,鈥 which indicates that the verse established it as an obligation, i.e., if the meal offering was not brought as matza it is not valid.

讘注讗 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 驻专讬讚讗 诪专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪谞讬谉 诇讻诇 讛诪谞讞讜转 砖谞讬诇讜砖讜转 讘驻讜砖专讬谉 讜诪砖诪专谉 砖诇讗 讬讞诪讬爪讜 谞诇诪讚谞讛 诪驻住讞 讚讻转讬讘 讜砖诪专转诐 讗转 讛诪爪讜转

Rabbi Perida raised another dilemma before Rabbi Ami: From where is it derived with regard to all the meal offerings that must be brought as matza that they are kneaded with lukewarm water so that the dough will be baked well, as only a small amount of oil is added, and that one must watch over them to ensure that they do not become leavened while kneading and shaping them? Shall we derive this halakha from the prohibition concerning leavened bread on the festival of Passover, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall watch over the matzot (Exodus 12:17), which indicates that one must watch over any dough that is supposed to be made into matza, to ensure that it does not become leavened?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讙讜驻讛 讻转讬讘 诪爪讛 转讛讬讛 讛讞讬讬讛

Rabbi Ami said to Rabbi Perida: The halakha of meal offerings is not derived from Passover, as it is written in the context of a meal offering itself: 鈥淚t shall be [tehiye] of matza (Leviticus 2:5), which can be read as meaning: Preserve [ha岣ye] matza, i.e., preserve the matza as it is, and do not let it become leavened.

讜讛讗 讗驻讬拽转讬讛 诇注讻讘 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬讻转讜讘 拽专讗 诪爪讛 讛讬讗 诪讗讬 转讛讬讛 砖诪注转 诪讬谞讛 转专转讬

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 you already derive from the term 鈥渋t shall be鈥 that the requirement that a meal offering must be made as matza is indispensable? The Gemara answers: If so, that this term serves to teach only one halakha, let the verse write: It is matza. What is the reason that it writes: 鈥淚t shall be of matza鈥? Learn from it two conclusions, both that the requirement that it be made as matza is indispensable and that one must watch over the matza to ensure that it does not become leavened.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 驻专讬讚讗 专讘讬 注讝专讗 讘专 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讟讜诇住 讚讛讜讗 注砖讬专讬 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讚讛讜讗 注砖讬专讬 诇注讝专讗 拽讗讬 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬

搂 The Gemara relates an incident that involves the aforementioned Rabbi Perida. The Sages said to Rabbi Perida: The Sage Rabbi Ezra, who is of especially fine lineage, a grandson of Rabbi Avtolus, who in turn is a tenth-generation descendant of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, who is a tenth-generation descendant of Ezra the Scribe, is standing and waiting at the gate of the house and seeks entry. Rabbi Perida said to the Sages: What is the need for all this detail about Rabbi Ezra鈥檚 lineage?

讗讬 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讬讗讬 讗讬 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讜讘专 讗讘讛谉 讬讗讬 讜讗讬 讘专 讗讘讛谉 讜诇讗 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讗讬砖讗 转讬讻诇讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘专 讗讜专讬讬谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讬注讜诇 讜诇讬转讬

Rabbi Perida elaborated: If he is a man of Torah study, he is worthy of entry on his own account, regardless of his ancestors. And if he is both a man of Torah study and a man of lineage, he is also worthy of entry. But if he is a man of lineage and not a man of Torah, better for fire to devour him than for him to enter my house. In this case, his lineage is to his detriment, as it highlights his failure to become a Sage like his ancestors. The Sages said to Rabbi Perida: Rabbi Ezra is a man of Torah study. Rabbi Perida said to them: If so, let him enter and come.

讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 注讻讬专讗 讚注转讬讛 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讗诪专转 诇讛壮 讗讚谞讬 讗转讛 讟讜讘转讬 讘诇 注诇讬讱 讗诪专讛 讻谞住转 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讞讝拽 诇讬 讟讜讘讛 砖讛讜讚注转讬讱 讘注讜诇诐

When Rabbi Ezra entered his house, Rabbi Perida saw that Rabbi Ezra鈥檚 mind was troubled with embarrassment at having to wait outside. Therefore, Rabbi Perida taught a homily to comfort Rabbi Ezra. He began and said an interpretation of the verse: 鈥淚 have said to the Lord: You are my Lord; I have no good but in You [tovati bal alekha]鈥 (Psalms 16:2). Rabbi Perida interpreted: The congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, give me credit, as I made Your Name known in the world, as indicated by the phrase: 鈥淵ou are my Lord.鈥

讗诪专 诇讛 讟讜讘转讬 讘诇 注诇讬讱 讗讬谞讬 诪讞讝讬拽 讟讜讘讛 讗诇讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 讬爪讞拽 讜讬注拽讘 砖讛讜讚讬注讜谞讬 转讞诇讛 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 诇拽讚讜砖讬诐 讗砖专 讘讗专抓 讛诪讛 讜讗讚讬专讬 讻诇 讞驻爪讬 讘诐

God said to the congregation of Israel: I give no credit to you [tovati bal alekha]. God explained: I give credit only to the three Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who were the first who made My Name known in the world, as it is stated: 鈥淎s for the holy that are in the earth, they are the excellent [ve鈥檃ddirei] in whom is all My delight鈥 (Psalms 16:3). The holy in the earth are the Patriarchs, in whom God delights. In this manner Rabbi Perida alluded to the importance of the ancestors of the Jewish people, including Ezra the Scribe, from whom Rabbi Ezra was descended.

讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讬讛 讚拽讗诪专 讗讚讬专 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讬讘讗 讗讚讬专 讜讬驻专注 诇讗讚讬专讬诐 诪讗讚讬专讬诐 讘讗讚讬专讬诐

When Rabbi Ezra heard Rabbi Perida say the word: Excellent [addir], he too began a homily, one that plays with different forms of this term, and said: Let the Addir come and exact punishment for the addirim from the addirim in the addirim.

讬讘讗 讗讚讬专 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗讚讬专 讘诪专讜诐 讛壮 讜讬驻专注 诇讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗讚讬专讬 讻诇 讞驻爪讬 讘诐 诪讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 讛诪爪专讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 爪诇诇讜 讻注讜驻专转 讘诪讬诐 讗讚讬专讬诐 讘讗讚讬专讬诐 讗诇讜 诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 诪拽诇讜转 诪讬诐 专讘讬诐 讗讚讬专讬诐 诪砖讘专讬 讬诐

Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to Addir in the phrase: Let the Addir come, this is the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord on high is mighty [addir]鈥 (Psalms 93:4). In the phrase: And exact punishment for the addirim, these addirim are the Jews, as it is stated: 鈥淭he excellent [ve鈥檃ddirei] in whom is all My delight鈥 (Psalms 16:3). In the phrase: From the addirim, these addirim are the Egyptians, as it is written with regard to the splitting of the Red Sea: 鈥淭he mighty [addirim] sank as lead in the waters鈥 (Exodus 15:10). In the phrase: In the addirim, these addirim are the waters, as it is stated: 鈥淎bove the voices of many waters, the mighty [addirim] breakers of the sea鈥 (Psalms 93:4).

讬讘讗 讬讚讬讚 讘谉 讬讚讬讚 讜讬讘谞讛 讬讚讬讚 诇讬讚讬讚 讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讬讚讬讚 讜讬转讻驻专讜 讘讜 讬讚讬讚讬诐

Rabbi Ezra stated another, similar, homiletic interpretation: Let yadid, son of yadid, come and build yadid for yadid in the portion of yadid, and let yedidim achieve atonement through it.

讬讘讗 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 砖诇诪讛 讛诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖诇讞 讘讬讚 谞转谉 讛谞讘讬讗 讜讬拽专讗 砖诪讜 讬讚讬讚讬讛 讘注讘讜专 讛壮

Rabbi Ezra explained this statement: With regard to yadid in the phrase: Let yadid, this is King Solomon, as it is written after Solomon鈥檚 birth: 鈥淎nd He sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet, and he called his name Yedidya, for the Lord鈥檚 sake鈥 (II聽Samuel 12:25).

讘谉 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讗讘专讛诐 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 诇讬讚讬讚讬 讘讘讬转讬 讜讬讘谞讛 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬讚讬讚讜转 诪砖讻谞讜转讬讱 诇讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讗砖讬专讛 谞讗 诇讬讚讬讚讬

In the phrase: Son of yadid, this yadid is Abraham, as it is written: 鈥淲hat has My beloved [lididi] to do in My house鈥 (Jeremiah 11:15). This verse is referring to Abraham, as will be explained. In the phrase: And build yadid, this yadid is the Temple, as it is written: 鈥淗ow lovely [yedidot] are Your tabernacles鈥 (Psalms 84:2). And with regard to the term in the phrase: For Yadid, this is the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淟et me sing of my Beloved [lididi]鈥 (Isaiah 5:1).

讘讞诇拽讜 砖诇 讬讚讬讚 讝讛 讘谞讬诪讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇讘谞讬诪讬谉 讗诪专 讬讚讬讚 讛壮 讬砖讻谉 诇讘讟讞 注诇讬讜 讜讬转讻驻专讜 讘讜 讬讚讬讚讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 谞转转讬 讗转 讬讚讬讚讜转 谞驻砖讬 讘讻祝 讗讜讬讘讬讛

In the portion of yadid; this yadid is the tribe of Benjamin, in whose territory the Temple was built, as it is stated that Moses blessed Benjamin in the following terms: 鈥淥f Benjamin he said: The beloved [yedid] of the Lord shall dwell in safety by Him鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:12). And let yedidim achieve atonement through it; these yedidim are the Jewish people, as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淚 have given the dearly beloved [yedidut] of My soul into the hand of her enemies鈥 (Jeremiah 12:7).

讬讘讗 讟讜讘 讜讬拽讘诇 讟讜讘 诪讟讜讘 诇讟讜讘讬诐 讬讘讗 讟讜讘 讝讛 诪砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜转专讗 讗讜转讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讛讜讗 讜讬拽讘诇 讟讜讘 讝讜 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇拽讞 讟讜讘 谞转转讬 诇讻诐 诪讟讜讘 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讟讜讘 讛壮 诇讻诇 诇讟讜讘讬诐 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讻转讬讘 讛讟讬讘讛 讛壮 诇讟讜讘讬诐

Rabbi Ezra stated another, similar homily: Let the good one come and receive the good from the Good for the good ones. He explained: Let the good one come; this good is Moses, as it is written about him: 鈥淎nd when she saw him that he was a goodly child鈥 (Exodus 2:2). And receive the good; this good is the Torah, as it is written about the Torah: 鈥淔or I give you a good doctrine; do not forsake my Torah鈥 (Proverbs 4:2). From the Good; this is referring to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭he Lord is good to all鈥 (Psalms 145:9). For the good ones; these good ones are the Jews, as it is written with regard to them: 鈥淒o good, Lord, to the good ones鈥 (Psalms 125:4).

讬讘讗 讝讛 讜讬拽讘诇 讝讗转 诪讝讛 诇注诐 讝讜 讬讘讗 讝讛 讝讛 诪砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讝讛 诪砖讛 讛讗讬砖 讜讬拽讘诇 讝讗转 讝讜 讛转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讝讗转 讛转讜专讛 讗砖专 砖诐 诪砖讛 诪讝讛 讝讛 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讝讛 讗诇讬 讜讗谞讜讛讜 诇注诐 讝讜 讗诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 注诐 讝讜 拽谞讬转

Rabbi Ezra stated yet another homily structured in a similar manner. Let this one come and receive this from this One for this people. He explained: Let this one come; this is referring to Moses, as it is written about him: 鈥淔or as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt鈥 (Exodus 32:1). And receive this; this is referring to the Torah, as it is written: 鈥淎nd this is the Torah which Moses set before the children of Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:44). From this One; this is referring to the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is written: 鈥淭his is my God and I will glorify Him鈥 (Exodus 15:2). For this people; these people are the Jews, as it is stated about them: 鈥淭his people that You have gotten鈥 (Exodus 15:16).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘砖注讛 砖讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 诪爪讗讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 砖讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讘讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讛 诇讬讚讬讚讬 讘讘讬转讬

搂 It was stated above that the verse: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house,鈥 is a reference to Abraham. The Gemara homiletically interprets the complete verse and the one after it: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house, seeing that she has performed lewdness with many, and the hallowed flesh is passed from you? When you do evil, then you rejoice. The Lord called your name a leafy olive tree, fair with goodly fruit; with the sound of a great tumult He has kindled fire upon it, and its branches are broken鈥 (Jeremiah 11:15鈥16). Rabbi Yitz岣k says: At the time when the First Temple was destroyed, the Holy One, Blessed be He, found Abraham standing in the Temple. He said to Abraham: 鈥淲hat has My beloved to do in My house?鈥

讗诪专 诇讜 注诇 注讬住拽讬 讘谞讬 讘讗转讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘谞讬讱 讞讟讗讜 讜讙诇讜 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讘砖讜讙讙 讞讟讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 注砖讜转讛 讛诪讝诪转讛 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 诪讬注讜讟谉 讞讟讗讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讛专讘讬诐

Abraham said to God: I have come over matters concerning my children, to discover why God is destroying the Temple and exiling them from Eretz Yisrael. God said to Abraham: The reason is that your children sinned, and therefore they are being exiled from the land. Abraham said to God: Perhaps they sinned unwittingly, and they do not deserve such a terrible punishment. God said to him: 鈥淪eeing that she has performed lewdness [hamzimmata],鈥 i.e., her evil actions were intentional. Abraham further said to God: Perhaps only a minority of Jews sinned, and the rest of the people should be spared punishment. God said to him: 鈥淲ith many,鈥 i.e., the majority of the people are culpable.

讛讬讛 诇讱 诇讝讻讜专 讘专讬转 诪讬诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讜讘砖专 拽讚砖 讬注讘专讜 诪注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讗诐 讛诪转谞转 诇讛诐 讛讬讜 讞讜讝专讬谉 讘转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 专注转讻讬 讗讝 转注诇讝讬

Abraham continued to contend: Even so, You should have remembered the merit of the covenant of circumcision, which would have protected them from retribution. God said to him: 鈥淎nd the hallowed flesh is passed from you,鈥 as they neglected the mitzva of circumcision. Abraham persisted and said to God: Perhaps if You would have waited for them, they would have returned in repentance. God said to him: 鈥淲hen you do evil then you rejoice.鈥 That is, it is proper for them to be punished without delay, and they should not be given time to repent, since when they sin and are not punished they rejoice and live at ease, and rather than repent they are encouraged to do more evil.

诪讬讚 讛谞讬讞 讬讚讬讜 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜讛讬讛 爪讜注拽 讜讘讜讻讛 讜讗诪专 诇讜 砖诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 转拽谞讛 讬爪转讛 讘转 拽讜诇 讜讗诪专讛 诇讜 讝讬转 专注谞谉 讬驻讛 驻专讬 转讗专 拽专讗 讛壮 砖诪讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讝讜 讗讞专讬转讜 讘住讜驻讜 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讞专讬转谉 讘住讜驻谉

Once all his arguments had been refuted, Abraham immediately placed his hands on his head in an act of mourning, and was screaming and crying. And he said to God: Is it conceivable, Heaven forbid, that the Jewish people have no further opportunity for remedy? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him the continuation of the verse: 鈥淭he Lord called your name a leafy olive tree, fair with goodly fruit.鈥 Just as with regard to this olive tree, its final purpose is fulfilled at its end, when its fruit is picked, so too, with regard to the Jewish people, their final purpose will be fulfilled at their end, i.e., they will ultimately repent and return to Me.

诇拽讜诇 讛诪讜诇讛 讙讚诇讛 讛爪讬转 讗砖 注诇讬讛 讜专注讜 讚诇讬讜转讬讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诇拽讜诇 诪讬诇讬讛谉 砖诇 诪专讙诇讬诐 谞讬转专讜注注讜 讚诇讬讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 讚讘专 讙讚讜诇 讚讘专讜 诪专讙诇讬诐 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 讻讬 讞讝拽 讛讜讗 诪诪谞讜 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 诪诪谞讜 讗诇讗 诪诪谞讜 讻讘讬讻讜诇 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讗讬谞讜 讬讻讜诇 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讻诇讬讜 诪砖诐

The Gemara analyzes the last part of the same verse: 鈥淲ith the sound of a great tumult [hamulla] He has kindled fire upon it, and its branches [daliyyotav] are broken鈥 (Jeremiah 11:16). Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa says: From the sound of the words [milleihen] of the spies that Moses sent to Eretz Yisrael and who brought back an evil report, the branches of the Jewish people were broken. As Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa says: The spies said a serious statement at that moment: 鈥淭hey are stronger than us鈥 (Numbers 13:31). Do not read the phrase as: 鈥淪tronger than us [mimmenu],鈥 but rather read it as: Stronger than Him [mimmennu], meaning that even the Homeowner, God, is unable to remove His belongings from there, as it were. The spies were speaking heresy and claiming that the Canaanites were stronger than God Himself.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讛讗讬 诇拽讜诇 讛诪讜诇讛 讙讚诇讛 诇拽讜诇 诪诇讛 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬讛 讗诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诇讗讘专讛诐 拽讜诇讱 砖诪注转讬 讜讞诪诇转讬 注诇讬讛诐 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讬砖转注讘讚讜 讘讗专讘注 诪诇讻讬讜转 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 讻砖讬注讜专 讗专讘注 诪诇讻讬讜转

Rabbi 岣yya, son of Rabbi 岣nnana, objects to this interpretation. This phrase: 鈥淲ith the sound of a great tumult [hamulla],鈥 is problematic according to your claim that it is a reference to the words of the spies. According to your interpretation, it should have stated: With the sound of a word [mila]. Rather, Rabbi 岣yya interprets this phrase in accordance with the earlier explanation that these verses are referring to Abraham鈥檚 discussion with God at the time of the destruction of the Temple. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham: I heard your voice, and I took pity [岣malti] on the Jewish people and will punish them less harshly. I had previously said that the Jews will be subjugated by four kingdoms: Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, and each and every one of these kingdoms will subjugate them for the measure of time I had originally set for their subjugation to all four kingdoms put together.

讛砖转讗 讻诇 讞讚讗 讜讞讚讗 诪讗讬 讚驻住讬拽 诇讛 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讘讝讛 讗讞专 讝讛 注讻砖讬讜 讘讘转 讗讞转

But now that you have prayed for them, the Jewish people will be subjugated to each one of these four kingdoms only for the amount of time stipulated for each one separately. And there are those who say that God said the following to Abraham: I initially said that these kingdoms will rule over the Jews one after the other, each of them for a separate period. Now I decree that their dominion shall occur simultaneously in different geographical regions, which will shorten the overall duration of the subjugation.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讝讬转 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讗讬谉 注诇讬讜 谞讜砖专讬谉 诇讗 讘讬诪讜转 讛讞诪讛 讜诇讗 讘讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诇讛诐 讘讟讬诇讛 注讜诇诪讬转 诇讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇讗 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讛 谞诪砖诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇讝讬转 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝讬转 讗讬谞讜 诪讜爪讬讗 砖诪谞讜 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讻转讬转讛 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 讞讜讝专讬谉 诇诪讜讟讘 讗诇讗 注诇 讬讚讬 讬住讜专讬谉

The verse in Jeremiah compares the Jewish people to an olive tree: 鈥淭he Lord called your name a leafy olive tree.鈥 Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Why were the Jewish people likened to an olive tree? It is to tell you that just as the leaves of an olive tree never fall off, neither in the summer nor in the rainy season, so too, the Jewish people will never be nullified, neither in this world nor in the World-to-Come. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Why were the Jewish people likened to an olive tree? It is to tell you that just as an olive tree brings forth its oil only by means of crushing and breaking, so too, the Jewish people, if they sin, return to good ways only by means of suffering.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛砖讗讜专 讘讜讚讛 诇讛谉 诪转讜讻谉 讜诪讞诪讬爪谉 [讜讻讜壮] 诪讗讬 讞住讬专讛 讗讜 讬转讬专讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Meir says: With regard to the leaven added to the dough to facilitate leavening, one separates part of the flour for the meal offerings from within the flour of the meal offerings themselves and leavens the meal offerings with it. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that one brings the leaven from another, aged, dough. The Rabbis subsequently questioned Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 opinion, claiming that according to his ruling the measure of the meal offering would be lacking or would be greater than required. The Gemara inquires: What is the meaning of: Lacking or greater?

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 注讬住转 讛砖讗讜专 注讘讛 谞诪爪讗转 讬转讬专讛 诪讚转 讛注砖专讜谉 专讻讛 谞诪爪讗转 讞住讬专讛

Rav 岣sda said: If the leavening dough that was brought from elsewhere is stiff, as its flour was mixed with a small amount of water, and it is relatively small in volume, when this stiff leaven is measured with the fine flour, the amount of fine flour for the meal offering is found to be greater than a tenth of an ephah when the measuring vessel is filled. This is because it will be necessary to add more flour to make up for the small volume of leavening dough. Conversely, if the leavening dough is soft, i.e., its flour was mixed with a larger amount of water, its volume will be larger than it should be, which will mean that the measuring vessel will be filled with less fine flour than normal, and the amount of flour is found to be lacking.

住讜祝 住讜祝 讻讬 拽讗 讻讬讬诇 诇注砖专讜谉 拽讗 讻讬讬诇

The Gemara raises a difficulty with the interpretation of Rav 岣sda: Why does it matter if the leavening dough is stiff or soft? Ultimately, when the one preparing the meal offering measures the leaven brought from elsewhere together with the fine flour used for the meal offering, he measures and reaches the requisite amount of a tenth of an ephah, as the measure is full either way.

专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 讚讗诪专讬 转专讜讬讬讛讜 诇讻诪讜转 砖讛谉 讛讬转讛 诪砖注专讬谞谉

Rabba and Rav Yosef both say: In order to achieve the appropriate measure it is necessary to know how much flour the substance contained before water was added and it became dough. The reason is that one measures the tenth of an ephah in accordance with the amount there was of the flour of the leavening dough before it was mixed with water, together with the fine flour of the meal offering, and not in accordance with their present volume.

讜诇讬砖拽讜诇 驻讜专转讗 诪讬谞讬讛 讜诇讬讞诪爪讬讛 诪讗讘专讗讬 讜诇讬转讬讛 讜谞讬诇讜砖讬讛 讘讛讚讬讛 讙讝讬专讛 讚诇诪讗 讗转讬 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 诪注诇诪讗

The Gemara asks: But even according to the opinion of Rabbis, who hold that Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 method may not be used because the amount might be lacking or be greater than it should be, let him take a little fine flour from the tenth of an ephah after it has been measured and found to be the requisite amount, and leaven it thoroughly outside the rest of the dough, and afterward bring it and knead it together with the rest of the dough. In this way it is possible to bring leaven from the outside and to be certain that the meal offering contains exactly the correct measure. The Gemara answers: One cannot proceed in this manner, due to a rabbinic decree. The reason for this decree is that people who would see this practice might mistakenly think that the leavened portion was not part of the original fine flour, and perhaps they will come to bring leavening dough for their meal offerings from elsewhere, i.e., leavening dough that has not been consecrated for the meal offering.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讞诪讬爪讬谉

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not leaven the meal offerings that come as leavened bread

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