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Today's Daf Yomi

January 15, 2022 | 讬状讙 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讘

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Adam Plunka in loving memory of his grandfather, Harry Reuben Plunka, Yerachmiel Herschel Ben Yisrael, father of Stanley Plunka.

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Erica Kolatch in loving memory of her father Richard Glube, Hillel ben Yosef Calman on his 25th yahrzeit. 鈥淟earning the daf exemplifies my father’s maxim, always try something new that interests you, it may lead to a lifelong love.鈥

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Terri Krivosha and Rabbi Hayim Herring in loving memory of Terri鈥檚 father, Judge Norman Krivosha, Nahum Mayer Ben Malka and Dovid on his first yahrtzeit. 鈥淥ur dad was a lifelong learner and jurist who loved nothing better than a well-reasoned argument.鈥

How is watering allowed on the shmita year in a case of a financial loss if it is a subcategory of planting or plowing? Abaye holds the Mishna is according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who holds that shmita is only by rabbinic law nowadays. Rava’s answer is that sub-categories are not forbidden by Torah law. Are they really not? What about a braita that derives many sub-categories from a verse in the Torah? Is plowing forbidden by Torah law and one would then receive lashes? Or not? Why would plowing be different than planting? Rav Dimi made a statement about an “addition” being possibly forbidden but the rabbis exempted. To what was he referring? Two possibilities are brought. Either he was referring to plowing on the shmita year or to tosefet shmita. From where is tosefet shmita derived? From when does it begin? And what changes were made to this law throughout the generations?

转讜诇讚讜转 诇讗 讗住专 专讞诪谞讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛砖讘讬注讬转 砖讘转 砖讘转讜谉 讬讛讬讛 诇讗专抓 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讙讜壮

whereas the subcategories of labor that are derived from them, e.g., watering, were not prohibited by the Merciful One, i.e., by Torah law, but only by rabbinic law; and in a case of loss the Sages were lenient. The source for this distinction is as it is written: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord: Your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune. That which grows of its own accord of your harvest you shall not reap, nor gather the grapes of your undressed vines鈥 (Leviticus 25:4鈥5).

诪讻讚讬 讝诪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 讝专讬注讛 讜讘爪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 拽爪讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讻转讘讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗

Since pruning is included in the principal category of sowing, as its objective is to encourage the plant鈥檚 growth, and picking grapes is included in the principal category of reaping grain, as both involve removal of produce from a plant, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? Why did the Torah explicitly prohibit pruning and picking grapes, rather than sufficing with the general prohibitions against sowing and reaping?

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讛谞讬 转讜诇讚讜转 诪讬讞讬讬讘 讗讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

The Gemara answers that these were individually enumerated to say that only for these subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, while for other subcategories of labor, i.e., watering a field, one is not liable. Consequently, there are only four types of labor that are prohibited by Torah law during the Sabbatical Year: Sowing and its subcategory of pruning, as well as reaping and its subcategory of grape picking. All other subcategories of labor are prohibited only by rabbinic decree.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪讜专 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讝讬专讜注 讜讝讬诪讜专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讬讻讜砖 讜诇注讬讚讜专 讜诇讻讬住讜讞 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning. From where do I derive that weeding, i.e., uprooting weeds, hoeing, and cutting weeds, even without uprooting them, are also prohibited? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune.鈥 This wording indicates that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪拽专住诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讝专讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讙讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches [mefasegin] from trees? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby teaching that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讝讘诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻专拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讘拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪注砖谞讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讜讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones that surround the base of a tree and impede its growth, and one may not cover exposed roots with dust, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby indicating that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

讬讻讜诇 诇讗 讬拽砖拽砖 转讞转 讛讝讬转讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注讚专 转讞转 讛讙驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讬诪诇讗 谞拽注讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注砖讛 注讜讙讬讜转 诇讙驻谞讬诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注

The apparent conclusion from this is that all labor in a field or a vineyard is prohibited. One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow.鈥

讝专讬注讛 讘讻诇诇 讛讬转讛 讜诇诪讛 讬爪转讛 诇讛拽讬砖 讗诇讬讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝专讬注讛 诪讬讜讞讚转 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐 讗祝 讻诇 砖讛讬讗 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐

The Gemara explains the derivation: Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year, as the verse states 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labors performed only in the vineyard but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, such as the labors mentioned above, are permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many subcategories of labor are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning, as Rava had stated.

诪讚专讘谞谉 讜拽专讗 讗住诪讻转讗 讘注诇诪讗

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as a source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

讜拽砖拽讜砖 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛砖讘讬注讬转 转砖诪讟谞讛 讜谞讟砖转讛 转砖诪讟谞讛 诪诇拽砖拽砖 讜谞讟砖转讛 诪诇住拽诇

Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara asks: Is light hoeing under olive trees in fact permitted during the Sabbatical Year? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淏ut the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow鈥 (Exodus 23:11), and it is taught with regard to this verse: 鈥淵ou shall let it rest鈥 from light hoeing, 鈥渁nd lie fallow鈥 from clearing the field of stones. This indicates that light hoeing is indeed prohibited during the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 专讘 注讜拽讘讗 讘专 讞诪讗 转专讬 拽砖拽讜砖讬 讛讜讜 讞讚 讗讘专讜讬讬 讗讬诇谞讬 讜讞讚 住转讜诪讬 驻讬诇讬 讗讘专讜讬讬 讗讬诇谉 讗住讜专 住转讜诪讬 驻讬诇讬 砖专讬

Rav Ukva bar 岣ma said: There are two types of light hoeing, one whose objective is to strengthen the trees, and another that is intended to seal cracks. There is a practical halakhic difference between them: Hoeing performed in order to strengthen the tree is prohibited, as it is similar to plowing in that it enhances the tree鈥檚 growth. However, hoeing undertaken in order to seal cracks is permitted, as by doing so one prevents damage to the tree.

讗讬转诪专 讛讞讜专砖 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讞讚 讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 诇讬诪讗 讘讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇诇 讘注砖讛 讜驻专讟 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜讻诇诇

It was stated that Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to one who plows during the Sabbatical Year. One said: He is flogged for doing so, while the other one said: He is not flogged. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that they disagree with regard to the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said, and one accepts this principle while the other does not. As, Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said: Wherever a generalization is stated in the Torah as a positive mitzva, and a detail relating to that generalization is stated as a negative mitzva, one does not apply the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization, according to which the halakha under discussion is expanded to all cases that resemble the detail.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗

The Gemara explains: The one who said that one who plows during the Sabbatical Year is flogged does not accept the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said. Accordingly, he expounds the verses as follows: The verse 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4) is a generalization stated as a positive mitzva. The continuation of the verse is 鈥淵our field you shall not sow,鈥 which is a detail stated as a negative mitzva. This is followed by another generalization: 鈥淔or it shall be a year of rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:5). By applying the principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization, one can derive that there is a prohibition against performing any agricultural task that is similar to sowing, including plowing.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉

And the one who said that one is not flogged for plowing holds in accordance with the ruling that Rabbi Avin stated in the name of Rabbi Ile鈥檃. Therefore, the prohibition stated as a detail, i.e., the prohibition against sowing, is not extended to include any other labor. One who plows violates the positive command to let the land rest, but does not transgress a Torah law phrased as a negative mitzva, and therefore he is not flogged.

诇讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 砖驻讬专

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: No, one can say that everyone holds that the halakha is not in accordance with the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said. According to the one who said he is flogged, all is well, as he applies the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization to derive a prohibition for plowing.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 讗诪专 诇讱 诪讻讚讬 讝诪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 讝专讬注讛 讜讘爪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 拽爪讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讻转讘讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 讚讗讛谞讬 转讜诇讚讜转 讛讜讗 讚诪讬讞讬讬讘 讗转讜诇讚讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

And the one who said that he is not flogged could have said to you: Since pruning is included in the primary category of sowing, and grape picking is included in the primary category of reaping, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? They were individually enumerated to say that only for these specific subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, but for performing other subcategories of labor one is not liable. According to this opinion, the verse comes to teach that one is not liable to be flogged for performing any labor not explicitly enumerated in the Torah, including plowing.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪讜专 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讝讬专讜注 讜讝讬诪讜专 诪谞讬谉 诇注讬讚讜专 讜诇拽讬砖拽讜砖 讜诇讻讬住讜讞 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse 鈥淵our field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 that I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning? From where do I derive that weeding, hoeing, and cutting weeds are also prohibited? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). By placing the word 鈥渘ot鈥 immediately following the words 鈥渇ield鈥 and 鈥渧ineyard,鈥 the verse indicates that one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your field, and one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your vineyard.

讜诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪拽专住诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讝专讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讙讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches from trees? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讝讘诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻专拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪注砖谞讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讜讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

From where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones from around the base of a tree that impede its growth, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

讬讻讜诇 诇讗 讬拽砖拽砖 转讞转 讛讝讬转讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注讚专 转讞转 讛讙驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讬诪诇讗 谞拽注讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注砖讛 注讜讙讬讜转 诇讙驻谞讬诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注

One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow.鈥

讝专讬注讛 讘讻诇诇 讛讬转讛 讜诇诪讛 讬爪转讛 诇讛拽讬砖 讗诇讬讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝专讬注讛 诪讬讜讞讚转 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐 讗祝 讻诇 砖讛讬讗 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐

Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year. Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labor performed only in the vineyard, but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, is permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many labors are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning.

诪讚专讘谞谉 讜拽专讗 讗住诪讻转讗 讘注诇诪讗

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 讛转讜住驻转 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 诪讗讬 转诇诪讜讚讗 讜诪讗讬 转讜住驻转

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he stated a tradition he had heard from the Sages in Eretz Yisrael: One might have thought that one would be flogged for the addition, but a teaching states an exemption from lashes. Rav Dimi noted: But I do not know what teaching or what addition this tradition is referring to.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讞专讬砖讛 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 讞专讬砖讛 讚讗转讬讗 诪讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜讻诇诇 讜谞住讬讘 诇讬讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗

The Sages disputed the meaning of this tradition. Rabbi Elazar said: The addition in question is plowing during the Sabbatical Year, for which there is no explicit prohibition in the Torah, and so it may be regarded as an addition to the labors explicitly enumerated in the Torah. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for plowing during the Sabbatical Year, as it is derived by way of the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization that teaches that plowing is prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for the labor of plowing.

讚讗诐 讻谉 讻诇 讛谞讬 驻专讟讬 诇诪讛 诇讬

This is logical, because if one is flogged for plowing, why do I need all these details that were enumerated in the verse, i.e., pruning and picking grapes? Rather, one must certainly conclude that these were singled out in order to teach that one is flogged only for these specific labors, but not for any other.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讬诪讬诐 砖讛讜住讬驻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 转讜住驻转 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讚讗转讬讗 诪讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘转 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗 讻讚讘注讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 诇拽诪谉

And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This addition is referring to the extra days that the Sages added to the prohibition against performing agricultural labor, before Rosh HaShana of the seventh year, when the Sabbatical Year formally begins. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for working the land during the additional period prior to Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year, as this prohibition is derived from the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in reaping you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21). This seemingly superfluous verse is understood as teaching that not only is working the land prohibited during the seventh year, but plowing a field during the sixth year to prepare the land for the seventh year, and reaping what grew in the seventh year during the eighth year are also prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for these actions, as we are about to state below.

诪讗讬 讬诪讬诐 砖诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻讚转谞谉 注讚 诪转讬 讞讜专砖讬谉 讘砖讚讛 讗讬诇谉 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讬驻讛 诇驻专讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛注爪专转 讜拽专讜讘讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗诇讜 诇讛讬讜转 讻讚讘专讬 讗诇讜

The Gemara elaborates: What are the extra days before Rosh HaShana? As we learned in a mishna (Shevi鈥檌t 1:1): Until when may one plow an orchard on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? Beit Shammai say: One may plow so long as the plowing is beneficial for the fruit already on the trees. Once the plowing serves to benefit only the tree itself and the fruit it will produce the following year, it is prohibited. And Beit Hillel say: One may plow until Shavuot. The mishna notes: And the statement of these, Beit Shammai, is close to being like the statement of these, Beit Hillel; i.e., in practice, there is little difference between the dates established by the two opinions.

讜注讚 诪转讬 讞讜专砖讬谉 砖讚讛 讛诇讘谉 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 诪砖转讻诇讛 讛诇讞讛 讜讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讞讜专砖讬诐 诇讬讟注 诪拽砖讗讜转 讜诪讚诇注讜转

The mishna (see Shevi鈥檌t 2:1) additionally states: And until when may one plow a white field, i.e., a grain field, on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? One may plow until the residual moisture in the fields from the rain ceases and so long as people continue to plow their fields in order to plant cucumbers and gourds, which are planted at the end of the winter.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讻谉 谞转谞讛 转讜专讛 砖讬注讜专 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讘讬讚讜 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛 讛诇讘谉 注讚 讛驻住讞 讜讘砖讚讛 讛讗讬诇谉 注讚 讛注爪专转 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛驻住讞

Rabbi Shimon says: If it is so that no set time was established, then the Torah has given an individual measure of time into the hands of each and every individual. One may plow until a self-determined time, as he can always claim that he is plowing in order to plant during the sixth year. Rather, a fixed time must be established: In a white field one may plow until Passover, in an orchard one may plow until Shavuot, and Beit Hillel say: Until Passover.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪砖讜诐 讘专 拽驻专讗 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 谞诪谞讜 注诇 砖谞讬 驻专拽讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讜讘讟诇讜诐

And Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Rabban Gamliel and his court discussed and then voted about the prohibitions of these two periods, i.e., from Passover or Shavuot until Rosh HaShana, and nullified them, thereby permitting plowing until Rosh HaShana, the actual beginning of the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讜 诪讘讟诇讬 转拽谞转讗 讚讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讜讛讗 转谞谉 讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讘讟诇 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诪谞讜 讘讞讻诪讛 讜讘诪谞讬谉

Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu, and some say that it was Reish Lakish who said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: How could Rabban Gamliel and his court nullify an ordinance instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, who were greater authorities than they were? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5): A court cannot nullify the ruling of another court unless it surpasses it in wisdom and in number?

讗砖转讜诪诐 讻砖注讛 讞讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讜专 讻讱 讛转谞讜 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讘讟诇 讬讘讜讗 讜讬讘讟诇

Rabbi Abbahu 鈥渨as astonished for a while鈥 (Daniel 4:16), and then said to him: Say that when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel established their decree, they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it.

讚讬讚讛讜 讛讬讗 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 谞讞讜谞讬讗 讗讬砖 讘拽注转 讘讬转 讞讜专转谉 注砖专 谞讟讬注讜转 注专讘讛 讜谞讬住讜讱 讛诪讬诐 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬

The Gemara asks: Is this ordinance theirs? Did Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel institute the ordinance and as such have the authority to attach stipulations to it? It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Ne岣nya from the valley of Beit 岣rtan: The halakha of ten saplings, the mitzva of bringing willow branches to the Temple on Sukkot and standing them up around the altar, and the halakha of water libation on Sukkot are all halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Consequently, the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the seventh year is a not a rabbinic ordinance from the Second Temple period, but rather an oral tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻讬 讙诪讬专讬 讛诇讻转讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讗转讜 讛谞讬 转拽讜谉 诪驻住讞 讜诪注爪专转 讜讗转谞讜 讘讚讬讚讛讜 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讘讟诇 讬讘讜讗 讜讬讘讟诇

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: When they learned this halakha as a tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai, the prohibition applied from only thirty days before Rosh HaShana. Afterward, these Sages of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel came and instituted lengthier periods of restriction, from Passover and from Shavuot, respectively, but they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it. Rabban Gamliel and his court were therefore able to nullify extended restrictions instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

讜讛谞讬 讛诇讻转讗 谞讬谞讛讜 拽专讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚转谞谉 讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞专讬砖 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 砖讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪专 讗诇讗 讞专讬砖 砖诇 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara raises another question: Are these prohibitions of plowing before the Sabbatical Year really halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai? They are actually prohibitions based on explicit verses. As we learned in a baraita with regard to the verse 鈥淚n plowing and in reaping you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21) that Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary for the verse to speak about plowing and reaping during the Sabbatical Year, as it was already stated: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord; your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). This teaches that during the seventh year all agricultural labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse comes to prohibit plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year

This month鈥檚 shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Moed Katan: 2-6 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will start Moed Katan. We will start with an overview of the Masechet and understand some of...
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Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

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Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

转讜诇讚讜转 诇讗 讗住专 专讞诪谞讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛砖讘讬注讬转 砖讘转 砖讘转讜谉 讬讛讬讛 诇讗专抓 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讙讜壮

whereas the subcategories of labor that are derived from them, e.g., watering, were not prohibited by the Merciful One, i.e., by Torah law, but only by rabbinic law; and in a case of loss the Sages were lenient. The source for this distinction is as it is written: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord: Your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune. That which grows of its own accord of your harvest you shall not reap, nor gather the grapes of your undressed vines鈥 (Leviticus 25:4鈥5).

诪讻讚讬 讝诪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 讝专讬注讛 讜讘爪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 拽爪讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讻转讘讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗

Since pruning is included in the principal category of sowing, as its objective is to encourage the plant鈥檚 growth, and picking grapes is included in the principal category of reaping grain, as both involve removal of produce from a plant, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? Why did the Torah explicitly prohibit pruning and picking grapes, rather than sufficing with the general prohibitions against sowing and reaping?

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讛谞讬 转讜诇讚讜转 诪讬讞讬讬讘 讗讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

The Gemara answers that these were individually enumerated to say that only for these subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, while for other subcategories of labor, i.e., watering a field, one is not liable. Consequently, there are only four types of labor that are prohibited by Torah law during the Sabbatical Year: Sowing and its subcategory of pruning, as well as reaping and its subcategory of grape picking. All other subcategories of labor are prohibited only by rabbinic decree.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪讜专 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讝讬专讜注 讜讝讬诪讜专 诪谞讬谉 诇谞讬讻讜砖 讜诇注讬讚讜专 讜诇讻讬住讜讞 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning. From where do I derive that weeding, i.e., uprooting weeds, hoeing, and cutting weeds, even without uprooting them, are also prohibited? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune.鈥 This wording indicates that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪拽专住诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讝专讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讙讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches [mefasegin] from trees? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby teaching that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讝讘诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻专拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讗讘拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪注砖谞讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讜讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones that surround the base of a tree and impede its growth, and one may not cover exposed roots with dust, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow鈥 and 鈥測our vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby indicating that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

讬讻讜诇 诇讗 讬拽砖拽砖 转讞转 讛讝讬转讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注讚专 转讞转 讛讙驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讬诪诇讗 谞拽注讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注砖讛 注讜讙讬讜转 诇讙驻谞讬诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注

The apparent conclusion from this is that all labor in a field or a vineyard is prohibited. One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow.鈥

讝专讬注讛 讘讻诇诇 讛讬转讛 讜诇诪讛 讬爪转讛 诇讛拽讬砖 讗诇讬讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝专讬注讛 诪讬讜讞讚转 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐 讗祝 讻诇 砖讛讬讗 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐

The Gemara explains the derivation: Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year, as the verse states 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labors performed only in the vineyard but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, such as the labors mentioned above, are permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many subcategories of labor are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning, as Rava had stated.

诪讚专讘谞谉 讜拽专讗 讗住诪讻转讗 讘注诇诪讗

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as a source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

讜拽砖拽讜砖 讘砖讘讬注讬转 诪讬 砖专讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讜讛砖讘讬注讬转 转砖诪讟谞讛 讜谞讟砖转讛 转砖诪讟谞讛 诪诇拽砖拽砖 讜谞讟砖转讛 诪诇住拽诇

Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara asks: Is light hoeing under olive trees in fact permitted during the Sabbatical Year? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淏ut the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow鈥 (Exodus 23:11), and it is taught with regard to this verse: 鈥淵ou shall let it rest鈥 from light hoeing, 鈥渁nd lie fallow鈥 from clearing the field of stones. This indicates that light hoeing is indeed prohibited during the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 专讘 注讜拽讘讗 讘专 讞诪讗 转专讬 拽砖拽讜砖讬 讛讜讜 讞讚 讗讘专讜讬讬 讗讬诇谞讬 讜讞讚 住转讜诪讬 驻讬诇讬 讗讘专讜讬讬 讗讬诇谉 讗住讜专 住转讜诪讬 驻讬诇讬 砖专讬

Rav Ukva bar 岣ma said: There are two types of light hoeing, one whose objective is to strengthen the trees, and another that is intended to seal cracks. There is a practical halakhic difference between them: Hoeing performed in order to strengthen the tree is prohibited, as it is similar to plowing in that it enhances the tree鈥檚 growth. However, hoeing undertaken in order to seal cracks is permitted, as by doing so one prevents damage to the tree.

讗讬转诪专 讛讞讜专砖 讘砖讘讬注讬转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讞讚 讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 讜讞讚 讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 诇讬诪讗 讘讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讻诇诇 讘注砖讛 讜驻专讟 讘诇讗 转注砖讛 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜讻诇诇

It was stated that Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to one who plows during the Sabbatical Year. One said: He is flogged for doing so, while the other one said: He is not flogged. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that they disagree with regard to the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said, and one accepts this principle while the other does not. As, Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said: Wherever a generalization is stated in the Torah as a positive mitzva, and a detail relating to that generalization is stated as a negative mitzva, one does not apply the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization, according to which the halakha under discussion is expanded to all cases that resemble the detail.

诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗

The Gemara explains: The one who said that one who plows during the Sabbatical Year is flogged does not accept the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said. Accordingly, he expounds the verses as follows: The verse 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4) is a generalization stated as a positive mitzva. The continuation of the verse is 鈥淵our field you shall not sow,鈥 which is a detail stated as a negative mitzva. This is followed by another generalization: 鈥淔or it shall be a year of rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:5). By applying the principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization, one can derive that there is a prohibition against performing any agricultural task that is similar to sowing, including plowing.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉

And the one who said that one is not flogged for plowing holds in accordance with the ruling that Rabbi Avin stated in the name of Rabbi Ile鈥檃. Therefore, the prohibition stated as a detail, i.e., the prohibition against sowing, is not extended to include any other labor. One who plows violates the positive command to let the land rest, but does not transgress a Torah law phrased as a negative mitzva, and therefore he is not flogged.

诇讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讬诇注讗 诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讜拽讛 砖驻讬专

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: No, one can say that everyone holds that the halakha is not in accordance with the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ile鈥檃 said. According to the one who said he is flogged, all is well, as he applies the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization to derive a prohibition for plowing.

讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谞讜 诇讜拽讛 讗诪专 诇讱 诪讻讚讬 讝诪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 讝专讬注讛 讜讘爪讬专讛 讘讻诇诇 拽爪讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讻转讘讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 诇诪讬诪专 讚讗讛谞讬 转讜诇讚讜转 讛讜讗 讚诪讬讞讬讬讘 讗转讜诇讚讛 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘

And the one who said that he is not flogged could have said to you: Since pruning is included in the primary category of sowing, and grape picking is included in the primary category of reaping, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? They were individually enumerated to say that only for these specific subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, but for performing other subcategories of labor one is not liable. According to this opinion, the verse comes to teach that one is not liable to be flogged for performing any labor not explicitly enumerated in the Torah, including plowing.

讜诇讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪讜专 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讝讬专讜注 讜讝讬诪讜专 诪谞讬谉 诇注讬讚讜专 讜诇拽讬砖拽讜砖 讜诇讻讬住讜讞 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 讜诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse 鈥淵our field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 that I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning? From where do I derive that weeding, hoeing, and cutting weeds are also prohibited? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). By placing the word 鈥渘ot鈥 immediately following the words 鈥渇ield鈥 and 鈥渧ineyard,鈥 the verse indicates that one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your field, and one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your vineyard.

讜诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪拽专住诪讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪讝专讚讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻住讙讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches from trees? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

诪谞讬谉 砖讗讬谉 诪讝讘诇讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪驻专拽讬谉 讜讗讬谉 诪注砖谞讬谉 讘讗讬诇谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 讻专诪讱 诇讗 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘砖讚讱 诇讗 讜讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讘讻专诪讱 诇讗

From where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones from around the base of a tree that impede its growth, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,鈥 thereby indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

讬讻讜诇 诇讗 讬拽砖拽砖 转讞转 讛讝讬转讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注讚专 转讞转 讛讙驻谞讬诐 讜诇讗 讬诪诇讗 谞拽注讬诐 诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬注砖讛 注讜讙讬讜转 诇讙驻谞讬诐 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注

One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淵our field you shall not sow.鈥

讝专讬注讛 讘讻诇诇 讛讬转讛 讜诇诪讛 讬爪转讛 诇讛拽讬砖 讗诇讬讛 诇讜诪专 诇讱 诪讛 讝专讬注讛 诪讬讜讞讚转 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐 讗祝 讻诇 砖讛讬讗 注讘讜讚讛 砖讘砖讚讛 讜砖讘讻专诐

Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year. Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labor performed only in the vineyard, but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, is permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many labors are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning.

诪讚专讘谞谉 讜拽专讗 讗住诪讻转讗 讘注诇诪讗

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

讻讬 讗转讗 专讘 讚讬诪讬 讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 讛转讜住驻转 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 诪讗讬 转诇诪讜讚讗 讜诪讗讬 转讜住驻转

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he stated a tradition he had heard from the Sages in Eretz Yisrael: One might have thought that one would be flogged for the addition, but a teaching states an exemption from lashes. Rav Dimi noted: But I do not know what teaching or what addition this tradition is referring to.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讞专讬砖讛 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 讞专讬砖讛 讚讗转讬讗 诪讻诇诇 讜驻专讟 讜讻诇诇 讜谞住讬讘 诇讬讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗

The Sages disputed the meaning of this tradition. Rabbi Elazar said: The addition in question is plowing during the Sabbatical Year, for which there is no explicit prohibition in the Torah, and so it may be regarded as an addition to the labors explicitly enumerated in the Torah. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for plowing during the Sabbatical Year, as it is derived by way of the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization that teaches that plowing is prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for the labor of plowing.

讚讗诐 讻谉 讻诇 讛谞讬 驻专讟讬 诇诪讛 诇讬

This is logical, because if one is flogged for plowing, why do I need all these details that were enumerated in the verse, i.e., pruning and picking grapes? Rather, one must certainly conclude that these were singled out in order to teach that one is flogged only for these specific labors, but not for any other.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讬诪讬诐 砖讛讜住讬驻讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讬讻讜诇 讬诇拽讛 注诇 转讜住驻转 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讚讗转讬讗 诪讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘转 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 转诇诪讜讚讗 诇驻讟讜专讗 讻讚讘注讬谞谉 诇诪讬诪专 诇拽诪谉

And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This addition is referring to the extra days that the Sages added to the prohibition against performing agricultural labor, before Rosh HaShana of the seventh year, when the Sabbatical Year formally begins. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for working the land during the additional period prior to Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year, as this prohibition is derived from the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in reaping you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21). This seemingly superfluous verse is understood as teaching that not only is working the land prohibited during the seventh year, but plowing a field during the sixth year to prepare the land for the seventh year, and reaping what grew in the seventh year during the eighth year are also prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for these actions, as we are about to state below.

诪讗讬 讬诪讬诐 砖诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻讚转谞谉 注讚 诪转讬 讞讜专砖讬谉 讘砖讚讛 讗讬诇谉 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讬驻讛 诇驻专讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛注爪专转 讜拽专讜讘讬谉 讚讘专讬 讗诇讜 诇讛讬讜转 讻讚讘专讬 讗诇讜

The Gemara elaborates: What are the extra days before Rosh HaShana? As we learned in a mishna (Shevi鈥檌t 1:1): Until when may one plow an orchard on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? Beit Shammai say: One may plow so long as the plowing is beneficial for the fruit already on the trees. Once the plowing serves to benefit only the tree itself and the fruit it will produce the following year, it is prohibited. And Beit Hillel say: One may plow until Shavuot. The mishna notes: And the statement of these, Beit Shammai, is close to being like the statement of these, Beit Hillel; i.e., in practice, there is little difference between the dates established by the two opinions.

讜注讚 诪转讬 讞讜专砖讬谉 砖讚讛 讛诇讘谉 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 诪砖转讻诇讛 讛诇讞讛 讜讻诇 讝诪谉 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讞讜专砖讬诐 诇讬讟注 诪拽砖讗讜转 讜诪讚诇注讜转

The mishna (see Shevi鈥檌t 2:1) additionally states: And until when may one plow a white field, i.e., a grain field, on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? One may plow until the residual moisture in the fields from the rain ceases and so long as people continue to plow their fields in order to plant cucumbers and gourds, which are planted at the end of the winter.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗诐 讻谉 谞转谞讛 转讜专讛 砖讬注讜专 诇讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讘讬讚讜 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛 讛诇讘谉 注讚 讛驻住讞 讜讘砖讚讛 讛讗讬诇谉 注讚 讛注爪专转 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛驻住讞

Rabbi Shimon says: If it is so that no set time was established, then the Torah has given an individual measure of time into the hands of each and every individual. One may plow until a self-determined time, as he can always claim that he is plowing in order to plant during the sixth year. Rather, a fixed time must be established: In a white field one may plow until Passover, in an orchard one may plow until Shavuot, and Beit Hillel say: Until Passover.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 驻讝讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪砖讜诐 讘专 拽驻专讗 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 谞诪谞讜 注诇 砖谞讬 驻专拽讬诐 讛诇诇讜 讜讘讟诇讜诐

And Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Rabban Gamliel and his court discussed and then voted about the prohibitions of these two periods, i.e., from Passover or Shavuot until Rosh HaShana, and nullified them, thereby permitting plowing until Rosh HaShana, the actual beginning of the Sabbatical Year.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诇专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜讘讬转 讚讬谞讜 讛讬讻讬 诪爪讜 诪讘讟诇讬 转拽谞转讗 讚讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讜讛讗 转谞谉 讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讬讻讜诇 诇讘讟诇 讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诪谞讜 讘讞讻诪讛 讜讘诪谞讬谉

Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu, and some say that it was Reish Lakish who said to Rabbi Yo岣nan: How could Rabban Gamliel and his court nullify an ordinance instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, who were greater authorities than they were? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5): A court cannot nullify the ruling of another court unless it surpasses it in wisdom and in number?

讗砖转讜诪诐 讻砖注讛 讞讚讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬诪讜专 讻讱 讛转谞讜 讘讬谞讬讛谉 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讘讟诇 讬讘讜讗 讜讬讘讟诇

Rabbi Abbahu 鈥渨as astonished for a while鈥 (Daniel 4:16), and then said to him: Say that when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel established their decree, they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it.

讚讬讚讛讜 讛讬讗 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗住讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 谞讞讜谞讬讗 讗讬砖 讘拽注转 讘讬转 讞讜专转谉 注砖专 谞讟讬注讜转 注专讘讛 讜谞讬住讜讱 讛诪讬诐 讛诇讻讛 诇诪砖讛 诪住讬谞讬

The Gemara asks: Is this ordinance theirs? Did Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel institute the ordinance and as such have the authority to attach stipulations to it? It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Ne岣nya from the valley of Beit 岣rtan: The halakha of ten saplings, the mitzva of bringing willow branches to the Temple on Sukkot and standing them up around the altar, and the halakha of water libation on Sukkot are all halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Consequently, the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the seventh year is a not a rabbinic ordinance from the Second Temple period, but rather an oral tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻讬 讙诪讬专讬 讛诇讻转讗 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讗转讜 讛谞讬 转拽讜谉 诪驻住讞 讜诪注爪专转 讜讗转谞讜 讘讚讬讚讛讜 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讘讟诇 讬讘讜讗 讜讬讘讟诇

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: When they learned this halakha as a tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai, the prohibition applied from only thirty days before Rosh HaShana. Afterward, these Sages of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel came and instituted lengthier periods of restriction, from Passover and from Shavuot, respectively, but they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it. Rabban Gamliel and his court were therefore able to nullify extended restrictions instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

讜讛谞讬 讛诇讻转讗 谞讬谞讛讜 拽专讗讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚转谞谉 讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞专讬砖 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 砖讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讻专诪讱 诇讗 转讝诪专 讗诇讗 讞专讬砖 砖诇 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转

The Gemara raises another question: Are these prohibitions of plowing before the Sabbatical Year really halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai? They are actually prohibitions based on explicit verses. As we learned in a baraita with regard to the verse 鈥淚n plowing and in reaping you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21) that Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary for the verse to speak about plowing and reaping during the Sabbatical Year, as it was already stated: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord; your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). This teaches that during the seventh year all agricultural labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse comes to prohibit plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year

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