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Today's Daf Yomi

October 24, 2018 | ื˜ืดื• ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืขืดื˜

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Menachot 75

Study Guide Menachot 75. How exactly were the meal offerings prepared – step by step details are discussed.ย What are the differences in the process between the different types as relates to the adding of the oil and the breaking up into pieces? Does one make hamotziย or mezonotย on a kugel baked with chunks of bread inside? How is the halacha potentially derived from the laws of meal offerings?


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ืžื” ื›ืืŸ ืžืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืืฃ ืœื”ืœืŸ ืžืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

Just as here, with regard to the deep-pan meal offering, the placement of oil in an empty utensil is required, to which the flour is added only afterward, so too there, with regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, the placement of oil in an empty utensil is required. And just as there, with regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, pouring and mixing are required, as the verse states: โ€œMixed with oilโ€ฆand pour oil upon itโ€ (Leviticus 2:5โ€“6), so too here, with regard to the deep-pan meal offering, pouring and mixing are required.

ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืกื•ืœืช

ยง The mishna teaches: With regard to meal offerings that come as loaves, i.e., those prepared in a shallow pan or deep pan or those baked in an oven, it is after the flour has been baked into loaves that one breaks them into pieces and mixes them with oil; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: It is with fine flour, before the baking, that one mixes the oil.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกืœืช ื‘ืœื•ืœื” ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ื‘ืœืœืช ืกื•ืœืช ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื•ื”ืœื ืœื—ืžื™ ืชื•ื“ื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื›ืฉื”ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ืืœื ืกื•ืœืช

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, the verse states: โ€œIt shall be of fine flour unleavened, mixed with oil.โ€ This teaches that it is mixed while still flour. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is after the flour has been baked into loaves that he mixes them, as it is stated: โ€œAnd when you bring a meal offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened loaves of fine flour mixed with oilโ€ (Leviticus 2:4). The Rabbis said to him: But is it not with regard to loaves of a thanks offering that it is stated: โ€œUnleavened loaves mixed with oilโ€ฆand loaves mixed with oil, of fine flour soakedโ€ (Leviticus 7:12), and it is not possible to mix them when they are loaves, but only when they are fine flour?

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ื ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื‘ื•ืœืœื” ื•ืœืฉื” ื•ืื•ืคื” ื•ืคื•ืชืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืงื•ืžืฅ

The Gemara explains the procedure of mixing the oven-baked meal offerings according to the Rabbis. How does the priest perform the rite? He places oil in a utensil before the placement of the flour is done, and then he places the flour into the utensil. And he then places oil upon it and mixes it, and kneads it in lukewarm water, and bakes it in a shallow pan or a deep pan, in accordance with his vow. And then he breaks it into pieces, and he again places oil upon the pieces, which constitutes the required pouring, and he removes a handful for the altar.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ื ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชื ื” ื•ืœืฉื” ื•ืื•ืคื” ื•ืคื•ืชืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ืœืœื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืงื•ืžืฅ

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: After the meal offerings have been baked into loaves, one breaks them into pieces and mixes them with oil, as it is stated: โ€œLoaves of fine flour mixed with oil.โ€ How does the priest perform the rite? He places oil in a utensil before the placement of the flour is done, and then he places the flour into the utensil. And then he kneads it in lukewarm water, and bakes it in a shallow pan or deep pan, and breaks the loaves into pieces, and places oil upon the pieces and mixes them, and again places oil upon the pieces, which constitutes the pouring of the oil, and removes a handful to be burned on the altar.

ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ืžืชื—ืœืงืช ืœื›ืžื” ื—ืœื•ืช

The Gemara asks: With regard to the difficulty that it is not possible to mix them when they are loaves, which the Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what is it that makes it impossible? The Gemara answers that Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzแธฅak says: Since only a quarter-log of oil is used, how could it be divided among a number of loaves? As this is not sufficient oil to mix with baked offerings, it must be that the oil is mixed with the unbaked flour.

ื”ื—ืœื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื•ืœื ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื•ืžื” ื—ืœื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืื™ื ื• ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื•ืœื ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches: The loaves of the meal offering baked in an oven require mixing of their flour with oil, and wafers require only smearing. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse specifies with regard to the oven-baked meal offering: โ€œAnd when you bring a meal offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened loaves of fine flour mixed with oilโ€ (Leviticus 2:4). This indicates that only the loaves are mixed, but the wafers are not mixed. This derivation is necessary, as one might have thought: Could the opposite conclusion not be derived through logical inference? And if loaves, which do not require smearing, do require mixing, then is it not logical that wafers, which require smearing, also require mixing? To counter this inference, the verse states: โ€œLoaves of fine flour mixed,โ€ but wafers are not mixed.

ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื•ืžื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ื—ืœื•ืช ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื™ื ื• ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ื ื•ืœื ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช

With regard to wafers, the same verse teaches that wafers are smeared with oil, but loaves are not smeared. This derivation is necessary, as one might have thought: Could the opposite conclusion not be derived through logical inference, namely: And if wafers, which do not require mixing, do require smearing, then is it not logical that loaves, which require mixing, also require smearing? To counter this inference, the verse states that wafers are smeared with oil, but loaves are not smeared.

ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืœื ืœื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ื•ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: What is the biblical derivation? Why are the terms โ€œmixedโ€ and โ€œsmearedโ€ not interpreted to be referring to both varieties of oven-baked meal offerings? The Gemara answers: Rava said: If this were the intention, then the Torah should not omit this description completely, and let it write in some other verse: Smeared loaves and mixed wafers. The fact that the Torah never describes the loaves as smeared and wafers as mixed indicates that loaves are not smeared and wafers are not mixed.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ื ืื›ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ื•ื•ื ื™

ยง The mishna teaches: How does one smear oil on them? He does so in a shape similar to chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by priests. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Similar to chi? Rav Kahana said: It is smeared in a shape similar to the Greek letter chi, ฮง.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื—ื” ื”ื‘ืื” ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืฆื”ื• ื—ืฆื™ื• ืœื—ืœื•ืช ื•ื—ืฆื™ื• ืœืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ

ยง Concerning the mixing of oil into the loaves and the smearing of oil upon the wafers, the Sages taught in a baraita: An oven-baked meal offering that comes as half loaves and half wafers, i.e., five of each, may be brought according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who does not require ten items of a uniform type. How is the oil applied to this offering? According to one opinion, he brings a log of oil, which is the requisite quantity to accompany a tenth of an ephah of flour, and divides it into two parts. Half of the oil is used for the loaves, and half of the oil is used for the wafers.

ื•ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฉื— ืืช ื”ืจืงื™ืง ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ื•ืœื• ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ืžื—ื–ื™ืจื• ืœื—ืœื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื ืื›ืœ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

As for the loaves, he mixes them with the oil, and as for the wafers, he smears them. And he smears the oil on the wafer over the entire surface, not in the shape of the letter chi, and he returns the rest of the oil to mix into the loaves. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: He smears them in a shape similar to the letter chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by the priests.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื›ืœื” ื›ืœ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉื‘ืœื•ื’ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื ืื›ืœ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

It is taught in another baraita: In the case of ten wafers that come by themselves as a meal offering baked in the oven, and not as part of another offering, he brings a log of oil and smears them, and he again smears them repeatedly until all the oil in the log is finished. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: He smears them in a shape similar to the letter chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by the priests.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื”ื ืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืคืชื™ืชื”

MISHNA: All the meal offerings that are prepared in a vessel require breaking into pieces.

ื’ืžืณ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: To exclude what does the mishna state that this halakha applies specifically to meal offerings prepared in vessels? Rav Pappa said: The mishna serves to exclude the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves baked from new wheat, and the shewbread, the twelve loaves that were placed on the Table in the Sanctuary each Shabbat. Since these are baked in an oven and not prepared in vessels, they do not require breaking into pieces.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืชื•ืช ืืชื” ืคืชื™ื ืžื ื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœืคืชื™ืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉืื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชื”

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita that the verse discussing a meal offering prepared in a pan states: โ€œYou shall break it in pieces, and pour oil upon it; it is a meal offeringโ€ (Leviticus 2:6). The fact that the verse concludes with the phrase: โ€œIt is a meal offering,โ€ indicates that the Torah means to include all the meal offerings in the requirement of breaking into pieces. One might have thought that I should include even the two loaves and the shewbread. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYou shall break it in piecesโ€; i.e., the meal offering baked in a pan, but not the two loaves and the shewbread.

ื•ื™ืฆืงืช ืฉืžืŸ ืžื ื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉืื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ืžื ื—ืช ืžืืคื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ

The baraita continues that the same verse states: โ€œAnd you shall pour oil upon it; it is a meal offering.โ€ The fact that the verse concludes with the phrase โ€œIt is a meal offeringโ€ indicates that the Torah means to include all the meal offerings in the requirement of pouring. One might have thought that I should include even the oven-baked meal offering. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall pour oil upon it,โ€ i.e., upon this meal offering, but not upon the oven-baked meal offering.

ืื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืœื ืื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ื ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืื™ืžื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื

The baraita concludes: Perhaps I should exclude only the loaves from the requirement of pouring, but I should not exclude the wafers. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œIt is a meal offering,โ€ indicating that wafers are also excluded. The Gemara asks: What is the biblical derivation, by which the term โ€œitโ€ excludes wafers specifically? Perhaps I will say: The term serves to exclude the meal offering of priests from the requirement of pouring.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื ื™ ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืžื ื—ืช ืžืืคื”

Rabba says: This is the reason that wafers are also excluded from the mitzva of pouring, while a meal offering brought by a priest is not excluded: The verse uses two expressions of exclusion: โ€œUpon it,โ€ and: โ€œIt is a meal offering.โ€ What is the matter that requires two exclusions? You must say: It is the oven-baked meal offering, of which there are two types of offerings: Wafers and loaves.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžื ื—ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืžื™ืฆื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคื•ืชืชืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืชื™ื

MISHNA: In breaking the meal offering of an Israelite into pieces, the priest folds [kofel] one into two and two into four and separates it at the folds. In breaking into pieces the meal offering of priests, the priest folds one into two and two into four and does not separate it at the folds. Because no handful is removed, separation is unnecessary. In the case of the griddle-cake meal offering of the anointed priest, he would not fold it. Rabbi Shimon says: In neither the meal offering of priests nor the meal offering of the anointed priest is there breaking into pieces, because in those meal offerings there is no removal of a handful. And any meal offering in which there is no removal of a handful there is no breaking into pieces. And in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, the priest breaks them into olive-bulk-sized pieces.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืชื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฉื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืคืชื™ื ืื™ ืคืชื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฉื ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชื” ืื•ืชื” ืœืคืชื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ืคืชื™ืชื” ืœืคืชื™ืชื™ื

GEMARA: With regard to the difference between the meal offering of an Israelite and that of a priest detailed in the mishna, the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œYou shall break it in piecesโ€ (Leviticus 2:6). One might have thought that it should be broken into only two pieces. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œBreak it in pieces,โ€ indicating that each of these two pieces is subsequently broken into more pieces. If the Torah requires pieces, one might have thought that he should repeatedly break it into pieces until he renders it into crumbs. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œBreak it,โ€ i.e., break it in pieces, and do not break its pieces into additional pieces.

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื ื—ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื”ื ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงืคืœื” ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ืื‘ืœ ืžืงืคืœื” ืœืฉื ื™ื

How so? In the case of the meal offering of an Israelite, the priest folds one into two and two into four and separates the pieces. In breaking into pieces the meal offering of priests and the anointed priest, the priest folds it into two, as it is stated: โ€œIn broken pieces you shall sacrifice the offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:14). The Gemara asks: With regard to the meal offering of the anointed priest, didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna: He would not fold it? Rabba says: He does not fold it into four, as it does not use the doubled phrase: โ€œYou shall break it in pieces [patot otah pitim],โ€ but he does fold it into two.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืฆื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืœื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื•ืจื ืžื™ื ื™ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

The mishna teaches: Rabbi Shimon says: In neither the meal offering of priests nor the meal offering of the anointed priest is there breaking into piecesโ€ฆand in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, one breaks them into olive-bulk pieces. Rav Yosef said: Over this cooked dish, which contains pieces of bread that are the size of an olive-bulk, before eating it one recites upon it the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Over that same cooked dish, if it does not contain pieces of bread that are the size of an olive-bulk, before eating it one recites upon it the blessing of: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื•ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืฉื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ืงื™ืžื ื• ื ื˜ืœืŸ ืœืื›ืœืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืœื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื•ืชื ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื™ื ื‘ื›ื–ื™ืช

Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? As it is taught in a baraita: The first time an Israelite would stand and instruct a priest to sacrifice meal offerings in Jerusalem on his behalf, he would recite: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has given us life and sustained us and brought us to this time, as it is the first time that the Israelite fulfills the mitzva of bringing that offering. Following the removal of the handful, when the priest would take the meal offerings in order to eat them, he would first recite the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. And we learned in the mishna: And in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, the priest breaks them into pieces the size of an olive-bulk. This proves that over pieces of bread that are the volume of an olive-bulk, one recites the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืœืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคืจื›ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžื—ื–ื™ืจืŸ ืœืกืœืชืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But according to the tanna of the school of Rabbi Yishmael, who said with regard to meal offerings: He crushes them continuously until he restores them to the form they had when they were flour, would you say that so too, in that case, one who eats a meal offering so prepared does not recite the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth?

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืœื™ืงื˜ ืžื›ื•ืœืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ื•ืื›ืœื• ืื ื—ืžืฅ ื”ื•ื ืขื ื•ืฉ ื›ืจืช ืื ืžืฆื” ื”ื•ื ืื“ื ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื•ื‘ืชื• ื‘ืคืกื—

And if you would say that indeed, one does not recite that blessing over these meal offerings, that is difficult: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: With regard to one who gathered a portion the volume of an olive-bulk from all of the crumbs of the meal offerings and ate it, if it was an offering of leavened bread like that of a thanks offering, and he ate it on Passover, his act is punishable by karet. If it was an offering of unleavened bread, a person fulfills his obligation to eat matza on Passover through the consumption of those pieces. This indicates that pieces of bread, regardless of their volume, are always considered bread.

ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจืกืŸ

Rav Yosef answered him that this is not the halakha, and one does not recite a blessing over crumbs of bread as he would over actual bread. Rather, what are we dealing with here? We are dealing with a case where one kneaded the crumbs of bread together and pressed them [besheโ€™eirsan] into a single mass.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืขืœื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืื›ืœืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืื›ื™ืœืช ืคืจืก ื•ืื™ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจืกืŸ ืฉืื›ืœื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื ืžืœื—ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara challenges this: If so, that which is taught about the ruling in the baraita: And this is the halakha when he ate all of the crumbs that constitute the volume of an olive-bulk in the time it takes to eat a half-loaf [peras] of bread, is difficult. As, if it is a case where he pressed them into a single mass, the baraita should have taught: When he ate it, in the singular, as it is a single item. Rather, what are we dealing with here? We are dealing with a case where the crumbs came from a large loaf of bread. Although the crumbs themselves are each smaller than an olive-bulk, since they were broken from a large loaf, they are considered significant.

ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ืชื•ืจื™ืชื ื“ื ื”ืžื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: With regard to the blessing recited on the cooked dish with pieces less than an olive-bulk in volume, what halakhic conclusion was reached about it? Rav Sheshet says: Even when eating pieces of bread that do not have the volume of an olive-bulk, one recites the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Rava said: And this is limited to a case where the crumbs still have the appearance [torita] of bread, and they did not dissolve completely.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Menachot 75

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Menachot 75

ืžื” ื›ืืŸ ืžืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืืฃ ืœื”ืœืŸ ืžืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื•ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื”

Just as here, with regard to the deep-pan meal offering, the placement of oil in an empty utensil is required, to which the flour is added only afterward, so too there, with regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, the placement of oil in an empty utensil is required. And just as there, with regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, pouring and mixing are required, as the verse states: โ€œMixed with oilโ€ฆand pour oil upon itโ€ (Leviticus 2:5โ€“6), so too here, with regard to the deep-pan meal offering, pouring and mixing are required.

ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืกื•ืœืช

ยง The mishna teaches: With regard to meal offerings that come as loaves, i.e., those prepared in a shallow pan or deep pan or those baked in an oven, it is after the flour has been baked into loaves that one breaks them into pieces and mixes them with oil; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. And the Rabbis say: It is with fine flour, before the baking, that one mixes the oil.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืกืœืช ื‘ืœื•ืœื” ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ื‘ืœืœืช ืกื•ืœืช ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ืืžืจื• ืœื• ื•ื”ืœื ืœื—ืžื™ ืชื•ื“ื” ื ืืžืจ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื›ืฉื”ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ืืœื ืกื•ืœืช

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to the meal offering prepared in a shallow pan, the verse states: โ€œIt shall be of fine flour unleavened, mixed with oil.โ€ This teaches that it is mixed while still flour. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is after the flour has been baked into loaves that he mixes them, as it is stated: โ€œAnd when you bring a meal offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened loaves of fine flour mixed with oilโ€ (Leviticus 2:4). The Rabbis said to him: But is it not with regard to loaves of a thanks offering that it is stated: โ€œUnleavened loaves mixed with oilโ€ฆand loaves mixed with oil, of fine flour soakedโ€ (Leviticus 7:12), and it is not possible to mix them when they are loaves, but only when they are fine flour?

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ื ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชืŸ ื•ื ื•ืชื ื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื•ื‘ื•ืœืœื” ื•ืœืฉื” ื•ืื•ืคื” ื•ืคื•ืชืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืงื•ืžืฅ

The Gemara explains the procedure of mixing the oven-baked meal offerings according to the Rabbis. How does the priest perform the rite? He places oil in a utensil before the placement of the flour is done, and then he places the flour into the utensil. And he then places oil upon it and mixes it, and kneads it in lukewarm water, and bakes it in a shallow pan or a deep pan, in accordance with his vow. And then he breaks it into pieces, and he again places oil upon the pieces, which constitutes the required pouring, and he removes a handful for the altar.

ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื‘ืฉืžืŸ ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืขื•ืฉื” ื ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืžืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ืงื•ื“ื ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชื ื” ื•ืœืฉื” ื•ืื•ืคื” ื•ืคื•ืชืชื” ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื‘ื•ืœืœื” ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืงื•ืžืฅ

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: After the meal offerings have been baked into loaves, one breaks them into pieces and mixes them with oil, as it is stated: โ€œLoaves of fine flour mixed with oil.โ€ How does the priest perform the rite? He places oil in a utensil before the placement of the flour is done, and then he places the flour into the utensil. And then he kneads it in lukewarm water, and bakes it in a shallow pan or deep pan, and breaks the loaves into pieces, and places oil upon the pieces and mixes them, and again places oil upon the pieces, which constitutes the pouring of the oil, and removes a handful to be burned on the altar.

ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ื“ืงืืžืจื™ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉืžืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ืืš ืžืชื—ืœืงืช ืœื›ืžื” ื—ืœื•ืช

The Gemara asks: With regard to the difficulty that it is not possible to mix them when they are loaves, which the Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what is it that makes it impossible? The Gemara answers that Rabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzแธฅak says: Since only a quarter-log of oil is used, how could it be divided among a number of loaves? As this is not sufficient oil to mix with baked offerings, it must be that the oil is mixed with the unbaked flour.

ื”ื—ืœื•ืช ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื•ืœื ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื•ืžื” ื—ืœื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืื™ื ื• ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ืœื•ืœืช ื•ืœื ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ

ยง The mishna teaches: The loaves of the meal offering baked in an oven require mixing of their flour with oil, and wafers require only smearing. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse specifies with regard to the oven-baked meal offering: โ€œAnd when you bring a meal offering baked in the oven, it shall be unleavened loaves of fine flour mixed with oilโ€ (Leviticus 2:4). This indicates that only the loaves are mixed, but the wafers are not mixed. This derivation is necessary, as one might have thought: Could the opposite conclusion not be derived through logical inference? And if loaves, which do not require smearing, do require mixing, then is it not logical that wafers, which require smearing, also require mixing? To counter this inference, the verse states: โ€œLoaves of fine flour mixed,โ€ but wafers are not mixed.

ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœ ื•ื”ืœื ื“ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื•ืžื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื˜ืขื•ื ื™ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ื—ืœื•ืช ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืื™ื ื• ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžืฉื™ื—ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื—ื™ื ื•ืœื ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช

With regard to wafers, the same verse teaches that wafers are smeared with oil, but loaves are not smeared. This derivation is necessary, as one might have thought: Could the opposite conclusion not be derived through logical inference, namely: And if wafers, which do not require mixing, do require smearing, then is it not logical that loaves, which require mixing, also require smearing? To counter this inference, the verse states that wafers are smeared with oil, but loaves are not smeared.

ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืœื ืœื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ื•ืœื›ืชื•ื‘ ื—ืœื•ืช ืžืฉื•ื—ื•ืช ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื•ืœื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: What is the biblical derivation? Why are the terms โ€œmixedโ€ and โ€œsmearedโ€ not interpreted to be referring to both varieties of oven-baked meal offerings? The Gemara answers: Rava said: If this were the intention, then the Torah should not omit this description completely, and let it write in some other verse: Smeared loaves and mixed wafers. The fact that the Torah never describes the loaves as smeared and wafers as mixed indicates that loaves are not smeared and wafers are not mixed.

ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ื”ืฉืืจ ื ืื›ืœ ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืžืื™ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ื”ื ื ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื™ื•ื•ื ื™

ยง The mishna teaches: How does one smear oil on them? He does so in a shape similar to chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by priests. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Similar to chi? Rav Kahana said: It is smeared in a shape similar to the Greek letter chi, ฮง.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื ื—ื” ื”ื‘ืื” ืžื—ืฆื” ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ื—ื•ืฆื”ื• ื—ืฆื™ื• ืœื—ืœื•ืช ื•ื—ืฆื™ื• ืœืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ

ยง Concerning the mixing of oil into the loaves and the smearing of oil upon the wafers, the Sages taught in a baraita: An oven-baked meal offering that comes as half loaves and half wafers, i.e., five of each, may be brought according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who does not require ten items of a uniform type. How is the oil applied to this offering? According to one opinion, he brings a log of oil, which is the requisite quantity to accompany a tenth of an ephah of flour, and divides it into two parts. Half of the oil is used for the loaves, and half of the oil is used for the wafers.

ื•ื—ืœื•ืช ื‘ื•ืœืœืŸ ื•ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฉื— ืืช ื”ืจืงื™ืง ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ื•ืœื• ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ืžื—ื–ื™ืจื• ืœื—ืœื•ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื ืื›ืœ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

As for the loaves, he mixes them with the oil, and as for the wafers, he smears them. And he smears the oil on the wafer over the entire surface, not in the shape of the letter chi, and he returns the rest of the oil to mix into the loaves. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: He smears them in a shape similar to the letter chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by the priests.

ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ื”ื‘ืื™ื ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžืŸ ืžื‘ื™ื ืœื•ื’ ืฉืžืŸ ื•ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื•ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉื™ื›ืœื” ื›ืœ ืฉืžืŸ ืฉื‘ืœื•ื’ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืžื•ืฉื—ืŸ ื›ืžื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื•ืฉืืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ื ืื›ืœ ืœื›ื”ื ื™ื

It is taught in another baraita: In the case of ten wafers that come by themselves as a meal offering baked in the oven, and not as part of another offering, he brings a log of oil and smears them, and he again smears them repeatedly until all the oil in the log is finished. Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Shimon: He smears them in a shape similar to the letter chi, and the rest of the oil is eaten by the priests.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื”ื ืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื˜ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืคืชื™ืชื”

MISHNA: All the meal offerings that are prepared in a vessel require breaking into pieces.

ื’ืžืณ ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืžืื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืžืขื•ื˜ื™ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: To exclude what does the mishna state that this halakha applies specifically to meal offerings prepared in vessels? Rav Pappa said: The mishna serves to exclude the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves baked from new wheat, and the shewbread, the twelve loaves that were placed on the Table in the Sanctuary each Shabbat. Since these are baked in an oven and not prepared in vessels, they do not require breaking into pieces.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืชื•ืช ืืชื” ืคืชื™ื ืžื ื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœืคืชื™ืชื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉืื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ืฉืชื™ ื”ืœื—ื ื•ืœื—ื ื”ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชื”

ยง The Sages taught in a baraita that the verse discussing a meal offering prepared in a pan states: โ€œYou shall break it in pieces, and pour oil upon it; it is a meal offeringโ€ (Leviticus 2:6). The fact that the verse concludes with the phrase: โ€œIt is a meal offering,โ€ indicates that the Torah means to include all the meal offerings in the requirement of breaking into pieces. One might have thought that I should include even the two loaves and the shewbread. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYou shall break it in piecesโ€; i.e., the meal offering baked in a pan, but not the two loaves and the shewbread.

ื•ื™ืฆืงืช ืฉืžืŸ ืžื ื—ื” ืœืจื‘ื•ืช ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ื•ืช ืœื™ืฆื™ืงื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืฉืื ื™ ืžืจื‘ื” ืืฃ ืžื ื—ืช ืžืืคื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืขืœื™ื” ืฉืžืŸ

The baraita continues that the same verse states: โ€œAnd you shall pour oil upon it; it is a meal offering.โ€ The fact that the verse concludes with the phrase โ€œIt is a meal offeringโ€ indicates that the Torah means to include all the meal offerings in the requirement of pouring. One might have thought that I should include even the oven-baked meal offering. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd you shall pour oil upon it,โ€ i.e., upon this meal offering, but not upon the oven-baked meal offering.

ืื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ื—ืœื•ืช ื•ืœื ืื•ืฆื™ื ืืช ื”ืจืงื™ืงื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ื ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืื™ืžื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื

The baraita concludes: Perhaps I should exclude only the loaves from the requirement of pouring, but I should not exclude the wafers. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œIt is a meal offering,โ€ indicating that wafers are also excluded. The Gemara asks: What is the biblical derivation, by which the term โ€œitโ€ excludes wafers specifically? Perhaps I will say: The term serves to exclude the meal offering of priests from the requirement of pouring.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืฉื ื™ ืžื™ืขื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื• ืžื ื—ืช ืžืืคื”

Rabba says: This is the reason that wafers are also excluded from the mitzva of pouring, while a meal offering brought by a priest is not excluded: The verse uses two expressions of exclusion: โ€œUpon it,โ€ and: โ€œIt is a meal offering.โ€ What is the matter that requires two exclusions? You must say: It is the oven-baked meal offering, of which there are two types of offerings: Wafers and loaves.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžื ื—ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืื™ื ื• ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืžื™ืฆื” ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืงืžื™ืฆื” ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคื•ืชืชืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืชื™ื

MISHNA: In breaking the meal offering of an Israelite into pieces, the priest folds [kofel] one into two and two into four and separates it at the folds. In breaking into pieces the meal offering of priests, the priest folds one into two and two into four and does not separate it at the folds. Because no handful is removed, separation is unnecessary. In the case of the griddle-cake meal offering of the anointed priest, he would not fold it. Rabbi Shimon says: In neither the meal offering of priests nor the meal offering of the anointed priest is there breaking into pieces, because in those meal offerings there is no removal of a handful. And any meal offering in which there is no removal of a handful there is no breaking into pieces. And in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, the priest breaks them into olive-bulk-sized pieces.

ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืคืชื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœืฉื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืคืชื™ื ืื™ ืคืชื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืขืฉื ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืืชื” ืื•ืชื” ืœืคืชื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ืคืชื™ืชื” ืœืคืชื™ืชื™ื

GEMARA: With regard to the difference between the meal offering of an Israelite and that of a priest detailed in the mishna, the Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: โ€œYou shall break it in piecesโ€ (Leviticus 2:6). One might have thought that it should be broken into only two pieces. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œBreak it in pieces,โ€ indicating that each of these two pieces is subsequently broken into more pieces. If the Torah requires pieces, one might have thought that he should repeatedly break it into pieces until he renders it into crumbs. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œBreak it,โ€ i.e., break it in pieces, and do not break its pieces into additional pieces.

ื”ื ื›ื™ืฆื“ ืžื ื—ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืงื•ืคืœ ืื—ื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื•ืฉื ื™ื ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืžื‘ื“ื™ืœ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ื•ื›ื•ืณ ื•ื”ื ืื ืŸ ืชื ืŸ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืงืคืœื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ืื™ื ื• ืžืงืคืœื” ืœืืจื‘ืขื” ืื‘ืœ ืžืงืคืœื” ืœืฉื ื™ื

How so? In the case of the meal offering of an Israelite, the priest folds one into two and two into four and separates the pieces. In breaking into pieces the meal offering of priests and the anointed priest, the priest folds it into two, as it is stated: โ€œIn broken pieces you shall sacrifice the offeringโ€ (Leviticus 6:14). The Gemara asks: With regard to the meal offering of the anointed priest, didnโ€™t we learn in the mishna: He would not fold it? Rabba says: He does not fold it into four, as it does not use the doubled phrase: โ€œYou shall break it in pieces [patot otah pitim],โ€ but he does fold it into two.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ื ื™ื ื•ืžื ื—ืช ื›ื”ืŸ ืžืฉื™ื— ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืื™ ื—ื‘ื™ืฆื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืœื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืื™ ืœื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืžื‘ืจื›ื™ื ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื‘ื•ืจื ืžื™ื ื™ ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช

The mishna teaches: Rabbi Shimon says: In neither the meal offering of priests nor the meal offering of the anointed priest is there breaking into piecesโ€ฆand in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, one breaks them into olive-bulk pieces. Rav Yosef said: Over this cooked dish, which contains pieces of bread that are the size of an olive-bulk, before eating it one recites upon it the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Over that same cooked dish, if it does not contain pieces of bread that are the size of an olive-bulk, before eating it one recites upon it the blessing of: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžื ื ืืžื™ื ื ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื•ืžืงืจื™ื‘ ืžื ื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืจื•ืฉืœื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืฉื”ื—ื™ื™ื ื• ื•ืงื™ืžื ื• ื ื˜ืœืŸ ืœืื›ืœืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื ืœื—ื ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ื•ืชื ืŸ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืคืชื™ืชื™ื ื‘ื›ื–ื™ืช

Rav Yosef said: From where do I say this halakha? As it is taught in a baraita: The first time an Israelite would stand and instruct a priest to sacrifice meal offerings in Jerusalem on his behalf, he would recite: Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has given us life and sustained us and brought us to this time, as it is the first time that the Israelite fulfills the mitzva of bringing that offering. Following the removal of the handful, when the priest would take the meal offerings in order to eat them, he would first recite the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. And we learned in the mishna: And in all meal offerings that are broken into pieces, the priest breaks them into pieces the size of an olive-bulk. This proves that over pieces of bread that are the volume of an olive-bulk, one recites the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ืœืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคืจื›ืŸ ืขื“ ืฉืžื—ื–ื™ืจืŸ ืœืกืœืชืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื“ืœื ืžื‘ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืฆื™ื

Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But according to the tanna of the school of Rabbi Yishmael, who said with regard to meal offerings: He crushes them continuously until he restores them to the form they had when they were flour, would you say that so too, in that case, one who eats a meal offering so prepared does not recite the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth?

ื•ื›ื™ ืชื™ืžื ื”ื›ื™ ื ืžื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืœื™ืงื˜ ืžื›ื•ืœืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ื•ืื›ืœื• ืื ื—ืžืฅ ื”ื•ื ืขื ื•ืฉ ื›ืจืช ืื ืžืฆื” ื”ื•ื ืื“ื ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื”ืŸ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื•ื‘ืชื• ื‘ืคืกื—

And if you would say that indeed, one does not recite that blessing over these meal offerings, that is difficult: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: With regard to one who gathered a portion the volume of an olive-bulk from all of the crumbs of the meal offerings and ate it, if it was an offering of leavened bread like that of a thanks offering, and he ate it on Passover, his act is punishable by karet. If it was an offering of unleavened bread, a person fulfills his obligation to eat matza on Passover through the consumption of those pieces. This indicates that pieces of bread, regardless of their volume, are always considered bread.

ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจืกืŸ

Rav Yosef answered him that this is not the halakha, and one does not recite a blessing over crumbs of bread as he would over actual bread. Rather, what are we dealing with here? We are dealing with a case where one kneaded the crumbs of bread together and pressed them [besheโ€™eirsan] into a single mass.

ืื™ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ืงืชื ื™ ืขืœื” ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืื›ืœืŸ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืื›ื™ืœืช ืคืจืก ื•ืื™ ื‘ืฉืขื™ืจืกืŸ ืฉืื›ืœื• ืžื™ื‘ืขื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ื”ื›ื ื‘ืžืื™ ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื ืžืœื—ื ื’ื“ื•ืœ

The Gemara challenges this: If so, that which is taught about the ruling in the baraita: And this is the halakha when he ate all of the crumbs that constitute the volume of an olive-bulk in the time it takes to eat a half-loaf [peras] of bread, is difficult. As, if it is a case where he pressed them into a single mass, the baraita should have taught: When he ate it, in the singular, as it is a single item. Rather, what are we dealing with here? We are dealing with a case where the crumbs came from a large loaf of bread. Although the crumbs themselves are each smaller than an olive-bulk, since they were broken from a large loaf, they are considered significant.

ืžืื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœื” ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ืคื™ืจื•ืจื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืŸ ื›ื–ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ื”ื•ื ื“ืื™ื›ื ืชื•ืจื™ืชื ื“ื ื”ืžื ืขืœื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: With regard to the blessing recited on the cooked dish with pieces less than an olive-bulk in volume, what halakhic conclusion was reached about it? Rav Sheshet says: Even when eating pieces of bread that do not have the volume of an olive-bulk, one recites the blessing of: Who brings forth bread from the earth. Rava said: And this is limited to a case where the crumbs still have the appearance [torita] of bread, and they did not dissolve completely.

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