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Today's Daf Yomi

February 5, 2022 | ื“ืณ ื‘ืื“ืจ ืืณ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Moed Katan 24

 

Shmuel held there are no laws of mourning on Shabbat. The rabbis said that Shmuel held that a mourner who engages in sexual relations is liable for death at the hands of God. Rav Papa questions this as it merely says one canโ€™t do it, but never says anything about the death penalty. He corrects them by saying that one who cuts oneโ€™s hair and doesnโ€™t rend oneโ€™s garments is liable to the death penalty as can be derived from verses in the Torah when Nadav and Avihu died. Rav Papa’s son quotes Masechet Avel Rabati that tells the story of a mourner who engaged in sexual relations and was killed by a pig. Which mourning practices can be observed on Shabbat and which cannot? A distinction is made between private and public. Rav and Shmuel debate which are private and which are public. Shmuel also held that rending oneโ€™s garments is only performed upon hearing of the personโ€™s death but not the next day. If so, why did Shmuel rend 13 different garments when Rav died? What are the other exceptions to the rule? Is one permitted to fix the clothing that one tore? On Shabbat one either changes out of the torn garments or moves the tear to the back. Rava says that one can wear the torn garment in its regular way in oneโ€™s house. Rav Yosef covered his head in his house in the way of the mourners. Both of these are considered keeping mourning practices in private which are permitted on Shabbat. According to Rav Gidel bar Menashia, Shmuel ruled like Rabban Gamliel in the Mishna who held that all the holidays including Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur override shiva. Some say that his ruling was issued about infant burial. How many people need to bury the infant? An infant under 30 days is carried out by hand, over 30 days is put in a small coffin, over a year in a regular coffin, and according to Rabbi Akiva only if the child is two or has a body the size of a two-year-old. At thirty days a shura is done and the blessing of mourners and there is shiva. There is a debate regarding at what stage the community joins the funeral and the child is eulogized. It is regarding that debate that Rav Gidel passed down Shmuelโ€™s psak. If one sat a day of shiva before Shavuot, when Shavuot ends, the mourner is considered at day fourteen as the holiday counts it as if shiva happened before and the one day of holiday counts as an additional seven days. The same is true for Rosh Hashana. Sukkot counts as 21 as Shmini Atzeret adds another 7. Kriya, revealing oneโ€™s shoulder after tearing and the meal called the seudat havraa are only for the actual mourners.

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉืžื•ืืœ ื™ืฉ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan asked of Shmuel: Is there some mourning on Shabbat or is there no mourning on Shabbat at all? He said to him: There is no mourning on Shabbat at all.

ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืงืืžืจื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืกื•ืจ ืืชืžืจ ื•ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืชืžืจ

The Sages sat before Rav Pappa and said in the name of Shmuel: A mourner who engaged in sexual relations during his days of mourning is liable to receive the death penalty at the hand of Heaven. Rav Pappa said to them: It was said that sexual relations are prohibited, but not that the offender is guilty of a capital crime. And the ruling was said in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and not in the name of Shmuel.

ื•ืื™ ืฉืžื™ืขื ืœื›ื• ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื›ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืœื ืคืจืข ื•ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจืืฉื™ื›ื ืืœ ืชืคืจืขื• ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื›ื ืœื ืชืคืจื•ืžื• ื•ืœื ืชืžื•ืชื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื”ื ืื—ืจ ืฉืœื ืคืจืข ื•ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื”

And if you heard a statement on this issue in the name of Shmuel, then you heard as follows: Rav Taแธฅlifa bar Avimi said that Shmuel said: A mourner who did not let his hair grow wild and did not rend his garments is liable to receive the death penalty at the hand of Heaven, as it is stated following the deaths of Nadab and Abihu concerning the surviving sons of Aaron: โ€œLet not the hair of your heads go loose, neither rend your clothes, that you not dieโ€ (Leviticus 10:6). They were instructed not to mourn, so as not to interfere with the dedication of the Tabernacle. From here it may be deduced that any other mourner who did not let his hair grow wild or rend his clothes is liable to receive the death penalty.

ืืžืจ ืจืคืจื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื—ื“ ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื•ืฉืžื˜ื• ื—ื–ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื’ื•ื™ื™ืชื•

Rafram bar Pappa said: A Sage taught in Evel Rabbati, a separate tractate devoted to the halakhot of mourning: A mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations during his days of mourning. There was an incident with one who engaged in sexual relations during his days of mourning and he was punished, for after his death pigs dragged away his corpse.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืคื—ื– ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื ืชืจ ืจืฉื•ืช

Shmuel offered a mnemonic device with regard to the observance of mourning rites on Shabbat, and said: Peh, แธฅet, zayin are obligatory. These letters combine to create a mnemonic standing for: Uncovering the head [periat rosh], reversing the torn garment [แธฅazarat kera], and standing the bed upright [zekifat hamitta]. However, nun, tav, reish, which stand for: Wearing shoes [neโ€™ilat hasandal], marital relations [tashmish hamitta], and hand washing [reแธฅitzat yadayim], are optional.

ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ื—ื–ืจืช ืงืจืข ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ื–ืงื™ืคืช ื”ืžื˜ื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื”ืžื˜ื” ืจื—ื™ืฆืช ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื ื‘ื—ืžื™ืŸ ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืจืฉื•ืช ื•ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ืจืฉื•ืช

This is explained: Uncovering the head, i.e., removing the head covering usually worn by a mourner; reversing the tear to the back, so that it will not be visible; and standing the bed upright in the usual position, so that it is not overturned, are all obligatory for the mourner to uphold in honor of Shabbat. However, wearing shoes, engaging in sexual relations, and washing oneโ€™s hands and feet in hot water in the evening are optional activities on Shabbat. If a mourner wishes to refrain from them he may do so. And Rav said: Uncovering the head is also an optional activity.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื“ืจืฉื•ืช ื“ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืกื™ื™ืžื™ ืžืกืื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ื ืžื™ ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืžื’ืœื• ืจื™ืฉื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: According to Shmuel, what is different about wearing shoes that it is optional? His reasoning presumably is that not everyone wears shoes at all times, and therefore not wearing shoes will not be perceived by others as a sign of mourning. If so, the same thing may be said about uncovering the head also, i.e., not everyone uncovers his head at all times, as some people always walk around with their heads wrapped. This, too, should not be seen as a clear display of mourning, and therefore uncovering oneโ€™s head should also be treated as optional.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืงืจืข ื•ื›ืœ ืขื˜ื™ืคื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื›ืขื˜ื™ืคืช ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ืื™ื ื” ืขื˜ื™ืคื” ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ื’ื•ื‘ื™ ื“ื“ื™ืงื ื

The Gemara answers: Shmuel conforms to his standard line of reasoning, for Shmuel said: Any rending of garments that is not done at the time of the most intense grief, i.e., the time of death, is not considered proper rending of garments. And any wrapping of the head that is not done in the manner of the wrapping of the Ishmaelites, who wrap their heads on all sides, is not considered proper wrapping. Since Shmuel requires that a mourner wrap his head in this special manner, one who acts in this way on Shabbat openly displays his mourning, as people do not ordinarily wrap their heads in this manner. What is this wrapping? Rav Naแธฅman demonstrated the procedure by covering up his face to the sides of the beard, leaving only the center of his face exposed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื• ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื•

Rabbi Yaโ€™akov said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: They taught that a mourner is required to remove his head covering on Shabbat only when he has no shoes on his feet, so that he not appear too obviously to be in mourning. But if he has shoes on his feet, then his shoes prove that he is not observing the rites of mourning on Shabbat.

ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืงืจืข ื•ื”ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืงืจืข ืขืœื™ื” ืชืจื™ืกืจ ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืื–ืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืงืจืข ืขืœื™ื” ืชืœื™ืกืจ ืืฆื˜ืœื™ ืžืœืชื ืืžืจ ืื–ืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื”

The Gemara returns to Shmuelโ€™s statement that any rending of garments that is not done at the time of most intense grief and pain is not considered proper rending of garments. The Gemara poses a question: But when they said to Shmuel that Rav had passed away, he rent twelve garments on account of him, and said: The man of whom I was in fear, owing to his great learning, has gone and died. Similarly, when they told Rabbi Yoแธฅanan that Rabbi แธคanina had passed away, he rent thirteen expensive wool [mileta] garments [itztelei] on account of him, and said: The man of whom I was in fear has gone. When each of these Sages received the news that their distinguished colleague had died, it was no longer the time of the most intense grief, i.e., the time of death, and yet they rent their garments.

ืฉืื ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ืžื“ื›ืจื™ ืฉืžืขืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ื“ืžื™

The Gemara answers: The Sages are different. Since their teachings are mentioned all the time, every time they are mentioned is like the time of most intense grief, as the pain over their death is once again renewed.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื“ื ืœืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืชืœืžื™ื“ืš ืจื‘ ืขืžืจื ืชื ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืงื•ืจืขื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื ื‘ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืงื•ืจืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ืจืขื• ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ื•ืื ื‘ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืงื•ืจืข

Ravin bar Adda said to Rava: Your student, Rav Amram, said that it is taught in a baraita as follows: For all seven days of mourning, a mourner must keep the tear in his garment before him so that it will be seen. And if he comes to change clothing, he changes and rends the new garment. On Shabbat, he turns the tear to his back, and if he comes to change clothing, he changes but does not tear the second garment. From here it seems that there is an obligation to rend garments during the entire week of mourning, not only at the most intense moment of grief.

ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืืžื•

The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is referring to the specific case of rending oneโ€™s garment in honor of his father or mother. Owing to the special honor due to oneโ€™s parents, it is inappropriate for the child to wear a garment that is not torn. Consequently, if he changes clothing, he must tear the new garment, even if it is no longer the most intense time of grief.

ืื•ืชืŸ ืงืจืขื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื•ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Those additional tears that are made in honor of oneโ€™s father or mother, may they be properly mended at the end of the sonโ€™s period of mourning, or may they not be properly mended, like the tear made for oneโ€™s father or mother at the most intense moment of grief? The Gemara answers: They disagree about this issue, the father of Rav Oshaya and bar Kappara. One said: They may not be mended, and one said: They may be mended.

ืชืกืชื™ื™ื ื“ืื‘ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืžืžืืŸ ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืžืื‘ื•ื” ืœื ืžื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ืจื‘ื™ื” ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื”

The Gemara comments: Conclude that it was Rav Oshayaโ€™s father who said that such rents may not be properly mended, for Rav Oshaya said: Such rents may not be properly mended. From whom did he hear this halakha? Was it not from his father? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this cannot be offered as a proof, as perhaps he heard it from bar Kappara, who was his teacher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืคืจื™ืก ืœื™ื” ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืจื™ืฉื™ื” ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืืชื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ื ื•ื”ื’

ยง Rava said: A mourner may walk about his house in a torn robe [unkali] on Shabbat, since he is not doing so in public. It was related that Abaye found Rav Yosef walking back and forth in his house on Shabbat when he was in mourning with a scarf spread over his head in the manner of mourning. He said to him: Master, do you not maintain that there is no mourning on Shabbat? He said to him: This is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Matters that are in private apply, and so when one is in his house he must observe the rites of mourning even on Shabbat.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื—ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ื›ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

ยง The mishna taught: Rabbi Eliezer says: Since the Temple was destroyed, Shavuot is like Shabbat with regard to mourning. Rabban Gamliel says: Even Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are considered like Festivals. The Gemara comments that Rav Giddel bar Menashya said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืื”ื ื›ืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื—ื™ืง ื•ื ืงื‘ืจ ื‘ืืฉื” ืื—ืช ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื ืฉื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื

And some teach this ruling of Rav Giddel bar Menashya as referring to the following case: It is taught in a baraita: Within the first thirty days after birth, an infant that dies is taken out for burial in oneโ€™s bosom, that is to say, he is carried to his grave in oneโ€™s arms, not in a coffin. And he is buried by one woman and two men, there being no need for a quorum of ten men. But he should not be taken out by one man and two women, because it is prohibited for one man to seclude himself with two women.

ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืชื ื—ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื™ื

Abba Shaul says: The infant may be taken out even by one man and two women, for there is no concern with regard to seclusion in a time of mourning. And for such an infant, people do not stand in a line to offer their condolences to the mourners, as is ordinarily done after a burial; nor do others recite over him the mournersโ€™ blessing, which is recited in the courtyard of the graveyard after the burial; nor is the usual formula for the consolation of mourners recited during the seven days of mourning.

ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื“ืœื•ืกืงืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื“ืœื•ืกืงืžื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœืช ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืืœื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœืช ื‘ืื’ืคื™ื™ื ื•ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืชื ื—ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื™ื

A thirty-day-old infant that dies is taken out for burial in a coffin [deluskema]. Rabbi Yehuda says: Not in a small coffin that is carried on oneโ€™s shoulder, but rather in a coffin that is carried in the arms of two people. And for such an infant, people stand in a line to offer their condolences to the mourners. And others recite the mournersโ€™ blessing at the cemetery. And people recite the consolation of mourners during the week of mourning.

ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื” ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื• ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื• ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื” ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื”

A twelve-month-old infant is taken out for burial on a bier, just as an adult is. Rabbi Akiva says: This halakha applies if the infant that dies is one year old and his limbs are like those of a two year old, so that he looks older, or if he is two years old and his limbs are like those of a one-year-old. Only then he is taken out on a bier.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื”ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื”ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ื™ื›ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืขืกืงื™ื ืขืžื• ืื™ื ื• ื ื™ื›ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืขืกืงื™ื ืขืžื•

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: For one that is taken out on a bier, the public should grieve [matzhivin]. For one that is not taken out on a bier, the public need not grieve. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The halakha is as follows: If the infant was known to the public, because he regularly left the house and many people knew him, the public must occupy themselves with him and participate in his burial. If he was not known to the public, the public need not occupy themselves with him.

ื•ืžื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ืฉื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืžื• ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืฉ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื–ืงื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื

And what is the status of deceased infants with regard to eulogy? Rabbi Meir said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The children of the poor are eulogized from the age of three, whereas the children of the wealthy are eulogized from the age of five. This is because a child is the sole source of joy for the poor, and so the pain and grief of the poor over the death of a child is greater than that of the wealthy. Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The children of the poor are eulogized from the age of five, whereas the children of the wealthy are eulogized from the age of six. And the children of the elderly are treated like the children of the poor, for the death of a child is particularly painful for an older person.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ

Rav Giddel bar Menashya said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who stated it in the name of Rabbi Yishmael.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขื ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืขืฆืจืช ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืื˜ื• ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื™ื

Rabbi Anani bar Sason taught at the entrance to the house of the Nasi: If one suffered the loss of a close relative shortly before the festival of Shavuot, his one day of mourning before Shavuot and Shavuot itself together count as fourteen days. The day before the Festival counts as seven full days of mourning because the Festival interrupts the seven-day period of mourning, and the Festival itself is counted as a seven-day Festival. Even though it is a one-day Festival, it is counted as seven days because it has the same halakha as the other Festivals. After Shavuot, then, only sixteen days are left to complete the thirty-day mourning period. Rabbi Ami heard this and became angry with him. He said: Is that to say that it is his own opinion? It is the opinion that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืืงื™ืœืขื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืขืฆืจืช ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืื˜ื• ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื™ื

Similarly Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa taught in the pavilion [kila] of the Exilarch: If oneโ€™s relative died shortly before the festival of Shavuot, his one day of mourning before Shavuot and Shavuot itself count as fourteen days. Rav Sheshet heard and became angry. He said: Is that to say that it is his own opinion? It is the opinion that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขืฆืจืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื”

In both of these cases, a Sage presented an opinion as their own, without attributing it to the original Sage who stated it, for Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said: From where is it derived that the Shavuot offerings have redress all seven subsequent days? That is to say, if someone failed to bring the Festival offering on the Festival itself, he has six more days to bring it. As it is stated: โ€œThree times a year shall all your males appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose; on the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkotโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:16). Just as the offerings of the festival of Passover have redress all seven days, as Passover is seven days long, so too the offerings of the festival of Shavuot have redress all seven days, during the week following Shavuot. From this we learn that Shavuot is treated like a seven-day Festival for all halakhic purposes.

ืื“ื‘ืจื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืจื‘ ืื•ื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื”ืœื›ืš ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืฉืœื• ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื

Rav Pappa granted permission to Rav Avya the Elder to speak and he taught the following in public: If oneโ€™s relative died shortly before Rosh HaShana, his one day of mourning before Rosh HaShana and Rosh HaShana itself together count as fourteen days, because Rosh HaShana is treated like a seven-day Festival. Ravina said: Therefore, if a oneโ€™s relative died shortly before Sukkot, his one day of mourning before the Festival of Sukkot, and the Festival of Sukkot itself, which is seven days, and its Eighth day of Assembly, which is considered to be a separate Festival, count as twenty-one days, and he must observe only nine more days of mourning to complete the thirty-day period of mourning.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœืกื•ืจื ื“ืคืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื ืžืกื•ืจื ื“ืคืจืช ืœืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžื™ื ื

It was related that Ravina happened to come to the city of Sura on the Euphrates River. Rav แธคaviva from Sura on the Euphrates said to Ravina: Did the Master say that one day of mourning before Rosh HaShana and Rosh HaShana itself count as fourteen days? He said to him: I said that it stands to reason that this is so according to Rabban Gamliel, who maintains that Rosh HaShana is treated like a pilgrim Festival. But I did not rule in accordance with this opinion.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืขื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขืœ ืžื˜ื” ื–ืงื•ืคื”

MISHNA: Mourners do not rend their garments during the intermediate days of a Festival and do not remove their garments from their shoulders. And others do not provide them with a meal [mavrin] after the burial, except for close relatives of the deceased. And the consolers provide the first meal after the burial only while the mourner is sitting on an upright bed, and not on one that is overturned.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Moed Katan 24

ื‘ืขื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉืžื•ืืœ ื™ืฉ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช

Rabbi Yoแธฅanan asked of Shmuel: Is there some mourning on Shabbat or is there no mourning on Shabbat at all? He said to him: There is no mourning on Shabbat at all.

ื™ืชื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืงืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ืงืืžืจื™ ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืืกื•ืจ ืืชืžืจ ื•ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืชืžืจ

The Sages sat before Rav Pappa and said in the name of Shmuel: A mourner who engaged in sexual relations during his days of mourning is liable to receive the death penalty at the hand of Heaven. Rav Pappa said to them: It was said that sexual relations are prohibited, but not that the offender is guilty of a capital crime. And the ruling was said in the name of Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, and not in the name of Shmuel.

ื•ืื™ ืฉืžื™ืขื ืœื›ื• ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ื›ื™ ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื›ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืชื—ืœื™ืคื ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืื‘ืœ ืฉืœื ืคืจืข ื•ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืจืืฉื™ื›ื ืืœ ืชืคืจืขื• ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื›ื ืœื ืชืคืจื•ืžื• ื•ืœื ืชืžื•ืชื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื”ื ืื—ืจ ืฉืœื ืคืจืข ื•ืฉืœื ืคื™ืจื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืžื™ืชื”

And if you heard a statement on this issue in the name of Shmuel, then you heard as follows: Rav Taแธฅlifa bar Avimi said that Shmuel said: A mourner who did not let his hair grow wild and did not rend his garments is liable to receive the death penalty at the hand of Heaven, as it is stated following the deaths of Nadab and Abihu concerning the surviving sons of Aaron: โ€œLet not the hair of your heads go loose, neither rend your clothes, that you not dieโ€ (Leviticus 10:6). They were instructed not to mourn, so as not to interfere with the dedication of the Tabernacle. From here it may be deduced that any other mourner who did not let his hair grow wild or rend his clothes is liable to receive the death penalty.

ืืžืจ ืจืคืจื ื‘ืจ ืคืคื ืชื ื ื‘ืื‘ืœ ืจื‘ืชื™ ืื‘ืœ ืืกื•ืจ ืœืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื•ืžืขืฉื” ื‘ืื—ื“ ืฉืฉื™ืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ื‘ื™ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื• ื•ืฉืžื˜ื• ื—ื–ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื’ื•ื™ื™ืชื•

Rafram bar Pappa said: A Sage taught in Evel Rabbati, a separate tractate devoted to the halakhot of mourning: A mourner is prohibited from engaging in sexual relations during his days of mourning. There was an incident with one who engaged in sexual relations during his days of mourning and he was punished, for after his death pigs dragged away his corpse.

ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืคื—ื– ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื ืชืจ ืจืฉื•ืช

Shmuel offered a mnemonic device with regard to the observance of mourning rites on Shabbat, and said: Peh, แธฅet, zayin are obligatory. These letters combine to create a mnemonic standing for: Uncovering the head [periat rosh], reversing the torn garment [แธฅazarat kera], and standing the bed upright [zekifat hamitta]. However, nun, tav, reish, which stand for: Wearing shoes [neโ€™ilat hasandal], marital relations [tashmish hamitta], and hand washing [reแธฅitzat yadayim], are optional.

ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ื—ื–ืจืช ืงืจืข ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ื–ืงื™ืคืช ื”ืžื˜ื” ื—ื•ื‘ื” ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ืชืฉืžื™ืฉ ื”ืžื˜ื” ืจื—ื™ืฆืช ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืจื’ืœื™ื ื‘ื—ืžื™ืŸ ืขืจื‘ื™ืช ืจืฉื•ืช ื•ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ืจืฉื•ืช

This is explained: Uncovering the head, i.e., removing the head covering usually worn by a mourner; reversing the tear to the back, so that it will not be visible; and standing the bed upright in the usual position, so that it is not overturned, are all obligatory for the mourner to uphold in honor of Shabbat. However, wearing shoes, engaging in sexual relations, and washing oneโ€™s hands and feet in hot water in the evening are optional activities on Shabbat. If a mourner wishes to refrain from them he may do so. And Rav said: Uncovering the head is also an optional activity.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืžืื™ ืฉื ื ื ืขื™ืœืช ื”ืกื ื“ืœ ื“ืจืฉื•ืช ื“ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืกื™ื™ืžื™ ืžืกืื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืคืจื™ืขืช ื”ืจืืฉ ื ืžื™ ืœืื• ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื™ ื“ืžื’ืœื• ืจื™ืฉื™ื™ื”ื•

The Gemara asks: According to Shmuel, what is different about wearing shoes that it is optional? His reasoning presumably is that not everyone wears shoes at all times, and therefore not wearing shoes will not be perceived by others as a sign of mourning. If so, the same thing may be said about uncovering the head also, i.e., not everyone uncovers his head at all times, as some people always walk around with their heads wrapped. This, too, should not be seen as a clear display of mourning, and therefore uncovering oneโ€™s head should also be treated as optional.

ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืœื˜ืขืžื™ื” ื“ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืงืจืข ื•ื›ืœ ืขื˜ื™ืคื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ื›ืขื˜ื™ืคืช ื™ืฉืžืขืืœื™ื ืื™ื ื” ืขื˜ื™ืคื” ืžื—ื•ื™ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ืขื“ ื’ื•ื‘ื™ ื“ื“ื™ืงื ื

The Gemara answers: Shmuel conforms to his standard line of reasoning, for Shmuel said: Any rending of garments that is not done at the time of the most intense grief, i.e., the time of death, is not considered proper rending of garments. And any wrapping of the head that is not done in the manner of the wrapping of the Ishmaelites, who wrap their heads on all sides, is not considered proper wrapping. Since Shmuel requires that a mourner wrap his head in this special manner, one who acts in this way on Shabbat openly displays his mourning, as people do not ordinarily wrap their heads in this manner. What is this wrapping? Rav Naแธฅman demonstrated the procedure by covering up his face to the sides of the beard, leaving only the center of his face exposed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืขืงื‘ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืœื ืฉื ื• ืืœื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืื‘ืœ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื ื‘ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืžื ืขืœื™ื• ืžื•ื›ื™ื—ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื•

Rabbi Yaโ€™akov said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: They taught that a mourner is required to remove his head covering on Shabbat only when he has no shoes on his feet, so that he not appear too obviously to be in mourning. But if he has shoes on his feet, then his shoes prove that he is not observing the rites of mourning on Shabbat.

ื›ืœ ืงืจืข ืฉืื™ื ื• ื‘ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ืื™ื ื• ืงืจืข ื•ื”ื ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืœืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืงืจืข ืขืœื™ื” ืชืจื™ืกืจ ืžื ื™ ืืžืจ ืื–ืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื ื— ื ืคืฉื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืงืจืข ืขืœื™ื” ืชืœื™ืกืจ ืืฆื˜ืœื™ ืžืœืชื ืืžืจ ืื–ืœ ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ืžืกืชืคื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื™ื”

The Gemara returns to Shmuelโ€™s statement that any rending of garments that is not done at the time of most intense grief and pain is not considered proper rending of garments. The Gemara poses a question: But when they said to Shmuel that Rav had passed away, he rent twelve garments on account of him, and said: The man of whom I was in fear, owing to his great learning, has gone and died. Similarly, when they told Rabbi Yoแธฅanan that Rabbi แธคanina had passed away, he rent thirteen expensive wool [mileta] garments [itztelei] on account of him, and said: The man of whom I was in fear has gone. When each of these Sages received the news that their distinguished colleague had died, it was no longer the time of the most intense grief, i.e., the time of death, and yet they rent their garments.

ืฉืื ื™ ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื“ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื›ืœ ืฉืขืชื ืžื“ื›ืจื™ ืฉืžืขืชื™ื™ื”ื• ื›ืฉืขืช ื—ื™ืžื•ื ื“ืžื™

The Gemara answers: The Sages are different. Since their teachings are mentioned all the time, every time they are mentioned is like the time of most intense grief, as the pain over their death is once again renewed.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืจ ืื“ื ืœืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืชืœืžื™ื“ืš ืจื‘ ืขืžืจื ืชื ื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืงื•ืจืขื• ืœืคื ื™ื• ื•ืื ื‘ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืงื•ืจืข ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืงื•ืจืขื• ืœืื—ื•ืจื™ื• ื•ืื ื‘ื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืžื—ืœื™ืฃ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืงื•ืจืข

Ravin bar Adda said to Rava: Your student, Rav Amram, said that it is taught in a baraita as follows: For all seven days of mourning, a mourner must keep the tear in his garment before him so that it will be seen. And if he comes to change clothing, he changes and rends the new garment. On Shabbat, he turns the tear to his back, and if he comes to change clothing, he changes but does not tear the second garment. From here it seems that there is an obligation to rend garments during the entire week of mourning, not only at the most intense moment of grief.

ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื”ื”ื™ื ื‘ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ืื‘ื™ื• ื•ืืžื•

The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is referring to the specific case of rending oneโ€™s garment in honor of his father or mother. Owing to the special honor due to oneโ€™s parents, it is inappropriate for the child to wear a garment that is not torn. Consequently, if he changes clothing, he must tear the new garment, even if it is no longer the most intense time of grief.

ืื•ืชืŸ ืงืจืขื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืื• ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืคืœื™ื’ื™ ื‘ื” ืื‘ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื•ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ

The Gemara asks: Those additional tears that are made in honor of oneโ€™s father or mother, may they be properly mended at the end of the sonโ€™s period of mourning, or may they not be properly mended, like the tear made for oneโ€™s father or mother at the most intense moment of grief? The Gemara answers: They disagree about this issue, the father of Rav Oshaya and bar Kappara. One said: They may not be mended, and one said: They may be mended.

ืชืกืชื™ื™ื ื“ืื‘ื•ื” ื“ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืžืชืื—ื™ืŸ ืžืžืืŸ ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืžืื‘ื•ื” ืœื ืžื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ืจื‘ื™ื” ืฉืžื™ืข ืœื™ื”

The Gemara comments: Conclude that it was Rav Oshayaโ€™s father who said that such rents may not be properly mended, for Rav Oshaya said: Such rents may not be properly mended. From whom did he hear this halakha? Was it not from his father? The Gemara rejects this argument: No, this cannot be offered as a proof, as perhaps he heard it from bar Kappara, who was his teacher.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืื‘ืœ ืžื˜ื™ื™ืœ ื‘ืื•ื ืงืœื™ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืฉื›ื—ื™ื” ืœืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื“ืคืจื™ืก ืœื™ื” ืกื•ื“ืจื ืืจื™ืฉื™ื” ื•ืื–ื™ืœ ื•ืืชื™ ื‘ื‘ื™ืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืœืื• ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืœื•ืช ื‘ืฉื‘ืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฉื‘ืฆื™ื ืขื ื ื•ื”ื’

ยง Rava said: A mourner may walk about his house in a torn robe [unkali] on Shabbat, since he is not doing so in public. It was related that Abaye found Rav Yosef walking back and forth in his house on Shabbat when he was in mourning with a scarf spread over his head in the manner of mourning. He said to him: Master, do you not maintain that there is no mourning on Shabbat? He said to him: This is what Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Matters that are in private apply, and so when one is in his house he must observe the rites of mourning even on Shabbat.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื—ืจื‘ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืขืฆืจืช ื›ืฉื‘ืช ื•ื›ื•ืณ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ

ยง The mishna taught: Rabbi Eliezer says: Since the Temple was destroyed, Shavuot is like Shabbat with regard to mourning. Rabban Gamliel says: Even Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur are considered like Festivals. The Gemara comments that Rav Giddel bar Menashya said that Shmuel said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabban Gamliel.

ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืžืชื ื™ ืœื”ื ื“ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืื”ื ื›ืœ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื—ื™ืง ื•ื ืงื‘ืจ ื‘ืืฉื” ืื—ืช ื•ืฉื ื™ ืื ืฉื™ื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื

And some teach this ruling of Rav Giddel bar Menashya as referring to the following case: It is taught in a baraita: Within the first thirty days after birth, an infant that dies is taken out for burial in oneโ€™s bosom, that is to say, he is carried to his grave in oneโ€™s arms, not in a coffin. And he is buried by one woman and two men, there being no need for a quorum of ten men. But he should not be taken out by one man and two women, because it is prohibited for one man to seclude himself with two women.

ืื‘ื ืฉืื•ืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืืฃ ื‘ืื™ืฉ ืื—ื“ ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื•ืื™ืŸ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืชื ื—ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื™ื

Abba Shaul says: The infant may be taken out even by one man and two women, for there is no concern with regard to seclusion in a time of mourning. And for such an infant, people do not stand in a line to offer their condolences to the mourners, as is ordinarily done after a burial; nor do others recite over him the mournersโ€™ blessing, which is recited in the courtyard of the graveyard after the burial; nor is the usual formula for the consolation of mourners recited during the seven days of mourning.

ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ื“ืœื•ืกืงืžื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื“ืœื•ืกืงืžื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœืช ื‘ื›ืชืฃ ืืœื ื”ื ื™ื˜ืœืช ื‘ืื’ืคื™ื™ื ื•ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื•ืจื” ื•ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืœื™ื ื•ืชื ื—ื•ืžื™ ืื‘ืœื™ื

A thirty-day-old infant that dies is taken out for burial in a coffin [deluskema]. Rabbi Yehuda says: Not in a small coffin that is carried on oneโ€™s shoulder, but rather in a coffin that is carried in the arms of two people. And for such an infant, people stand in a line to offer their condolences to the mourners. And others recite the mournersโ€™ blessing at the cemetery. And people recite the consolation of mourners during the week of mourning.

ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื” ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื• ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ื”ื•ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืื‘ืจื™ื• ื›ื‘ืŸ ืฉื ื” ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื”

A twelve-month-old infant is taken out for burial on a bier, just as an adult is. Rabbi Akiva says: This halakha applies if the infant that dies is one year old and his limbs are like those of a two year old, so that he looks older, or if he is two years old and his limbs are like those of a one-year-old. Only then he is taken out on a bier.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื”ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฆื ื‘ืžื˜ื” ืื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืฆื”ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœื™ื• ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ ื ื™ื›ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืขืกืงื™ื ืขืžื• ืื™ื ื• ื ื™ื›ืจ ืœืจื‘ื™ื ืื™ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืชืขืกืงื™ื ืขืžื•

Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: For one that is taken out on a bier, the public should grieve [matzhivin]. For one that is not taken out on a bier, the public need not grieve. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The halakha is as follows: If the infant was known to the public, because he regularly left the house and many people knew him, the public must occupy themselves with him and participate in his burial. If he was not known to the public, the public need not occupy themselves with him.

ื•ืžื” ื”ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ื‘ืฉื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉืžื• ืขื ื™ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ื—ืžืฉ ืขืฉื™ืจื™ื ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืฉ ื•ื‘ื ื™ ื–ืงื ื™ื ื›ื‘ื ื™ ืขื ื™ื™ื

And what is the status of deceased infants with regard to eulogy? Rabbi Meir said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The children of the poor are eulogized from the age of three, whereas the children of the wealthy are eulogized from the age of five. This is because a child is the sole source of joy for the poor, and so the pain and grief of the poor over the death of a child is greater than that of the wealthy. Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The children of the poor are eulogized from the age of five, whereas the children of the wealthy are eulogized from the age of six. And the children of the elderly are treated like the children of the poor, for the death of a child is particularly painful for an older person.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื’ื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืจ ืžื ืฉื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื”ืœื›ื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ

Rav Giddel bar Menashya said that Rav said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who stated it in the name of Rabbi Yishmael.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ืขื ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืฉื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืชื—ื ื“ื‘ื™ ื ืฉื™ืื” ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืขืฆืจืช ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื•ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืื˜ื• ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื™ื

Rabbi Anani bar Sason taught at the entrance to the house of the Nasi: If one suffered the loss of a close relative shortly before the festival of Shavuot, his one day of mourning before Shavuot and Shavuot itself together count as fourteen days. The day before the Festival counts as seven full days of mourning because the Festival interrupts the seven-day period of mourning, and the Festival itself is counted as a seven-day Festival. Even though it is a one-day Festival, it is counted as seven days because it has the same halakha as the other Festivals. After Shavuot, then, only sixteen days are left to complete the thirty-day mourning period. Rabbi Ami heard this and became angry with him. He said: Is that to say that it is his own opinion? It is the opinion that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื ืคื—ื ืืงื™ืœืขื ื“ืจื™ืฉ ื’ืœื•ืชื ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืขืฆืจืช ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืจื‘ ืฉืฉืช ืื™ืงืคื“ ืืžืจ ืื˜ื• ื“ื™ื“ื™ื” ื”ื™ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ื”ื™ื

Similarly Rabbi Yitzแธฅak Nappaแธฅa taught in the pavilion [kila] of the Exilarch: If oneโ€™s relative died shortly before the festival of Shavuot, his one day of mourning before Shavuot and Shavuot itself count as fourteen days. Rav Sheshet heard and became angry. He said: Is that to say that it is his own opinion? It is the opinion that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said.

ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขืฆืจืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืžื” ื—ื’ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืืฃ ื—ื’ ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื” ืชืฉืœื•ืžื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฉื‘ืขื”

In both of these cases, a Sage presented an opinion as their own, without attributing it to the original Sage who stated it, for Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Oshaya said: From where is it derived that the Shavuot offerings have redress all seven subsequent days? That is to say, if someone failed to bring the Festival offering on the Festival itself, he has six more days to bring it. As it is stated: โ€œThree times a year shall all your males appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose; on the festival of Passover, and on the festival of Shavuot, and on the festival of Sukkotโ€ (Deuteronomy 16:16). Just as the offerings of the festival of Passover have redress all seven days, as Passover is seven days long, so too the offerings of the festival of Shavuot have redress all seven days, during the week following Shavuot. From this we learn that Shavuot is treated like a seven-day Festival for all halakhic purposes.

ืื“ื‘ืจื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืจื‘ ืื•ื™ื ืกื‘ื ื•ื“ืจืฉ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื”ืœื›ืš ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื’ ื•ื—ื’ ื•ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืฉืœื• ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ื

Rav Pappa granted permission to Rav Avya the Elder to speak and he taught the following in public: If oneโ€™s relative died shortly before Rosh HaShana, his one day of mourning before Rosh HaShana and Rosh HaShana itself together count as fourteen days, because Rosh HaShana is treated like a seven-day Festival. Ravina said: Therefore, if a oneโ€™s relative died shortly before Sukkot, his one day of mourning before the Festival of Sukkot, and the Festival of Sukkot itself, which is seven days, and its Eighth day of Assembly, which is considered to be a separate Festival, count as twenty-one days, and he must observe only nine more days of mourning to complete the thirty-day period of mourning.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ืื™ืงืœืข ืœืกื•ืจื ื“ืคืจืช ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ื—ื‘ื™ื‘ื ืžืกื•ืจื ื“ืคืจืช ืœืจื‘ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื™ื•ื ืื—ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื”ืจื™ ื›ืืŸ ืืจื‘ืขื” ืขืฉืจ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื ื ืžืกืชื‘ืจื ื›ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžื™ื ื

It was related that Ravina happened to come to the city of Sura on the Euphrates River. Rav แธคaviva from Sura on the Euphrates said to Ravina: Did the Master say that one day of mourning before Rosh HaShana and Rosh HaShana itself count as fourteen days? He said to him: I said that it stands to reason that this is so according to Rabban Gamliel, who maintains that Rosh HaShana is treated like a pilgrim Festival. But I did not rule in accordance with this opinion.

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ืงื•ืจืขื™ืŸ ื•ืœื ื—ื•ืœืฆื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืžืช ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื‘ืจื™ืŸ ืืœื ืขืœ ืžื˜ื” ื–ืงื•ืคื”

MISHNA: Mourners do not rend their garments during the intermediate days of a Festival and do not remove their garments from their shoulders. And others do not provide them with a meal [mavrin] after the burial, except for close relatives of the deceased. And the consolers provide the first meal after the burial only while the mourner is sitting on an upright bed, and not on one that is overturned.

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