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January 18, 2022 | ื˜ืดื– ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘ | TODAY'S DAF: Moed Katan 6

Today's Daf Yomi

January 15, 2022 | ื™ืดื’ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Adam Plunka in loving memory of his grandfather, Harry Reuben Plunka, Yerachmiel Herschel Ben Yisrael, father of Stanley Plunka.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Erica Kolatch in loving memory of her father Richard Glube, Hillel ben Yosef Calman on his 25th yahrzeit. โ€œLearning the daf exemplifies my father’s maxim, always try something new that interests you, it may lead to a lifelong love.โ€

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Terri Krivosha and Rabbi Hayim Herring in loving memory of Terriโ€™s father, Judge Norman Krivosha, Nahum Mayer Ben Malka and Dovid on his first yahrtzeit. โ€œOur dad was a lifelong learner and jurist who loved nothing better than a well-reasoned argument.โ€

How is watering allowed on the shmita year in a case of a financial loss if it is a subcategory of planting or plowing? Abaye holds the Mishna is according to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who holds that shmita is only by rabbinic law nowadays. Rava’s answer is that sub-categories are not forbidden by Torah law. Are they really not? What about a braita that derives many sub-categories from a verse in the Torah? Is plowing forbidden by Torah law and one would then receive lashes? Or not? Why would plowing be different than planting? Rav Dimi made a statement about an “addition” being possibly forbidden but the rabbis exempted. To what was he referring? Two possibilities are brought. Either he was referring to plowing on the shmita year or to tosefet shmita. From where is tosefet shmita derived? From when does it begin? And what changes were made to this law throughout the generations?

ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืœื ืืกืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืืจืฅ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื’ื•ืณ

whereas the subcategories of labor that are derived from them, e.g., watering, were not prohibited by the Merciful One, i.e., by Torah law, but only by rabbinic law; and in a case of loss the Sages were lenient. The source for this distinction is as it is written: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord: Your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune. That which grows of its own accord of your harvest you shall not reap, nor gather the grapes of your undressed vinesโ€ (Leviticus 25:4โ€“5).

ืžื›ื“ื™ ื–ืžื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืจื—ืžื ื

Since pruning is included in the principal category of sowing, as its objective is to encourage the plantโ€™s growth, and picking grapes is included in the principal category of reaping grain, as both involve removal of produce from a plant, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? Why did the Torah explicitly prohibit pruning and picking grapes, rather than sufficing with the general prohibitions against sowing and reaping?

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ืื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืืื—ืจื ื™ื™ืชื ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘

The Gemara answers that these were individually enumerated to say that only for these subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, while for other subcategories of labor, i.e., watering a field, one is not liable. Consequently, there are only four types of labor that are prohibited by Torah law during the Sabbatical Year: Sowing and its subcategory of pruning, as well as reaping and its subcategory of grape picking. All other subcategories of labor are prohibited only by rabbinic decree.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžื•ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ืข ื•ื–ื™ืžื•ืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืฉ ื•ืœืขื™ื“ื•ืจ ื•ืœื›ื™ืกื•ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: โ€œYour field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning. From where do I derive that weeding, i.e., uprooting weeds, hoeing, and cutting weeds, even without uprooting them, are also prohibited? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune.โ€ This wording indicates that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงืจืกืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืกื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches [mefasegin] from trees? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby teaching that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื–ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืจืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืื‘ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones that surround the base of a tree and impede its growth, and one may not cover exposed roots with dust, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby indicating that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ืงืฉืงืฉ ืชื—ืช ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขื“ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื’ืคื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืžืœื ื ืงืขื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขืฉื” ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข

The apparent conclusion from this is that all labor in a field or a vineyard is prohibited. One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow.โ€

ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœืžื” ื™ืฆืชื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืืœื™ื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื–ืจื™ืขื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื

The Gemara explains the derivation: Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year, as the verse states โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labors performed only in the vineyard but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, such as the labors mentioned above, are permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many subcategories of labor are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning, as Rava had stated.

ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืงืจื ืืกืžื›ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as a source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

ื•ืงืฉืงื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืชืฉืžื˜ื ื” ื•ื ื˜ืฉืชื” ืชืฉืžื˜ื ื” ืžืœืงืฉืงืฉ ื•ื ื˜ืฉืชื” ืžืœืกืงืœ

Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara asks: Is light hoeing under olive trees in fact permitted during the Sabbatical Year? Isnโ€™t it written: โ€œBut the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallowโ€ (Exodus 23:11), and it is taught with regard to this verse: โ€œYou shall let it restโ€ from light hoeing, โ€œand lie fallowโ€ from clearing the field of stones. This indicates that light hoeing is indeed prohibited during the Sabbatical Year.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืชืจื™ ืงืฉืงื•ืฉื™ ื”ื•ื• ื—ื“ ืื‘ืจื•ื™ื™ ืื™ืœื ื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืกืชื•ืžื™ ืคื™ืœื™ ืื‘ืจื•ื™ื™ ืื™ืœืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืกืชื•ืžื™ ืคื™ืœื™ ืฉืจื™

Rav Ukva bar แธคama said: There are two types of light hoeing, one whose objective is to strengthen the trees, and another that is intended to seal cracks. There is a practical halakhic difference between them: Hoeing performed in order to strengthen the tree is prohibited, as it is similar to plowing in that it enhances the treeโ€™s growth. However, hoeing undertaken in order to seal cracks is permitted, as by doing so one prevents damage to the tree.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื—ื•ืจืฉ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืขืฉื” ื•ืคืจื˜ ื‘ืœื ืชืขืฉื” ืื™ืŸ ื“ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ืคืจื˜ ื•ื›ืœืœ

ยง It was stated that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to one who plows during the Sabbatical Year. One said: He is flogged for doing so, while the other one said: He is not flogged. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that they disagree with regard to the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said, and one accepts this principle while the other does not. As, Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said: Wherever a generalization is stated in the Torah as a positive mitzva, and a detail relating to that generalization is stated as a negative mitzva, one does not apply the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization, according to which the halakha under discussion is expanded to all cases that resemble the detail.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื

The Gemara explains: The one who said that one who plows during the Sabbatical Year is flogged does not accept the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said. Accordingly, he expounds the verses as follows: The verse โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4) is a generalization stated as a positive mitzva. The continuation of the verse is โ€œYour field you shall not sow,โ€ which is a detail stated as a negative mitzva. This is followed by another generalization: โ€œFor it shall be a year of rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:5). By applying the principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization, one can derive that there is a prohibition against performing any agricultural task that is similar to sowing, including plowing.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ

And the one who said that one is not flogged for plowing holds in accordance with the ruling that Rabbi Avin stated in the name of Rabbi Ileโ€™a. Therefore, the prohibition stated as a detail, i.e., the prohibition against sowing, is not extended to include any other labor. One who plows violates the positive command to let the land rest, but does not transgress a Torah law phrased as a negative mitzva, and therefore he is not flogged.

ืœื ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ืฉืคื™ืจ

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: No, one can say that everyone holds that the halakha is not in accordance with the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said. According to the one who said he is flogged, all is well, as he applies the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization to derive a prohibition for plowing.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžื›ื“ื™ ื–ืžื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืจื—ืžื ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื“ืื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืืชื•ืœื“ื” ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘

And the one who said that he is not flogged could have said to you: Since pruning is included in the primary category of sowing, and grape picking is included in the primary category of reaping, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? They were individually enumerated to say that only for these specific subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, but for performing other subcategories of labor one is not liable. According to this opinion, the verse comes to teach that one is not liable to be flogged for performing any labor not explicitly enumerated in the Torah, including plowing.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžื•ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ืข ื•ื–ื™ืžื•ืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื™ื“ื•ืจ ื•ืœืงื™ืฉืงื•ืฉ ื•ืœื›ื™ืกื•ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse โ€œYour field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ that I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning? From where do I derive that weeding, hoeing, and cutting weeds are also prohibited? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). By placing the word โ€œnotโ€ immediately following the words โ€œfieldโ€ and โ€œvineyard,โ€ the verse indicates that one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your field, and one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your vineyard.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงืจืกืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืกื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches from trees? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื–ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืจืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

From where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones from around the base of a tree that impede its growth, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ืงืฉืงืฉ ืชื—ืช ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขื“ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื’ืคื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืžืœื ื ืงืขื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขืฉื” ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข

One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow.โ€

ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœืžื” ื™ืฆืชื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืืœื™ื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื–ืจื™ืขื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื

Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year. Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labor performed only in the vineyard, but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, is permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many labors are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning.

ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืงืจื ืืกืžื›ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืกืคืช ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ื•ืžืื™ ืชื•ืกืคืช

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he stated a tradition he had heard from the Sages in Eretz Yisrael: One might have thought that one would be flogged for the addition, but a teaching states an exemption from lashes. Rav Dimi noted: But I do not know what teaching or what addition this tradition is referring to.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื•ืคืจื˜ ื•ื›ืœืœ ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื

The Sages disputed the meaning of this tradition. Rabbi Elazar said: The addition in question is plowing during the Sabbatical Year, for which there is no explicit prohibition in the Torah, and so it may be regarded as an addition to the labors explicitly enumerated in the Torah. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for plowing during the Sabbatical Year, as it is derived by way of the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization that teaches that plowing is prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for the labor of plowing.

ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ืคืจื˜ื™ ืœืžื” ืœื™

This is logical, because if one is flogged for plowing, why do I need all these details that were enumerated in the verse, i.e., pruning and picking grapes? Rather, one must certainly conclude that these were singled out in order to teach that one is flogged only for these specific labors, but not for any other.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ืชื•ืกืคืช ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืžื‘ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื‘ืงืฆื™ืจ ืชืฉื‘ืช ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื ื›ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœืงืžืŸ

And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: This addition is referring to the extra days that the Sages added to the prohibition against performing agricultural labor, before Rosh HaShana of the seventh year, when the Sabbatical Year formally begins. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for working the land during the additional period prior to Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year, as this prohibition is derived from the verse: โ€œIn plowing and in reaping you shall restโ€ (Exodus 34:21). This seemingly superfluous verse is understood as teaching that not only is working the land prohibited during the seventh year, but plowing a field during the sixth year to prepare the land for the seventh year, and reaping what grew in the seventh year during the eighth year are also prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for these actions, as we are about to state below.

ืžืื™ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ืขื“ ืžืชื™ ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืื™ืœืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ืคื” ืœืคืจื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื•

The Gemara elaborates: What are the extra days before Rosh HaShana? As we learned in a mishna (Sheviโ€™it 1:1): Until when may one plow an orchard on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? Beit Shammai say: One may plow so long as the plowing is beneficial for the fruit already on the trees. Once the plowing serves to benefit only the tree itself and the fruit it will produce the following year, it is prohibited. And Beit Hillel say: One may plow until Shavuot. The mishna notes: And the statement of these, Beit Shammai, is close to being like the statement of these, Beit Hillel; i.e., in practice, there is little difference between the dates established by the two opinions.

ื•ืขื“ ืžืชื™ ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืฉื“ื” ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžืฉืชื›ืœื” ื”ืœื—ื” ื•ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืœื™ื˜ืข ืžืงืฉืื•ืช ื•ืžื“ืœืขื•ืช

The mishna (see Sheviโ€™it 2:1) additionally states: And until when may one plow a white field, i.e., a grain field, on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? One may plow until the residual moisture in the fields from the rain ceases and so long as people continue to plow their fields in order to plant cucumbers and gourds, which are planted at the end of the winter.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื›ืŸ ื ืชื ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ืคืกื—

Rabbi Shimon says: If it is so that no set time was established, then the Torah has given an individual measure of time into the hands of each and every individual. One may plow until a self-determined time, as he can always claim that he is plowing in order to plant during the sixth year. Rather, a fixed time must be established: In a white field one may plow until Passover, in an orchard one may plow until Shavuot, and Beit Hillel say: Until Passover.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ื ืžื ื• ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ ืคืจืงื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื•ื‘ื˜ืœื•ื

And Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Rabban Gamliel and his court discussed and then voted about the prohibitions of these two periods, i.e., from Passover or Shavuot until Rosh HaShana, and nullified them, thereby permitting plowing until Rosh HaShana, the actual beginning of the Sabbatical Year.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืžืฆื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืชืงื ืชื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื•ื”ื ืชื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื‘ืžื ื™ืŸ

Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu, and some say that it was Reish Lakish who said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: How could Rabban Gamliel and his court nullify an ordinance instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, who were greater authorities than they were? Didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5): A court cannot nullify the ruling of another court unless it surpasses it in wisdom and in number?

ืืฉืชื•ืžื ื›ืฉืขื” ื—ื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ืš ื”ืชื ื• ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื™ื‘ื˜ืœ

Rabbi Abbahu โ€œwas astonished for a whileโ€ (Daniel 4:16), and then said to him: Say that when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel established their decree, they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it.

ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืขืช ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจืชืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื ื˜ื™ืขื•ืช ืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื ื™ืกื•ืš ื”ืžื™ื ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™

The Gemara asks: Is this ordinance theirs? Did Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel institute the ordinance and as such have the authority to attach stipulations to it? It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Neแธฅunya from the valley of Beit แธคortan: The halakha of ten saplings, the mitzva of bringing willow branches to the Temple on Sukkot and standing them up around the altar, and the halakha of water libation on Sukkot are all halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Consequently, the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the seventh year is a not a rabbinic ordinance from the Second Temple period, but rather an oral tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืืชื• ื”ื ื™ ืชืงื•ืŸ ืžืคืกื— ื•ืžืขืฆืจืช ื•ืืชื ื• ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื™ื‘ื˜ืœ

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: When they learned this halakha as a tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai, the prohibition applied from only thirty days before Rosh HaShana. Afterward, these Sages of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel came and instituted lengthier periods of restriction, from Passover and from Shavuot, respectively, but they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it. Rabban Gamliel and his court were therefore able to nullify extended restrictions instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

ื•ื”ื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืงืจืื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื‘ืงืฆื™ืจ ืชืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžืจ ืืœื ื—ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

The Gemara raises another question: Are these prohibitions of plowing before the Sabbatical Year really halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai? They are actually prohibitions based on explicit verses. As we learned in a baraita with regard to the verse โ€œIn plowing and in reaping you shall restโ€ (Exodus 34:21) that Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary for the verse to speak about plowing and reaping during the Sabbatical Year, as it was already stated: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord; your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). This teaches that during the seventh year all agricultural labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse comes to prohibit plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

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Introduction to Moed Katan

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Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

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Moed Katan 3 – Shabbat January 15

ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืœื ืืกืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื‘ืฉื ื” ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืŸ ื™ื”ื™ื” ืœืืจืฅ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื’ื•ืณ

whereas the subcategories of labor that are derived from them, e.g., watering, were not prohibited by the Merciful One, i.e., by Torah law, but only by rabbinic law; and in a case of loss the Sages were lenient. The source for this distinction is as it is written: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord: Your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not prune. That which grows of its own accord of your harvest you shall not reap, nor gather the grapes of your undressed vinesโ€ (Leviticus 25:4โ€“5).

ืžื›ื“ื™ ื–ืžื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืจื—ืžื ื

Since pruning is included in the principal category of sowing, as its objective is to encourage the plantโ€™s growth, and picking grapes is included in the principal category of reaping grain, as both involve removal of produce from a plant, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? Why did the Torah explicitly prohibit pruning and picking grapes, rather than sufficing with the general prohibitions against sowing and reaping?

ืœืžื™ืžืจื ื“ืื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืืื—ืจื ื™ื™ืชื ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘

The Gemara answers that these were individually enumerated to say that only for these subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, while for other subcategories of labor, i.e., watering a field, one is not liable. Consequently, there are only four types of labor that are prohibited by Torah law during the Sabbatical Year: Sowing and its subcategory of pruning, as well as reaping and its subcategory of grape picking. All other subcategories of labor are prohibited only by rabbinic decree.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžื•ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ืข ื•ื–ื™ืžื•ืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœื ื™ื›ื•ืฉ ื•ืœืขื™ื“ื•ืจ ื•ืœื›ื™ืกื•ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: โ€œYour field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning. From where do I derive that weeding, i.e., uprooting weeds, hoeing, and cutting weeds, even without uprooting them, are also prohibited? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune.โ€ This wording indicates that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงืจืกืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืกื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches [mefasegin] from trees? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby teaching that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื–ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืจืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืื‘ืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones that surround the base of a tree and impede its growth, and one may not cover exposed roots with dust, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sowโ€ and โ€œyour vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby indicating that no labor may be performed in your field, and no labor may be performed in your vineyard.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ืงืฉืงืฉ ืชื—ืช ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขื“ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื’ืคื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืžืœื ื ืงืขื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขืฉื” ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข

The apparent conclusion from this is that all labor in a field or a vineyard is prohibited. One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow.โ€

ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœืžื” ื™ืฆืชื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืืœื™ื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื–ืจื™ืขื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื

The Gemara explains the derivation: Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year, as the verse states โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labors performed only in the vineyard but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, such as the labors mentioned above, are permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many subcategories of labor are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning, as Rava had stated.

ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืงืจื ืืกืžื›ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as a source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

ื•ืงืฉืงื•ืฉ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžื™ ืฉืจื™ ื•ื”ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืชืฉืžื˜ื ื” ื•ื ื˜ืฉืชื” ืชืฉืžื˜ื ื” ืžืœืงืฉืงืฉ ื•ื ื˜ืฉืชื” ืžืœืกืงืœ

Incidental to this discussion, the Gemara asks: Is light hoeing under olive trees in fact permitted during the Sabbatical Year? Isnโ€™t it written: โ€œBut the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallowโ€ (Exodus 23:11), and it is taught with regard to this verse: โ€œYou shall let it restโ€ from light hoeing, โ€œand lie fallowโ€ from clearing the field of stones. This indicates that light hoeing is indeed prohibited during the Sabbatical Year.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืขื•ืงื‘ื ื‘ืจ ื—ืžื ืชืจื™ ืงืฉืงื•ืฉื™ ื”ื•ื• ื—ื“ ืื‘ืจื•ื™ื™ ืื™ืœื ื™ ื•ื—ื“ ืกืชื•ืžื™ ืคื™ืœื™ ืื‘ืจื•ื™ื™ ืื™ืœืŸ ืืกื•ืจ ืกืชื•ืžื™ ืคื™ืœื™ ืฉืจื™

Rav Ukva bar แธคama said: There are two types of light hoeing, one whose objective is to strengthen the trees, and another that is intended to seal cracks. There is a practical halakhic difference between them: Hoeing performed in order to strengthen the tree is prohibited, as it is similar to plowing in that it enhances the treeโ€™s growth. However, hoeing undertaken in order to seal cracks is permitted, as by doing so one prevents damage to the tree.

ืื™ืชืžืจ ื”ื—ื•ืจืฉ ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืœื™ืžื ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ืœืœ ื‘ืขืฉื” ื•ืคืจื˜ ื‘ืœื ืชืขืฉื” ืื™ืŸ ื“ื ื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื•ืคืจื˜ ื•ื›ืœืœ

ยง It was stated that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan and Rabbi Elazar disagreed with regard to one who plows during the Sabbatical Year. One said: He is flogged for doing so, while the other one said: He is not flogged. The Gemara suggests: Let us say that they disagree with regard to the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said, and one accepts this principle while the other does not. As, Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said: Wherever a generalization is stated in the Torah as a positive mitzva, and a detail relating to that generalization is stated as a negative mitzva, one does not apply the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization, according to which the halakha under discussion is expanded to all cases that resemble the detail.

ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื

The Gemara explains: The one who said that one who plows during the Sabbatical Year is flogged does not accept the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said. Accordingly, he expounds the verses as follows: The verse โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4) is a generalization stated as a positive mitzva. The continuation of the verse is โ€œYour field you shall not sow,โ€ which is a detail stated as a negative mitzva. This is followed by another generalization: โ€œFor it shall be a year of rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:5). By applying the principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization, one can derive that there is a prohibition against performing any agricultural task that is similar to sowing, including plowing.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ

And the one who said that one is not flogged for plowing holds in accordance with the ruling that Rabbi Avin stated in the name of Rabbi Ileโ€™a. Therefore, the prohibition stated as a detail, i.e., the prohibition against sowing, is not extended to include any other labor. One who plows violates the positive command to let the land rest, but does not transgress a Torah law phrased as a negative mitzva, and therefore he is not flogged.

ืœื ื“ื›ื•ืœื™ ืขืœืžื ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืœื•ืงื” ืฉืคื™ืจ

The Gemara rejects this suggestion: No, one can say that everyone holds that the halakha is not in accordance with the principle that Rabbi Avin said that Rabbi Ileโ€™a said. According to the one who said he is flogged, all is well, as he applies the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, a detail, and a generalization to derive a prohibition for plowing.

ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื• ืœื•ืงื” ืืžืจ ืœืš ืžื›ื“ื™ ื–ืžื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื•ื‘ืฆื™ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ืงืฆื™ืจื” ืœืžืื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื›ืชื‘ื™ื ื”ื• ืจื—ืžื ื ืœืžื™ืžืจ ื“ืื”ื ื™ ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื”ื•ื ื“ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืืชื•ืœื“ื” ืื—ืจื™ื ื ืœื ืžื™ื—ื™ื™ื‘

And the one who said that he is not flogged could have said to you: Since pruning is included in the primary category of sowing, and grape picking is included in the primary category of reaping, for the purpose of teaching what halakha did the Merciful One write them? They were individually enumerated to say that only for these specific subcategories of labor is one liable to be flogged, but for performing other subcategories of labor one is not liable. According to this opinion, the verse comes to teach that one is not liable to be flogged for performing any labor not explicitly enumerated in the Torah, including plowing.

ื•ืœื ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžื•ืจ ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื–ื™ืจื•ืข ื•ื–ื™ืžื•ืจ ืžื ื™ืŸ ืœืขื™ื“ื•ืจ ื•ืœืงื™ืฉืงื•ืฉ ื•ืœื›ื™ืกื•ื— ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ื•ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš

The Gemara asks: And is there really no liability for other subcategories of labor? Isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse โ€œYour field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ that I have derived from here an explicit prohibition only against sowing and pruning? From where do I derive that weeding, hoeing, and cutting weeds are also prohibited? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). By placing the word โ€œnotโ€ immediately following the words โ€œfieldโ€ and โ€œvineyard,โ€ the verse indicates that one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your field, and one may not perform any labor that is generally performed in your vineyard.

ื•ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžืงืจืกืžื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืจื“ื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืกื’ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

Similarly, from where is it derived that one may not prune trees, and one may not trim dry branches from trees, and one may not cut large branches from trees? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

ืžื ื™ืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื–ื‘ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืคืจืงื™ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืžืขืฉื ื™ืŸ ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ืš ืœื ื•ื›ืœ ืžืœืื›ื” ืฉื‘ื›ืจืžืš ืœื

From where is it derived that one may not fertilize fields and vineyards, and one may not remove stones from around the base of a tree that impede its growth, and one may not fumigate a tree in order to exterminate worms? The verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow and your vineyard you shall not prune,โ€ thereby indicating that any labor that is generally performed in your field may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year, and any labor generally performed in your vineyard may not be performed during the Sabbatical Year.

ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ืงืฉืงืฉ ืชื—ืช ื”ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขื“ืจ ืชื—ืช ื”ื’ืคื ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืžืœื ื ืงืขื™ื ืžื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ืขืฉื” ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข

One might have thought that one may also not hoe lightly under olive trees and one may not hoe under grapevines, and one may not fill cracks in the ground with water, and one may not construct circular ditches around the bases of grapevines in order to collect rainwater. Therefore, the verse states: โ€œYour field you shall not sow.โ€

ื–ืจื™ืขื” ื‘ื›ืœืœ ื”ื™ืชื” ื•ืœืžื” ื™ืฆืชื” ืœื”ืงื™ืฉ ืืœื™ื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืžื” ื–ืจื™ืขื” ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ืช ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื ืืฃ ื›ืœ ืฉื”ื™ื ืขื‘ื•ื“ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื“ื” ื•ืฉื‘ื›ืจื

Sowing was included in the general prohibition against performing agricultural labors during the Sabbatical Year. Why was sowing singled out and mentioned explicitly? In order to compare other types of labor to it and to say to you: Just as sowing is unique in that it is labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard, so too, any other labor performed both in the field and in the vineyard is prohibited. However, labor performed only in the vineyard, but not in the field, i.e., whose objective is merely to sustain the vines from year to year, is permitted. In any case, this baraita indicates that many labors are prohibited during the seventh year, and not just sowing and pruning.

ืžื“ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื•ืงืจื ืืกืžื›ืชื ื‘ืขืœืžื

The Gemara rejects this opinion: These labors, with the exceptions of sowing, pruning, grape picking, and reaping, are all prohibited only by rabbinic law, and the verse that is cited as source from the Torah is a mere support, and not a bona fide source.

ื›ื™ ืืชื ืจื‘ ื“ื™ืžื™ ืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ื”ืชื•ืกืคืช ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืขื ื ืžืื™ ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ื•ืžืื™ ืชื•ืกืคืช

When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he stated a tradition he had heard from the Sages in Eretz Yisrael: One might have thought that one would be flogged for the addition, but a teaching states an exemption from lashes. Rav Dimi noted: But I do not know what teaching or what addition this tradition is referring to.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืืžืจ ื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ื—ืจื™ืฉื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืžื›ืœืœ ื•ืคืจื˜ ื•ื›ืœืœ ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื™ื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื

The Sages disputed the meaning of this tradition. Rabbi Elazar said: The addition in question is plowing during the Sabbatical Year, for which there is no explicit prohibition in the Torah, and so it may be regarded as an addition to the labors explicitly enumerated in the Torah. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for plowing during the Sabbatical Year, as it is derived by way of the hermeneutical principle of a generalization, and a detail, and a generalization that teaches that plowing is prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for the labor of plowing.

ื“ืื ื›ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื ื™ ืคืจื˜ื™ ืœืžื” ืœื™

This is logical, because if one is flogged for plowing, why do I need all these details that were enumerated in the verse, i.e., pruning and picking grapes? Rather, one must certainly conclude that these were singled out in order to teach that one is flogged only for these specific labors, but not for any other.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉื”ื•ืกื™ืคื• ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ื”ื›ื™ ืงืืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ืœืงื” ืขืœ ืชื•ืกืคืช ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื“ืืชื™ื ืžื‘ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื‘ืงืฆื™ืจ ืชืฉื‘ืช ื•ื ืกื™ื‘ ืœื” ืชืœืžื•ื“ื ืœืคื˜ื•ืจื ื›ื“ื‘ืขื™ื ืŸ ืœืžื™ืžืจ ืœืงืžืŸ

And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: This addition is referring to the extra days that the Sages added to the prohibition against performing agricultural labor, before Rosh HaShana of the seventh year, when the Sabbatical Year formally begins. And this is what it is saying: One might have thought that one would be flogged for working the land during the additional period prior to Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year, as this prohibition is derived from the verse: โ€œIn plowing and in reaping you shall restโ€ (Exodus 34:21). This seemingly superfluous verse is understood as teaching that not only is working the land prohibited during the seventh year, but plowing a field during the sixth year to prepare the land for the seventh year, and reaping what grew in the seventh year during the eighth year are also prohibited. But a teaching states an exemption from lashes for these actions, as we are about to state below.

ืžืื™ ื™ืžื™ื ืฉืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ืขื“ ืžืชื™ ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ืฉื“ื” ืื™ืœืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ืคื” ืœืคืจื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ืขืฆืจืช ื•ืงืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื›ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืืœื•

The Gemara elaborates: What are the extra days before Rosh HaShana? As we learned in a mishna (Sheviโ€™it 1:1): Until when may one plow an orchard on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? Beit Shammai say: One may plow so long as the plowing is beneficial for the fruit already on the trees. Once the plowing serves to benefit only the tree itself and the fruit it will produce the following year, it is prohibited. And Beit Hillel say: One may plow until Shavuot. The mishna notes: And the statement of these, Beit Shammai, is close to being like the statement of these, Beit Hillel; i.e., in practice, there is little difference between the dates established by the two opinions.

ื•ืขื“ ืžืชื™ ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ืŸ ืฉื“ื” ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžืฉืชื›ืœื” ื”ืœื—ื” ื•ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื—ื•ืจืฉื™ื ืœื™ื˜ืข ืžืงืฉืื•ืช ื•ืžื“ืœืขื•ืช

The mishna (see Sheviโ€™it 2:1) additionally states: And until when may one plow a white field, i.e., a grain field, on the eve of the Sabbatical Year? One may plow until the residual moisture in the fields from the rain ceases and so long as people continue to plow their fields in order to plant cucumbers and gourds, which are planted at the end of the winter.

ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ืื ื›ืŸ ื ืชื ื” ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื‘ื™ื“ื• ืืœื ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืœื‘ืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ื‘ืฉื“ื” ื”ืื™ืœืŸ ืขื“ ื”ืขืฆืจืช ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืขื“ ื”ืคืกื—

Rabbi Shimon says: If it is so that no set time was established, then the Torah has given an individual measure of time into the hands of each and every individual. One may plow until a self-determined time, as he can always claim that he is plowing in order to plant during the sixth year. Rather, a fixed time must be established: In a white field one may plow until Passover, in an orchard one may plow until Shavuot, and Beit Hillel say: Until Passover.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืคื–ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืžืฉื•ื ื‘ืจ ืงืคืจื ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ื ืžื ื• ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ ืคืจืงื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื•ื‘ื˜ืœื•ื

And Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of bar Kappara: Rabban Gamliel and his court discussed and then voted about the prohibitions of these two periods, i.e., from Passover or Shavuot until Rosh HaShana, and nullified them, thereby permitting plowing until Rosh HaShana, the actual beginning of the Sabbatical Year.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืœืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืจื™ืฉ ืœืงื™ืฉ ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืžืฆื• ืžื‘ื˜ืœื™ ืชืงื ืชื ื“ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืื™ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ื•ื”ื ืชื ืŸ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื“ื‘ืจื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ืŸ ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืืœื ืื ื›ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืžืžื ื• ื‘ื—ื›ืžื” ื•ื‘ืžื ื™ืŸ

Rabbi Zeira said to Rabbi Abbahu, and some say that it was Reish Lakish who said to Rabbi Yoแธฅanan: How could Rabban Gamliel and his court nullify an ordinance instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, who were greater authorities than they were? Didnโ€™t we learn in a mishna (Eduyyot 1:5): A court cannot nullify the ruling of another court unless it surpasses it in wisdom and in number?

ืืฉืชื•ืžื ื›ืฉืขื” ื—ื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ืžื•ืจ ื›ืš ื”ืชื ื• ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื™ื‘ื˜ืœ

Rabbi Abbahu โ€œwas astonished for a whileโ€ (Daniel 4:16), and then said to him: Say that when Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel established their decree, they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it.

ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื”ื™ื ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืกื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ื—ื•ื ื™ื ืื™ืฉ ื‘ืงืขืช ื‘ื™ืช ื—ื•ืจืชืŸ ืขืฉืจ ื ื˜ื™ืขื•ืช ืขืจื‘ื” ื•ื ื™ืกื•ืš ื”ืžื™ื ื”ืœื›ื” ืœืžืฉื” ืžืกื™ื ื™

The Gemara asks: Is this ordinance theirs? Did Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel institute the ordinance and as such have the authority to attach stipulations to it? It is a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. As Rabbi Asi said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said in the name of Rabbi Neแธฅunya from the valley of Beit แธคortan: The halakha of ten saplings, the mitzva of bringing willow branches to the Temple on Sukkot and standing them up around the altar, and the halakha of water libation on Sukkot are all halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai. Consequently, the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the seventh year is a not a rabbinic ordinance from the Second Temple period, but rather an oral tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืฉืœืฉื™ื ื™ื•ื ืœืคื ื™ ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืืชื• ื”ื ื™ ืชืงื•ืŸ ืžืคืกื— ื•ืžืขืฆืจืช ื•ืืชื ื• ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื”ื• ื›ืœ ื”ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื‘ื˜ืœ ื™ื‘ื•ื ื•ื™ื‘ื˜ืœ

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: When they learned this halakha as a tradition dating back to Moses at Sinai, the prohibition applied from only thirty days before Rosh HaShana. Afterward, these Sages of Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel came and instituted lengthier periods of restriction, from Passover and from Shavuot, respectively, but they stipulated among themselves: Anyone who later wishes to nullify this decree may come and nullify it. Rabban Gamliel and his court were therefore able to nullify extended restrictions instituted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

ื•ื”ื ื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืงืจืื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ื“ืชื ืŸ ื‘ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ื‘ืงืฆื™ืจ ืชืฉื‘ืช ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื•ืžืจ ื—ืจื™ืฉ ื•ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื”ืจื™ ื›ื‘ืจ ื ืืžืจ ืฉื“ืš ืœื ืชื–ืจืข ื•ื›ืจืžืš ืœื ืชื–ืžืจ ืืœื ื—ืจื™ืฉ ืฉืœ ืขืจื‘ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

The Gemara raises another question: Are these prohibitions of plowing before the Sabbatical Year really halakhot transmitted to Moses from Sinai? They are actually prohibitions based on explicit verses. As we learned in a baraita with regard to the verse โ€œIn plowing and in reaping you shall restโ€ (Exodus 34:21) that Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary for the verse to speak about plowing and reaping during the Sabbatical Year, as it was already stated: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the land, a sabbath for the Lord; your field you shall not sow, and your vineyard you shall not pruneโ€ (Leviticus 25:4). This teaches that during the seventh year all agricultural labor is prohibited. Rather, the verse comes to prohibit plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year

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