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Daf Yomi

January 24, 2022 | ื›ืดื‘ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

Moed Katan 12

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Judith Weil in loving memory of Rabbi Simcha Krauss who passed away this past Thursday. โ€œA gadol hador who believed history will judge us on the issue of Agunot and so devoted his life and extraordinary knowledge and abilities to ameliorate their plight. Yehi zichro baruch.โ€

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored anonymously to show love and support for women undergoing IVF.ย 

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If gentiles do work for a Jew on Yom Tov or Shabbat as a contract worker (one who gets paid for the job not per hour), they can do it only if the property is outside of techum Shabbat as otherwise people will think the Jew hired them as day workers on Shabbat. This is only if there is no other city right nearby that is inhabited by Jews. But on chol hamoed, since Jews can travel beyond the techum, it is forbidden even outside the techum. Several cases are brought where rabbis were stringent as they felt that since others look up to them, they have to keep to a higher standard. Several times the Gemara brings this to explain why someone was stringent when the halakha permitted it. If one gets paid for work on chol hamoed, then that work should not be done. One can give items to a gentile worker who is working as a contract worker in order for it to be returned after the holiday. One cannot mate animals on chol hamoed but can put them in an enclosed area, hoping they will mate. One cannot enclose animals in a field in order to fertilize the field on Shabbat, Yom Tov or chol hamoed. If one has a gentile shepherd, one cannot send the gentile any gentile workers to help. If the gentile works for the week/month/year, then one can send him workers to help. The Mishna brings a parallel case to the previous Mishna regarding a wine press instead of an olive press. Why are both necessary? Rav said that laws of chol hamoed are so complicated as the cases are very specific and it is hard to know what general rules can be learned from them. They are also compared to laws of Shabbat as many things are permitted and yet forbidden. A number of rabbis harvested their fields even though it says in a braita that one cannot deal with crops that are attached to the ground. How is this resolved? One can grind for the purposes of the holiday. Can one “pretend” that one needs more even if one does not really? What if there just happens to be extra? One can cut a palm tree even if one only needs the sawdust, however Abaye cursed anyone who did this. A story regarding Rav Ashi who did this is brought in the Gemara. One can bring in fruits to protect from theft and other items to protect from getting ruined, as long as one did not delay this in order to do it specifically on the holiday. This, however can only be done privately, which means during the day and not at night. Why is daytime considered more private?

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืืกื•ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ


ยง Shmuel said: With regard to gentile contractors, who are paid for the completed job rather than by the day, it is prohibited for them to work for a Jew within the boundaries of the Shabbat limit on a day that it is prohibited for the Jew to work. It looks like the Jew assigned work for them to do on that day, even though they in fact make their own schedule. Outside the Shabbat limit, where Jews will not see the work being done, it is permitted.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Pappa said: And even outside the Shabbat limit, we said only that it is permissible to let them work when there is no other city in close proximity to there, but if there is another city in close proximity to there, it is prohibited, since the work is likely to be seen by a Jew.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืœื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ืœื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ืœื”ืชื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ื•ืืชื• ืœื”ืชื ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Mesharshiyya said: And even when there is no other city in close proximity, we said that it is permissible for gentile contractors to work for a Jew only on Shabbatot and Festivals, when Jewish people do not routinely go there, i.e., to the place where the work is being performed. However, on the intermediate days of a Festival, when Jewish people routinely come and go from there and see the work being done, it is prohibited.


ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืœื™ื” ืืคื“ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืจื‘ ืกืคืจื ื•ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื•ืœื ืขืœื• ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืขืœ ื‘ื’ื•ื•ื™ื”


The Gemara relates about Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naแธฅman, that gentile contractors built a mansion [apadana] for him outside the Shabbat limit. Rav Safra and Rav Huna bar แธคinnana happened to come there, but they did not enter it, because it had been built on Shabbat in a prohibited manner. And there are those who say: Even he, Mar Zutra himself, did not enter it.


ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืืกื•ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืกื™ื•ืขื™ ืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื™ื”ื•


The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Shmuel say: With regard to gentile contractors, within the boundaries of the Shabbat limit, it is prohibited to let them work on Shabbat, but outside the Shabbat limit it is permitted? The Gemara answers: An important person is different and must behave in a stricter manner. And there are those who say: He provided them with assistance with straw for making the bricks. Consequently, they were not fully independent contractors, and therefore it was prohibited for them to work on Shabbat, even outside the Shabbat limit.


ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืื‘ื•ื ื’ืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœื”ื• ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื’ืจ ืœื ืงื ืฉืงืœื™ ืฉืจืฉื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืฉืจืฉื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


The Gemara relates that Rav แธคama permitted the bath attendants [abunagrei] of the Exilarchโ€™s house to work for them, i.e., the Exilarch and his household, on the intermediate days of a Festival. He said in explanation of this leniency: Since they do not take payment for working during the week of the Festival, they are merely conferring a favor on the Exilarch. Therefore, it is not viewed as actual labor, and we have no problem with it.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื›ืœืœื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ืื™ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืœื ื™ืฉืงื•ืœ ื•ืฉืœื ื™ืžื ื” ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ


The Sages taught in a baraita: Gentiles may receive contract work on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to execute it after the Festival, but it is prohibited to execute it during the Festival week itself. The principle of the matter is: Any action that a Jew may perform himself, he may tell a gentile to perform, and any action that he may not perform himself, he may not tell a gentile to perform. It is taught in another baraita: A gentile may receive contract work on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to execute it after the Festival, provided that he does not measure, weigh, or count, in order to plan the work, in the same manner as he does on an ordinary weekday.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืคืกื•ืœื™ ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืฉื™ืŸ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not breed an animal, i.e., coax or compel a male to mate with a female, on the intermediate days of a Festival, as this is similar to prohibited labor. Similarly, one may not breed a firstborn animal, nor an unfit consecrated animal. It is prohibited to ever work these animals because of their sanctified status, and breeding them resembles working them.


ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืฉืชื‘ืขื” ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื–ื›ืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืฆื˜ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื•ืช ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœื‘ืงืจื•ืช


It is taught in another baraita: One may not breed an animal on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: If a she-donkey yearns for a mate because she is in heat, one may breed her with a male, lest she cool off, i.e., lest her estrus cycle pass without her mating, which will cause a significant loss. With regard to all other animals that are in heat, they are merely brought into corrals in which there are males, there being no need for further human intervention.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื ื‘ืื• ืžืืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not enclose livestock in particular areas of a field, in order to fertilize that area with their manure, on Shabbatot, or on Festivals, or on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if the animals came on their own to the field, it is permitted, and he need not remove them although he benefits from their manure.


ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ืžืจ ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ืฆืื ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ืžืจ ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ืฆืื ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™:


The baraita continues: And one may not assist gentile shepherds in pasturing their sheep in his field so that it will be fertilized, nor may one provide them with a shepherd to help herd their sheep all around the field so that it is completely fertilized. If the gentile shepherds were hired by the week, by the month, by the year, or by the septennial period, i.e., the seven years from one Sabbatical Year to the next, one may assist them and provide them with a shepherd to herd their sheep. Since they were hired for an extended period of time, it is not as though they were hired specifically for Shabbat or the Festival. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: On Shabbat one may have the gentile pasture the sheep in oneโ€™s field as a favor, i.e. in order to earn oneโ€™s good graces, but not for pay; on a Festival, it is permitted even in exchange for food; and on the intermediate days of the Festival, it is permitted for pay. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืื™ืจืขื• ืื‘ืœ ืื• ืื•ื ืก ืื• ืฉื”ื˜ืขื•ื”ื• ื–ื•ืœืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืžืจ ื•ื’ืฃ ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ืฉื” ืœื• ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ื™ื—ืžื™ืฅ:


MISHNA: And similarly, with regard to one whose wine was already in the collection pit beside the wine press and needed to be removed lest it sour, and mourning for some close relative or some other unavoidable accident befell him, or his workers misled him, promising to come but failing to do so, during the intermediate days of the Festival he may draw off the wine and complete the process, and then plug each barrel of wine in its usual manner; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: He should construct a wooden panel to cover the collection pit so that the wine will not sour.


ื’ืžืณ ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžื™ืฉื—ื ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื—ืžืจื ื“ืœื ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ืš ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื


GEMARA: The Gemara comments: And both this mishna and the previous one (11b), about the olive press, are necessary, as, if the tanna teaches us only the first mishna, one might say that only in that case does Rabbi Yosei say that one is permitted to complete the process, because in the case of oil, the potential loss is considerable. However, in the case of wine, where the loss is not as considerable, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yehuda that it must be done in an altered manner. And if he teaches us only the last mishna, one might say that only in that case involving wine did Rabbi Yehuda say that one must be stringent, but in the other case involving oil one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yosei and is lenient. Therefore, it is necessary to teach both cases.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืื‘ื“ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Abba said: Who is the tanna who teaches that labor performed during the intermediate days of the Festival must be performed in an altered fashion even with regard to a matter that, if unattended, will result in significant loss? That ruling is not in accordance with Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s opinion, as Rabbi Yosei permits one to perform labor that will prevent such a loss even in the usual manner. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and it is permitted in cases of loss to perform labor in the usual manner.


ื‘ืขื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื• ืœืžื™ืฉืข ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืกื™ื ื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื‘ืฉื™ื›ืจื ืžื™ ืืžืจ


The students asked of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: What is the halakha with regard to sealing a barrel of beer during the intermediate days of the Festival? If it is not properly sealed, the beer will leak out through the sides of the barrel. He said to them: Sinai, i.e., Rav Yosef, said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. They asked: Say that Rabbi Yosei said that one may be lenient about wine, but about beer does he say the same thing? Beer is much cheaper than wine, and the loss would be much less significant.


ื—ืžืจื ื˜ืขืžื ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื ืžื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคืกื™ื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืช ืกืื•ื™ ื•ืฉื™ื™ืข ืžื‘ืจ ืชืžื ื™ ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื™ืข


The Gemara explains why no distinction should be made: With regard to wine, what is the reason that Rabbi Yosei was lenient? It is because the loss involved is considerable; with beer as well, there is a loss if the barrel is not properly sealed, as Abaye said: My foster mother told me: It is better to have a barrel of six seโ€™a that is sealed than a barrel of eight seโ€™a that is not sealed, as in the end more beer will remain in the smaller sealed barrel than in the larger unsealed one.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ื’ื•ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ืชื™ื ื‘ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ื ื™ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืงื˜ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืŸ ืขืงื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ื“ื•ืช ื–ื• ืžื–ื•


ยง Rav แธคama bar Gurya said that Rav said: The halakhot relating to the intermediate days of a Festival resemble the halakhot relating to the Samaritans in the halakha. The Gemara asks: With regard to what aspect of the halakha are they similar? Rav Daniel bar Ketina said that Rav said: He meant to convey that they are sterile, and one may not learn further halakhot by extrapolation one from one another in both of these areas of halakha.


ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื–ืชื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื–ืชื ืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืœืคืกื™ื“ื ื•ืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืœื˜ื™ืจื—ื


The Gemara offers an example: For instance, Shmuel said: One may seal a jug with pitch, but one may not seal a barrel with pitch on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rav Dimi from Nehardeโ€™a said: One may seal a barrel with pitch, but one may not seal a small jug with pitch. Their reasoning is as follows: This Sage, i.e., Rav Dimi, was more concerned about possible financial loss, and so he permitted sealing the larger vessel, for which the potential for loss is great, but not the smaller one. And this Sage, i.e., Shmuel was concerned about unnecessary exertion on the Festival, and therefore he permitted sealing the smaller vessel, which requires less effort.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื˜ื™ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืช


Abaye stated a different principle: We have a tradition that the halakhot of the intermediate days of a Festival are like the halakhot of Shabbat:


ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ืชื—ืœื”


Some of the actions for which one is exempt by Torah law are nevertheless prohibited, and some of them are permitted ab initio.


ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืฆื“ื• ืœื™ื” ื—ืฆื“ื ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื˜ื•ื—ื ื™ืŸ ืงืžื— ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ


ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Huna had his crop harvested for him on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabba bar Rav Huna raised an objection to his father Rav Huna from a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. With regard to a matter that, if unattended, will result in significant loss on the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent that loss on the intermediate days of the Festival. For a matter that will not result in loss if unattended during the intermediate days of the Festival, it is prohibited to perform labor.


ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืชืœื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื” ื™ืื›ืœ ืงื•ืฆืจ ื•ืžืขืžืจ ื•ื“ืฉ ื•ื–ื•ืจื” ื•ื‘ื•ืจืจ ื•ื˜ื•ื—ืŸ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืคืจื•ืช


In what case is this statement said? In the case of crops that are already detached from the ground, but in the case of crops that are still attached to the ground, even if it all will be lost, labor is prohibited during the intermediate days of the Festival. And if one does not have anything to eat, then he may reap and bind sheaves, and thresh, and winnow the grain in the wind, and separate the grain from the chaff, and grind the grain into flour, provided that he does not thresh with cows, the way that threshing is performed on an ordinary weekday. Why, then, did Rav Huna, who certainly had enough to eat, allow his workers to reap the field during the Festival week?


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœืŸ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ืœืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืงืฆืชื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Huna said to his son: The opinion expressed in this unattributed baraita is an individual opinion, and we do not hold in accordance with it; as it is taught in a different baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel stated a principle in the name of Rabbi Yosei: In the case of an item that is already detached from the ground, even if only a portion of it will be lost by not working during the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent the loss, whereas for crops that are still attached to the ground, even if all of them will be lost, it is prohibited to perform labor for them. The opinion that all labor is prohibited for crops that have not yet been harvested is the opinion of an individual authority, Rabbi Yosei, with whom the Rabbis disagree.


ื•ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืคืจื•ืช ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืื‘ื“ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


The Gemara asks: But if the unattributed baraita reflects the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and it is permitted to work when one has nothing to eat, let him thresh even with cows. Didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Abba say: Who is the tanna who taught that labor performed on the intermediate days of a Festival must be done in an altered manner even with regard to a matter that will involve a loss if unattended? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei does not require altering the manner in which one performs the labor. Why, then, does the baraita say that the threshing must be done in an altered manner and not with cows?


ืืžืจ ืœืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ืœืื• ื‘ืคืจื•ืช ื“ื™ื™ืฉื™ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืžื™ ืœืื• ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื


The Gemara rejects this argument: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Here, too, since one does not always thresh with cows, threshing without them now on the intermediate days of the Festival is also not considered threshing in an altered manner. The prohibition against threshing with cows is not because one must perform that labor in an altered manner but in order to avoid attracting public attention to the fact that one is working during the Festival week.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ื•ื—ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ื˜ื—ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืงื•ืฆืฆื™ืŸ ืขืฆื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ืงืฆืฅ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he ground and left some flour over, it is permitted for use after the Festival. Similarly, one may cut down trees on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival it is prohibited. And if he cut down trees for the Festival and left some wood over, it is permitted for use after the Festival.


ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืขืจื™ื


The baraita continues: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he brewed beer for the sake of the Festival and left some over, it is permitted for use after the Festival provided that he does not employ an artifice, exploiting the allowance to work on a Festival by knowingly making more than was needed.


ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื• ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ืจ ืชืžืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื™ืฉืŸ ืžืขืจื™ื ื•ืฉื•ืชื” ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืขืจื™ืžื™ืŸ


The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. This applies both to date beer and to barley beer. And even though he has old beer, he may employ an artifice and drink from the new beer, i.e., he may say he prefers new beer and brew a new batch, although he has enough old beer for the Festival. This statement contradicts the previous baraita that prohibited circumventing the prohibition against labor through artifice. The Gemara answers: This matter is a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: One may not employ an artifice in this regard, i.e., to circumvent the prohibition against labor during the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may employ an artifice.


ืจื‘ ื—ืฆื“ื• ืœื™ื” ื—ืฆื“ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืฉืžืข ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื™ืงืคื“ ืœื™ืžื ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ืœื ื—ืฆื“ื ื“ื—ื™ื˜ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืคืกื™ื“


ยง The Gemara relates that Rav had his crop harvested on the intermediate days of a Festival. Shmuel heard about this and was dismayed. The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Shmuel holds in accordance with the individual opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who prohibits all labor for crops that are attached to the ground, even if inattention will result in significant loss? The Gemara answers: No, it was a crop of wheat, which would not have been ruined had the harvest been pushed off a week, and therefore Shmuel was offended.


ื•ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื” ื™ืื›ืœ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืกื™ื™ืžื•ื” ืงืžื™ื” ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rav acted in this manner? The Gemara answers: Rav is in the category of one who does not have anything to eat, and that is why it was permitted to harvest his crops. The Gemara asks: And why, then, did Shmuel disapprove? The Gemara explains: The people who reported Ravโ€™s actions to Shmuel did not complete the story for him. Alternatively, an important person such as Rav is different, and Shmuel thought Rav should have been stringent even in his difficult circumstances.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืฉื™ืื” ื ืคืง ื‘ื—ื•ืžืจืชื ื“ืžื“ื•ืฉื ื•ืืฉืชื™ ืžื™ื ื“ืื—ื™ื ืงืคื™ืœื ืืจืžืื” ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ืงืคื“ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื—ื•ืžืจืชื ื“ืžื“ื•ืฉื ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ื”ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ื”ื ื–ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ


It was further related that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia once went out on Shabbat with a coral seal [แธฅumreta] on his ring and drank water heated by a gentile cook. Rabbi Ami heard about this and was dismayed about both things. Rav Yosef said: What is the reason that he was dismayed? If it was because of the coral seal, isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Bracelets, nose rings, and rings are like all other utensils that may be carried in a courtyard? Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda Nesiaโ€™s action conformed to halakha.


ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืฉืชื™ ืžื™ื ื“ืื—ื™ื ืงืคื™ืœื ืืจืžืื” ื”ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ืฉื ืื›ืœ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ื™ืฉื•ืœื™ ื’ื•ื™ื ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™


And if Rabbi Ami was dismayed because Rabbi Yehuda Nesia drank water heated by a gentile cook [kapeila], didnโ€™t Shmuel bar Yitzแธฅak say that Rav said: With regard to anything that is eaten raw, like water, even if it was cooked by a gentile, it is not subject to the prohibition against eating food cooked by gentiles? The Gemara resolves both difficulties: An important person is different, and Rabbi Ami believed that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia should have been more stringent.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงื•ืฆืฅ ืื“ื ื“ืงืœ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืœื ืœื ืกื•ืจืช ืฉืœื• ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™


Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival, although he needs only its sawdust. The Gemara comments: Abaye cursed it, i.e., the behavior of one who exerts such effort on the Festival for so small a need.


ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื ื‘ืฉืœื ื™ื™ื ืื–ืœ ืœืžื™ืงืฆื™ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืฉืœื ื™ื™ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžืื™ ื“ืขืชื™ืš ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงื•ืฆืฅ ืื“ื ื“ืงืœ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืœื ืœื ืกื•ืจืช ืฉืœื• ื”ื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ ืื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ื ืจื’ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืคืกืงื™ื” ืœืฉืงื™ื” ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืืชื


The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi had a forest [ava] in Shelaniya. He went to cut it down on the intermediate days of the Festival. Rav Sheila from Shelaniya said to Rav Ashi: What is your opinion about what you are doing? Do you rely on that which Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival even though he needs only its sawdust? Didnโ€™t Abaye curse such behavior? Rav Ashi said to him: I did not hear that Abaye said that; that is to say, in a delicate way, I do not hold in accordance with his opinion. The iron of Rav Ashiโ€™s ax then slipped and was about to cut off his leg. He left it, ceasing his chopping, and came back again to chop down the forest only after the Festival.


ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืจื ืœืžื™ืขืงืจ ื›ื™ืชื ื ื•ืœืžื™ืงื˜ืœ ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœืžื™ืขืงืจ ืฉื•ืžืฉืžื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื›ื™ืชื ื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื—ืคื™ืคื” ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืœืฉื™ื›ืจื ืืœื ืฉื•ืžืฉืžื™ ืœืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื ื–ื™ื™ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื”ื•


The Gemara relates that Rav Yehuda permitted uprooting flax, cutting hops, and uprooting sesame plants on the intermediate days of a Festival. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Granted, this is reasonable in the case of flax, which is suitable for use as a cover [แธฅafifa] for various objects and therefore has a use even during the Festival, and so too hops, which are suitable for making beer, but for what are sesame plants suitable, since the sesame seeds require a long drying period before oil can be extracted from them? Rav Yosef said to him: They are suitable for the seeds [nazyei] on them, which can be consumed immediately.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืคืจื“ื™ืกื ื“ืžื˜ื ื–ืžื ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืงื˜ืคื™ื” ืœืฉื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื•ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืœืคืจื“ื™ืกื™ื™ื”ื• ืœื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืคืงืจื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืœืคืจื“ื™ืกื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืฉืชื:


It was further mentioned that Rabbi Yannai had an orchard whose time for harvesting the fruit arrived during the intermediate days of the Festival. He harvested it during the Festival, as the fruit would otherwise have spoiled. The following year, everyone delayed the harvest of their orchards until the intermediate days of the Festival. Rabbi Yannai declared the earnings from his orchard ownerless that year, since his harvesting of his fruit provided a misleading example for the public, causing many people to adopt an inappropriate leniency.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžื›ื ื™ืก ืื“ื ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืฉื•ืœื” ืคืฉืชื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉืจื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืื‘ื“ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื ื›ื•ื•ื ื• ืžืœืื›ืชืŸ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื™ืื‘ื“ื•:


MISHNA: A person may bring his fruit in from the field on the intermediate days of the Festival because he is concerned about thieves, and he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to perform his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to all of these cases, if one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be lost and no benefit may be derived from it.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื ื™ืกื ื‘ืฆื ืขื ืœืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื•


GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that one may bring in crops out of concern for thieves, provided that he brings them into his house discreetly.


ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉื•ืจื™ ืขื™ื™ืœื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื


The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef had wooden beams, which he brought into his house during the day on one of the intermediate days of a Festival.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื ื™ืกื ื‘ืฆื ืขื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฆื ืขื ื“ื”ื ื™ ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืขื• ื’ื‘ืจื ื™ืชื™ืจื™ ื•ื‘ืขื• ืžื“ื•ื›ืจื™ ื“ื ื•ืจื ืื•ื•ืฉื ืžื™ืœืชื:


Abaye said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One may bring in items provided that he brings them into his house discreetly? Rav Yosef said to him: Discretion with respect to these beams is moving them during the day, since at night more people are required, and also torchbearers [medokhrei denura] are needed, and the matter would be more noticeable.


ื•ืฉื•ืœื” ืคืฉืชื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉืจื” ื›ื•ืณ: ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืœืื›ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืžืช ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื ืกื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืื—ืจื™ื•


The mishna states: And he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to do his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to anyone, if he planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be destroyed. Rabbi Yirmeya asked Rabbi Zeira: If one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of a Festival, and he died after doing so, what is the halakha? Should his children be penalized after him and have to lose the products of their fatherโ€™s labor?


ืื ืชื™ืžืฆื™ ืœื•ืžืจ


Even if you might say that


This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

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Moed Katan 12

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Moed Katan 12

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืืกื•ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ


ยง Shmuel said: With regard to gentile contractors, who are paid for the completed job rather than by the day, it is prohibited for them to work for a Jew within the boundaries of the Shabbat limit on a day that it is prohibited for the Jew to work. It looks like the Jew assigned work for them to do on that day, even though they in fact make their own schedule. Outside the Shabbat limit, where Jews will not see the work being done, it is permitted.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ืื‘ืœ ืื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Pappa said: And even outside the Shabbat limit, we said only that it is permissible to let them work when there is no other city in close proximity to there, but if there is another city in close proximity to there, it is prohibited, since the work is likely to be seen by a Jew.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื•ื›ื™ ืœื™ื›ื ืžืชื ื“ืžืงืจื‘ื ืœื”ืชื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื“ืœื ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ืœื”ืชื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ืื™ื ืฉื™ ื“ืื–ืœื™ ื•ืืชื• ืœื”ืชื ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Mesharshiyya said: And even when there is no other city in close proximity, we said that it is permissible for gentile contractors to work for a Jew only on Shabbatot and Festivals, when Jewish people do not routinely go there, i.e., to the place where the work is being performed. However, on the intermediate days of a Festival, when Jewish people routinely come and go from there and see the work being done, it is prohibited.


ืžืจ ื–ื•ื˜ืจื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืœื™ื” ืืคื“ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืจื‘ ืกืคืจื ื•ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื™ื ื ื ื•ืœื ืขืœื• ืœื’ื‘ื™ื” ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื”ื•ื ื ืžื™ ืœื ืขืœ ื‘ื’ื•ื•ื™ื”


The Gemara relates about Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naแธฅman, that gentile contractors built a mansion [apadana] for him outside the Shabbat limit. Rav Safra and Rav Huna bar แธคinnana happened to come there, but they did not enter it, because it had been built on Shabbat in a prohibited manner. And there are those who say: Even he, Mar Zutra himself, did not enter it.


ื•ื”ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ืชื—ื•ื ืืกื•ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืชื—ื•ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™ ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืกื™ื•ืขื™ ืกื™ื™ืข ื‘ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื™ื”ื•


The Gemara asks: But didnโ€™t Shmuel say: With regard to gentile contractors, within the boundaries of the Shabbat limit, it is prohibited to let them work on Shabbat, but outside the Shabbat limit it is permitted? The Gemara answers: An important person is different and must behave in a stricter manner. And there are those who say: He provided them with assistance with straw for making the bricks. Consequently, they were not fully independent contractors, and therefore it was prohibited for them to work on Shabbat, even outside the Shabbat limit.


ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœืื‘ื•ื ื’ืจื™ ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ืœืžื™ืขื‘ื“ ืœื”ื• ืขื‘ื™ื“ืชื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื’ืจ ืœื ืงื ืฉืงืœื™ ืฉืจืฉื•ื™ื™ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ืžืฉืจืฉื• ืœื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


The Gemara relates that Rav แธคama permitted the bath attendants [abunagrei] of the Exilarchโ€™s house to work for them, i.e., the Exilarch and his household, on the intermediate days of a Festival. He said in explanation of this leniency: Since they do not take payment for working during the week of the Festival, they are merely conferring a favor on the Exilarch. Therefore, it is not viewed as actual labor, and we have no problem with it.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื›ืœืœื• ืฉืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ื›ืœ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืขื•ืฉื” ืื™ื ื• ืื•ืžืจ ืœื’ื•ื™ ื•ืขื•ืฉื” ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืžืงื‘ืœื™ืŸ ืงื™ื‘ื•ืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืžื“ื•ื“ ื•ืฉืœื ื™ืฉืงื•ืœ ื•ืฉืœื ื™ืžื ื” ื›ื“ืจืš ืฉื”ื•ื ืขื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœ


The Sages taught in a baraita: Gentiles may receive contract work on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to execute it after the Festival, but it is prohibited to execute it during the Festival week itself. The principle of the matter is: Any action that a Jew may perform himself, he may tell a gentile to perform, and any action that he may not perform himself, he may not tell a gentile to perform. It is taught in another baraita: A gentile may receive contract work on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to execute it after the Festival, provided that he does not measure, weigh, or count, in order to plan the work, in the same manner as he does on an ordinary weekday.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื‘ื›ื•ืจ ื•ืœื ื‘ืคืกื•ืœื™ ื”ืžื•ืงื“ืฉื™ืŸ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not breed an animal, i.e., coax or compel a male to mate with a female, on the intermediate days of a Festival, as this is similar to prohibited labor. Similarly, one may not breed a firstborn animal, nor an unfit consecrated animal. It is prohibited to ever work these animals because of their sanctified status, and breeding them resembles working them.


ืชื ื™ื ืื™ื“ืš ืื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ืžื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื—ืžื•ืจื” ืฉืชื‘ืขื” ืžืจื‘ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ื–ื›ืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืฆื˜ื ืŸ ื•ืฉืืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื‘ื”ืžื•ืช ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ืœื‘ืงืจื•ืช


It is taught in another baraita: One may not breed an animal on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yehuda says: If a she-donkey yearns for a mate because she is in heat, one may breed her with a male, lest she cool off, i.e., lest her estrus cycle pass without her mating, which will cause a significant loss. With regard to all other animals that are in heat, they are merely brought into corrals in which there are males, there being no need for further human intervention.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื™ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืœื ื‘ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื ื‘ืื• ืžืืœื™ื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may not enclose livestock in particular areas of a field, in order to fertilize that area with their manure, on Shabbatot, or on Festivals, or on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if the animals came on their own to the field, it is permitted, and he need not remove them although he benefits from their manure.


ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ืžืจ ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ืฆืื ื ื”ื™ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื›ื™ืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื ื” ืฉื›ื™ืจ ืฉื‘ื•ืข ืžืกื™ื™ืขื™ืŸ ืื•ืชืŸ ื•ืžื•ืกืจื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ืžืจ ืœื ืขืจ ืืช ืฆืื ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ื‘ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ืฉื›ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืจื‘ื™:


The baraita continues: And one may not assist gentile shepherds in pasturing their sheep in his field so that it will be fertilized, nor may one provide them with a shepherd to help herd their sheep all around the field so that it is completely fertilized. If the gentile shepherds were hired by the week, by the month, by the year, or by the septennial period, i.e., the seven years from one Sabbatical Year to the next, one may assist them and provide them with a shepherd to herd their sheep. Since they were hired for an extended period of time, it is not as though they were hired specifically for Shabbat or the Festival. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: On Shabbat one may have the gentile pasture the sheep in oneโ€™s field as a favor, i.e. in order to earn oneโ€™s good graces, but not for pay; on a Festival, it is permitted even in exchange for food; and on the intermediate days of the Festival, it is permitted for pay. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ื•ื›ืŸ ืžื™ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื™ื™ื ื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ื”ื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืื™ืจืขื• ืื‘ืœ ืื• ืื•ื ืก ืื• ืฉื”ื˜ืขื•ื”ื• ื–ื•ืœืฃ ื•ื’ื•ืžืจ ื•ื’ืฃ ื›ื“ืจื›ื• ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ืฉื” ืœื• ืœื™ืžื•ื“ื™ื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ื™ื—ืžื™ืฅ:


MISHNA: And similarly, with regard to one whose wine was already in the collection pit beside the wine press and needed to be removed lest it sour, and mourning for some close relative or some other unavoidable accident befell him, or his workers misled him, promising to come but failing to do so, during the intermediate days of the Festival he may draw off the wine and complete the process, and then plug each barrel of wine in its usual manner; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei. Rabbi Yehuda says: He should construct a wooden panel to cover the collection pit so that the wine will not sour.


ื’ืžืณ ื•ืฆืจื™ื›ื ื“ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืžื™ืฉื—ื ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื—ืžืจื ื“ืœื ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื™ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื•ืื™ ืืฉืžืขื™ื ืŸ ื‘ืชืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื”ื”ื™ื ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื”ืš ืื™ืžื ืžื•ื“ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืฆืจื™ื›ื


GEMARA: The Gemara comments: And both this mishna and the previous one (11b), about the olive press, are necessary, as, if the tanna teaches us only the first mishna, one might say that only in that case does Rabbi Yosei say that one is permitted to complete the process, because in the case of oil, the potential loss is considerable. However, in the case of wine, where the loss is not as considerable, one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yehuda that it must be done in an altered manner. And if he teaches us only the last mishna, one might say that only in that case involving wine did Rabbi Yehuda say that one must be stringent, but in the other case involving oil one might say that he concedes to Rabbi Yosei and is lenient. Therefore, it is necessary to teach both cases.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืื‘ื“ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Abba said: Who is the tanna who teaches that labor performed during the intermediate days of the Festival must be performed in an altered fashion even with regard to a matter that, if unattended, will result in significant loss? That ruling is not in accordance with Rabbi Yoseiโ€™s opinion, as Rabbi Yosei permits one to perform labor that will prevent such a loss even in the usual manner. Rav Yosef said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and it is permitted in cases of loss to perform labor in the usual manner.


ื‘ืขื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืžืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžื”ื• ืœืžื™ืฉืข ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืกื™ื ื™ ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ื—ืžืจื ื‘ืฉื™ื›ืจื ืžื™ ืืžืจ


The students asked of Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak: What is the halakha with regard to sealing a barrel of beer during the intermediate days of the Festival? If it is not properly sealed, the beer will leak out through the sides of the barrel. He said to them: Sinai, i.e., Rav Yosef, said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. They asked: Say that Rabbi Yosei said that one may be lenient about wine, but about beer does he say the same thing? Beer is much cheaper than wine, and the loss would be much less significant.


ื—ืžืจื ื˜ืขืžื ืžืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ื ืคื™ืฉ ืคืกื™ื“ื™ื” ืฉื™ื›ืจื ื ืžื™ ืื™ืช ื‘ื” ืคืกื™ื“ื ื“ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื ื‘ืจ ืฉื™ืช ืกืื•ื™ ื•ืฉื™ื™ืข ืžื‘ืจ ืชืžื ื™ ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื™ืข


The Gemara explains why no distinction should be made: With regard to wine, what is the reason that Rabbi Yosei was lenient? It is because the loss involved is considerable; with beer as well, there is a loss if the barrel is not properly sealed, as Abaye said: My foster mother told me: It is better to have a barrel of six seโ€™a that is sealed than a barrel of eight seโ€™a that is not sealed, as in the end more beer will remain in the smaller sealed barrel than in the larger unsealed one.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืžื ื‘ืจ ื’ื•ืจื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ื›ื•ืชื™ื ื‘ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื“ื ื™ืืœ ื‘ืจ ืงื˜ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ืŸ ืขืงื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœืžื™ื“ื•ืช ื–ื• ืžื–ื•


ยง Rav แธคama bar Gurya said that Rav said: The halakhot relating to the intermediate days of a Festival resemble the halakhot relating to the Samaritans in the halakha. The Gemara asks: With regard to what aspect of the halakha are they similar? Rav Daniel bar Ketina said that Rav said: He meant to convey that they are sterile, and one may not learn further halakhot by extrapolation one from one another in both of these areas of halakha.


ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื–ืชื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืžื ื”ืจื“ืขื ืืžืจ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืชื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื•ืคืชื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื–ืชื ืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืœืคืกื™ื“ื ื•ืžืจ ื—ื™ื™ืฉ ืœื˜ื™ืจื—ื


The Gemara offers an example: For instance, Shmuel said: One may seal a jug with pitch, but one may not seal a barrel with pitch on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rav Dimi from Nehardeโ€™a said: One may seal a barrel with pitch, but one may not seal a small jug with pitch. Their reasoning is as follows: This Sage, i.e., Rav Dimi, was more concerned about possible financial loss, and so he permitted sealing the larger vessel, for which the potential for loss is great, but not the smaller one. And this Sage, i.e., Shmuel was concerned about unnecessary exertion on the Festival, and therefore he permitted sealing the smaller vessel, which requires less effort.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื ืงื˜ื™ื ืŸ ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ื”ืœื›ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืช


Abaye stated a different principle: We have a tradition that the halakhot of the intermediate days of a Festival are like the halakhot of Shabbat:


ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืคื˜ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ื™ืฉ ืžื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื›ืชื—ืœื”


Some of the actions for which one is exempt by Torah law are nevertheless prohibited, and some of them are permitted ab initio.


ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื—ืฆื“ื• ืœื™ื” ื—ืฆื“ื ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ื ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืœืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื˜ื•ื—ื ื™ืŸ ืงืžื— ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ืœืขืฉื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ


ยง The Gemara relates that Rav Huna had his crop harvested for him on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabba bar Rav Huna raised an objection to his father Rav Huna from a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. With regard to a matter that, if unattended, will result in significant loss on the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent that loss on the intermediate days of the Festival. For a matter that will not result in loss if unattended during the intermediate days of the Festival, it is prohibited to perform labor.


ื‘ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืืžื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืชืœื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืื‘ืœ ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื” ื™ืื›ืœ ืงื•ืฆืจ ื•ืžืขืžืจ ื•ื“ืฉ ื•ื–ื•ืจื” ื•ื‘ื•ืจืจ ื•ื˜ื•ื—ืŸ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืคืจื•ืช


In what case is this statement said? In the case of crops that are already detached from the ground, but in the case of crops that are still attached to the ground, even if it all will be lost, labor is prohibited during the intermediate days of the Festival. And if one does not have anything to eat, then he may reap and bind sheaves, and thresh, and winnow the grain in the wind, and separate the grain from the chaff, and grind the grain into flour, provided that he does not thresh with cows, the way that threshing is performed on an ordinary weekday. Why, then, did Rav Huna, who certainly had enough to eat, allow his workers to reap the field during the Festival week?


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ื”ื™ื ื•ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœืŸ ื›ื•ื•ืชื™ื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ื›ืœืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืชืœื•ืฉ ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืงืฆืชื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื”ืžื—ื•ื‘ืจ ืœืงืจืงืข ืืคื™ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื‘ื•ื“ ืืกื•ืจ


Rav Huna said to his son: The opinion expressed in this unattributed baraita is an individual opinion, and we do not hold in accordance with it; as it is taught in a different baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel stated a principle in the name of Rabbi Yosei: In the case of an item that is already detached from the ground, even if only a portion of it will be lost by not working during the Festival, it is permitted to perform labor to prevent the loss, whereas for crops that are still attached to the ground, even if all of them will be lost, it is prohibited to perform labor for them. The opinion that all labor is prohibited for crops that have not yet been harvested is the opinion of an individual authority, Rabbi Yosei, with whom the Rabbis disagree.


ื•ืื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื™ื“ื•ืฉ ื ืžื™ ื‘ืคืจื•ืช ื”ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื‘ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืื‘ื“ ื“ืœื ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™


The Gemara asks: But if the unattributed baraita reflects the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and it is permitted to work when one has nothing to eat, let him thresh even with cows. Didnโ€™t Rav Yitzแธฅak bar Abba say: Who is the tanna who taught that labor performed on the intermediate days of a Festival must be done in an altered manner even with regard to a matter that will involve a loss if unattended? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei does not require altering the manner in which one performs the labor. Why, then, does the baraita say that the threshing must be done in an altered manner and not with cows?


ืืžืจ ืœืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ื™ื•ืžื ืœืื• ื‘ืคืจื•ืช ื“ื™ื™ืฉื™ ื”ืื™ื“ื ื ื ืžื™ ืœืื• ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ื”ื•ื


The Gemara rejects this argument: Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: Here, too, since one does not always thresh with cows, threshing without them now on the intermediate days of the Festival is also not considered threshing in an altered manner. The prohibition against threshing with cows is not because one must perform that labor in an altered manner but in order to avoid attracting public attention to the fact that one is working during the Festival week.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื˜ื•ื—ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ื˜ื—ืŸ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ืงื•ืฆืฆื™ืŸ ืขืฆื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ืงืฆืฅ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ


The Sages taught in a baraita: One may grind flour on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he ground and left some flour over, it is permitted for use after the Festival. Similarly, one may cut down trees on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival it is prohibited. And if he cut down trees for the Festival and left some wood over, it is permitted for use after the Festival.


ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ื•ืื ื”ื˜ื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ืชื™ืจ ื”ืจื™ ื–ื” ืžื•ืชืจ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ืขืจื™ื


The baraita continues: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. And if he brewed beer for the sake of the Festival and left some over, it is permitted for use after the Festival provided that he does not employ an artifice, exploiting the allowance to work on a Festival by knowingly making more than was needed.


ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื• ืžื˜ื™ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืฉืœื ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ืžื•ืขื“ ืืกื•ืจ ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ืจ ืชืžืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ืฉื›ืจ ืฉืขื•ืจื™ื ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื• ื™ืฉืŸ ืžืขืจื™ื ื•ืฉื•ืชื” ืžืŸ ื”ื—ื“ืฉ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืจื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืš ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืขืจื™ืžื™ืŸ


The Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita: One may brew beer on the intermediate days of a Festival for the sake of the Festival, but if it is not for the sake of the Festival, it is prohibited. This applies both to date beer and to barley beer. And even though he has old beer, he may employ an artifice and drink from the new beer, i.e., he may say he prefers new beer and brew a new batch, although he has enough old beer for the Festival. This statement contradicts the previous baraita that prohibited circumventing the prohibition against labor through artifice. The Gemara answers: This matter is a dispute between tannaโ€™im, as it is taught in a baraita: One may not employ an artifice in this regard, i.e., to circumvent the prohibition against labor during the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may employ an artifice.


ืจื‘ ื—ืฆื“ื• ืœื™ื” ื—ืฆื“ื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืฉืžืข ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื™ืงืคื“ ืœื™ืžื ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ื™ื—ื™ื“ืื” ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ื” ืœื ื—ืฆื“ื ื“ื—ื™ื˜ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื” ืคืกื™ื“


ยง The Gemara relates that Rav had his crop harvested on the intermediate days of a Festival. Shmuel heard about this and was dismayed. The Gemara asks: Shall we say that Shmuel holds in accordance with the individual opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who prohibits all labor for crops that are attached to the ground, even if inattention will result in significant loss? The Gemara answers: No, it was a crop of wheat, which would not have been ruined had the harvest been pushed off a week, and therefore Shmuel was offended.


ื•ืจื‘ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ ื”ื›ื™ ืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื” ื™ืื›ืœ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื ืกื™ื™ืžื•ื” ืงืžื™ื” ืื™ ื ืžื™ ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara asks: What is the reason that Rav acted in this manner? The Gemara answers: Rav is in the category of one who does not have anything to eat, and that is why it was permitted to harvest his crops. The Gemara asks: And why, then, did Shmuel disapprove? The Gemara explains: The people who reported Ravโ€™s actions to Shmuel did not complete the story for him. Alternatively, an important person such as Rav is different, and Shmuel thought Rav should have been stringent even in his difficult circumstances.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื ืฉื™ืื” ื ืคืง ื‘ื—ื•ืžืจืชื ื“ืžื“ื•ืฉื ื•ืืฉืชื™ ืžื™ื ื“ืื—ื™ื ืงืคื™ืœื ืืจืžืื” ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืื™ืงืคื“ ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื—ื•ืžืจืชื ื“ืžื“ื•ืฉื ื”ื ืชื ื™ื ื”ืฉื™ืจื™ืŸ ื”ื ื–ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื•ืช ื”ืจื™ ื”ืŸ ื›ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ืฆืจ


It was further related that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia once went out on Shabbat with a coral seal [แธฅumreta] on his ring and drank water heated by a gentile cook. Rabbi Ami heard about this and was dismayed about both things. Rav Yosef said: What is the reason that he was dismayed? If it was because of the coral seal, isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: Bracelets, nose rings, and rings are like all other utensils that may be carried in a courtyard? Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda Nesiaโ€™s action conformed to halakha.


ืื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืื™ืฉืชื™ ืžื™ื ื“ืื—ื™ื ืงืคื™ืœื ืืจืžืื” ื”ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ืฉื ืื›ืœ ื›ืžื•ืช ืฉื”ื•ื ื—ื™ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื• ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ื™ืฉื•ืœื™ ื’ื•ื™ื ืื“ื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉืื ื™


And if Rabbi Ami was dismayed because Rabbi Yehuda Nesia drank water heated by a gentile cook [kapeila], didnโ€™t Shmuel bar Yitzแธฅak say that Rav said: With regard to anything that is eaten raw, like water, even if it was cooked by a gentile, it is not subject to the prohibition against eating food cooked by gentiles? The Gemara resolves both difficulties: An important person is different, and Rabbi Ami believed that Rabbi Yehuda Nesia should have been more stringent.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงื•ืฆืฅ ืื“ื ื“ืงืœ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืœื ืœื ืกื•ืจืช ืฉืœื• ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™


Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival, although he needs only its sawdust. The Gemara comments: Abaye cursed it, i.e., the behavior of one who exerts such effort on the Festival for so small a need.


ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื ื‘ืฉืœื ื™ื™ื ืื–ืœ ืœืžื™ืงืฆื™ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืฉื™ืœื ืžืฉืœื ื™ื™ื ืœืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžืื™ ื“ืขืชื™ืš ื“ืงืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ื ื ืืœ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงื•ืฆืฅ ืื“ื ื“ืงืœ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืฆืจื™ืš ืืœื ืœื ืกื•ืจืช ืฉืœื• ื”ื ืœื™ื™ื˜ ืขืœื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืœื ืกื‘ื™ืจื ืœื™ ืื™ืฉืชืžื™ื˜ ื ืจื’ื ื‘ืขื™ ืœืžื™ืคืกืงื™ื” ืœืฉืงื™ื” ืฉื‘ืงื™ื” ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืืชื


The Gemara relates that Rav Ashi had a forest [ava] in Shelaniya. He went to cut it down on the intermediate days of the Festival. Rav Sheila from Shelaniya said to Rav Ashi: What is your opinion about what you are doing? Do you rely on that which Rav แธคananel said that Rav said: A person may chop down a palm tree on the intermediate days of a Festival even though he needs only its sawdust? Didnโ€™t Abaye curse such behavior? Rav Ashi said to him: I did not hear that Abaye said that; that is to say, in a delicate way, I do not hold in accordance with his opinion. The iron of Rav Ashiโ€™s ax then slipped and was about to cut off his leg. He left it, ceasing his chopping, and came back again to chop down the forest only after the Festival.


ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืจื ืœืžื™ืขืงืจ ื›ื™ืชื ื ื•ืœืžื™ืงื˜ืœ ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื•ืœืžื™ืขืงืจ ืฉื•ืžืฉืžื™ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ื›ื™ืชื ื ื—ื–ื™ ืœื—ืคื™ืคื” ื›ืฉื•ืชื ื—ื–ื™ ืœืฉื™ื›ืจื ืืœื ืฉื•ืžืฉืžื™ ืœืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ ื—ื–ื™ ืœื ื–ื™ื™ ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื”ื•


The Gemara relates that Rav Yehuda permitted uprooting flax, cutting hops, and uprooting sesame plants on the intermediate days of a Festival. Abaye said to Rav Yosef: Granted, this is reasonable in the case of flax, which is suitable for use as a cover [แธฅafifa] for various objects and therefore has a use even during the Festival, and so too hops, which are suitable for making beer, but for what are sesame plants suitable, since the sesame seeds require a long drying period before oil can be extracted from them? Rav Yosef said to him: They are suitable for the seeds [nazyei] on them, which can be consumed immediately.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืคืจื“ื™ืกื ื“ืžื˜ื ื–ืžื ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืงื˜ืคื™ื” ืœืฉื ื” ืฉื”ื™ื•ื” ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืœืคืจื“ื™ืกื™ื™ื”ื• ืœื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืคืงืจื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื ืื™ ืœืคืจื“ื™ืกื™ื” ื”ื”ื•ื ืฉืชื:


It was further mentioned that Rabbi Yannai had an orchard whose time for harvesting the fruit arrived during the intermediate days of the Festival. He harvested it during the Festival, as the fruit would otherwise have spoiled. The following year, everyone delayed the harvest of their orchards until the intermediate days of the Festival. Rabbi Yannai declared the earnings from his orchard ownerless that year, since his harvesting of his fruit provided a misleading example for the public, causing many people to adopt an inappropriate leniency.


ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืžื›ื ื™ืก ืื“ื ืคื™ืจื•ืชื™ื• ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื’ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ืฉื•ืœื” ืคืฉืชื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉืจื” ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืฉืœื ืชืื‘ื“ ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœื ื™ื›ื•ื™ืŸ ืืช ืžืœืื›ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืื ื›ื•ื•ื ื• ืžืœืื›ืชืŸ ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื™ืื‘ื“ื•:


MISHNA: A person may bring his fruit in from the field on the intermediate days of the Festival because he is concerned about thieves, and he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to perform his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to all of these cases, if one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be lost and no benefit may be derived from it.


ื’ืžืณ ืชื ื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื ื™ืกื ื‘ืฆื ืขื ืœืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื•


GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita that one may bring in crops out of concern for thieves, provided that he brings them into his house discreetly.


ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื”ื•ื” ืœื™ื” ื›ืฉื•ืจื™ ืขื™ื™ืœื™ื ื”ื• ื‘ื™ืžืžื


The Gemara relates: Rav Yosef had wooden beams, which he brought into his house during the day on one of the intermediate days of a Festival.


ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื•ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื ื™ืกื ื‘ืฆื ืขื ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืฆื ืขื ื“ื”ื ื™ ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ื ื‘ืขื• ื’ื‘ืจื ื™ืชื™ืจื™ ื•ื‘ืขื• ืžื“ื•ื›ืจื™ ื“ื ื•ืจื ืื•ื•ืฉื ืžื™ืœืชื:


Abaye said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One may bring in items provided that he brings them into his house discreetly? Rav Yosef said to him: Discretion with respect to these beams is moving them during the day, since at night more people are required, and also torchbearers [medokhrei denura] are needed, and the matter would be more noticeable.


ื•ืฉื•ืœื” ืคืฉืชื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฉืจื” ื›ื•ืณ: ื‘ืขื™ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืžืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ื•ื•ืŸ ืžืœืื›ืชื• ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืžืช ืžื”ื• ืฉื™ืงื ืกื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืื—ืจื™ื•


The mishna states: And he may draw his flax out of the soaking pool so that it is not ruined from soaking too long in the water, provided that he does not plan from the outset to do his work on the intermediate days of the Festival. And with regard to anyone, if he planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of the Festival, the fruit of that labor must be destroyed. Rabbi Yirmeya asked Rabbi Zeira: If one planned from the outset to perform his labor on the intermediate days of a Festival, and he died after doing so, what is the halakha? Should his children be penalized after him and have to lose the products of their fatherโ€™s labor?


ืื ืชื™ืžืฆื™ ืœื•ืžืจ


Even if you might say that


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