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Today's Daf Yomi

February 9, 2022 | 讞壮 讘讗讚专 讗壮 转砖驻状讘

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 28

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored anonymously to those who maintain the Hadran website. 鈥淒uring Megillah we got way behind. We started to double and triple up on dapim and are managing to celebrate Siyum Moed Katan with everyone! I wish to encourage others to not be discouraged if they get in a similar situation.鈥

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Heather Stone for the refuah shlemah of Robert Stone, Yehuda Leib ben Naftali HaLevi v’Chaya, Heather Stone and Gwen Hermann鈥檚 father.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Samuel Ackerman in honor of Rachel Honeyman. 鈥淵ou are seen! So proud of everything you do.鈥澛

A woman’s body before burial should not be left out any longer than needed 鈥 out of respect. Is this law specifically referring to pregnant women or to all women? Rabbi Elazar who holds it refers to all women derives this law from Miriam as they learn that she was buried immediately after her death. He also holds that Miriam died through a 鈥渒iss from God鈥 like Moshe. Also, her death atones for the sins of the people as is derived from the juxtaposition of her death to the laws of the red heifer. A braita brings names for those who die immediately and those who get sick and die after a day, two days, three days, etc. One who dies at age fifty is death from karet (a God-given punishment), fifty-two is the death of Shmuel the prophet and sixty is considered death in its proper time. What about seventy or eighty? Raba died young and had many calamities in his family and lived in poverty while Rav Chisda lived a long life, celebrated many weddings, and had a lot of wealth. After seeing Raba and Rav Chisda, Rava stated that life, children and sustenance are based on luck rather than merit. Stories are told of exchanges that happened on the death beds of Rava and Rav Nachman, including each of them appearing in a dream after their death upon request by another before their death to tell them what the moment of death was like. Each of these stories, in addition to a few others, mentions encounters with the angel of death. The Mishna discusses different methods women would use to mourn/lament and which ones are permitted on holidays/Rosh Chodesh. The Gemara mentions different lamentations that were recited by women in a place called Shechnatziv. When Rabbi Yishmael鈥檚 two sons died, different rabbis came to give words of comfort. What did they each say? When one visits a mourner, one should not say anything until the mourner begins to speak. The mourner sits at the head 鈥 from where is this derived? A groom also sits at the head 鈥 this is derived from a kohen who also sits at the head.

讗诇讗 讞讬讛 讗讘诇 砖讗专 谞砖讬诐 诪谞讬讞讬谉

with regard to a woman who died in childbirth, and therefore continues to bleed. But the biers of other women may be set down in the street.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讗专 讛谞砖讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜转诪转 砖诐 诪专讬诐 讜转拽讘专 砖诐 住诪讜讱 诇诪讬转讛 拽讘讜专讛

Rabbi Elazar said: Even the biers of other women must not be set down in the street, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Miriam died there and was buried there鈥 (Numbers 20:1), which teaches that the site of her burial was close to the place of her death. Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗祝 诪专讬诐 讘谞砖讬拽讛 诪转讛 讗转讬讗 砖诐 砖诐 诪诪砖讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讛 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 诪驻谞讬 砖讙谞讗讬 讛讚讘专 诇讗讜诪专讜

With regard to that same verse Rabbi Elazar said further: Miriam also died by the divine kiss, just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? This is derived through a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渢here鈥 stated with regard to Miriam and the word 鈥渢here鈥 mentioned with regard to Moses.With regard to Moses it says: 鈥淪o Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:5). For what reason was it not explicitly stated with regard to her, as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died 鈥渂y the mouth of the Lord鈥? It is because it would be unseemly to say such a thing, that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 诪讬转转 诪专讬诐 诇驻专砖转 驻专讛 讗讚讜诪讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 驻专讛 讗讚讜诪讛 诪讻驻专转 讗祝 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讻驻专转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 诪讬转转 讗讛专谉 诇讘讙讚讬 讻讛讜谞讛 诪讛 讘讙讚讬 讻讛讜谞讛 诪讻驻专讬谉 讗祝 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讻驻专转

Rabbi Ami said: Why was the Torah portion that describes the death of Miriam juxtaposed to the portion dealing with the red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atones for sin, so too, the death of the righteous atones for sin. Rabbi Elazar said: Why was the Torah portion that describes the death of Aaron juxtaposed to the portion discussing the priestly garments? This teaches that just as the priestly garments atone for sin, so too, the death of the righteous atones for sin.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转 驻转讗讜诐 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讞讟讜驻讛 讞诇讛 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜诪转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讚讞讜驻讛 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 诪讙驻讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘谉 讗讚诐 讛谞谞讬 诇讜拽讞 诪诪讱 讗转 诪讞诪讚 注讬谞讬讱 讘诪讙驻讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗讚讘专 讗诇 讛注诐 讘讘拽专 讜转诪转 讗砖转讬 讘注专讘

The Sages taught the following baraita: If one dies suddenly without having been sick, this is death through snatching. If he became sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi 岣nanya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: 鈥淪on of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke鈥 (Ezekiel 24:16). And when this prophecy is fulfilled it is written: 鈥淪o I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died鈥 (Ezekiel 24:18).

砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诪转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讚讞讜讬讛 砖诇砖讛 讙注专讛 讗专讘注讛 谞讝讬驻讛 讞诪砖讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻诇 讗讚诐

If he was sick for two days and died, this is a quickened death. If he was sick for three days and died, this is a death of rebuke. If he died after being sick for four days, this is a death of reprimand. If one died after a sickness lasting five days, this is the ordinary death of all people.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讛谉 拽专讘讜 讬诪讬讱 诇诪讜转 讛谉 讞讚 拽专讘讜 转专讬 讬诪讬讱 转专讬 讛讗 讞诪砖讛 讛谉 讞讚 砖讻谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讜谞讬 拽讜专讬谉 诇讗讞转 讛谉

Rabbi 岣nin said: What is the verse from which this is derived? It is stated: 鈥淏ehold, your days approach that you must die鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: 鈥淏ehold [hen]鈥 indicates one; 鈥渁pproach [karvu],鈥 a plural term, indicates two; 鈥測our days [yamekha],鈥 also a plural term, indicates another two; and therefore in total this is five. How does the word hen indicate one? Because in the Greek language they call the number one hen.

诪转 讘讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻专转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬 砖砖讬诐 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one dies when he is fifty years old, this is death through karet, the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions.If he dies when he is fifty-two years old, this is the death of Samuel from Ramah. If he dies at the age of sixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 转讘讗 讘讻诇讞 讗诇讬 拽讘专 讘讻诇讞 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 砖讬转讬谉 讛讜讜

Mar Zutra said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written: 鈥淵ou shall come to your grave in a ripe age [bekhela岣]鈥 (Job 5:26). The word 鈥渞ipe age鈥 [bekhela岣] has the numerical value of sixty, and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.

砖讘注讬诐 砖讬讘讛 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讙讘讜专讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讬诪讬 砖谞讜转讬谞讜 讘讛诐 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗诐 讘讙讘讜专讜转 砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讜注讚 砖砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻专转 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬

One who dies at the age of seventy has reached old age. One who dies at the age of eighty dies in strength, as it is written: 鈥淭he days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years鈥 (Psalms 90:10). Rabba said: Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of karet, but even death from fifty to sixty years of age is death by karet. And the reason that all of these years were not counted in connection with karet is due to the honor of Samuel from Ramah, who died at the age of fifty-two.

专讘 讬讜住祝 讻讬 讛讜讛 讘专 砖讬转讬谉 注讘讚 诇讛讜 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 谞驻拽讬 诇讬 诪讻专转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 谞讛讬 讚谞驻拽 诇讬讛 诪专 诪讻专转 讚砖谞讬 诪讻专转 讚讬讜诪讬 诪讬 谞驻讬拽 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞拽讜讟 诇讱 诪讬讛讗 驻诇讙讗 讘讬讚讱

The Gemara relates that when Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages. Explaining the cause for his celebration, he said: I have passed the age of karet. Abaye said to him: Master, even though you have passed the karet of years, have you, Master, escaped the karet of days? As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of karet. He said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand, for I have at least escaped one type of karet.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 驻转讗讜诐 讛讜讜 拽讗 讚讬讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 转谞讗 诇讛讜 讝讜讙讗 讚诪讛讚讬讬讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讙讘讜专讜转 讗讘诇 讛讙讬注 诇讙讘讜专讜转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 谞砖讬拽讛

It was related that Rav Huna died suddenly, and the Sages were concerned that this was a bad sign. The Sage Zuga from Hadayeiv taught them the following: They taught these principles only when the deceased had not reached the age of strength, i.e., eighty. But if he had reached the age of strength and then died suddenly, this is death by way of a divine kiss.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讞讬讬 讘谞讬 讜诪讝讜谞讬 诇讗 讘讝讻讜转讗 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗诇讗 讘诪讝诇讗 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讛讗 专讘讛 讜专讘 讞住讚讗 转专讜讬讬讛讜 专讘谞谉 爪讚讬拽讬 讛讜讜 诪专 诪爪诇讬 讜讗转讬 诪讬讟专讗 讜诪专 诪爪诇讬 讜讗转讬 诪讬讟专讗

Rava said: Length of life, children, and sustenance do not depend on one鈥檚 merit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav 岣sda were both pious Sages; one Sage would pray during a drought and rain would fall, and the other Sage would pray and rain would fall.

专讘 讞住讚讗 讞讬讛 转砖注讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 砖谞讬谉 专讘讛 讞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讘讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 砖讬转讬谉 讛诇讜诇讬 讘讬 专讘讛 砖讬转讬谉 转讬讻诇讬

And nevertheless, their lives were very different. Rav 岣sda lived for ninety-two years, whereas Rabba lived for only forty years. The house of Rav 岣sda celebrated sixty wedding feasts, whereas the house of Rabba experienced sixty calamities. In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav 岣sda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba.

讘讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 住诪讬讚讗 诇讻诇讘讬 讜诇讗 诪转讘注讬 讘讬 专讘讛 谞讛诪讗 讚砖注专讬 诇讗讬谞砖讬 讜诇讗 诪砖转讻讞

In the house of Rav 岣sda there was bread from the finest flour [semida] even for the dogs, and it was not asked after, as there was so much food. In the house of Rabba, on the other hand, there was coarse barley bread even for people, and it was not found in sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustenance all depend not upon one鈥檚 merit, but upon fate.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转诇转 诪讬诇讬 讘注讗讬 拽诪讬 砖诪讬讗 转专转讬 讬讛讘讜 诇讬 讞讚讗 诇讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬 讞讜讻诪转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜注讜转专讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬讛讘讜 诇讬 注谞讜转谞讜转讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬

Apropos Rav 岣sda鈥檚 great wealth, the Gemara reports that Rava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, two of which were given to me, and one was not given to me: I requested the wisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav 岣sda and they were given to me. I also requested the humility of Rabba bar Rav Huna, but it was not given to me.

专讘 砖注讜专讬诐 讗讞讜讛 讚专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪专 讚诇讗 诇爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇讗讜 砖讜砖讘讬谞讬讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬诪住专 诪讝诇讗 诇讗 讗砖讙讞 讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转讞讝讬 诇讬 诪专 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪专 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬 专讬讘讚讗 讚讻讜住讬诇转讗

The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. Rav Seorim, Rava鈥檚 brother, sat before Rava, and he saw that Rava was dozing, i.e., about to die. Rava said to his brother: Master, tell him, the Angel of Death, not to torment me. Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim said to him: Master, are you not a friend of the Angel of Death? Rava said to him: Since my fate has been handed over to him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death no longer pays heed to me. Rav Seorim said to Rava: Master, appear to me in a dream after your death. And Rava appeared to him. Rav Seorim said to Rava: Master, did you have pain in death? He said to him: Like the prick of the knife when letting blood.

专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讞讝讬讬讛 讚拽讗 诪谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪专 讚诇讗 诇爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇讗讜 讗讚诐 讞砖讜讘 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 诪讗谉 住驻讬谉 诪讗谉 专拽讬注

It was similarly related that Rava sat before Rav Na岣an, and he saw that Rav Na岣an was dozing, i.e., slipping into death. Rav Na岣an said to Rava: Master, tell the Angel of Death not to torment me. Rava said to him: Master, are you not an important person who is respected in Heaven? Rav Na岣an said to him: In the supernal world who is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转讞讝讬 诇讬 诪专 讗转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪专 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻诪讬砖讞诇 讘谞讬转讗 诪讞诇讘讗 讜讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讬诇 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讻讚 讛讜讬转 诇讗 讘注讬谞讗 讚谞驻讬砖 讘讬注转讜转讬讛

Rava said to Rav Na岣an: Master, appear to me in a dream after your death. And he appeared to him. Rava said to him: Master, did you have pain in death? Rav Na岣an said to him: Like the removal of hair from milk, which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, were the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Go back to that world, the physical world, as you were, I would not want to go, for the fear of the Angel of Death is great. And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 拽讗讻讬诇 转专讜诪讛 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转专讜诪讛 拽讗 讗讻讬诇谞讗 讜诇讗讜 拽讜讚砖 讗讬拽专讬 讞诇驻讗 诇讬讛 砖注转讗

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar was once eating teruma, when the Angel of Death appeared to him. He said to the Angel of Death: I am eating teruma; is it not called sacred? It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred teruma. The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. The moment passed, and he lived for some time afterward.

专讘 砖砖转 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讻讘讛诪讛 讗讬转讗 诇讙讘讬 讘讬转讗

It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once appeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace. Rav Sheshet said to the Angel of Death: Shall I die in the market like an animal? Come to my house and kill me there like a human being.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬转专讞 诇讬 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜讗讛讚专讬 诇转诇诪讜讚讗讬 讚讗诪专讬转讜 讗砖专讬 诪讬 砖讘讗 诇讻讗谉 讜转诇诪讜讚讜 讘讬讚讜 讘讬讜诐 转诇转讬谉 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 拽讗 讚讞拽讗 专讙诇讬讛 讚讘专 谞转谉 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘讬专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

So too, the Angel of Death appeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace. Rav Ashi said to the Angel of Death: Give me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you say above: Fortunate is he who comes here to Heaven with his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth day the Angel of Death came to take him. Rav Ashi said to the Angel of Death: What is all of this? Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: The foot of Rav Huna bar Natan is pushing you, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, and one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even by one hairbreadth. Therefore, you cannot live any longer.

专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 砖转讬拽 驻讜诪讬讛 诪讙讬专住讗 住诇讬拽 讬转讬讘 讘讗专讝讗 讚讘讬 专讘 驻拽注 讗专讝讗 讜砖转拽 讜讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛

The Angel of Death was unable to take Rav 岣sda because his mouth was never silent from study. So the Angel of Death went and sat on the cedar column that supported the roof of the study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked and Rav 岣sda was silent for a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was able to take him.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪讬 诇诪讬拽专讘讗 诇讬讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讗讬讚诪讬 诇讬讛 讻注谞讬讗 讗转讗 讟专讬祝 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讬拽 诇讬 专讬驻转讗 讗驻讬拽讜 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗讜 拽讗 诪专讞诐 诪专 讗注谞讬讗 讗讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪专讞诐 诪专 讙诇讬 诇讬讛 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 砖讜讟讗 讚谞讜专讗 讗诪爪讬 诇讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛

The Angel of Death could not come near Rabbi 岣yya, owing to his righteousness. One day the Angel of Death appeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said to Rabbi 岣yya: Bring out bread for me, and he took out bread for him. The Angel of Death then said to Rabbi 岣yya: Master, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man, i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then revealed his identity to him, and showed him a fiery rod in order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav 岣yya surrendered himself to him.

诪转谞讬壮 谞砖讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 诪注谞讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 诪讟驻讞讜转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇诪讟讛 诪讟驻讞讜转

MISHNA: On the intermediate days of a Festival women may wail in grief over the deceased, but they may not clap [metape岣t] their hands in mourning. Rabbi Yishmael says: Those who are close to the bier may clap.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讜讘驻讜专讬诐 诪注谞讜转 讜诪讟驻讞讜转 讘讝讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 诪拽讜谞谞讜转 谞拽讘专 讛诪转 诇讗 诪注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讟驻讞讜转

On New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim, which are not Festivals by Torah law, the women may both wail and clap their hands in mourning. On both the intermediate days of a Festival and on New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim they may not lament. After the deceased has been buried they may neither wail nor clap.

讗讬讝讛讜 注讬谞讜讬 砖讻讜诇谉 注讜谞讜转 讻讗讞转 拽讬谞讛 砖讗讞转 诪讚讘专转 讜讻讜诇谉 注讜谞讜转 讗讞专讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇诪讚谞讛 讘谞讜转讬讻诐 谞讛讬 讜讗砖讛 专注讜转讛 拽讬谞讛

The mishna explains: What is considered wailing? This is when they all wail together simultaneously. And what is considered a lament? This is when one speaks and they all answer after her with a repeated refrain, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd teach your daughters wailing and everyone her neighbor lamentation鈥 (Jeremiah 9:19).

讗讘诇 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘诇注 讛诪讜转 诇谞爪讞 讜诪讞讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讚诪注讛 诪注诇 讻诇 驻谞讬诐 讜讙讜壮

In order to conclude on a positive note, the mishna says: But with regard to the future, the verse states: 鈥淗e will destroy death forever; and the Lord, God, will wipe away tears from off all faces and the reproach of His people He will take away from off all the earth鈥 (Isaiah 25:8).

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗诪专谉 讗诪专 专讘 讜讬讬 诇讗讝诇讗 讜讬讬 诇讞讘讬诇讗

GEMARA: What do the women who wail over the dead say? Rav said: They say: Woe over him who is now departing; woe over him who is now returning the pledge, i.e., his soul, which had been deposited in his hands all the years of his life.

讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讛讻讬 讜讬讬 诇讗讝诇讗 讜讬讬 诇讞讘讬诇讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讙讜讚 讙专诪讗 诪讻讻讗 讜谞诪讟讬 诪讬讗 诇讗谞讟讬讻讬

Rava said: The women in the city of Shekhantziv, who were known for their wisdom, would say as follows: Woe over him who is now departing; woe over him who is now returning the pledge. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say about an elderly person: The bone has been removed from the jaw and the water returns to the kettle.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 注讟讜祝 讜讻住讜 讟讜专讬 讚讘专 专诪讬 讜讘专 专讘专讘讬 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 砖讬讬讜诇 讗爪讟诇讗 讚诪诇转讗 诇讘专 讞讜专讬谉 讚砖诇讬诪讜 讝讜讜讚讬讛

And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say at a time of bereavement: Wrap and cover the mountains in mourning, as the deceased is the son of the high and distinguished. Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Lend out a cloak of fine wool to serve as a burial shroud for a free man whose sustenance has been depleted. In other words, a wealthy person who loses his fortune would rather die than live in poverty.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 专讛讬讟 讜谞驻讬诇 讗诪注讘专讗 讜讬讝讜驻转讗 讬讝讬祝 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讗讞谞讗 转讙专讬 讗讝讘讝讙讬 诪讬讘讚拽讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 诪讜转讗 讻讬 诪讜转讗 讜诪专注讬谉 讞讬讘讜诇讬讗

And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: A person runs and tumbles at the ford and still he borrows. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Our brothers, the merchants, will be examined at their places of business to see if they are honest businessmen. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Death is like death, as everyone must die, and suffering is like interest.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讟讜讘 诇诇讻转 讗诇 讘讬转 讗讘诇 讜讙讜壮 注讚 讜讛讞讬 讬转谉 讗诇 诇讘讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 诪讬转讛 讚讬住驻讚 讬住驻讚讜谞讬讛 讚讬拽讘专 讬拽讘专讜谞讬讛 讚讬讟注谉 讬讟注谞讜谞讬讛 讚讬讚诇 讬讚诇讜谞讬讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say with regard to the verse 鈥淚t is better to go to the house of mourning than to go to the house of feasting, for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his heart鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:2): What should the living lay to his heart? Matters relating to death. And these matters are as follows: He that eulogizes will be eulogized by others. He that buries others will be buried by others. He that loads many words of praise and tribute into the eulogies that he delivers for others will be similarly treated by others. He that raises his voice in weeping over others will have others raise their voices over him.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诇讗 讬讚诇 讬讚诇讜谞讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讟讜讘 讗诪专 诇讱 注诇讛 讛谞讛 讜讙讜壮

And some say: One who does not raise himself with pride, but chooses his place among the lowly, will be raised by others, as it is written: 鈥淒o not exalt yourself in the king鈥檚 presence, and stand not in the place of great men. For it is better to be told, step up here, than to be degraded in the presence of the great鈥 (Proverbs 25:6鈥7).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖诪转讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 谞讻谞住讜 讗专讘注讛 讝拽谞讬诐 诇谞讞诪讜 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讚注讜 砖讞讻诐 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讜讘拽讬 讘讗讙讚讜转 讗诇 讬讻谞住 讗讞讚 诪讻诐 诇转讜讱 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗谞讬 讗讞专讜谉

The Sages taught the following baraita: When the sons of Rabbi Yishmael died, four Elders entered to console him: Rabbi Tarfon, Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Tarfon said to them: Know that Rabbi Yishmael is a great Sage and well versed in aggadot. Let none of you interrupt the words of another, but rather each person should say something novel of his own. Rabbi Akiva said: And I shall speak last.

驻转讞 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讜 注讜谞讜转讬讜 转讻驻讜讛讜 讗讘诇讬讜 讛讟专讬讞 专讘讜转讬讜 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛

Rabbi Yishmael, the mourner, opened and said about himself: Many are his sins. Due to this, his bereavements came in quick succession and he troubled his teachers once and then a second time to come and console him.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讗诪专 讜讗讞讬讻诐 讻诇 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讬讘讻讜 讗转 讛砖专驻讛 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 砖诇讗 注砖讜 讗诇讗 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讬讘讜 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讗转 讛讚诐 讗诇讬讜 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Having been granted permission to speak, Rabbi Tarfon answered and said: With regard to the death of Aaron鈥檚 sons it says: 鈥淏ut let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning that the Lord has kindled鈥 (Leviticus 10:6). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Nadav and Avihu, who had performed only one mitzva that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sons of Aaron brought the blood to him鈥 (Leviticus 9:9), this was nevertheless stated about them, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael, who were well known for their performance of many mitzvot, all the more so should the entire Jewish people bewail their death.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讜讗诪专 讜住驻讚讜 诇讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜拽讘专讜 讗讜转讜 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讗讘讬讛 讘谉 讬专讘注诐 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讚讘专 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讬注谉 谞诪爪讗 讘讜 讚讘专 讟讜讘 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Rabbi Yosei HaGelili answered and said: With regard to Abijah, son of King Jeroboam, the verse states: 鈥淎nd all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him鈥 (I聽Kings 14:13). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Abijah, son of Jeroboam, who did only one good thing, as it is written: 鈥淏ecause in him there is found some good thing toward the Lord God of Israel鈥 (I聽Kings 14:13), i.e., he did only one good thing, and this was his reward, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so should they be rewarded by having the entire Jewish people mourn for them and bury them.

诪讗讬 讚讘专 讟讜讘 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘讬讟诇 诪砖诪专转讜 讜注诇讛 诇专讙诇 讜讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘讬讟诇 驻专讚住讗讜转 砖讛讜砖讬讘 讬专讘注诐 讗讘讬讜 注诇 讛讚专讻讬诐 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇

The Gemara asks: What was this one good thing that Abijah did? Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa disagreed about this issue. One said: He abandoned his guard post. His father, Jeroboam, had assigned him to serve as one of the guards whose mission it was to prevent people from going up to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festivals. And he himself went up to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival. And one said: He removed the guards [pardesaot] that his father, Jeroboam, had placed along the roads so that the people of Israel would not go up to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festivals.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜讗诪专 讘砖诇讜诐 转诪讜转 讜讘诪砖专驻讜转 讗讘讜转讬讱 讛诪诇讻讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 [讗砖专 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讱 讻谉] 讬砖专驻讜 诇讱 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 爪讚拽讬讛讜 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 砖讛注诇讛 讬专诪讬讛 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The baraita continues: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya answered and said: With regard to King Zedekiah, the verse states: 鈥淏ut you shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kings that were before you, so shall they make a burning for you鈥 (Jeremiah 34:5). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Zedekiah, king of Judea, who had performed only one mitzva that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, for he had Jeremiah lifted out of the mire (Jeremiah 38:10), this was nevertheless stated about him, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so should they be rewarded by dying in peace.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗诪专 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬讙讚诇 讛诪住驻讚 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讻诪住驻讚 讛讚讚专讬诪讜谉 [讘讘拽注转 诪讙讬讚讜] 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇诪诇讗 转专讙讜诪讬讛 讚讛讗讬 拽专讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专

Rabbi Akiva answered and said: The verse states: 鈥淥n that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon鈥 (Zechariah 12:11). The Gemara comments: With regard to this verse, Rav Yosef said: Had it not been for the Aramaic translation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying, as nowhere in the Bible do we find this incident involving Hadadrimmon.

讘注讬讚谞讗 讛讛讜讗 讬住讙讬 诪住驻讚讗 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讻诪住驻讚讗 讚讗讞讗讘 讘专 注诪专讬 讚拽讟诇 讬转讬讛 讛讚讚专讬诪讜谉 讘专 讟讘专讬诪讜谉 讜讻诪住驻讚 讚讬讗砖讬讛 讘专 讗诪讜谉 讚拽讟诇 讬转讬讛 驻专注讛 讞讙讬专讗 讘讘拽注转 诪讙讬讚讜

The Aramaic translation reads as follows: At that time the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning over Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tabrimmon, and like the mourning over Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon.

讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讗讞讗讘 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讚讘专 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛诪诇讱 讛讬讛 诪注诪讚 讘诪专讻讘讛 谞讻讞 讗专诐 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The baraita continues: Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who did only one good thing that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the king was propped up in his chariot facing Aram鈥 (I聽Kings 22:35), as he did not want the Jewish people to see that he was mortally wounded and flee, and this, that he was greatly mourned, was nevertheless stated about him, then all the more so will the sons of Rabbi Yishmael be greatly mourned.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讘爪讚拽讬讛讜 讘砖诇讜诐 转诪讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗转 注讬谞讬 爪讚拽讬讛讜 注讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪转 谞讘讜讻讚谞讗爪专 讘讬诪讬讜

The Gemara discusses issues in the aforementioned verses: Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Zedekiah: 鈥淵ou shall die in peace,鈥 but elsewhere it is written: 鈥淎nd he put out Zedekiah鈥檚 eyes鈥 (Jeremiah 39:7). Rabba bar Mari said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The first verse: 鈥淵ou shall die in peace,鈥 means that Nebuchadnezzar died in Zedekiah鈥檚 lifetime and consequently the latter died in peace, having seen the death of the wicked.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讘讬讗砖讬讛讜 诇讻谉 讛谞谞讬 讗讜住讬驻讱 注诇 讗讘讜转讬讱 讜谞讗住驻转 讗诇 拽讘专讜转讬讱 讘砖诇讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讜专讜 讛讬讜专讬诐 诇诪诇讱 讬讗砖讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖注砖讗讜讛讜 讻讻讘专讛

And Rava further said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Josiah: 鈥淏ehold, therefore I will gather you unto your fathers, and you shall be gathered into your grave in peace鈥 (II聽Kings 22:20), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淎nd the archers shot at King Josiah; and the king said to his servants, Get me away; for I am grievously wounded鈥 (II聽Chronicles 35:23). And with regard to this verse Rabbi Yehuda said that Rav said: With their many arrows, they made his body like a sieve.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讬诪讬讜

Rabba bar Mari said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The words 鈥渋n peace鈥 stated with regard to King Josiah refer to the fact that the Temple was not destroyed in his lifetime, as the verse itself continues: 鈥淎nd your eyes shall not see all the evil that I will bring upon this place鈥 (II聽Kings 22:20).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 诪谞讞诪讬谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇讜诪专 讚讘专 注讚 砖讬驻转讞 讗讘诇 砖谞讗诪专 讗讞专讬 讻谉 驻转讞 讗讬讜讘 讗转 驻讬讛讜 讜讛讚专 讜讬注谉 讗诇讬驻讝 讛转讬诪谞讬

The Gemara returns to examining the halakhot of consolation. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The consolers are not permitted to speak words of consolation until the mourner opens and speaks first. As it is stated: 鈥淎nd they sat down with him upon the ground for seven days and seven nights, and none spoke a word to him; for they saw that his suffering was very great. After this Job opened his mouth鈥 (Job 2:13鈥3:1). And afterward: 鈥淎nd Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said鈥 (Job 4:1).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪谞讬谉 诇讗讘诇 砖诪讬住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讗讘讞专 讚专讻诐 讜讗砖讘 专讗砖 讜讗砖讻讜谉 讻诪诇讱 讘讙讚讜讚 讻讗砖专 讗讘诇讬诐 讬谞讞诐

Rabbi Abbahu said: From where is it derived that the mourner reclines at the head [rosh] of the table? As it is stated: 鈥淚 chose out their way, and sat as chief [rosh], and dwelt as a king in the army, as one that comforts [yena岣m] the mourners鈥 (Job 29:25). This indicates that the mourner sits at the head of the table, as the chief.

讬谞讞诐 讗讞专讬谞讬 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讬谞讞诐 讻转讬讘

The Gemara raises an objection: But the word yena岣m means that he comforts others, thereby implying that one who comforts the mourners sits at the head of the table. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The word is written as yina岣m, meaning: Will be comforted, and therefore can be understood as referring to the mourner.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜住专 诪专讝讞 住专讜讞讬诐 诪专讝讞 谞注砖讛 砖专 诇住专讜讞讬诐

Mar Zutra said: A proof may be derived from here: The verse 鈥淎nd the revelry [mirza岣] of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away [sar]鈥 (Amos 6:7) means that mirza岣, he who is bitter [mar] and whose mind is overwrought [za岣] due to grief, is made a prince [sar] over those who sit beside him stretched out below him to comfort him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪谞讬谉 诇讞转谉 砖诪讬住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讻讞转谉 讬讻讛谉 驻讗专 诪讛 讻讛谉 讘专讗砖 讗祝 讞转谉 讘专讗砖

Rabbi 岣ma bar 岣nina said: From where is it derived that a groom reclines at the head of the table? As it is stated: 鈥淎s a bridegroom decks himself [yekhahen] with a garland鈥 (Isaiah 61:10). Just as a priest [kohen] is at the head of the table, so too, a bridegroom is at the head of the table.

讜讻讛谉 讙讜驻讬讛 诪谞诇谉 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜拽讚砖转讜 诇讻诇 讚讘专 砖讘拽讚讜砖讛 诇驻转讜讞 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讘专讱 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讬讟讜诇 诪谞讛 讬驻讛 专讗砖讜谉

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the priest himself sits at the head? The Gemara answers: As the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: With regard to a priest it says: 鈥淵ou shall sanctify him, for he offers the bread of your God鈥 (Leviticus 21:8), meaning that you are to sanctify him with regard to all matters of sanctity: To be first to begin reading the Torah, to be first to recite the Grace after Meals, and to be first to take a portion during a meal.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 拽砖讛 讬爪讬讗转 谞砖诪讛 诪谉 讛讙讜祝

搂 The Gemara returns to its discussion of death: Rabbi 岣nina said: The soul鈥檚 departure from the body is as difficult

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Moed Katan 28

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Moed Katan 28

讗诇讗 讞讬讛 讗讘诇 砖讗专 谞砖讬诐 诪谞讬讞讬谉

with regard to a woman who died in childbirth, and therefore continues to bleed. But the biers of other women may be set down in the street.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讗专 讛谞砖讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜转诪转 砖诐 诪专讬诐 讜转拽讘专 砖诐 住诪讜讱 诇诪讬转讛 拽讘讜专讛

Rabbi Elazar said: Even the biers of other women must not be set down in the street, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Miriam died there and was buried there鈥 (Numbers 20:1), which teaches that the site of her burial was close to the place of her death. Therefore, it is preferable to bury a woman as close as possible to the place where she died.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗祝 诪专讬诐 讘谞砖讬拽讛 诪转讛 讗转讬讗 砖诐 砖诐 诪诪砖讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讘讛 注诇 驻讬 讛壮 诪驻谞讬 砖讙谞讗讬 讛讚讘专 诇讗讜诪专讜

With regard to that same verse Rabbi Elazar said further: Miriam also died by the divine kiss, just like her brother Moses. What is the source for this? This is derived through a verbal analogy between the word 鈥渢here鈥 stated with regard to Miriam and the word 鈥渢here鈥 mentioned with regard to Moses.With regard to Moses it says: 鈥淪o Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab by the mouth of the Lord鈥 (Deuteronomy 34:5). For what reason was it not explicitly stated with regard to her, as it is stated with regard to Moses, that she died 鈥渂y the mouth of the Lord鈥? It is because it would be unseemly to say such a thing, that a woman died by way of a divine kiss, and therefore it is not said explicitly.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 诪讬转转 诪专讬诐 诇驻专砖转 驻专讛 讗讚讜诪讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 驻专讛 讗讚讜诪讛 诪讻驻专转 讗祝 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讻驻专转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇诪讛 谞住诪讻讛 诪讬转转 讗讛专谉 诇讘讙讚讬 讻讛讜谞讛 诪讛 讘讙讚讬 讻讛讜谞讛 诪讻驻专讬谉 讗祝 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 诪讻驻专转

Rabbi Ami said: Why was the Torah portion that describes the death of Miriam juxtaposed to the portion dealing with the red heifer? To tell you: Just as the red heifer atones for sin, so too, the death of the righteous atones for sin. Rabbi Elazar said: Why was the Torah portion that describes the death of Aaron juxtaposed to the portion discussing the priestly garments? This teaches that just as the priestly garments atone for sin, so too, the death of the righteous atones for sin.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪转 驻转讗讜诐 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讞讟讜驻讛 讞诇讛 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讜诪转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讚讞讜驻讛 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讜诪专 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 诪讙驻讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘谉 讗讚诐 讛谞谞讬 诇讜拽讞 诪诪讱 讗转 诪讞诪讚 注讬谞讬讱 讘诪讙驻讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗讚讘专 讗诇 讛注诐 讘讘拽专 讜转诪转 讗砖转讬 讘注专讘

The Sages taught the following baraita: If one dies suddenly without having been sick, this is death through snatching. If he became sick for a day and died, this is an expedited death. Rabbi 岣nanya ben Gamliel says: This is death at a stroke, as it is stated: 鈥淪on of man, behold, I am about to take away from you the delight of your eyes at a stroke鈥 (Ezekiel 24:16). And when this prophecy is fulfilled it is written: 鈥淪o I spoke to the people in the morning and at evening my wife died鈥 (Ezekiel 24:18).

砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讜诪转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讚讞讜讬讛 砖诇砖讛 讙注专讛 讗专讘注讛 谞讝讬驻讛 讞诪砖讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻诇 讗讚诐

If he was sick for two days and died, this is a quickened death. If he was sick for three days and died, this is a death of rebuke. If he died after being sick for four days, this is a death of reprimand. If one died after a sickness lasting five days, this is the ordinary death of all people.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讛谉 拽专讘讜 讬诪讬讱 诇诪讜转 讛谉 讞讚 拽专讘讜 转专讬 讬诪讬讱 转专讬 讛讗 讞诪砖讛 讛谉 讞讚 砖讻谉 讘诇砖讜谉 讬讜谞讬 拽讜专讬谉 诇讗讞转 讛谉

Rabbi 岣nin said: What is the verse from which this is derived? It is stated: 鈥淏ehold, your days approach that you must die鈥 (Deuteronomy 31:14). This verse is expounded in the following manner: 鈥淏ehold [hen]鈥 indicates one; 鈥渁pproach [karvu],鈥 a plural term, indicates two; 鈥測our days [yamekha],鈥 also a plural term, indicates another two; and therefore in total this is five. How does the word hen indicate one? Because in the Greek language they call the number one hen.

诪转 讘讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻专转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜砖转讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬 砖砖讬诐 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转讛 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

The Gemara discusses the significance of death at different ages: If one dies when he is fifty years old, this is death through karet, the divine punishment of excision, meted out for the most serious transgressions.If he dies when he is fifty-two years old, this is the death of Samuel from Ramah. If he dies at the age of sixty, this is death at the hand of Heaven.

讗诪专 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讚讻转讬讘 转讘讗 讘讻诇讞 讗诇讬 拽讘专 讘讻诇讞 讘讙讬诪讟专讬讗 砖讬转讬谉 讛讜讜

Mar Zutra said: What is the verse from which this is derived? As it is written: 鈥淵ou shall come to your grave in a ripe age [bekhela岣]鈥 (Job 5:26). The word 鈥渞ipe age鈥 [bekhela岣] has the numerical value of sixty, and it is alluded to there that dying at this age involves a divine punishment.

砖讘注讬诐 砖讬讘讛 砖诪讜谞讬诐 讙讘讜专讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讬诪讬 砖谞讜转讬谞讜 讘讛诐 砖讘注讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗诐 讘讙讘讜专讜转 砖诪讜谞讬诐 砖谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讛 诪讞诪砖讬诐 讜注讚 砖砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 讻专转 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 砖诇 砖诪讜讗诇 讛专诪转讬

One who dies at the age of seventy has reached old age. One who dies at the age of eighty dies in strength, as it is written: 鈥淭he days of our years are seventy, or if by reason of strength, eighty years鈥 (Psalms 90:10). Rabba said: Not only is death at the age of fifty a sign of karet, but even death from fifty to sixty years of age is death by karet. And the reason that all of these years were not counted in connection with karet is due to the honor of Samuel from Ramah, who died at the age of fifty-two.

专讘 讬讜住祝 讻讬 讛讜讛 讘专 砖讬转讬谉 注讘讚 诇讛讜 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 谞驻拽讬 诇讬 诪讻专转 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 谞讛讬 讚谞驻拽 诇讬讛 诪专 诪讻专转 讚砖谞讬 诪讻专转 讚讬讜诪讬 诪讬 谞驻讬拽 诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 谞拽讜讟 诇讱 诪讬讛讗 驻诇讙讗 讘讬讚讱

The Gemara relates that when Rav Yosef turned sixty he made a holiday for the Sages. Explaining the cause for his celebration, he said: I have passed the age of karet. Abaye said to him: Master, even though you have passed the karet of years, have you, Master, escaped the karet of days? As previously mentioned, sudden death is also considered to be a form of karet. He said to him: Grasp at least half in your hand, for I have at least escaped one type of karet.

专讘 讛讜谞讗 谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 驻转讗讜诐 讛讜讜 拽讗 讚讬讬讙讬 专讘谞谉 转谞讗 诇讛讜 讝讜讙讗 讚诪讛讚讬讬讘 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讛讙讬注 诇讙讘讜专讜转 讗讘诇 讛讙讬注 诇讙讘讜专讜转 讝讜 讛讬讗 诪讬转转 谞砖讬拽讛

It was related that Rav Huna died suddenly, and the Sages were concerned that this was a bad sign. The Sage Zuga from Hadayeiv taught them the following: They taught these principles only when the deceased had not reached the age of strength, i.e., eighty. But if he had reached the age of strength and then died suddenly, this is death by way of a divine kiss.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讞讬讬 讘谞讬 讜诪讝讜谞讬 诇讗 讘讝讻讜转讗 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讗诇讗 讘诪讝诇讗 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讚讛讗 专讘讛 讜专讘 讞住讚讗 转专讜讬讬讛讜 专讘谞谉 爪讚讬拽讬 讛讜讜 诪专 诪爪诇讬 讜讗转讬 诪讬讟专讗 讜诪专 诪爪诇讬 讜讗转讬 诪讬讟专讗

Rava said: Length of life, children, and sustenance do not depend on one鈥檚 merit, but rather they depend upon fate. As, Rabba and Rav 岣sda were both pious Sages; one Sage would pray during a drought and rain would fall, and the other Sage would pray and rain would fall.

专讘 讞住讚讗 讞讬讛 转砖注讬谉 讜转专转讬谉 砖谞讬谉 专讘讛 讞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讘讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 砖讬转讬谉 讛诇讜诇讬 讘讬 专讘讛 砖讬转讬谉 转讬讻诇讬

And nevertheless, their lives were very different. Rav 岣sda lived for ninety-two years, whereas Rabba lived for only forty years. The house of Rav 岣sda celebrated sixty wedding feasts, whereas the house of Rabba experienced sixty calamities. In other words, many fortuitous events took place in the house of Rav 岣sda and the opposite occurred in the house of Rabba.

讘讬 专讘 讞住讚讗 住诪讬讚讗 诇讻诇讘讬 讜诇讗 诪转讘注讬 讘讬 专讘讛 谞讛诪讗 讚砖注专讬 诇讗讬谞砖讬 讜诇讗 诪砖转讻讞

In the house of Rav 岣sda there was bread from the finest flour [semida] even for the dogs, and it was not asked after, as there was so much food. In the house of Rabba, on the other hand, there was coarse barley bread even for people, and it was not found in sufficient quantities. This shows that the length of life, children, and sustenance all depend not upon one鈥檚 merit, but upon fate.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 讛谞讬 转诇转 诪讬诇讬 讘注讗讬 拽诪讬 砖诪讬讗 转专转讬 讬讛讘讜 诇讬 讞讚讗 诇讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬 讞讜讻诪转讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 讜注讜转专讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讬讛讘讜 诇讬 注谞讜转谞讜转讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 讬讛讘讜 诇讬

Apropos Rav 岣sda鈥檚 great wealth, the Gemara reports that Rava said: These three things I requested from Heaven, two of which were given to me, and one was not given to me: I requested the wisdom of Rav Huna and the wealth of Rav 岣sda and they were given to me. I also requested the humility of Rabba bar Rav Huna, but it was not given to me.

专讘 砖注讜专讬诐 讗讞讜讛 讚专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讞讝讬讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪专 讚诇讗 诇爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇讗讜 砖讜砖讘讬谞讬讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬诪住专 诪讝诇讗 诇讗 讗砖讙讞 讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转讞讝讬 诇讬 诪专 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪专 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬 专讬讘讚讗 讚讻讜住讬诇转讗

The Gemara continues its discussion of the deaths of the righteous. Rav Seorim, Rava鈥檚 brother, sat before Rava, and he saw that Rava was dozing, i.e., about to die. Rava said to his brother: Master, tell him, the Angel of Death, not to torment me. Knowing that Rava was not afraid of the Angel of Death, Rav Seorim said to him: Master, are you not a friend of the Angel of Death? Rava said to him: Since my fate has been handed over to him, and it has been decreed that I shall die, the Angel of Death no longer pays heed to me. Rav Seorim said to Rava: Master, appear to me in a dream after your death. And Rava appeared to him. Rav Seorim said to Rava: Master, did you have pain in death? He said to him: Like the prick of the knife when letting blood.

专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 谞讞诪谉 讞讝讬讬讛 讚拽讗 诪谞诪谞诐 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬诪讗 诇讬讛 诪专 讚诇讗 诇爪注专谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪专 诇讗讜 讗讚诐 讞砖讜讘 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讞砖讬讘 诪讗谉 住驻讬谉 诪讗谉 专拽讬注

It was similarly related that Rava sat before Rav Na岣an, and he saw that Rav Na岣an was dozing, i.e., slipping into death. Rav Na岣an said to Rava: Master, tell the Angel of Death not to torment me. Rava said to him: Master, are you not an important person who is respected in Heaven? Rav Na岣an said to him: In the supernal world who is important? Who is honorable? Who is complete?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讬转讞讝讬 诇讬 诪专 讗转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪专 爪注专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻诪讬砖讞诇 讘谞讬转讗 诪讞诇讘讗 讜讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讬诇 讘讛讛讜讗 注诇诪讗 讻讚 讛讜讬转 诇讗 讘注讬谞讗 讚谞驻讬砖 讘讬注转讜转讬讛

Rava said to Rav Na岣an: Master, appear to me in a dream after your death. And he appeared to him. Rava said to him: Master, did you have pain in death? Rav Na岣an said to him: Like the removal of hair from milk, which is a most gentle process. But nevertheless, were the Holy One, Blessed be He, to say to me: Go back to that world, the physical world, as you were, I would not want to go, for the fear of the Angel of Death is great. And I would not want to go through such a terrifying experience a second time.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 拽讗讻讬诇 转专讜诪讛 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 转专讜诪讛 拽讗 讗讻讬诇谞讗 讜诇讗讜 拽讜讚砖 讗讬拽专讬 讞诇驻讗 诇讬讛 砖注转讗

The Gemara relates that Rabbi Elazar was once eating teruma, when the Angel of Death appeared to him. He said to the Angel of Death: I am eating teruma; is it not called sacred? It would be inappropriate for me to die now and thereby defile this sacred teruma. The Angel of Death accepted his argument and left him. The moment passed, and he lived for some time afterward.

专讘 砖砖转 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讻讘讛诪讛 讗讬转讗 诇讙讘讬 讘讬转讗

It was similarly related that the Angel of Death once appeared to Rav Sheshet in the marketplace. Rav Sheshet said to the Angel of Death: Shall I die in the market like an animal? Come to my house and kill me there like a human being.

专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬转讞讝讬 诇讬讛 讘砖讜拽讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬转专讞 诇讬 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜讗讛讚专讬 诇转诇诪讜讚讗讬 讚讗诪专讬转讜 讗砖专讬 诪讬 砖讘讗 诇讻讗谉 讜转诇诪讜讚讜 讘讬讚讜 讘讬讜诐 转诇转讬谉 讗转讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 拽讗 讚讞拽讗 专讙诇讬讛 讚讘专 谞转谉 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘讬专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗

So too, the Angel of Death appeared to Rav Ashi in the marketplace. Rav Ashi said to the Angel of Death: Give me thirty days so that I may review my studies, for you say above: Fortunate is he who comes here to Heaven with his learning in his hand. On the thirtieth day the Angel of Death came to take him. Rav Ashi said to the Angel of Death: What is all of this? Why are you in such a hurry to take me? Why can you not postpone my death? He said to him: The foot of Rav Huna bar Natan is pushing you, as he is ready to succeed you as the leader of the generation, and one sovereignty does not overlap with its counterpart, even by one hairbreadth. Therefore, you cannot live any longer.

专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 砖转讬拽 驻讜诪讬讛 诪讙讬专住讗 住诇讬拽 讬转讬讘 讘讗专讝讗 讚讘讬 专讘 驻拽注 讗专讝讗 讜砖转拽 讜讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛

The Angel of Death was unable to take Rav 岣sda because his mouth was never silent from study. So the Angel of Death went and sat on the cedar column that supported the roof of the study hall of the Sages. The cedar cracked and Rav 岣sda was silent for a moment, as he was startled by the sound. At that point the Angel of Death was able to take him.

专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪爪讬 诇诪讬拽专讘讗 诇讬讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讗讬讚诪讬 诇讬讛 讻注谞讬讗 讗转讗 讟专讬祝 讗讘讘讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗驻讬拽 诇讬 专讬驻转讗 讗驻讬拽讜 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜诇讗讜 拽讗 诪专讞诐 诪专 讗注谞讬讗 讗讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讗诪讗讬 诇讗 拽讗 诪专讞诐 诪专 讙诇讬 诇讬讛 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 砖讜讟讗 讚谞讜专讗 讗诪爪讬 诇讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛

The Angel of Death could not come near Rabbi 岣yya, owing to his righteousness. One day the Angel of Death appeared to him as a poor person. He came and knocked on the door. He said to Rabbi 岣yya: Bring out bread for me, and he took out bread for him. The Angel of Death then said to Rabbi 岣yya: Master, do you not have mercy on a poor person? Why, then, do you not have mercy upon that man, i.e., upon me, and give me what I want? The Angel of Death then revealed his identity to him, and showed him a fiery rod in order to confirm that he was the Angel of Death. At this point Rav 岣yya surrendered himself to him.

诪转谞讬壮 谞砖讬诐 讘诪讜注讚 诪注谞讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 诪讟驻讞讜转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 讛住诪讜讻讜转 诇诪讟讛 诪讟驻讞讜转

MISHNA: On the intermediate days of a Festival women may wail in grief over the deceased, but they may not clap [metape岣t] their hands in mourning. Rabbi Yishmael says: Those who are close to the bier may clap.

讘专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讜讘驻讜专讬诐 诪注谞讜转 讜诪讟驻讞讜转 讘讝讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 诪拽讜谞谞讜转 谞拽讘专 讛诪转 诇讗 诪注谞讜转 讜诇讗 诪讟驻讞讜转

On New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim, which are not Festivals by Torah law, the women may both wail and clap their hands in mourning. On both the intermediate days of a Festival and on New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim they may not lament. After the deceased has been buried they may neither wail nor clap.

讗讬讝讛讜 注讬谞讜讬 砖讻讜诇谉 注讜谞讜转 讻讗讞转 拽讬谞讛 砖讗讞转 诪讚讘专转 讜讻讜诇谉 注讜谞讜转 讗讞专讬讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诇诪讚谞讛 讘谞讜转讬讻诐 谞讛讬 讜讗砖讛 专注讜转讛 拽讬谞讛

The mishna explains: What is considered wailing? This is when they all wail together simultaneously. And what is considered a lament? This is when one speaks and they all answer after her with a repeated refrain, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd teach your daughters wailing and everyone her neighbor lamentation鈥 (Jeremiah 9:19).

讗讘诇 诇注转讬讚 诇讘讗 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 讘诇注 讛诪讜转 诇谞爪讞 讜诪讞讛 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讚诪注讛 诪注诇 讻诇 驻谞讬诐 讜讙讜壮

In order to conclude on a positive note, the mishna says: But with regard to the future, the verse states: 鈥淗e will destroy death forever; and the Lord, God, will wipe away tears from off all faces and the reproach of His people He will take away from off all the earth鈥 (Isaiah 25:8).

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗诪专谉 讗诪专 专讘 讜讬讬 诇讗讝诇讗 讜讬讬 诇讞讘讬诇讗

GEMARA: What do the women who wail over the dead say? Rav said: They say: Woe over him who is now departing; woe over him who is now returning the pledge, i.e., his soul, which had been deposited in his hands all the years of his life.

讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讛讻讬 讜讬讬 诇讗讝诇讗 讜讬讬 诇讞讘讬诇讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讙讜讚 讙专诪讗 诪讻讻讗 讜谞诪讟讬 诪讬讗 诇讗谞讟讬讻讬

Rava said: The women in the city of Shekhantziv, who were known for their wisdom, would say as follows: Woe over him who is now departing; woe over him who is now returning the pledge. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say about an elderly person: The bone has been removed from the jaw and the water returns to the kettle.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 注讟讜祝 讜讻住讜 讟讜专讬 讚讘专 专诪讬 讜讘专 专讘专讘讬 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 砖讬讬讜诇 讗爪讟诇讗 讚诪诇转讗 诇讘专 讞讜专讬谉 讚砖诇讬诪讜 讝讜讜讚讬讛

And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say at a time of bereavement: Wrap and cover the mountains in mourning, as the deceased is the son of the high and distinguished. Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Lend out a cloak of fine wool to serve as a burial shroud for a free man whose sustenance has been depleted. In other words, a wealthy person who loses his fortune would rather die than live in poverty.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 专讛讬讟 讜谞驻讬诇 讗诪注讘专讗 讜讬讝讜驻转讗 讬讝讬祝 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 讗讞谞讗 转讙专讬 讗讝讘讝讙讬 诪讬讘讚拽讜 讜讗诪专 专讘讗 谞砖讬 讚砖讻谞爪讬讘 讗诪专谉 诪讜转讗 讻讬 诪讜转讗 讜诪专注讬谉 讞讬讘讜诇讬讗

And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: A person runs and tumbles at the ford and still he borrows. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Our brothers, the merchants, will be examined at their places of business to see if they are honest businessmen. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Death is like death, as everyone must die, and suffering is like interest.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讟讜讘 诇诇讻转 讗诇 讘讬转 讗讘诇 讜讙讜壮 注讚 讜讛讞讬 讬转谉 讗诇 诇讘讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖诇 诪讬转讛 讚讬住驻讚 讬住驻讚讜谞讬讛 讚讬拽讘专 讬拽讘专讜谞讬讛 讚讬讟注谉 讬讟注谞讜谞讬讛 讚讬讚诇 讬讚诇讜谞讬讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say with regard to the verse 鈥淚t is better to go to the house of mourning than to go to the house of feasting, for that is the end of all men; and the living will lay it to his heart鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:2): What should the living lay to his heart? Matters relating to death. And these matters are as follows: He that eulogizes will be eulogized by others. He that buries others will be buried by others. He that loads many words of praise and tribute into the eulogies that he delivers for others will be similarly treated by others. He that raises his voice in weeping over others will have others raise their voices over him.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讚诇讗 讬讚诇 讬讚诇讜谞讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讟讜讘 讗诪专 诇讱 注诇讛 讛谞讛 讜讙讜壮

And some say: One who does not raise himself with pride, but chooses his place among the lowly, will be raised by others, as it is written: 鈥淒o not exalt yourself in the king鈥檚 presence, and stand not in the place of great men. For it is better to be told, step up here, than to be degraded in the presence of the great鈥 (Proverbs 25:6鈥7).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻砖诪转讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 谞讻谞住讜 讗专讘注讛 讝拽谞讬诐 诇谞讞诪讜 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗诪专 诇讛诐 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讚注讜 砖讞讻诐 讙讚讜诇 讛讜讗 讜讘拽讬 讘讗讙讚讜转 讗诇 讬讻谞住 讗讞讚 诪讻诐 诇转讜讱 讚讘专讬 讞讘讬专讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗谞讬 讗讞专讜谉

The Sages taught the following baraita: When the sons of Rabbi Yishmael died, four Elders entered to console him: Rabbi Tarfon, Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Tarfon said to them: Know that Rabbi Yishmael is a great Sage and well versed in aggadot. Let none of you interrupt the words of another, but rather each person should say something novel of his own. Rabbi Akiva said: And I shall speak last.

驻转讞 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讜 注讜谞讜转讬讜 转讻驻讜讛讜 讗讘诇讬讜 讛讟专讬讞 专讘讜转讬讜 驻注诐 专讗砖讜谞讛 讜砖谞讬讛

Rabbi Yishmael, the mourner, opened and said about himself: Many are his sins. Due to this, his bereavements came in quick succession and he troubled his teachers once and then a second time to come and console him.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 讜讗诪专 讜讗讞讬讻诐 讻诇 讘讬转 讬砖专讗诇 讬讘讻讜 讗转 讛砖专驻讛 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 谞讚讘 讜讗讘讬讛讜讗 砖诇讗 注砖讜 讗诇讗 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬拽专讬讘讜 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讗转 讛讚诐 讗诇讬讜 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Having been granted permission to speak, Rabbi Tarfon answered and said: With regard to the death of Aaron鈥檚 sons it says: 鈥淏ut let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning that the Lord has kindled鈥 (Leviticus 10:6). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Nadav and Avihu, who had performed only one mitzva that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the sons of Aaron brought the blood to him鈥 (Leviticus 9:9), this was nevertheless stated about them, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael, who were well known for their performance of many mitzvot, all the more so should the entire Jewish people bewail their death.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 讜讗诪专 讜住驻讚讜 诇讜 讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讜拽讘专讜 讗讜转讜 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讗讘讬讛 讘谉 讬专讘注诐 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讚讘专 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讬注谉 谞诪爪讗 讘讜 讚讘专 讟讜讘 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

Rabbi Yosei HaGelili answered and said: With regard to Abijah, son of King Jeroboam, the verse states: 鈥淎nd all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him鈥 (I聽Kings 14:13). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Abijah, son of Jeroboam, who did only one good thing, as it is written: 鈥淏ecause in him there is found some good thing toward the Lord God of Israel鈥 (I聽Kings 14:13), i.e., he did only one good thing, and this was his reward, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so should they be rewarded by having the entire Jewish people mourn for them and bury them.

诪讗讬 讚讘专 讟讜讘 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讜专讘讬 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘讬讟诇 诪砖诪专转讜 讜注诇讛 诇专讙诇 讜讞讚 讗诪专 砖讘讬讟诇 驻专讚住讗讜转 砖讛讜砖讬讘 讬专讘注诐 讗讘讬讜 注诇 讛讚专讻讬诐 砖诇讗 讬注诇讜 讬砖专讗诇 诇专讙诇

The Gemara asks: What was this one good thing that Abijah did? Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi 岣nnana bar Pappa disagreed about this issue. One said: He abandoned his guard post. His father, Jeroboam, had assigned him to serve as one of the guards whose mission it was to prevent people from going up to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festivals. And he himself went up to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festival. And one said: He removed the guards [pardesaot] that his father, Jeroboam, had placed along the roads so that the people of Israel would not go up to Jerusalem for the pilgrimage Festivals.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 注讝专讬讛 讜讗诪专 讘砖诇讜诐 转诪讜转 讜讘诪砖专驻讜转 讗讘讜转讬讱 讛诪诇讻讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 [讗砖专 讛讬讜 诇驻谞讬讱 讻谉] 讬砖专驻讜 诇讱 讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 爪讚拽讬讛讜 诪诇讱 讬讛讜讚讛 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 诪爪讜讛 讗讞转 砖讛注诇讛 讬专诪讬讛 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The baraita continues: Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya answered and said: With regard to King Zedekiah, the verse states: 鈥淏ut you shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kings that were before you, so shall they make a burning for you鈥 (Jeremiah 34:5). Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Zedekiah, king of Judea, who had performed only one mitzva that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, for he had Jeremiah lifted out of the mire (Jeremiah 38:10), this was nevertheless stated about him, then with regard to the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so should they be rewarded by dying in peace.

谞注谞讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜讗诪专 讘讬讜诐 讛讛讜讗 讬讙讚诇 讛诪住驻讚 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讻诪住驻讚 讛讚讚专讬诪讜谉 [讘讘拽注转 诪讙讬讚讜] 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诇诪诇讗 转专讙讜诪讬讛 讚讛讗讬 拽专讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注谞讗 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专

Rabbi Akiva answered and said: The verse states: 鈥淥n that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon鈥 (Zechariah 12:11). The Gemara comments: With regard to this verse, Rav Yosef said: Had it not been for the Aramaic translation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying, as nowhere in the Bible do we find this incident involving Hadadrimmon.

讘注讬讚谞讗 讛讛讜讗 讬住讙讬 诪住驻讚讗 讘讬专讜砖诇诐 讻诪住驻讚讗 讚讗讞讗讘 讘专 注诪专讬 讚拽讟诇 讬转讬讛 讛讚讚专讬诪讜谉 讘专 讟讘专讬诪讜谉 讜讻诪住驻讚 讚讬讗砖讬讛 讘专 讗诪讜谉 讚拽讟诇 讬转讬讛 驻专注讛 讞讙讬专讗 讘讘拽注转 诪讙讬讚讜

The Aramaic translation reads as follows: At that time the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning over Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tabrimmon, and like the mourning over Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon.

讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讗讞讗讘 诪诇讱 讬砖专讗诇 砖诇讗 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讚讘专 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛诪诇讱 讛讬讛 诪注诪讚 讘诪专讻讘讛 谞讻讞 讗专诐 讻讱 讘谞讬讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The baraita continues: Are these matters not inferred a fortiori: If, with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who did only one good thing that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the king was propped up in his chariot facing Aram鈥 (I聽Kings 22:35), as he did not want the Jewish people to see that he was mortally wounded and flee, and this, that he was greatly mourned, was nevertheless stated about him, then all the more so will the sons of Rabbi Yishmael be greatly mourned.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讘爪讚拽讬讛讜 讘砖诇讜诐 转诪讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讜讗转 注讬谞讬 爪讚拽讬讛讜 注讜专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诪转 谞讘讜讻讚谞讗爪专 讘讬诪讬讜

The Gemara discusses issues in the aforementioned verses: Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Zedekiah: 鈥淵ou shall die in peace,鈥 but elsewhere it is written: 鈥淎nd he put out Zedekiah鈥檚 eyes鈥 (Jeremiah 39:7). Rabba bar Mari said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The first verse: 鈥淵ou shall die in peace,鈥 means that Nebuchadnezzar died in Zedekiah鈥檚 lifetime and consequently the latter died in peace, having seen the death of the wicked.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇专讘讛 讘专 诪专讬 讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讘讬讗砖讬讛讜 诇讻谉 讛谞谞讬 讗讜住讬驻讱 注诇 讗讘讜转讬讱 讜谞讗住驻转 讗诇 拽讘专讜转讬讱 讘砖诇讜诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讜专讜 讛讬讜专讬诐 诇诪诇讱 讬讗砖讬讛讜 讜讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖注砖讗讜讛讜 讻讻讘专讛

And Rava further said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Josiah: 鈥淏ehold, therefore I will gather you unto your fathers, and you shall be gathered into your grave in peace鈥 (II聽Kings 22:20), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淎nd the archers shot at King Josiah; and the king said to his servants, Get me away; for I am grievously wounded鈥 (II聽Chronicles 35:23). And with regard to this verse Rabbi Yehuda said that Rav said: With their many arrows, they made his body like a sieve.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇讗 讞专讘 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讬诪讬讜

Rabba bar Mari said to him: Rabbi Yo岣nan said as follows: The words 鈥渋n peace鈥 stated with regard to King Josiah refer to the fact that the Temple was not destroyed in his lifetime, as the verse itself continues: 鈥淎nd your eyes shall not see all the evil that I will bring upon this place鈥 (II聽Kings 22:20).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗讬谉 诪谞讞诪讬谉 专砖讗讬谉 诇讜诪专 讚讘专 注讚 砖讬驻转讞 讗讘诇 砖谞讗诪专 讗讞专讬 讻谉 驻转讞 讗讬讜讘 讗转 驻讬讛讜 讜讛讚专 讜讬注谉 讗诇讬驻讝 讛转讬诪谞讬

The Gemara returns to examining the halakhot of consolation. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The consolers are not permitted to speak words of consolation until the mourner opens and speaks first. As it is stated: 鈥淎nd they sat down with him upon the ground for seven days and seven nights, and none spoke a word to him; for they saw that his suffering was very great. After this Job opened his mouth鈥 (Job 2:13鈥3:1). And afterward: 鈥淎nd Eliphaz the Temanite answered and said鈥 (Job 4:1).

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪谞讬谉 诇讗讘诇 砖诪讬住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讗讘讞专 讚专讻诐 讜讗砖讘 专讗砖 讜讗砖讻讜谉 讻诪诇讱 讘讙讚讜讚 讻讗砖专 讗讘诇讬诐 讬谞讞诐

Rabbi Abbahu said: From where is it derived that the mourner reclines at the head [rosh] of the table? As it is stated: 鈥淚 chose out their way, and sat as chief [rosh], and dwelt as a king in the army, as one that comforts [yena岣m] the mourners鈥 (Job 29:25). This indicates that the mourner sits at the head of the table, as the chief.

讬谞讞诐 讗讞专讬谞讬 诪砖诪注 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讬谞讞诐 讻转讬讘

The Gemara raises an objection: But the word yena岣m means that he comforts others, thereby implying that one who comforts the mourners sits at the head of the table. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: The word is written as yina岣m, meaning: Will be comforted, and therefore can be understood as referring to the mourner.

诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜住专 诪专讝讞 住专讜讞讬诐 诪专讝讞 谞注砖讛 砖专 诇住专讜讞讬诐

Mar Zutra said: A proof may be derived from here: The verse 鈥淎nd the revelry [mirza岣] of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away [sar]鈥 (Amos 6:7) means that mirza岣, he who is bitter [mar] and whose mind is overwrought [za岣] due to grief, is made a prince [sar] over those who sit beside him stretched out below him to comfort him.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讞谞讬谞讗 诪谞讬谉 诇讞转谉 砖诪讬住讘 讘专讗砖 砖谞讗诪专 讻讞转谉 讬讻讛谉 驻讗专 诪讛 讻讛谉 讘专讗砖 讗祝 讞转谉 讘专讗砖

Rabbi 岣ma bar 岣nina said: From where is it derived that a groom reclines at the head of the table? As it is stated: 鈥淎s a bridegroom decks himself [yekhahen] with a garland鈥 (Isaiah 61:10). Just as a priest [kohen] is at the head of the table, so too, a bridegroom is at the head of the table.

讜讻讛谉 讙讜驻讬讛 诪谞诇谉 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜拽讚砖转讜 诇讻诇 讚讘专 砖讘拽讚讜砖讛 诇驻转讜讞 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讘专讱 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇讬讟讜诇 诪谞讛 讬驻讛 专讗砖讜谉

The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that the priest himself sits at the head? The Gemara answers: As the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: With regard to a priest it says: 鈥淵ou shall sanctify him, for he offers the bread of your God鈥 (Leviticus 21:8), meaning that you are to sanctify him with regard to all matters of sanctity: To be first to begin reading the Torah, to be first to recite the Grace after Meals, and to be first to take a portion during a meal.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 拽砖讛 讬爪讬讗转 谞砖诪讛 诪谉 讛讙讜祝

搂 The Gemara returns to its discussion of death: Rabbi 岣nina said: The soul鈥檚 departure from the body is as difficult

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