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Today's Daf Yomi

January 16, 2022 | ื™ืดื“ ื‘ืฉื‘ื˜ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

Moed Katan 4

This weekโ€™s learning is sponsored by Debbie Pine and Mark Orenshein in loving memory of their fatherโ€™s Harry Pine, Noach Aharon ben Yaakov vโ€™Devorahโ€™s 20th yahrzeit on Tu Bโ€™shvat and Herb Orenshein, Tzvi ben Yehuda vโ€™Minnaโ€™s shloshim, on the 19th Tevet. โ€œNeither of our fathers had the benefit of a formal Jewish education and yet both of them were committed to providing that for us. They were proud of their families and our dedication to Torah-true Judaism. They would love our commitment to Daf Yomi and how we often learn the daf together. They would be especially appreciative of Rabbanit Michelle who has made the daf accessible to those didnโ€™t grow up learning gemara through her intentionally inclusive style of teaching. We miss them every day. Yehi zichram Baruchโ€.

Todayโ€™s daf is sponsored by Ronnie Rom in honor of her sister, Joanna Romโ€™s 70th birthday. โ€œThank you for being my sister & may you go from strength to strength!โ€ย 

Today’s daf is dedicated by Becki Goldstein in memory of her mother Shoshana Rosa bat Shmuel and Minda Lea.ย My mother would be so proud and humbled to share this learning with all these special women men worldwide. A self-made woman who attained her high school diploma at the tender age of 70, she would strive all her life to deepen and expand her Torah learning and after she made aliyah she would encourage her children and grandchildren to share their store of knowledge with her. She thanked Hashem every day for the gift of being able to be here with us and we had the zchut to learn with her and from her and make many precious memories together. Yehi Zichra Baruch.

Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael differ on tosefet shviit (adding on time before and after the shmita year) whether it is a Torah law or a halakha lโ€™Moshe miโ€™Sinai. Rabbi Akiva learns it from the verse โ€œAnd one should rest from plowing and reaping.โ€ Rabbi Yishmael holds that the verse is referring to Shabbat and it is coming to teach that only actions that are optional are forbidden on Shabbat but if the reaping is for a mitzva, such as the Omer, it is permitted on Shabbat. Rabbi Yochananโ€™s explanation of Rav Dimiโ€™s statement is explained according to Rabbi Akiva that tosefet is from the Torah and one would have thought one would get lashes, but Rabban Gamliel learned by a gezeira shava that there is no law of tosefet. Rav Ashi questions this and explains Rabban Gamliel differently โ€“ he held like Rabbi Yishmael and that it was only for a time when the Temple was in existence. Once it was destroyed, there was no longer a law of tosefet. Why canโ€™t a field be watered from a cistern filled with rainwater? Is it just because if we allow that, one may think it is permitted to use water drawn from a well. Or is it because the water level may drop to the point where one will need to draw it with a pail. A series of braitot are brought which have various cases of watering that are either permitted or forbidden. Comments of amoraim on each braita are brought. If the Mishna says one cannot dig circular ditches around a vine, why did Rav Yehuda allow the people of his city to do that? Why does Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria forbid digging a channel on the shmita year? Two answers are brought and questions are raised on each answer. One can fix a broken channel on Chol Hamoed. Under what circumstances?

ืฉื ื›ื ืก ืœืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื•ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆื ืœืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

that entered into the Sabbatical Year, i.e., plowing in the sixth year that will benefit crops growing in the seventh year, and reaping the crops of the Sabbatical Year that continued into the conclusion of the Sabbatical Year, i.e., reaping seventh-year produce that continued to grow into the eighth year.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ื—ืจื™ืฉ ืจืฉื•ืช ืืฃ ืงืฆื™ืจ ืจืฉื•ืช ื™ืฆื ืงืฆื™ืจ ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื”

Rabbi Yishmael says that this verse is to be understood as referring to Shabbat and not to the Sabbatical Year, in accordance with the straightforward meaning of the verse. It teaches as follows: Just as only optional plowing is prohibited on Shabbat, as there is no instance where plowing fulfills a biblical mitzva, so too, only optional reaping is prohibited, to the exclusion of the reaping of the omer offering, which is a mitzva, and consequently permitted on Shabbat. Nonetheless, the first opinion cited in the baraita, that of Rabbi Akiva, holds that the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year is derived from an explicit verse.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžื™ืฉืจื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืงืจืื™ ืœืžื™ืกืจ ื–ืงื™ื ื”

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: When we learned this as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, it was to permit plowing in the case of young saplings until Rosh HaShana. In contrast, the verses that were cited come to prohibit plowing in the case of mature and well-rooted trees thirty days before Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year.

ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืฉืจื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืœืื• ืžืžื™ืœื ื–ืงื™ื ื” ืืกื™ืจื”

The Gemara asks: But since the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai comes to permit plowing in the case of young saplings until Rosh HaShana, does it not automatically follow that in the case of mature trees, plowing is prohibited before Rosh HaShana? Therefore, not only the allowance, but the prohibition as well was learned by tradition as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, and not from the verses.

ืืœื ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืงืจืื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื

Rather, the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai is the basis of the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year according to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who interprets the verse as referring to Shabbat, and not to the Sabbatical Year, whereas the verses are the basis of the prohibition according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืœื”ื•

The Gemara previously cited Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, who explained how Rabban Gamlielโ€™s court nullified the extension to the prohibition against plowing before the Sabbatical Year that had been enacted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. The Gemara now cites another opinion, which holds that Rabban Gamlielโ€™s court abolished the prohibition against plowing before the Sabbatical Year entirely. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said that Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the restrictions on working the land on the eve of the Sabbatical Year based on a source written in the Torah.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื’ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื‘ืช ืžืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

What is the reason? He derives it by means of a verbal analogy between the word Shabbat stated with regard to the Sabbatical Year in the verse: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4), and the word Shabbat stated with regard to the weekly Shabbat, which commemorates the Shabbat of Creation. Just as there, on Shabbat itself it is prohibited to perform labor, but before and after Shabbat it is permitted, so too here, in the case of the Sabbatical Year, during the Sabbatical Year itself it is prohibited to perform labor, but before and after the Sabbatical Year it is permitted.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืืชื™ื ื’ื–ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืขืงืจื” ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืชื™ื ื’ื–ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืขืงืจื” ืงืจื

Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: If Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the restrictions based on a verbal analogy, then according to the one who said that the prohibition against plowing thirty days before Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year is a halakha that was transmitted to Moses from Sinai, can a verbal analogy come and uproot a halakha that was transmitted to Moses from Sinai? And similarly, according to the one who said that the prohibition against plowing is derived from a verse, can a verbal analogy come and uproot a verse?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ืกื‘ืจื™ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ื ื™ืกื•ืš ื”ืžื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ืœื

Rather, Rav Ashi said: Rabban Gamliel and his court held in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who said that they learned this prohibition as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. But they learned this halakha only with regard to the time period when the Temple is standing. This is evidenced by the fact that it is similar to the other halakha stated along with it, that of the water libation, which was part of the service in the Temple. But when the Temple is not standing this halakha does not apply, and therefore Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the prohibition after the destruction of the Temple.

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžืžื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืžืžื™ ื”ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืื™ื›ื ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื™ืชื™ืจื ืืœื ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ืื™ื›ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna: However, one may not irrigate a field on the intermediate days of a Festival with rainwater collected in a cistern or with water drawn with a shadoof. The Gemara asks: Granted, irrigating a field with water drawn with a shadoof involves excessive effort, and so it is prohibited on the intermediate days of a Festival. But what excessive effort is involved in irrigating a field with rainwater? Rainwater collects on its own and one merely has to channel it to where it is needed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืืžืจ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืื˜ื• ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื’ื•ืคื™ื™ื”ื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืืชื•

Rabbi Ileโ€™a said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: A rabbinic decree was enacted with regard to rainwater due to its similarity to water drawn with a shadoof. Rav Ashi said: Rainwater itself will come to be like water drawn with a shadoof. Once the level of the collected rainwater drops, it will become necessary to draw it with a bucket, a procedure involving excessive effort.

ื•ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“

The Gemara comments: Rabbi Ileโ€™a and Rav Ashi disagree with regard to the ruling issued by Rabbi Zeira, as Rabbi Zeira said that Rabba bar Yirmeya said that Shmuel said: With regard to streams that draw water from pools of collected water, one is permitted to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of a Festival, because the flow of water is steady.

ืžืจ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืžืจ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื

One Sage, Rav Ashi, is of the opinion that the ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as he prohibits only irrigating with rainwater, because the supply might come to an end, but he does not prohibit watering from a source whose flow is steady. And one Sage, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, is not of the opinion that the ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as he prohibits irrigating with rainwater due to its similarity to water drawn with a shadoof. This applies regardless of whether the level of the rainwater will drop, and therefore Rabbi Yoแธฅanan would prohibit using collected water even if a stream flows through it and it will not dry up.

ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“

After mentioning the statement of Rabbi Zeira in the course of the previous discussion, the Gemara examines the matter itself. Rabbi Zeira said that Rabba bar Yirmeya said that Shmuel said: With regard to streams that draw water from pools of water, one is permitted to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of a Festival.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืœื ืžืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื ื™ ืื’ืžื™ื ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ื“ืœื ืคืกืงื™ ื“ืžื•

Rabbi Yirmeya raised an objection to Rabbi Zeira from what is taught in the mishna: However, one may not irrigate a field on the intermediate days of a Festival with rainwater collected in cisterns or with water drawn with a shadoof. This indicates that whenever there is a concern that the water might run out, it is prohibited to irrigate from this water source. Consequently, Rabbi Yirmeya wanted to know why this concern did not exist in the case of the pools of water as well. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Yirmeya, my son, these pools in Babylonia are like water that does not stop flowing. Therefore, there is no concern that the water level in these pools might go down to such an extent that it will become necessary to draw the water with buckets.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืคืกื™ืงื•ืช ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉื ืชืžืœืื• ืžื™ื ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to temporary pools and regular pools that were filled with water on the eve of a Festival, it is prohibited for one to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of the Festival, lest they run out of water and he will come to exert himself and bring water from elsewhere. But if a water channel passes between them so that water flows from the one to the other, it is permitted.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืจื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื“ื” ืฉื•ืชื” ืžืื•ืชื” ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืจื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื“ื” ืฉื•ืชื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืฉื›ื ื•ืืชื™ื ืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืื™ ืœื ืฉืชื™ื ืœื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ืชืฉืชื™ ืœืชืจื™ ื•ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™

Rav Pappa said: And this allowance applies only when the majority of that field can be irrigated from that water channel, such that most of the field can be irrigated at the same time. In this case, there is no concern that when the water runs out, he will come to exert himself and irrigate the rest of the field from another source of water. Rav Ashi said: It applies even though the majority of that field cannot be irrigated from that water channel at the same time. Since the channel continuously draws water, constantly replenishing its supply, even if it does so at a slow rate, one will say to himself that even if the entire field cannot be irrigated from that water channel on a single day, it can be irrigated from it over the course of two or three days. Accordingly, he will not find it necessary to exert himself to quickly irrigate that portion of the field that did not already receive its water.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ื›ื” ืฉื ื•ื˜ืคืช ืžื™ื ืžืฉื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉืœื—ื™ืŸ ื–ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžืžื ื” ืฉื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉืœื—ื™ืŸ ืื—ืจืช

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a pool that receives drips of water from this field that requires irrigation, which itself receives water from a spring, one is permitted to irrigate from this pool another field situated below it that requires irrigation.

ื•ื”ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื“ืคืกืงื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื˜ืคื˜ืคืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ืคืกืง ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t the pool likely to stop flowing, which will force him to exert himself and draw water from somewhere else? Rabbi Yirmeya said: The case is where the upper field is still trickling water into the pool and does not stop. Abaye said: And this allowance applies only when the water from the first spring that irrigates the upper field has not stopped flowing. Only in that case can one rely on the water trickling from the upper field and consequently irrigating the lower field from the pool.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืžื ืกื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืชื™ ืขืจื•ื’ื•ืช ื–ื• ืœืžืขืœื” ืžื–ื• ืœื ื™ื“ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื” ื•ื™ืฉืงื” ืืช ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืขืจื•ื’ื” ืื—ืช ื—ืฆื™ื” ื ืžื•ืš ื•ื—ืฆื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืœื ื™ื“ืœื” ืžืžืงื•ื ื ืžื•ืš ื•ื™ืฉืงื” ืœืžืงื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya says: With regard to two garden beds located one above the other, one may not draw water from the channel supplying the lower garden bed in order to irrigate the upper garden bed, due to the excessive exertion involved. Furthermore, Rabbi Elazar bar Shimon said: Even in the case of a single garden bed, half of which is lower and half of which is higher, one may not draw water from the channel supplying the lower area to irrigate the upper area, even though they are two parts of the same garden bed.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ื•ืื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืœื™ื™ืคื•ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may draw water and irrigate vegetables in order to eat them on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if he does this in order to improve their growth and to enhance their appearance it is prohibited, as he is considered to be unnecessarily exerting himself on the Festival.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ื” ืชื•ืกืคืื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืื–ืœื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ื—ื–ื• ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื“ืœื™ ื“ื•ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ืชื•ืกืคืื” ืœืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœื™ืชื™ ืžืจ ืœืฉืžืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ ืกื‘ืจืช ืžืื™ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืื™

The Gemara relates that Ravina and Rabba Tosefaโ€™a were once walking along the road when they saw a certain man that was drawing water with a bucket on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to Ravina: Let the Master come and excommunicate him for transgressing the words of the Sages. Ravina said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One may draw for vegetables in order to eat them, and so he has not committed a transgression. Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to him: Do you maintain that what is meant by one may draw [madlin] is that one may draw water in order to irrigate the vegetables? This is not so. Rather, what is meant by

ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœื•ืคื™ ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ื’ืคื ื™ื ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืฉืœื• ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืฉืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉืœื• ืจืฉืื™ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจืฉืื™ ื‘ืฉืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื

one may draw is that one may pull out some of the vegetables that are growing densely together. The baraita comes to teach that one is permitted to thin out a garden bed on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to eat on the Festival those that he removes, but he is prohibited to do so in order to enhance the appearance of those that remain. As we learned in a mishna (Peโ€™a 7:5): One who thins out [meidel] the vines in his vineyard, just as he may thin out his own vines, so too, he may thin out the vines set aside for the poor. Since he is doing it for the sake of the vines, he may also thin out what he leaves for the poor; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: His own vines he is permitted to thin out, but he is not permitted to thin out the vines set aside for the poor. This mishna indicates that the term meidel can be used to mean thinning out and does not refer only to drawing water.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืชื ื™ื ืชื ื™ื

Ravina said to Rabba Tosefaโ€™a: But wasnโ€™t it explicitly taught in a baraita: One may draw water to irrigate vegetables in order to eat them? Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to him: If it is taught explicitly in a baraita, the halakha is as it is taught, and I retract my statement.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืžืื™ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ืงืจื™ ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื™ืงืจื™ ื’ืคื ื™ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna: And one may not construct circular ditches [ugiyyot] around the bases of grapevines on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara asks: What are ugiyyot? Rav Yehuda said: They are what are called in Aramaic binkei, circular ditches around vines. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: These are ugiyyot: Bedidin, circular ditches around the bases of olive trees and around the bases of grapevines.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืชืื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื ื›ื™ ืœื›ืจืžื™ื”ื•ืŸ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื—ื“ืชื™ ื”ื ื‘ืขืชื™ืงื™

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is it prohibited to dig circular ditches on the intermediate days of the Festival? Didnโ€™t Rav Yehuda permit the family of bar Tzitai to construct circular ditches for their vineyards on the intermediate days of a Festival? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This source, i.e., the mishna that renders the practice prohibited, is referring to digging new ditches. That other source, i.e., Rav Yehudaโ€™s ruling that permits the digging of such ditches, is referring to old ones, which merely need to be cleared.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืžื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ื˜ืจื— ืืœื ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

ยง It was taught in the next clause of the mishna that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: One may not construct a new water channel during the intermediate days of a Festival or during the Sabbatical Year. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited for him to do so on the intermediate days of a Festival, because in so doing he excessively exerts himself on the Festival. But what is the reason that this is prohibited during the Sabbatical Year, when only labors that enhance the growth of plants are prohibited?

ืคืœื™ื’ื• ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Abba bar Memel disagreed with regard to this issue. One of them said: It is prohibited because it appears to others as if he were hoeing his field. As onlookers do not know that he is merely digging a water channel, they suspect him of working his land during the Sabbatical Year. And the other one said: It is prohibited because he thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting, for when he digs out the channel, he piles the fresh soil that is fit for planting on its two banks.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืืชื• ืžื™ื ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืื™ื›ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical halakhic difference between them? The Gemara answers: There is a practical halakhic difference between them in a case where water comes into the channel immediately after he digs it out. According to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because he thereby prepares its banks for planting, there is still a prohibition, as here too, he piles the fresh soil on the channelโ€™s banks. But according to the one who said it is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, there is no prohibition here, as the immediate entry of water makes it obvious that he is digging a water channel.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืฉื“ื™ ืœื‘ืจืื™ ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืœื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, let him be concerned that the digger thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting and render digging prohibited in this case as well. Rather, the matter must be explained differently, such that there is a practical difference between them in a case where he takes the earth that he excavates from the channel and throws it a considerable distance outside. According to the one who said that it is prohibited because he thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting, there is no prohibition here, as he does not prepare them for planting. But according to the one who said it is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, there is a prohibition here, as here too, it appears as if he were hoeing.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืขื•ื“ืจ ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ ืงื ืฉืงื™ืœ ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ืžื ื— ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because he thereby prepares its banks for planting, let him be concerned that the digger appears as if he were hoeing. The Gemara answers that this is not a concern, because it is also true of one who hoes that when he takes up a clump of earth, he puts it down again in its place. Consequently, since one throws the dug-up earth far away, it is immediately apparent that he is not engaged in hoeing but is rather digging a water channel.

ืืžื™ืžืจ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ื•ืงืฉื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืืกื•ืจ

Ameimar would teach this mishna as stating explicitly that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says that one may not dig a new water channel during the Sabbatical Year because it appears as if he were hoeing his field, and he therefore found a difficulty between this statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya and another statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. The difficulty is as follows: Did Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya actually say that any action that causes him to appear as if he were hoeing is prohibited?

ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืื“ื ืืช ื–ื‘ืœื• ืื•ืฆืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืกืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืžื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื”ื•ืœืš

One may raise a contradiction to this assertion from a mishna (Sheviโ€™it 3:3) that states: A person may pile his manure in his field during the Sabbatical Year so that it becomes a storage heap, and there is no cause for concern that it may appear as if he were fertilizing his field. Rabbi Meir prohibits this unless he deepens the storage area for the manure three handbreadths below the ground or raises it three handbreadths above the surface of the ground, so that it does not appear as if he were fertilizing his field. If he already had a small amount of manure in that heap from before the Sabbatical Year, he may continue to add to it, and there is no need for concern.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืกืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืžื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกืœืข

Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya prohibits piling his manure in his field unless he deepens the storage area for the manure three handbreadths below the surface of the ground, or he raises it three handbreadths above the surface, or he places it on a rock. In any event, it seems that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, it is permitted for him to dig a hole in the ground in order to deposit his manure there, even though he might appear to be hoeing the ground.

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืขืžื™ืง ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื–ื™ื‘ืœื• ืžื•ื›ื™ื— ืขืœื™ื•

Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Abba bar Memel both offered resolutions to this difficulty: One of them said: The case in this second mishna is one where he had already deepened the three-handbreadth pit during the sixth year. And the other one said: His pile of manure is proof that he intends merely to bury the manure and not to hoe the field.

ื•ืžืชืงื ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ืœืงืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืื™ ืžืงื•ืœืงืœืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืฉืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืขืžื•ืงื” ื˜ืคื— ืžืขืžื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna that the Rabbis say: One may repair a damaged water channel during the intermediate days of a Festival. What is meant by a damaged water channel? Rabbi Abba said that if it was now a handbreadth deep because it had become filled with sediment, he may dredge it out until he sets it at its original depth of six handbreadths.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื—ืฆื™ ื˜ืคื— ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืžื™ื ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื•ื ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื“ืงื ื˜ืจื— ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื™ืชื™ืจื ืœื

Based on this ruling, the Gemara clarifies several practical issues: It is obvious that if the channel is half a handbreadth deep and he wants to restore it to a depth of three handbreadths, since water does not flow through a three-handbreadth-deep channel in sufficient quantity, it is nothing at all and it is certainly prohibited to exert oneself with work that provides insignificant benefit. So too, if the channel is two handbreadths deep and he wants to deepen it to twelve handbreadths, even though he preserves the same ratio as in Rabbi Abbaโ€™s case, since it involves excessive exertion, no, this is also not permitted.

ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืžื”ื• ื”ื›ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืงื ืžืขืžื™ืง ื•ื”ื›ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืงื ืžืขืžื™ืง ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื˜ืคื— ื™ืชื™ืจื ืื™ื›ื ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื˜ืคื™ ืชื™ืงื•

However, in a case where the channel is two handbreadths deep and he wants to deepen it to seven handbreadths, what is the halakha? The Gemara explains the two sides of the question of whether this can be compared to the case in the mishna: Here, in the case of dredging a one-handbreadth-deep channel to restore its depth of six handbreadths, he deepens the channel by five handbreadths, and similarly here, in the case of deepening the channel from two to seven handbreadths, he likewise wants to deepen it by five handbreadths, and therefore it should be permitted. Or perhaps, since there is an extra handbreadth of depth, then bending over to dig that additional handbreadth involves greater effort, which is unnecessary, and so possibly it should be prohibited. The Gemara states that the dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื“ืš ืœืฉื—ื•ืคื™ ื ื”ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ืกื›ื•ืชื ืœืžื™ื›ืจื ื ื”ืจื ื˜ืžื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ืœืืงื“ื•ื—ื™ ื ื”ืจ ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ืฅ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืชื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ื ื“ืžื™ ื•ืชื ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฆื•ืจื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื

It was related that Abaye permitted the people of Bar Hamdakh to remove the branches of the trees from the river on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yirmeya permitted the people of Sekhavta to dredge out a river that had become blocked. Rav Ashi permitted his townsmen, the people of Mata Meแธฅasya, to clean out the nearby Burnitz River. He said: Since the public drinks from it, it is considered like a public need, and we learned in the mishna that one may tend to all other public needs on the intermediate days of a Festival.

ื•ืžืชืงื ื™ืŸ ืืช

ยง It was taught in the mishna: During the intermediate days of a Festival one may repair

This monthโ€™s shiurim are dedicated by Efrat Arnold in loving memory of Joshua Carr, Yehoshua Aryeh Leib ben Yonatan Chaim and Malka Esther HaCohen.

And by Tova and David Kestenbaum in honor of their children and grandchildren.

  • This monthโ€™s learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Elaine Hochberg in honor of her husband, Arie Hochberg, who continues to journey through Daf Yomi with her. โ€œAnd with thanks to Rabbanit Farber and Hadran who have made our learning possible.โ€

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Moed Katan 4

ืฉื ื›ื ืก ืœืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ื•ืงืฆื™ืจ ืฉืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื™ืฆื ืœืžื•ืฆืื™ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช

that entered into the Sabbatical Year, i.e., plowing in the sixth year that will benefit crops growing in the seventh year, and reaping the crops of the Sabbatical Year that continued into the conclusion of the Sabbatical Year, i.e., reaping seventh-year produce that continued to grow into the eighth year.

ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืžื” ื—ืจื™ืฉ ืจืฉื•ืช ืืฃ ืงืฆื™ืจ ืจืฉื•ืช ื™ืฆื ืงืฆื™ืจ ื”ืขื•ืžืจ ืฉื”ื™ื ืžืฆื•ื”

Rabbi Yishmael says that this verse is to be understood as referring to Shabbat and not to the Sabbatical Year, in accordance with the straightforward meaning of the verse. It teaches as follows: Just as only optional plowing is prohibited on Shabbat, as there is no instance where plowing fulfills a biblical mitzva, so too, only optional reaping is prohibited, to the exclusion of the reaping of the omer offering, which is a mitzva, and consequently permitted on Shabbat. Nonetheless, the first opinion cited in the baraita, that of Rabbi Akiva, holds that the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year is derived from an explicit verse.

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื—ืžืŸ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžื™ืฉืจื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืงืจืื™ ืœืžื™ืกืจ ื–ืงื™ื ื”

Rather, Rav Naแธฅman bar Yitzแธฅak said: When we learned this as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, it was to permit plowing in the case of young saplings until Rosh HaShana. In contrast, the verses that were cited come to prohibit plowing in the case of mature and well-rooted trees thirty days before Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year.

ื•ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืžืฉืจื™ ื™ืœื“ื” ืœืื• ืžืžื™ืœื ื–ืงื™ื ื” ืืกื™ืจื”

The Gemara asks: But since the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai comes to permit plowing in the case of young saplings until Rosh HaShana, does it not automatically follow that in the case of mature trees, plowing is prohibited before Rosh HaShana? Therefore, not only the allowance, but the prohibition as well was learned by tradition as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai, and not from the verses.

ืืœื ื”ืœื›ืชื ืœืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืงืจืื™ ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื

Rather, the halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai is the basis of the prohibition against plowing on the eve of the Sabbatical Year according to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who interprets the verse as referring to Shabbat, and not to the Sabbatical Year, whereas the verses are the basis of the prohibition according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva.

ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ืžื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื‘ื˜ื™ืœ ืœื”ื•

The Gemara previously cited Rabbi Yitzแธฅak, who explained how Rabban Gamlielโ€™s court nullified the extension to the prohibition against plowing before the Sabbatical Year that had been enacted by Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel. The Gemara now cites another opinion, which holds that Rabban Gamlielโ€™s court abolished the prohibition against plowing before the Sabbatical Year entirely. And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said that Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the restrictions on working the land on the eve of the Sabbatical Year based on a source written in the Torah.

ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื’ืžืจ ืฉื‘ืช ืฉื‘ืช ืžืฉื‘ืช ื‘ืจืืฉื™ืช ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื”ื™ื ืืกื•ืจื” ืœืคื ื™ื” ื•ืœืื—ืจื™ื” ืžื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

What is the reason? He derives it by means of a verbal analogy between the word Shabbat stated with regard to the Sabbatical Year in the verse: โ€œBut in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of solemn rest for the landโ€ (Leviticus 25:4), and the word Shabbat stated with regard to the weekly Shabbat, which commemorates the Shabbat of Creation. Just as there, on Shabbat itself it is prohibited to perform labor, but before and after Shabbat it is permitted, so too here, in the case of the Sabbatical Year, during the Sabbatical Year itself it is prohibited to perform labor, but before and after the Sabbatical Year it is permitted.

ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ืืชื™ื ื’ื–ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืขืงืจื” ื”ืœื›ืชื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืงืจื ืืชื™ื ื’ื–ืจื” ืฉื•ื” ืขืงืจื” ืงืจื

Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: If Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the restrictions based on a verbal analogy, then according to the one who said that the prohibition against plowing thirty days before Rosh HaShana of the Sabbatical Year is a halakha that was transmitted to Moses from Sinai, can a verbal analogy come and uproot a halakha that was transmitted to Moses from Sinai? And similarly, according to the one who said that the prohibition against plowing is derived from a verse, can a verbal analogy come and uproot a verse?

ืืœื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื•ื‘ื™ืช ื“ื™ื ื• ืกื‘ืจื™ ืœื” ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื“ืืžืจ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ืœื” ื•ื›ื™ ื’ืžื™ืจื™ ื”ืœื›ืชื ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ื“ื•ืžื™ื ื“ื ื™ืกื•ืš ื”ืžื™ื ืื‘ืœ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืงื™ื™ื ืœื

Rather, Rav Ashi said: Rabban Gamliel and his court held in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, who said that they learned this prohibition as a halakha transmitted to Moses from Sinai. But they learned this halakha only with regard to the time period when the Temple is standing. This is evidenced by the fact that it is similar to the other halakha stated along with it, that of the water libation, which was part of the service in the Temple. But when the Temple is not standing this halakha does not apply, and therefore Rabban Gamliel and his court nullified the prohibition after the destruction of the Temple.

ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžืžื™ ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืžืžื™ ื”ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืื™ื›ื ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื™ืชื™ืจื ืืœื ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืื™ ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ืื™ื›ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna: However, one may not irrigate a field on the intermediate days of a Festival with rainwater collected in a cistern or with water drawn with a shadoof. The Gemara asks: Granted, irrigating a field with water drawn with a shadoof involves excessive effort, and so it is prohibited on the intermediate days of a Festival. But what excessive effort is involved in irrigating a field with rainwater? Rainwater collects on its own and one merely has to channel it to where it is needed.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื™ืœืขื ืืžืจ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ื–ื™ืจื” ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืื˜ื• ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื’ื•ืคื™ื™ื”ื• ืœื™ื“ื™ ืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืืชื•

Rabbi Ileโ€™a said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: A rabbinic decree was enacted with regard to rainwater due to its similarity to water drawn with a shadoof. Rav Ashi said: Rainwater itself will come to be like water drawn with a shadoof. Once the level of the collected rainwater drops, it will become necessary to draw it with a bucket, a procedure involving excessive effort.

ื•ืงืžื™ืคืœื’ื™ ื‘ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“

The Gemara comments: Rabbi Ileโ€™a and Rav Ashi disagree with regard to the ruling issued by Rabbi Zeira, as Rabbi Zeira said that Rabba bar Yirmeya said that Shmuel said: With regard to streams that draw water from pools of collected water, one is permitted to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of a Festival, because the flow of water is steady.

ืžืจ ืื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืžืจ ืœื™ืช ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื

One Sage, Rav Ashi, is of the opinion that the ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as he prohibits only irrigating with rainwater, because the supply might come to an end, but he does not prohibit watering from a source whose flow is steady. And one Sage, Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, is not of the opinion that the ruling is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Zeira, as he prohibits irrigating with rainwater due to its similarity to water drawn with a shadoof. This applies regardless of whether the level of the rainwater will drop, and therefore Rabbi Yoแธฅanan would prohibit using collected water even if a stream flows through it and it will not dry up.

ื’ื•ืคื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื•ืฉื›ื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“

After mentioning the statement of Rabbi Zeira in the course of the previous discussion, the Gemara examines the matter itself. Rabbi Zeira said that Rabba bar Yirmeya said that Shmuel said: With regard to streams that draw water from pools of water, one is permitted to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of a Festival.

ืื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืœืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ืื‘ืœ ืœื ืžืžื™ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืœื ืžืžื™ ืงื™ืœื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื‘ืจื™ ื”ื ื™ ืื’ืžื™ื ื“ื‘ื‘ืœ ื›ืžื™ื ื“ืœื ืคืกืงื™ ื“ืžื•

Rabbi Yirmeya raised an objection to Rabbi Zeira from what is taught in the mishna: However, one may not irrigate a field on the intermediate days of a Festival with rainwater collected in cisterns or with water drawn with a shadoof. This indicates that whenever there is a concern that the water might run out, it is prohibited to irrigate from this water source. Consequently, Rabbi Yirmeya wanted to know why this concern did not exist in the case of the pools of water as well. Rabbi Zeira said to him: Yirmeya, my son, these pools in Babylonia are like water that does not stop flowing. Therefore, there is no concern that the water level in these pools might go down to such an extent that it will become necessary to draw the water with buckets.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืคืกื™ืงื•ืช ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ื›ื•ืช ืฉื ืชืžืœืื• ืžื™ื ืžืขืจื‘ ื™ื•ื ื˜ื•ื‘ ืืกื•ืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืœื• ืฉืœ ืžื•ืขื“ ื•ืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืขื•ื‘ืจืช ื‘ื™ื ื™ื”ืŸ ืžื•ืชืจ

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to temporary pools and regular pools that were filled with water on the eve of a Festival, it is prohibited for one to irrigate his field from them on the intermediate days of the Festival, lest they run out of water and he will come to exert himself and bring water from elsewhere. But if a water channel passes between them so that water flows from the one to the other, it is permitted.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืจื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื“ื” ืฉื•ืชื” ืžืื•ืชื” ืืžืช ื”ืžื™ื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืืžืจ ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืื™ืŸ ืจื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืชื” ืฉื“ื” ืฉื•ืชื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืงื ืžืฉื›ื ื•ืืชื™ื ืžื™ืžืจ ืืžืจ ืื™ ืœื ืฉืชื™ื ืœื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ืชืฉืชื™ ืœืชืจื™ ื•ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™

Rav Pappa said: And this allowance applies only when the majority of that field can be irrigated from that water channel, such that most of the field can be irrigated at the same time. In this case, there is no concern that when the water runs out, he will come to exert himself and irrigate the rest of the field from another source of water. Rav Ashi said: It applies even though the majority of that field cannot be irrigated from that water channel at the same time. Since the channel continuously draws water, constantly replenishing its supply, even if it does so at a slow rate, one will say to himself that even if the entire field cannot be irrigated from that water channel on a single day, it can be irrigated from it over the course of two or three days. Accordingly, he will not find it necessary to exert himself to quickly irrigate that portion of the field that did not already receive its water.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืจื™ื›ื” ืฉื ื•ื˜ืคืช ืžื™ื ืžืฉื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉืœื—ื™ืŸ ื–ื• ืžื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืฉืงื•ืช ืžืžื ื” ืฉื“ื” ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืฉืœื—ื™ืŸ ืื—ืจืช

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to a pool that receives drips of water from this field that requires irrigation, which itself receives water from a spring, one is permitted to irrigate from this pool another field situated below it that requires irrigation.

ื•ื”ื ืขื‘ื™ื“ื ื“ืคืกืงื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ื•ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื ืžื˜ืคื˜ืคืช ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื”ื•ื ืฉืœื ืคืกืง ืžืขื™ื™ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ

The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t the pool likely to stop flowing, which will force him to exert himself and draw water from somewhere else? Rabbi Yirmeya said: The case is where the upper field is still trickling water into the pool and does not stop. Abaye said: And this allowance applies only when the water from the first spring that irrigates the upper field has not stopped flowing. Only in that case can one rely on the water trickling from the upper field and consequently irrigating the lower field from the pool.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ืžื ืกื™ื ืื•ืžืจ ืฉืชื™ ืขืจื•ื’ื•ืช ื–ื• ืœืžืขืœื” ืžื–ื• ืœื ื™ื“ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื” ื•ื™ืฉืงื” ืืช ื”ืขืœื™ื•ื ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขืœ ื›ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืจ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ืืคื™ืœื• ืขืจื•ื’ื” ืื—ืช ื—ืฆื™ื” ื ืžื•ืš ื•ื—ืฆื™ื” ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืœื ื™ื“ืœื” ืžืžืงื•ื ื ืžื•ืš ื•ื™ืฉืงื” ืœืžืงื•ื ื’ื‘ื•ื”

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya says: With regard to two garden beds located one above the other, one may not draw water from the channel supplying the lower garden bed in order to irrigate the upper garden bed, due to the excessive exertion involved. Furthermore, Rabbi Elazar bar Shimon said: Even in the case of a single garden bed, half of which is lower and half of which is higher, one may not draw water from the channel supplying the lower area to irrigate the upper area, even though they are two parts of the same garden bed.

ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ื•ืื ื‘ืฉื‘ื™ืœ ืœื™ื™ืคื•ืชืŸ ืืกื•ืจ

The Sages taught in a baraita: One may draw water and irrigate vegetables in order to eat them on the intermediate days of a Festival. But if he does this in order to improve their growth and to enhance their appearance it is prohibited, as he is considered to be unnecessarily exerting himself on the Festival.

ืจื‘ื™ื ื ื•ืจื‘ื” ืชื•ืกืคืื” ื”ื•ื• ืงื ืื–ืœื™ ื‘ืื•ืจื—ื ื—ื–ื• ืœื”ื”ื•ื ื’ื‘ืจื ื“ื”ื•ื” ื“ืœื™ ื“ื•ื•ืœื ื‘ื—ื•ืœื ื“ืžื•ืขื“ื ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ื” ืชื•ืกืคืื” ืœืจื‘ื™ื ื ืœื™ืชื™ ืžืจ ืœืฉืžืชื™ื” ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืžื™ ืกื‘ืจืช ืžืื™ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืžืื™

The Gemara relates that Ravina and Rabba Tosefaโ€™a were once walking along the road when they saw a certain man that was drawing water with a bucket on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to Ravina: Let the Master come and excommunicate him for transgressing the words of the Sages. Ravina said to him: But isnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: One may draw for vegetables in order to eat them, and so he has not committed a transgression. Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to him: Do you maintain that what is meant by one may draw [madlin] is that one may draw water in order to irrigate the vegetables? This is not so. Rather, what is meant by

ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืฉืœื•ืคื™ ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ื”ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ื’ืคื ื™ื ื›ืฉื ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืฉืœื• ื›ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื™ื“ืœ ื‘ืฉืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ืฉืœื• ืจืฉืื™ ื•ืื™ื ื• ืจืฉืื™ ื‘ืฉืœ ืขื ื™ื™ื

one may draw is that one may pull out some of the vegetables that are growing densely together. The baraita comes to teach that one is permitted to thin out a garden bed on the intermediate days of a Festival in order to eat on the Festival those that he removes, but he is prohibited to do so in order to enhance the appearance of those that remain. As we learned in a mishna (Peโ€™a 7:5): One who thins out [meidel] the vines in his vineyard, just as he may thin out his own vines, so too, he may thin out the vines set aside for the poor. Since he is doing it for the sake of the vines, he may also thin out what he leaves for the poor; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Meir disagrees and says: His own vines he is permitted to thin out, but he is not permitted to thin out the vines set aside for the poor. This mishna indicates that the term meidel can be used to mean thinning out and does not refer only to drawing water.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ืžื“ืœื™ืŸ ืžื™ื ืœื™ืจืงื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœืื•ื›ืœืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืชื ื™ื ืชื ื™ื

Ravina said to Rabba Tosefaโ€™a: But wasnโ€™t it explicitly taught in a baraita: One may draw water to irrigate vegetables in order to eat them? Rabba Tosefaโ€™a said to him: If it is taught explicitly in a baraita, the halakha is as it is taught, and I retract my statement.

ื•ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื’ืคื ื™ื ืžืื™ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ื ื›ื™ ืชื ื™ื ื ืžื™ ื”ื›ื™ ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืขื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื“ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื™ืงืจื™ ื–ื™ืชื™ื ื•ืฉื‘ืขื™ืงืจื™ ื’ืคื ื™ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna: And one may not construct circular ditches [ugiyyot] around the bases of grapevines on the intermediate days of a Festival. The Gemara asks: What are ugiyyot? Rav Yehuda said: They are what are called in Aramaic binkei, circular ditches around vines. The Gemara notes that this is also taught in a baraita: These are ugiyyot: Bedidin, circular ditches around the bases of olive trees and around the bases of grapevines.

ืื™ื ื™ ื•ื”ื ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฆื™ืชืื™ ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ื‘ื ื›ื™ ืœื›ืจืžื™ื”ื•ืŸ ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื—ื“ืชื™ ื”ื ื‘ืขืชื™ืงื™

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Is it prohibited to dig circular ditches on the intermediate days of the Festival? Didnโ€™t Rav Yehuda permit the family of bar Tzitai to construct circular ditches for their vineyards on the intermediate days of a Festival? The Gemara answers: This is not difficult. This source, i.e., the mishna that renders the practice prohibited, is referring to digging new ditches. That other source, i.e., Rav Yehudaโ€™s ruling that permits the digging of such ditches, is referring to old ones, which merely need to be cleared.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืืžื” ื‘ืฉืœืžื ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืงื ื˜ืจื— ืืœื ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ืช ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื

ยง It was taught in the next clause of the mishna that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: One may not construct a new water channel during the intermediate days of a Festival or during the Sabbatical Year. The Gemara asks: Granted, it is prohibited for him to do so on the intermediate days of a Festival, because in so doing he excessively exerts himself on the Festival. But what is the reason that this is prohibited during the Sabbatical Year, when only labors that enhance the growth of plants are prohibited?

ืคืœื™ื’ื• ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื”

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Abba bar Memel disagreed with regard to this issue. One of them said: It is prohibited because it appears to others as if he were hoeing his field. As onlookers do not know that he is merely digging a water channel, they suspect him of working his land during the Sabbatical Year. And the other one said: It is prohibited because he thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting, for when he digs out the channel, he piles the fresh soil that is fit for planting on its two banks.

ืžืื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืืชื• ืžื™ื ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืื™ื›ื ื•ืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืœื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: What is the practical halakhic difference between them? The Gemara answers: There is a practical halakhic difference between them in a case where water comes into the channel immediately after he digs it out. According to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because he thereby prepares its banks for planting, there is still a prohibition, as here too, he piles the fresh soil on the channelโ€™s banks. But according to the one who said it is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, there is no prohibition here, as the immediate entry of water makes it obvious that he is digging a water channel.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืืœื ืื™ื›ื ื‘ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื“ืงื ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืฉื“ื™ ืœื‘ืจืื™ ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืœื™ื›ื ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืื™ื›ื

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, let him be concerned that the digger thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting and render digging prohibited in this case as well. Rather, the matter must be explained differently, such that there is a practical difference between them in a case where he takes the earth that he excavates from the channel and throws it a considerable distance outside. According to the one who said that it is prohibited because he thereby prepares the channelโ€™s banks for planting, there is no prohibition here, as he does not prepare them for planting. But according to the one who said it is prohibited because it appears as if he were hoeing, there is a prohibition here, as here too, it appears as if he were hoeing.

ื•ืœืžืืŸ ื“ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืžื›ืฉื™ืจ ืื’ืคื™ื” ืœื–ืจื™ืขื” ืœื™ื—ื•ืฉ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืขื•ื“ืจ ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ ืงื ืฉืงื™ืœ ื‘ื“ื•ื›ืชื™ื” ืžื ื— ืœื™ื”

The Gemara asks: But according to the one who said that digging a water channel is prohibited because he thereby prepares its banks for planting, let him be concerned that the digger appears as if he were hoeing. The Gemara answers that this is not a concern, because it is also true of one who hoes that when he takes up a clump of earth, he puts it down again in its place. Consequently, since one throws the dug-up earth far away, it is immediately apparent that he is not engaged in hoeing but is rather digging a water channel.

ืืžื™ืžืจ ืžืชื ื™ ืœื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ื•ืงืฉื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื•ืžื™ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ื›ืœ ืฉื ืจืื” ื›ืขื•ื“ืจ ืืกื•ืจ

Ameimar would teach this mishna as stating explicitly that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says that one may not dig a new water channel during the Sabbatical Year because it appears as if he were hoeing his field, and he therefore found a difficulty between this statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya and another statement of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. The difficulty is as follows: Did Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya actually say that any action that causes him to appear as if he were hoeing is prohibited?

ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ื™ ืขื•ืฉื” ืื“ื ืืช ื–ื‘ืœื• ืื•ืฆืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืื•ืกืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืžื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืœื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ืžื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื• ื•ื”ื•ืœืš

One may raise a contradiction to this assertion from a mishna (Sheviโ€™it 3:3) that states: A person may pile his manure in his field during the Sabbatical Year so that it becomes a storage heap, and there is no cause for concern that it may appear as if he were fertilizing his field. Rabbi Meir prohibits this unless he deepens the storage area for the manure three handbreadths below the ground or raises it three handbreadths above the surface of the ground, so that it does not appear as if he were fertilizing his field. If he already had a small amount of manure in that heap from before the Sabbatical Year, he may continue to add to it, and there is no need for concern.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ื‘ืŸ ืขื–ืจื™ื” ืื•ืกืจ ืขื“ ืฉื™ืขืžื™ืง ืฉืœืฉื” ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ื’ื‘ื™ื” ืฉืœืฉื” ืื• ืขื“ ืฉื™ืชืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืกืœืข

Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya prohibits piling his manure in his field unless he deepens the storage area for the manure three handbreadths below the surface of the ground, or he raises it three handbreadths above the surface, or he places it on a rock. In any event, it seems that according to Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, it is permitted for him to dig a hole in the ground in order to deposit his manure there, even though he might appear to be hoeing the ground.

ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ื‘ืจ ืžืžืœ ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืขืžื™ืง ื•ื—ื“ ืืžืจ ื–ื™ื‘ืœื• ืžื•ื›ื™ื— ืขืœื™ื•

Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Abba bar Memel both offered resolutions to this difficulty: One of them said: The case in this second mishna is one where he had already deepened the three-handbreadth pit during the sixth year. And the other one said: His pile of manure is proof that he intends merely to bury the manure and not to hoe the field.

ื•ืžืชืงื ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืงื•ืœืงืœืช ื‘ืžื•ืขื“ ืžืื™ ืžืงื•ืœืงืœืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื ืฉืื ื”ื™ืชื” ืขืžื•ืงื” ื˜ืคื— ืžืขืžื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ืฉืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื

ยง It was taught in the mishna that the Rabbis say: One may repair a damaged water channel during the intermediate days of a Festival. What is meant by a damaged water channel? Rabbi Abba said that if it was now a handbreadth deep because it had become filled with sediment, he may dredge it out until he sets it at its original depth of six handbreadths.

ืคืฉื™ื˜ื ื—ืฆื™ ื˜ืคื— ืขืœ ืฉืœืฉื” ื˜ืคื—ื™ื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืœื ืขื‘ืจ ืžื™ื ืœื ื›ืœื•ื ื”ื•ื ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื“ืงื ื˜ืจื— ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื™ืชื™ืจื ืœื

Based on this ruling, the Gemara clarifies several practical issues: It is obvious that if the channel is half a handbreadth deep and he wants to restore it to a depth of three handbreadths, since water does not flow through a three-handbreadth-deep channel in sufficient quantity, it is nothing at all and it is certainly prohibited to exert oneself with work that provides insignificant benefit. So too, if the channel is two handbreadths deep and he wants to deepen it to twelve handbreadths, even though he preserves the same ratio as in Rabbi Abbaโ€™s case, since it involves excessive exertion, no, this is also not permitted.

ื˜ืคื—ื™ื™ื ืขืœ ืฉื‘ืขื” ืžื”ื• ื”ื›ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืงื ืžืขืžื™ืง ื•ื”ื›ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืงื ืžืขืžื™ืง ืื• ื“ืœืžื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืื™ื›ื ื˜ืคื— ื™ืชื™ืจื ืื™ื›ื ื˜ื™ืจื—ื ื˜ืคื™ ืชื™ืงื•

However, in a case where the channel is two handbreadths deep and he wants to deepen it to seven handbreadths, what is the halakha? The Gemara explains the two sides of the question of whether this can be compared to the case in the mishna: Here, in the case of dredging a one-handbreadth-deep channel to restore its depth of six handbreadths, he deepens the channel by five handbreadths, and similarly here, in the case of deepening the channel from two to seven handbreadths, he likewise wants to deepen it by five handbreadths, and therefore it should be permitted. Or perhaps, since there is an extra handbreadth of depth, then bending over to dig that additional handbreadth involves greater effort, which is unnecessary, and so possibly it should be prohibited. The Gemara states that the dilemma shall stand unresolved.

ืื‘ื™ื™ ืฉืจื ืœื‘ื ื™ ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื“ืš ืœืฉื—ื•ืคื™ ื ื”ืจื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืจืžื™ื” ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ืกื›ื•ืชื ืœืžื™ื›ืจื ื ื”ืจื ื˜ืžื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืืฉื™ ืฉืจื ืœื”ื• ืœื‘ื ื™ ืžืชื ืžื—ืกื™ื ืœืืงื“ื•ื—ื™ ื ื”ืจ ื‘ื•ืจื ื™ืฅ ืืžืจ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืฉืชื• ืžื™ื ื™ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ืจื‘ื™ื ื“ืžื™ ื•ืชื ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืฆื•ืจื›ื™ ืจื‘ื™ื

It was related that Abaye permitted the people of Bar Hamdakh to remove the branches of the trees from the river on the intermediate days of a Festival. Rabbi Yirmeya permitted the people of Sekhavta to dredge out a river that had become blocked. Rav Ashi permitted his townsmen, the people of Mata Meแธฅasya, to clean out the nearby Burnitz River. He said: Since the public drinks from it, it is considered like a public need, and we learned in the mishna that one may tend to all other public needs on the intermediate days of a Festival.

ื•ืžืชืงื ื™ืŸ ืืช

ยง It was taught in the mishna: During the intermediate days of a Festival one may repair

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