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Today's Daf Yomi

October 10, 2018 | ืืณ ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Menachot 61

Which sacrifices need to be waved and don’t need to be brought to the altar? How were the wavings performed? Are women obligated in waving?


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ืžืจื‘ื” ืื ื™ ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื‘ืื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ื”ืœื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื• ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื”

The baraita answers: I include from this verse the other meal offerings, as they come due to themselves, i.e., they do not accompany other offerings, and I exclude the meal offering brought with libations, as it does not come due to itself but rather together with an animal offering. The baraita challenges: But the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest also come due to themselves, and according to this logic one might have thought that they too would require bringing near.

ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ื”ืื™ ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื’ื•ืคื” ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื”ื’ืฉื” ืžืŸ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉื”

Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd he shall bring it near to the altarโ€ (Leviticus 2:8), to exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest from the requirement of bringing near. The baraita raises a difficulty: But that verse is required for its own sake, i.e., to teach the basic halakha that a meal offering requires bringing near to the altar. The baraita answers: This halakha is derived from the fact that the verse could have stated just: โ€œAnd he shall bring,โ€ and instead it states: โ€œAnd he shall bring it.โ€

ื•ืžื” ืจืื™ืช ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžืจื‘ื” ืื ื™ ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื‘ืื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

The baraita asks: And what did you see that led you to include the other meal offerings in the requirement of bringing near and to exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest? The baraita answers: I include the other meal offerings, as there is a part of them burned in the fire of the altar, and they come due to themselves, and there is a part of them given to the priests to eat. And I exclude the two loaves and the shewbread, as there is no part of them burned in the fire. And I exclude the meal offering brought with libations, as it does not come due to itself, and I also exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest, as there is no part of them given to the priests.

ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืจื™ื ืžืžื ื• ื‘ืงืžืฆื• ืžื” ื”ืจืžื” ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืžืฆื• ืืฃ ื”ืจืžื” ื”ืืžื•ืจ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืžืฆื•

The baraita continues: The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest shall take off from the meal offering its memorial-part, and shall make it smoke upon the altar, an offering made by fire, of a pleasing aroma to the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 2:9). With regard to the phrase: โ€œAnd the priest shall take off,โ€ one might have thought the priest may perform this action even with a vessel. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd this is the law of the meal offering: The sons of Aaron shall offer it before the Lord, in front of the altar. And he shall take off from it his handfulโ€ (Leviticus 6:7โ€“8). Just as the taking off that is stated below is performed specifically with the priestโ€™s handful and not with a vessel, so too, the taking off that is stated here must be performed with the priestโ€™s handful, not with a vessel.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœื• ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื” ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืฆื•ืจืข ื•ืืฉืžื• ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื—ื–ื” ื•ืฉื•ืง ืฉืœื”ืŸ

MISHNA: These are the items that require waving and do not require bringing near to the altar: The log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper and his guilt offering itself, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take one of the lambs and sacrifice it for a guilt offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 14:12); and the first fruits, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov; and the sacrificial portions of the peace offerings of an individual and their breast and thigh, as it is written: โ€œThe thigh of heaving and the breast of waving shall they bring with the offerings of the portions consumed by fire, to wave it for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 10:15).

ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืœื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืฉื ื™ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ ืขืฆืจืช

This requirement applies to peace offerings belonging both to men and to women, by male Jews and not by others. The Gemara will explain this seemingly contradictory statement on 61b. In addition, the two loaves and the accompanying peace offering of two lambs brought on Shavuot also do not require bringing near but do require waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall wave them with the bread of the first fruits for a wave offering before the Lord, with the two lambsโ€ (Leviticus 23:20).

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืœืžื˜ื” ืžื•ืœื™ืš ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืขืœื” ื•ืžื•ืจื™ื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืฃ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ืจื ืชื ื•ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื”ื’ืฉื” ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืชื ื•ืคื•ืช ืงื•ื“ืžื•ืช ืœื”ื’ืฉื•ืช

How does one perform this waving? He places the two loaves on top of the two lambs and places his two hands below the loaves and the lambs, extends the offerings to each of the four directions and brings them back, then raises and lowers them, as it is stated with regard to the waving of the ram of the inauguration of the priests: โ€œWhich is waved, and which is heaved upโ€ (Exodus 29:27); i.e., waved back and forth, and heaved up and down. Waving was able to be performed to the east of the altar, but the bringing near of meal offerings had to be done to the west, i.e., the southwest corner of the altar. Also, with regard to all meal offerings, the wavings precede the actions of bringing near.

ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื ื—ืช ืงื ืื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื’ืฉื” ื•ืœื ืชื ื•ืคื”

The omer meal offering and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota require both bringing near and waving. The meal offering of the omer requires waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall wave the omer before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 23:11), and likewise with regard to the meal offering brought by a sota it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the meal offering of jealousy out of the womanโ€™s hand and shall wave the meal offering before the Lordโ€ (Numbers 5:25). The requirement of bringing near is derived as explained earlier. The shewbread and the meal offering brought with libations require neither bringing near nor waving.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข

Rabbi Shimon says: There are three types of offerings that require performance of three mitzvot. Two mitzvot are performed on each and every one of them, but the third mitzva is not performed in their sacrifice, meaning that each of these offerings requires two out of the same three mitzvot, but not necessarily the same two as the others. And these are the three offerings: Peace offerings brought as gift offerings by an individual, communal peace offerings, i.e., the two lambs brought with the two loaves on Shavuot, and the guilt offering of a leper (see Leviticus 14:12โ€“14).

ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื—ื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ื ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืฉื—ื•ื˜ื™ืŸ [ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืกืžื™ื›ื”] ื•ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื—ื•ื˜

Peace offerings brought by individuals require placing hands on the head of the animals while the animals are still alive, and waving when they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of waving them while they are alive. Communal peace offerings require waving both while the animals are still alive and after they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of placing hands on them. And the guilt offering of a leper requires placing hands and waving while the animal is still alive, but there is no obligation of waving it after it is slaughtered.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ืืชื• ืœืืฉื ื•ืืช ืœื’ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ืืชื ืชื ื•ืคื” ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื›ืื—ื“

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that both the log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper and the guilt offering itself require waving. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest shall take one of the lambs and sacrifice it for a guilt offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 14:12). The plural form โ€œthemโ€ teaches that the log of oil and the offering require waving, and that this should be performed with both of them together.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื–ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ื™ืฆื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ืืชื• ืœืืฉื ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื ื™ืฃ ื•ื™ื—ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื™ื ื™ืฃ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืœื ืชื ื•ืคื•ืช

And from where is it derived that if the priest waved this one by itself and that one by itself that he has fulfilled his obligation? The same verse states, in the singular form: โ€œAnd sacrifice it for a guilt offeringโ€ฆand wave.โ€ The Gemara inquires: Since parts of this verse are in the singular and parts are in the plural, one might have thought that he should wave both together, and then wave each one separately. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œA wave offering,โ€ which indicates that he should perform one waving, but not multiple wavings.

ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘

With regard to the phrase: โ€œA wave offering before the Lord,โ€ the baraita states that this teaches that waving can be performed to the east of the altar, as taught in the mishna. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But doesnโ€™t the tanna of a baraita cited earlier in the tractate (19b) say, concerning a verse discussing the bringing near of a meal offering, which states: โ€œBefore the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 6:7), that one might have thought one brings it to the west of the altar, as this is the side facing the Sanctuary? That tanna proceeds to explain that the phrase: โ€œIn front of the altarโ€ (Leviticus 6:7), is a reference to the south, where one ascends the altar, and therefore the meal offering must be brought to the southwest corner. This indicates, though, that the expression โ€œbefore the Lordโ€ is a reference to the west.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ื—ื˜ืืช ื•ื—ื˜ืืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืงืจืŸ ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื™ืกื•ื“ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ืงืจื™ื ื ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: The Sages say in response: This statement, that the expression โ€œbefore the Lordโ€ is a reference to the west and not to the east, applies only with regard to the meal offering, which is called โ€œa sin offering,โ€ as the verse states: โ€œIt is most sacred, like the sin offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:10), and the sin offering requires its remaining blood to be poured out on the base of the altar. Therefore, the meal offering must also be brought to a part of the altar where there is a base, and as the southeast corner of the altar did not have a base, the meal offering must be brought to the southwest corner. In this manner one fulfills both the requirement of โ€œin front of the altar,โ€ i.e., to the south, and the requirement of โ€œbefore the Lord.โ€ But here, with regard to the log of oil and guilt offering of a leper, we call any side of the altar โ€œbefore the Lord.โ€

ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืžื“ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

ยง The mishna teaches: The first fruits also require waving, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov. The Gemara asks: What is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, alluded to here? The Gemara answers that it is as it is taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the first fruits: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and place it before the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4). This taught a halakha concerning the first fruits, that they require waving; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื’ืžืจ ื™ื“ ื™ื“ ืžืฉืœืžื™ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื˜ื ื ืžื™ื“ืš ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื‘ื™ืื ื”

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, as the verse is not explicitly referring to waving? The Gemara explains: The matter is derived by means of a verbal analogy from โ€œhand,โ€ written with regard to first fruits, and from โ€œhand,โ€ written with regard to a peace offering. It is written here, with regard to first fruits: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4), and it is written there: offering โ€œHe who offers his peace offering to Godโ€ฆhis hands shall bring it, the fire of Godโ€ฆto raise it as a waving before Godโ€ (Leviticus 7:29โ€“30).

ืžื” ื›ืืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ืืฃ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื™ื— ื™ื“ื• ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ืฃ

Just as here, in the case of first fruits, it is the priest who takes the basket in his hand and waves it, so too there, in the case of the peace offering, a priest performs the waving. Just as there, with regard to a peace offering, it is the owner who performs the waving, as it is written: โ€œHe who offersโ€ฆhis hands shall bring it,โ€ so too here, the owner waves the first fruits. How so; how can the waving be performed by both the priest and the owner? The priest places his hands beneath the hands of the owner and waves the first fruits together with the owner.

ื•ืœื™ืžื ื ืžื™ ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื• ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื”ื ื—ื”

The Gemara asks: And let the mishna also say that the halakha that first fruits require waving is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says with regard to the verse written in the portion of first fruits: โ€œAnd you shall place it before the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:10), the reference is not to the placement of the fruits alongside the altar. Rather, this is a reference to waving the first fruits. Do you say that this is a reference to waving, or perhaps it is a reference only to actual placement of the first fruits?

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื—ื” ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื• ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื”

He explains: When it states earlier: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and place it before the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4), placement alongside the altar is already stated; how do I realize the meaning of: โ€œAnd you shall place itโ€? This is a reference to waving. It is therefore clear that Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov is not the only tanna who holds that there is a requirement of waving the first fruits, as indicated by the mishna; Rabbi Yehuda also maintains this opinion.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืคืชื— ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืชื—ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืจื‘ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื”

Rava says: The tanna of the mishna could have said that this halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. He preferred to ascribe this opinion to Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, since the verse opened first with the phrase cited by Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as the source for the requirement of waving the first fruits, as Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov derives this halakha from the verse: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4); whereas Rabbi Yehuda derives it from the later verse: โ€œAnd you shall place it before the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:10). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: The tanna preferred to cite this halakha in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov since his strength in Torah is great, as the halakha is invariably in accordance with his opinion.

ื•ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื—ื–ื” ื•ืฉื•ืง ืฉืœื”ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: And the sacrificial portions of the peace offerings of an individual, which are consumed on the altar, and their breast and thigh, which are eaten by the priests, require waving. This requirement applies to peace offerings belonging both to men and to women, by male Jews and not by others. The Gemara asks: What is the mishna saying? This statement is apparently self-contradictory, as the mishna first states that offerings brought by women require waving, and then it indicates that the offerings of others, including women, do not require waving.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ืงืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื ืฉื™ื

Rav Yehuda said that this is what the tanna of the mishna is saying: Both with regard to men and with regard to women, their offerings require waving, but the waving itself is performed only by male Jews, i.e., if the owner is a male he waves the offering together with a priest. But in the case of offerings brought by women, the female owner does not participate in the waving, as the priest alone performs the mitzva.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื•ืช

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to peace offerings, the verse states: โ€œSpeak to the children of Israel, saying: He who offers his sacrifice of peace offerings to the Lord shall bring his offering out of his sacrifice of peace offerings. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire. The fat with the breast he shall bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 7:29โ€“30). From the phrase: โ€œThe children of [benei] Israel,โ€ it may be derived that the Jewish people wave their offerings, but gentiles who bring their offerings do not wave them. Furthermore, as the term โ€œbeneiโ€ can also mean: Sons of, it may be derived that only sons of Israel, i.e., males, wave their offerings, but that women do not wave their offerings.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืฉื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ื’ื•ื™ื ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื ื—ืœื•ืง ื‘ืชื ื•ืคื”

Rabbi Yosei says: We have found that the Torah differentiates between the offering of a Jew and the offering of gentiles and also between the offering of men and the offering of women, with regard to the obligation of placing hands. Placing hands is performed only on offerings of male Jews, not on those brought by gentiles and women. Therefore, one might have thought that a similar distinction should apply to the halakha of waving. Can we therefore differentiate between these different offerings also with regard to waving, and conclude that this requirement also applies only to offerings of male Jews, not those brought by gentiles or women?

ืœื ืžื” ืœื™ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืกืžื™ื›ื” ืฉื”ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืขืœื™ื

Rabbi Yosei explains: No; this conclusion is incorrect, since what is the reason that the Torah differentiates between males Jews on the one hand and gentiles and women on the other hand, with regard to placing hands? The reason is that the case of placing hands is unique, as it is performed only by the owner of the offerings; he cannot appoint an agent to perform this ceremony on his behalf. Therefore, since gentiles and women may not perform this ceremony themselves, it is logical that their offerings are excluded from this requirement.

ื ื—ืœื•ืง ื‘ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื”ืชื ื•ืคื” ื‘ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื•ืช

By contrast, can we differentiate between males Jews on the one hand and gentiles and women on the other hand, with regard to waving as well? Since waving is also performed by priests, there is no reason to distinguish between offerings of male Jews and offerings brought by others, as the priests can wave those on behalf of their owners. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œThe children of [benei] Israelโ€? It means that only the Jewish people wave their offerings, but gentiles who bring their offerings do not wave them. Only sons of [benei] Israel, i.e., males, wave their offerings, but women do not wave their offerings.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ืจื™ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื—ืจืจื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื‘

It is taught in another baraita: With regard to the phrase: โ€œThe children of Israel,โ€ I have derived only that the requirement of waving applies to the children of Israel, i.e., those who were born Jewish. From where is it derived that the same applies to converts and to emancipated Canaanite slaves? The verse states, immediately after that phrase: โ€œHe who offers [hammakriv] his sacrifice of peace offeringsโ€ (Leviticus 7:29), which indicates that the halakha of waving applies to anyone who brings his offering to the Temple, including converts and emancipated slaves.

ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื–ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื‘ื™ืื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื™ื— ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ืฃ

The baraita challenges: Or perhaps this term does not serve to include converts and emancipated Canaanite slaves, but rather this is referring to the priest who sacrifices [hammakriv] the sacrificial portions on the altar? The baraita answers: This term cannot be referring to the priest, as when it states: โ€œHis own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire. The fat with the breast he shall bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 7:30), the requirement of waving by the owner is stated. Since the obligation of the owner to wave is stated in this verse, and the obligation of the priest is derived from the verbal analogy from the term โ€œhandโ€ written with regard to a peace offering, evidently both the owner and the priest must wave the offering. The Gemara asks: How so? The Gemara answers: The priest places his hands beneath the hands of the owner and waves the offering together with the owner.

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Menachot 61

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 61

ืžืจื‘ื” ืื ื™ ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื‘ืื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ื”ืœื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื• ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื”

The baraita answers: I include from this verse the other meal offerings, as they come due to themselves, i.e., they do not accompany other offerings, and I exclude the meal offering brought with libations, as it does not come due to itself but rather together with an animal offering. The baraita challenges: But the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest also come due to themselves, and according to this logic one might have thought that they too would require bringing near.

ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉื” ื”ืื™ ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืœื’ื•ืคื” ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื”ื’ืฉื” ืžืŸ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื•ื”ื’ื™ืฉื”

Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd he shall bring it near to the altarโ€ (Leviticus 2:8), to exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest from the requirement of bringing near. The baraita raises a difficulty: But that verse is required for its own sake, i.e., to teach the basic halakha that a meal offering requires bringing near to the altar. The baraita answers: This halakha is derived from the fact that the verse could have stated just: โ€œAnd he shall bring,โ€ and instead it states: โ€œAnd he shall bring it.โ€

ื•ืžื” ืจืื™ืช ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื•ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืžืจื‘ื” ืื ื™ ืฉืืจ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉื™ื ื•ื‘ืื•ืช ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžืŸ ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืื ื™ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืœืื™ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื” ื‘ืื” ื‘ื’ืœืœ ืขืฆืžื” ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื”ืŸ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

The baraita asks: And what did you see that led you to include the other meal offerings in the requirement of bringing near and to exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest? The baraita answers: I include the other meal offerings, as there is a part of them burned in the fire of the altar, and they come due to themselves, and there is a part of them given to the priests to eat. And I exclude the two loaves and the shewbread, as there is no part of them burned in the fire. And I exclude the meal offering brought with libations, as it does not come due to itself, and I also exclude the meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest, as there is no part of them given to the priests.

ื•ื”ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืจื™ื ืžืžื ื• ื‘ืงืžืฆื• ืžื” ื”ืจืžื” ื”ืืžื•ืจ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืžืฆื• ืืฃ ื”ืจืžื” ื”ืืžื•ืจ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืงื•ืžืฆื•

The baraita continues: The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest shall take off from the meal offering its memorial-part, and shall make it smoke upon the altar, an offering made by fire, of a pleasing aroma to the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 2:9). With regard to the phrase: โ€œAnd the priest shall take off,โ€ one might have thought the priest may perform this action even with a vessel. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd this is the law of the meal offering: The sons of Aaron shall offer it before the Lord, in front of the altar. And he shall take off from it his handfulโ€ (Leviticus 6:7โ€“8). Just as the taking off that is stated below is performed specifically with the priestโ€™s handful and not with a vessel, so too, the taking off that is stated here must be performed with the priestโ€™s handful, not with a vessel.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืืœื• ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื” ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉืœ ืžืฆื•ืจืข ื•ืืฉืžื• ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื—ื–ื” ื•ืฉื•ืง ืฉืœื”ืŸ

MISHNA: These are the items that require waving and do not require bringing near to the altar: The log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper and his guilt offering itself, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take one of the lambs and sacrifice it for a guilt offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 14:12); and the first fruits, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov; and the sacrificial portions of the peace offerings of an individual and their breast and thigh, as it is written: โ€œThe thigh of heaving and the breast of waving shall they bring with the offerings of the portions consumed by fire, to wave it for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 10:15).

ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ืœื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืฉื ื™ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ ืขืฆืจืช

This requirement applies to peace offerings belonging both to men and to women, by male Jews and not by others. The Gemara will explain this seemingly contradictory statement on 61b. In addition, the two loaves and the accompanying peace offering of two lambs brought on Shavuot also do not require bringing near but do require waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall wave them with the bread of the first fruits for a wave offering before the Lord, with the two lambsโ€ (Leviticus 23:20).

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ืขืœ ื’ื‘ื™ ืฉื ื™ ื›ื‘ืฉื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ื— ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืœืžื˜ื” ืžื•ืœื™ืš ื•ืžื‘ื™ื ืžืขืœื” ื•ืžื•ืจื™ื“ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ื ืฃ ื•ืืฉืจ ื”ื•ืจื ืชื ื•ืคื” ื”ื™ืชื” ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื”ื’ืฉื” ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ืชื ื•ืคื•ืช ืงื•ื“ืžื•ืช ืœื”ื’ืฉื•ืช

How does one perform this waving? He places the two loaves on top of the two lambs and places his two hands below the loaves and the lambs, extends the offerings to each of the four directions and brings them back, then raises and lowers them, as it is stated with regard to the waving of the ram of the inauguration of the priests: โ€œWhich is waved, and which is heaved upโ€ (Exodus 29:27); i.e., waved back and forth, and heaved up and down. Waving was able to be performed to the east of the altar, but the bringing near of meal offerings had to be done to the west, i.e., the southwest corner of the altar. Also, with regard to all meal offerings, the wavings precede the actions of bringing near.

ืžื ื—ืช ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ื•ืžื ื—ืช ืงื ืื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื ืกื›ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืœื ื”ื’ืฉื” ื•ืœื ืชื ื•ืคื”

The omer meal offering and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota require both bringing near and waving. The meal offering of the omer requires waving, as it is written: โ€œAnd he shall wave the omer before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 23:11), and likewise with regard to the meal offering brought by a sota it is written: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the meal offering of jealousy out of the womanโ€™s hand and shall wave the meal offering before the Lordโ€ (Numbers 5:25). The requirement of bringing near is derived as explained earlier. The shewbread and the meal offering brought with libations require neither bringing near nor waving.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืœืฉื” ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉืชื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืื—ืช ื•ืื—ืช ื•ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื•ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข

Rabbi Shimon says: There are three types of offerings that require performance of three mitzvot. Two mitzvot are performed on each and every one of them, but the third mitzva is not performed in their sacrifice, meaning that each of these offerings requires two out of the same three mitzvot, but not necessarily the same two as the others. And these are the three offerings: Peace offerings brought as gift offerings by an individual, communal peace offerings, i.e., the two lambs brought with the two loaves on Shavuot, and the guilt offering of a leper (see Leviticus 14:12โ€“14).

ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื—ื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื–ื‘ื—ื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ืฆื™ื‘ื•ืจ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ื ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืฉื—ื•ื˜ื™ืŸ [ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืกืžื™ื›ื”] ื•ืืฉื ืžืฆื•ืจืข ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ื—ื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื—ื•ื˜

Peace offerings brought by individuals require placing hands on the head of the animals while the animals are still alive, and waving when they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of waving them while they are alive. Communal peace offerings require waving both while the animals are still alive and after they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of placing hands on them. And the guilt offering of a leper requires placing hands and waving while the animal is still alive, but there is no obligation of waving it after it is slaughtered.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ืืชื• ืœืืฉื ื•ืืช ืœื’ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ืืชื ืชื ื•ืคื” ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื›ืื—ื“

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that both the log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper and the guilt offering itself require waving. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œAnd the priest shall take one of the lambs and sacrifice it for a guilt offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 14:12). The plural form โ€œthemโ€ teaches that the log of oil and the offering require waving, and that this should be performed with both of them together.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื–ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ื•ื–ื” ื‘ืขืฆืžื• ื™ืฆื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ืงืจื™ื‘ ืืชื• ืœืืฉื ื•ื”ื ื™ืฃ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื ื™ืฃ ื•ื™ื—ื–ื™ืจ ื•ื™ื ื™ืฃ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืœื ืชื ื•ืคื•ืช

And from where is it derived that if the priest waved this one by itself and that one by itself that he has fulfilled his obligation? The same verse states, in the singular form: โ€œAnd sacrifice it for a guilt offeringโ€ฆand wave.โ€ The Gemara inquires: Since parts of this verse are in the singular and parts are in the plural, one might have thought that he should wave both together, and then wave each one separately. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œA wave offering,โ€ which indicates that he should perform one waving, but not multiple wavings.

ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื”ื ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืขืจื‘

With regard to the phrase: โ€œA wave offering before the Lord,โ€ the baraita states that this teaches that waving can be performed to the east of the altar, as taught in the mishna. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But doesnโ€™t the tanna of a baraita cited earlier in the tractate (19b) say, concerning a verse discussing the bringing near of a meal offering, which states: โ€œBefore the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 6:7), that one might have thought one brings it to the west of the altar, as this is the side facing the Sanctuary? That tanna proceeds to explain that the phrase: โ€œIn front of the altarโ€ (Leviticus 6:7), is a reference to the south, where one ascends the altar, and therefore the meal offering must be brought to the southwest corner. This indicates, though, that the expression โ€œbefore the Lordโ€ is a reference to the west.

ืืžืจื™ ื”ื ื™ ืžื™ืœื™ ืžื ื—ื” ื“ืื™ืงืจื™ ื—ื˜ืืช ื•ื—ื˜ืืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื” ื™ืกื•ื“ ื•ืงืจืŸ ื“ืจื•ืžื™ืช ืžื–ืจื—ื™ืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื™ืกื•ื“ ืื‘ืœ ื”ื›ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืณ ืงืจื™ื ื ื‘ื™ื”

The Gemara answers: The Sages say in response: This statement, that the expression โ€œbefore the Lordโ€ is a reference to the west and not to the east, applies only with regard to the meal offering, which is called โ€œa sin offering,โ€ as the verse states: โ€œIt is most sacred, like the sin offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:10), and the sin offering requires its remaining blood to be poured out on the base of the altar. Therefore, the meal offering must also be brought to a part of the altar where there is a base, and as the southeast corner of the altar did not have a base, the meal offering must be brought to the southwest corner. In this manner one fulfills both the requirement of โ€œin front of the altar,โ€ i.e., to the south, and the requirement of โ€œbefore the Lord.โ€ But here, with regard to the log of oil and guilt offering of a leper, we call any side of the altar โ€œbefore the Lord.โ€

ื•ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืžืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื“ืชื ื™ื ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืœื™ืžื“ ืขืœ ื”ื‘ื›ื•ืจื™ื ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘

ยง The mishna teaches: The first fruits also require waving, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov. The Gemara asks: What is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, alluded to here? The Gemara answers that it is as it is taught in a baraita: The verse states with regard to the first fruits: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and place it before the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4). This taught a halakha concerning the first fruits, that they require waving; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื’ืžืจ ื™ื“ ื™ื“ ืžืฉืœืžื™ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ื›ื ื•ืœืงื— ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ื˜ื ื ืžื™ื“ืš ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื”ืชื ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื‘ื™ืื ื”

The Gemara asks: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, as the verse is not explicitly referring to waving? The Gemara explains: The matter is derived by means of a verbal analogy from โ€œhand,โ€ written with regard to first fruits, and from โ€œhand,โ€ written with regard to a peace offering. It is written here, with regard to first fruits: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4), and it is written there: offering โ€œHe who offers his peace offering to Godโ€ฆhis hands shall bring it, the fire of Godโ€ฆto raise it as a waving before Godโ€ (Leviticus 7:29โ€“30).

ืžื” ื›ืืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ืืฃ ืœื”ืœืŸ ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื™ื— ื™ื“ื• ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ืฃ

Just as here, in the case of first fruits, it is the priest who takes the basket in his hand and waves it, so too there, in the case of the peace offering, a priest performs the waving. Just as there, with regard to a peace offering, it is the owner who performs the waving, as it is written: โ€œHe who offersโ€ฆhis hands shall bring it,โ€ so too here, the owner waves the first fruits. How so; how can the waving be performed by both the priest and the owner? The priest places his hands beneath the hands of the owner and waves the first fruits together with the owner.

ื•ืœื™ืžื ื ืžื™ ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื• ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืืชื” ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื” ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื”ื ื—ื”

The Gemara asks: And let the mishna also say that the halakha that first fruits require waving is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says with regard to the verse written in the portion of first fruits: โ€œAnd you shall place it before the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:10), the reference is not to the placement of the fruits alongside the altar. Rather, this is a reference to waving the first fruits. Do you say that this is a reference to waving, or perhaps it is a reference only to actual placement of the first fruits?

ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื”ื ื™ื—ื• ื”ืจื™ ื”ื ื—ื” ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ืžื” ืื ื™ ืžืงื™ื™ื ื•ื”ื ื—ืชื• ื–ื• ืชื ื•ืคื”

He explains: When it states earlier: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your hand, and place it before the altar of the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4), placement alongside the altar is already stated; how do I realize the meaning of: โ€œAnd you shall place itโ€? This is a reference to waving. It is therefore clear that Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov is not the only tanna who holds that there is a requirement of waving the first fruits, as indicated by the mishna; Rabbi Yehuda also maintains this opinion.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืคืชื— ื‘ื• ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืชื—ืœื” ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืจื‘ ื’ื‘ืจื™ื”

Rava says: The tanna of the mishna could have said that this halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. He preferred to ascribe this opinion to Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov, since the verse opened first with the phrase cited by Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov as the source for the requirement of waving the first fruits, as Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov derives this halakha from the verse: โ€œAnd the priest shall take the basket from your handโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:4); whereas Rabbi Yehuda derives it from the later verse: โ€œAnd you shall place it before the Lord your Godโ€ (Deuteronomy 26:10). Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak says: The tanna preferred to cite this halakha in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaโ€™akov since his strength in Torah is great, as the halakha is invariably in accordance with his opinion.

ื•ืื™ืžื•ืจื™ ืฉืœืžื™ ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื•ื—ื–ื” ื•ืฉื•ืง ืฉืœื”ืŸ ืื—ื“ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืื™ ืงืืžืจ

ยง The mishna teaches: And the sacrificial portions of the peace offerings of an individual, which are consumed on the altar, and their breast and thigh, which are eaten by the priests, require waving. This requirement applies to peace offerings belonging both to men and to women, by male Jews and not by others. The Gemara asks: What is the mishna saying? This statement is apparently self-contradictory, as the mishna first states that offerings brought by women require waving, and then it indicates that the offerings of others, including women, do not require waving.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ืื—ื“ ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื ืฉื™ื ืงืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ืŸ ืชื ื•ืคื” ื•ืชื ื•ืคื” ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื ืฉื™ื

Rav Yehuda said that this is what the tanna of the mishna is saying: Both with regard to men and with regard to women, their offerings require waving, but the waving itself is performed only by male Jews, i.e., if the owner is a male he waves the offering together with a priest. But in the case of offerings brought by women, the female owner does not participate in the waving, as the priest alone performs the mitzva.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื•ืช

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to peace offerings, the verse states: โ€œSpeak to the children of Israel, saying: He who offers his sacrifice of peace offerings to the Lord shall bring his offering out of his sacrifice of peace offerings. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire. The fat with the breast he shall bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 7:29โ€“30). From the phrase: โ€œThe children of [benei] Israel,โ€ it may be derived that the Jewish people wave their offerings, but gentiles who bring their offerings do not wave them. Furthermore, as the term โ€œbeneiโ€ can also mean: Sons of, it may be derived that only sons of Israel, i.e., males, wave their offerings, but that women do not wave their offerings.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืฉื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืชื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงืจื‘ืŸ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ื’ื•ื™ื ืœืงืจื‘ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื‘ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื ื—ืœื•ืง ื‘ืชื ื•ืคื”

Rabbi Yosei says: We have found that the Torah differentiates between the offering of a Jew and the offering of gentiles and also between the offering of men and the offering of women, with regard to the obligation of placing hands. Placing hands is performed only on offerings of male Jews, not on those brought by gentiles and women. Therefore, one might have thought that a similar distinction should apply to the halakha of waving. Can we therefore differentiate between these different offerings also with regard to waving, and conclude that this requirement also applies only to offerings of male Jews, not those brought by gentiles or women?

ืœื ืžื” ืœื™ ื—ืœืง ื‘ืกืžื™ื›ื” ืฉื”ืกืžื™ื›ื” ื‘ื‘ืขืœื™ื

Rabbi Yosei explains: No; this conclusion is incorrect, since what is the reason that the Torah differentiates between males Jews on the one hand and gentiles and women on the other hand, with regard to placing hands? The reason is that the case of placing hands is unique, as it is performed only by the owner of the offerings; he cannot appoint an agent to perform this ceremony on his behalf. Therefore, since gentiles and women may not perform this ceremony themselves, it is logical that their offerings are excluded from this requirement.

ื ื—ืœื•ืง ื‘ืชื ื•ืคื” ืฉื”ืชื ื•ืคื” ื‘ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืื ื›ืŸ ืžื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืžื ื™ืคื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื”ื ืฉื™ื ืžื ื™ืคื•ืช

By contrast, can we differentiate between males Jews on the one hand and gentiles and women on the other hand, with regard to waving as well? Since waving is also performed by priests, there is no reason to distinguish between offerings of male Jews and offerings brought by others, as the priests can wave those on behalf of their owners. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: โ€œThe children of [benei] Israelโ€? It means that only the Jewish people wave their offerings, but gentiles who bring their offerings do not wave them. Only sons of [benei] Israel, i.e., males, wave their offerings, but women do not wave their offerings.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ื ื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื’ืจื™ื ื•ืขื‘ื“ื™ื ืžืฉื•ื—ืจืจื™ืŸ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื‘

It is taught in another baraita: With regard to the phrase: โ€œThe children of Israel,โ€ I have derived only that the requirement of waving applies to the children of Israel, i.e., those who were born Jewish. From where is it derived that the same applies to converts and to emancipated Canaanite slaves? The verse states, immediately after that phrase: โ€œHe who offers [hammakriv] his sacrifice of peace offeringsโ€ (Leviticus 7:29), which indicates that the halakha of waving applies to anyone who brings his offering to the Temple, including converts and emancipated slaves.

ืื• ืื™ื ื• ืืœื ื–ื” ื›ื”ืŸ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื‘ื™ืื™ื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื‘ืขืœื™ื ืืžื•ืจ ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื›ื”ืŸ ืžื ื™ื— ื™ื“ื™ื• ืชื—ืช ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื‘ืขืœื™ื ื•ืžื ื™ืฃ

The baraita challenges: Or perhaps this term does not serve to include converts and emancipated Canaanite slaves, but rather this is referring to the priest who sacrifices [hammakriv] the sacrificial portions on the altar? The baraita answers: This term cannot be referring to the priest, as when it states: โ€œHis own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord made by fire. The fat with the breast he shall bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lordโ€ (Leviticus 7:30), the requirement of waving by the owner is stated. Since the obligation of the owner to wave is stated in this verse, and the obligation of the priest is derived from the verbal analogy from the term โ€œhandโ€ written with regard to a peace offering, evidently both the owner and the priest must wave the offering. The Gemara asks: How so? The Gemara answers: The priest places his hands beneath the hands of the owner and waves the offering together with the owner.

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