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Today's Daf Yomi

November 26, 2022 | ื‘ืณ ื‘ื›ืกืœื• ืชืฉืคืดื’

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

Nedarim 32 – Shabbat November 26

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Fridayโ€™s daf please click here.

Was Moshe negligent when he did not take care of giving his son a brit milah on his way back to Egypt? Who was the angel trying to kill – Moshe or his son? How did Tzippora understand that the issue was not having circumcised him? After Tzippora circumcized him and the danger subsided, what did Moshe do? The Gemara brings more statements about the importance of the mitzva of brit milah and from there, tangents off to questions about Avraham, such as, why was he punished that his children would suffer in Egypt before coming back to the land of Israel? Malki-Tzedek was supposed to get the kehuna, but instead, it was given to Avraham. Why? What is the difference between one who says in a language of a vow, “I will not benefit from someone” and one who says, “I will not eat from someone”? If one says in a language of a vow, “I will not eat from someone” they are forbidden from benefitting from their food or even borrowing utensils that are used to prepare food. If one says, “I will not benefit from someone” then any kind of benefit is forbidden, including even walking through their property. This is the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer who holds that even items that don’t have an actual value are forbidden.

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืชืขืกืง ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ ืชื—ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ

Because he was occupied with lodging first and did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass on the way at the lodging-placeโ€ (Exodus 4:24).

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืœืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืงืฉ ืฉื˜ืŸ ืœื”ืจื•ื’ ืืœื ืœืื•ืชื• ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื—ืชืŸ ื“ืžื™ื ืืชื” ืœื™ ืฆื ื•ืจืื” ืžื™ ืงืจื•ื™ ื—ืชืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacher that Satan wanted to kill, but rather, that infant who was not circumcised, as it is stated: โ€œSurely a bridegroom of blood are you to meโ€ (Exodus 4:25). Go out and see: Who does it make sense would be the one that is called the bridegroom in this instance? You must say this is the infant, since he is the one who entered the covenant of Abraham by means of the circumcision.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื ืชืจืฉืœ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžื™ืœื” ื‘ืื• ืืฃ ื•ื—ื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ืœืขื•ื”ื• ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื™ืจื• ืžืžื ื• ืืœื ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืงื— ืฆืคืจื” ืฆืจ ื•ืชื›ืจืช ืืช ืขืจืœืช ื‘ื ื” ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืจืฃ ืžืžื ื•

Rabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision, the destructive angels named Af, meaning anger, and แธคeima, meaning wrath, came and swallowed him, and only his legs were left outside. Immediately, โ€œZipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her sonโ€ (Exodus 4:25), and immediately โ€œHe let him aloneโ€ (Exodus 4:26).

ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื‘ื™ืงืฉ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืœื”ื•ืจื’ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืจืฃ ืžืืฃ ื•ืขื–ื‘ ื—ืžื” ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื—ื™ืžื” ื”ืจื’ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ื™ื’ืจืชื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืืฃ ื•ื”ื—ืžื” ืชืจื™ ื—ื™ืžื” ื”ื•ื• ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื’ื•ื ื“ื ื“ื—ื™ืžื”

At that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: โ€œCease from anger [af ] and forsake wrath [แธฅeima]โ€ (Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. And there are those who say: He killed the angel named แธคeima, as it is stated: โ€œWrath is not in meโ€ (Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed แธคeima? Isnโ€™t it written that Moses himself said much later: โ€œFor I was in dread of the anger and wrathโ€ (Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: There are two types of wrath. And if you wish, say that the army of แธคeima remained but not the angel itself.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืžื™ ืฉื ืชืขืกืง ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ืœื ื ืงืจื ืชืžื™ื ืืœื ืขืœ ืฉื ืžื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืชื ื” ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ืš

It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Great is the mitzva of circumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, and yet he was called wholehearted only due to the mitzva of circumcision, as it is stated: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), and it is written in the next verse: โ€œAnd I will make My covenant between Me and youโ€ (Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืฉืงื•ืœื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืื™ืœืžืœื ืžื™ืœื” ืœื ื ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืœื ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Alternatively, so great is the mitzva of circumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is stated at the giving of the Torah: โ€œFor according to these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israelโ€ (Exodus 34:27), and โ€œcovenantโ€ refers to circumcision. Alternatively, so great is the mitzva of circumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: โ€œIf My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earthโ€ (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covenant that exists day and night is the covenant of circumcision, as it is always found on the personโ€™s body.

ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืื™ืœืžืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ื ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืœื ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื—ืงื•ืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืœื ืฉืžืชื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

The Gemara comments: And this statement disagrees with the words of Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: โ€œIf My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earthโ€ (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covenant that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: โ€œYou should contemplate it day and nightโ€ (Joshua 1:8).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ืื—ื–ืชื• ืจืขื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื’ื•ื ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ืืชื ื” ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ืš ื ืชืงืจืจื” ื“ืขืชื•

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), a sensation of trembling seized him and he said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about me due to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. When God said to him: โ€œAnd I will make My covenant between Me and youโ€ (Genesis 17:2), his mind was set at ease, since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.

ื•ื™ื•ืฆื ืืชื• ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืกืชื›ืœืชื™ ื‘ืžื–ืœ ืฉืœื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฆื ืžืื™ืฆื˜ื’ื ื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืœ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ

The Gemara expounds the verse โ€œand He brought him outsideโ€ (Genesis 15:5): Abraham said before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation and according to it I will have only one son, and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. He said to him: Emerge from your astrology because there is no constellation for the Jewish people, as they are not subject to the influence of astrology.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื ื—ืกื™ื“ ืชืชื—ืกื“ ืขื ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ืชืžื™ื ืชืชืžื

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: โ€œWith the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedlyโ€ (IIย Samuel 22:26).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ืฉืขื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ืฉืขื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื™ืช ืœืื‘ ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื’ื•ื™ื

Rabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him, i.e., he will be successful, as it is stated: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), and it is written: โ€œAnd you shall be the father of a multitude of nationsโ€ (Genesis 17:4).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ืฉ ืœื• ื ื—ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืœื ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื ื‘ืœืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ืžื“ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื“ื”

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Anyone who divines, i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, the sign will injure him, as it is stated: โ€œFor there is to him [lo] divination with Jacobโ€ (Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: But it is written lo with the letters lamed alef, meaning โ€œno divination,โ€ as opposed to with the letters lamed vav, meaning โ€œthere is to him divination.โ€ The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. Rather, the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather due to the concept of measure for measure: Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him.

ืชื ื™ ืื”ื‘ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื ื—ืฉ ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื—ื™ืฆื” ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืžืœืื›ื™ ื”ืฉืจืช ืื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืœื ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืœื ืงืกื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Ahava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divine his future is brought inside a partition close to God to a place that even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: โ€œFor there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel, now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wroughtโ€ (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื ืขื ืฉ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืœืžืฆืจื™ื ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืขืฉื” ืื ื’ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืจืง ืืช ื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื• ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื•

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egypt for 210 years? Because he made a draft [angarya] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: โ€œHe led forth his trained men, born in his houseโ€ (Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืคืจื™ื– ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืžื” ืื“ืข ื›ื™ ืื™ืจืฉื ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ืคืจื™ืฉ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืœื”ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืช ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืŸ ืœื™ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื•ื”ืจื›ืฉ ืงื— ืœืš

And Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [hifriz] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: โ€œWhereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?โ€ (Genesis 15:8). And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He was punished because he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is stated that the king of Sodom said to him: โ€œGive me the people and take the goods to yourselfโ€ (Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.

ื•ื™ืจืง ืืช ื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื• ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื• ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืงืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืงืŸ ื‘ื–ื”ื‘

The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: โ€œHe led forth [vayyarek] his trained men, born in his houseโ€ (Genesis 14:14). Rav said: He showered them [horikan] with Torah like someone who pours from one vessel into another, and Shmuel said: He showered them [horikan] with gold and gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.

ืฉืžื ื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ื›ื•ืœื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื™

The Torah states that he took โ€œeighteen and three hundredโ€ (Genesis 14:14) men to war. Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezer was equivalent to all of them. There are those who say: Only Eliezer is referred to here, as the numerical value of the letters of his name is this amount, i.e., 318.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืช ื‘ื•ืจืื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืงื‘ ืืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ืงืœื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ืžืื” ื•ืฉื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

And Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: โ€œBecause [ekev] Abraham hearkened to My voiceโ€ (Genesis 26:5). The numerical value of the letters of the word ekev is 172, indicating that he observed the halakha for this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื

And Rami bar Abba said in a similar manner:

ื”ืฉื˜ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ืชืœืช ืžืื” ื•ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ืจื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื”ืžืœื™ื›ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ืื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžืœื™ื›ื• ืขืœ ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืื‘ืจื™ื

The letters of the term the Satan [haSatan] in numerical value is 364, which equals the number of days of the year, except for Yom Kippur, during which he has no power. And Rami bar Abba said: It is written โ€œAbram,โ€ and after he was commanded to perform circumcision it is written โ€œAbrahamโ€ (Genesis 17:5). Initially the Holy One, Blessed be He, enthroned him as ruler over 243 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abram. And in the end, after he was circumcised, He enthroned him as ruler over 248 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abraham.

ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ื ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื™ื”

These are the additional limbs: Two eyes, and two ears, and the tip of the sex organ. Following his circumcision, he had total control over them, and they performed only according to his will.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื™ืจ ืงื˜ื ื” ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืขื™ืจ ืงื˜ื ื” ื–ื” ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื” ืžืขื˜ ืืœื• ืื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืืœื™ื” ืžืœืš ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืกื‘ื‘ ืืชื” ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื•ื‘ื ื” ืขืœื™ื” ืžืฆื•ื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืจืžื™ื ืืœื• ืขื•ื ื•ืช

And Rami bar Abba said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThere was a little city and few men in it, and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a man poor and wise, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor manโ€ (Ecclesiastes 9:14โ€“15)? โ€œA little city,โ€ this is referring to the body; โ€œand few men in it,โ€ this is referring to the limbs; โ€œand there came a great king against it and besieged it,โ€ this is referring to the evil inclination; โ€œand built great bulwarks against it,โ€ these are sins.

ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืื™ืฉ ืžืกื›ืŸ ื•ื—ื›ื ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืœื˜ ื”ื•ื ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื—ื›ืžืชื• ื–ื• ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื“ื ืœื ื–ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื”ืžืกื›ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืฉืขืช ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืœื™ืช ื“ืžื“ื›ืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืฆืจ ื˜ื•ื‘

The Gemara expounds on the next section of the verse: โ€œNow there was found in it a man poor and wise,โ€ this is referring to the good inclination; โ€œand he by his wisdom delivered the city,โ€ this is referring to repentance and good deeds that are cause by the good inclination. โ€œYet no man remembered that same poor manโ€ means that when the evil inclination overcomes the good inclination no one remembers the good inclination.

ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชืขื– ืœื—ื›ื ืžืขืฉืจื” ืฉืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชืขื– ืœื—ื›ื ื–ื• ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืžืขืฉืจื” ืฉืœื™ื˜ื™ื ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื™ื” ื•ืคื”

The Gemara interprets the following verse in a similar homiletical manner: โ€œWisdom is a stronghold to the wise man more than ten rulers that are in a cityโ€ (Ecclesiastes 7:19). โ€œWisdom is a stronghold to the wise man,โ€ this is referring to repentance and good deeds. โ€œMore than ten rulers,โ€ these are the two eyes, and two ears, and two hands, and two legs, and the tip of the sex organ, and the mouth, which are the limbs that are used by a person to interact with the world.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื™ืงืฉ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžืฉื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืงื“ื™ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื” ืžืื‘ืจื”ื

Rabbi Zekharya said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted the priesthood to emerge from Shem, so that his children would be priests, as it is stated: โ€œAnd Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:18). Once Melchizedek, traditionally identified as Shem, placed the blessing of Abraham before the blessing of the Omnipresent, He had the priesthood emerge from Abraham in particular, and not from any other descendant of Shem.

ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืจื›ื”ื• ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืื‘ืจื ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืงื ื” ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื‘ืจื›ืช ืงื•ื ื• ืžื™ื“ ื ืชื ื” ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ืื ื”ืณ ืœืื“ื ื™ ืฉื‘ ืœื™ืžื™ื ื™ ืขื“ ืืฉื™ืช ืื™ื‘ื™ืš ื”ื“ื ืœืจื’ืœื™ืš ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืฉื‘ืข ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ื™ื ื—ื ืืชื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจืชื™ ืžืœื›ื™ ืฆื“ืง ืขืœ ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ืฆื“ืง

As it is stated: โ€œAnd he blessed him and said: Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth, and blessed be God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:19โ€“20). Abraham said to him: And does one place the blessing of the servant before the blessing of his master? You should have blessed God first. Immediately the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave the priesthood to Abraham, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord says to my lord: Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstoolโ€ (Psalms 110:1), and afterward it is written: โ€œThe Lord has sworn, and will not repent: you shall be a priest forever, because you are a king of righteousness [al divrati malki tzedek]โ€ (Psalms 110:4), which is explained homiletically to mean: Due to the improper words [divrati] of Melchizedek, the offspring of Abraham shall be priests of God forever.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืจืขื• ื›ื”ืŸ

The Gemara comments: And this is as it is written: โ€œAnd he was priest of God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:18), which emphasizes that he, Melchizedek, is a priest, but his children will not be priests.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืืจื‘ืขื” ื ื“ืจื™ื

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื ืื” ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืžืื›ืœ ืืœื ื“ืจื™ืกืช ื”ืจื’ืœ ื•ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืื•ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉ

MISHNA: The difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [hamuddar hanaโ€™a meแธฅaveiro] and one for whom benefit from his food is forbidden by vow concerns only setting foot on the other personโ€™s property and borrowing from that person utensils that one does not use in preparation of food but for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter.

ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ืžืื›ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ื™ืฉืื™ืœื ื• ื ืคื” ื•ื›ื‘ืจื” ื•ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื•ืชื ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ื—ืœื•ืง ื•ื˜ื‘ืขืช ื•ื˜ืœื™ืช ื•ื ื–ืžื™ื

Therefore, with regard to one for whom benefit from anotherโ€™s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., a sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings, as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื•ื™ืชื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื ืื”

GEMARA: Who is the tanna who taught this mishna? Rav Adda bar Ahava said: It is Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even overlooking [vittur] a matter for which one is typically indifferent to the actions of others, e.g., people setting foot on oneโ€™s property, is prohibited in the case of one prohibited by vow from deriving benefit from another.

ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ืžืื›ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ื™ืฉืื™ืœื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืณ

ยง We learned in the mishna: With regard to one for whom benefit from anotherโ€™s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Ron and Shira Krebs to commemorate the 73rd yahrzeit of Shira's grandfather (Yitzchak Leib Ben David Ber HaCohen v'Malka), the 1st yahrzeit of Shira's father (Gershon Pinya Ben Yitzchak Leib HaCohen v'Menucha Sara), and the bar mitzvah of their son Eytan who will be making a siyum on Mishna Shas this month.

  • This month's learning is sponsored for the refuah shleima of Naama bat Yael Esther.

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Nedarim 32 – Shabbat November 26

ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื ืชืขืกืง ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ ืชื—ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื”ื™ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื‘ืžืœื•ืŸ

Because he was occupied with lodging first and did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, as it is stated: โ€œAnd it came to pass on the way at the lodging-placeโ€ (Exodus 4:24).

ืจื‘ืŸ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ืœืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื‘ืงืฉ ืฉื˜ืŸ ืœื”ืจื•ื’ ืืœื ืœืื•ืชื• ืชื™ื ื•ืง ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ื—ืชืŸ ื“ืžื™ื ืืชื” ืœื™ ืฆื ื•ืจืื” ืžื™ ืงืจื•ื™ ื—ืชืŸ ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื”ืชื™ื ื•ืง

Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacher that Satan wanted to kill, but rather, that infant who was not circumcised, as it is stated: โ€œSurely a bridegroom of blood are you to meโ€ (Exodus 4:25). Go out and see: Who does it make sense would be the one that is called the bridegroom in this instance? You must say this is the infant, since he is the one who entered the covenant of Abraham by means of the circumcision.

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ื™ื–ื ื ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉื ืชืจืฉืœ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืžืŸ ื”ืžื™ืœื” ื‘ืื• ืืฃ ื•ื—ื™ืžื” ื•ื‘ืœืขื•ื”ื• ื•ืœื ืฉื™ื™ืจื• ืžืžื ื• ืืœื ืจื’ืœื™ื• ืžื™ื“ ื•ืชืงื— ืฆืคืจื” ืฆืจ ื•ืชื›ืจืช ืืช ืขืจืœืช ื‘ื ื” ืžื™ื“ ื•ื™ืจืฃ ืžืžื ื•

Rabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision, the destructive angels named Af, meaning anger, and แธคeima, meaning wrath, came and swallowed him, and only his legs were left outside. Immediately, โ€œZipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her sonโ€ (Exodus 4:25), and immediately โ€œHe let him aloneโ€ (Exodus 4:26).

ื‘ืื•ืชื” ืฉืขื” ื‘ื™ืงืฉ ืžืฉื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ืœื”ื•ืจื’ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืจืฃ ืžืืฃ ื•ืขื–ื‘ ื—ืžื” ื•ื™ืฉ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ืœื—ื™ืžื” ื”ืจื’ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื—ืžื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ื™ื’ืจืชื™ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืืฃ ื•ื”ื—ืžื” ืชืจื™ ื—ื™ืžื” ื”ื•ื• ื•ืื™ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ื’ื•ื ื“ื ื“ื—ื™ืžื”

At that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: โ€œCease from anger [af ] and forsake wrath [แธฅeima]โ€ (Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. And there are those who say: He killed the angel named แธคeima, as it is stated: โ€œWrath is not in meโ€ (Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed แธคeima? Isnโ€™t it written that Moses himself said much later: โ€œFor I was in dread of the anger and wrathโ€ (Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: There are two types of wrath. And if you wish, say that the army of แธคeima remained but not the angel itself.

ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ืžื™ ืฉื ืชืขืกืง ื‘ืžืฆื•ืช ื›ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ืœื ื ืงืจื ืชืžื™ื ืืœื ืขืœ ืฉื ืžื™ืœื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืชื ื” ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ืš

It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Great is the mitzva of circumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, and yet he was called wholehearted only due to the mitzva of circumcision, as it is stated: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), and it is written in the next verse: โ€œAnd I will make My covenant between Me and youโ€ (Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision.

ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืฉืงื•ืœื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืžื™ืœื” ืฉืื™ืœืžืœื ืžื™ืœื” ืœื ื ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืœื ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Alternatively, so great is the mitzva of circumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is stated at the giving of the Torah: โ€œFor according to these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israelโ€ (Exodus 34:27), and โ€œcovenantโ€ refers to circumcision. Alternatively, so great is the mitzva of circumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: โ€œIf My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earthโ€ (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covenant that exists day and night is the covenant of circumcision, as it is always found on the personโ€™s body.

ื•ืคืœื™ื’ื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชื•ืจื” ืฉืื™ืœืžืœื ืชื•ืจื” ืœื ื ืชืงื™ื™ืžื• ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืื ืœื ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื™ืœื” ื—ืงื•ืช ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ืœื ืฉืžืชื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

The Gemara comments: And this statement disagrees with the words of Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: โ€œIf My covenant be not with day and night, I would not have appointed the ordinances of heaven and earthโ€ (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covenant that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: โ€œYou should contemplate it day and nightโ€ (Joshua 1:8).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ืื—ื–ืชื• ืจืขื“ื” ืืžืจ ืฉืžื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื™ ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื’ื•ื ื” ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ืืชื ื” ื‘ืจื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ื ื™ ื•ื‘ื™ื ืš ื ืชืงืจืจื” ื“ืขืชื•

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), a sensation of trembling seized him and he said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about me due to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. When God said to him: โ€œAnd I will make My covenant between Me and youโ€ (Genesis 17:2), his mind was set at ease, since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.

ื•ื™ื•ืฆื ืืชื• ื”ื—ื•ืฆื” ืืžืจ ืœืคื ื™ื• ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืกืชื›ืœืชื™ ื‘ืžื–ืœ ืฉืœื™ ื•ืื™ืŸ ืœื™ ืืœื ื‘ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืฆื ืžืื™ืฆื˜ื’ื ื™ื ื•ืช ืฉืœืš ืื™ืŸ ืžื–ืœ ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ

The Gemara expounds the verse โ€œand He brought him outsideโ€ (Genesis 15:5): Abraham said before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation and according to it I will have only one son, and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. He said to him: Emerge from your astrology because there is no constellation for the Jewish people, as they are not subject to the influence of astrology.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืžื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขื ื—ืกื™ื“ ืชืชื—ืกื“ ืขื ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ืชืžื™ื ืชืชืžื

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: โ€œWith the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedlyโ€ (IIย Samuel 22:26).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื”ื•ืฉืขื™ื ื›ืœ ื”ืžืชืžื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ืฉืขื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ืœื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืชื”ืœืš ืœืคื ื™ ื•ื”ื™ื” ืชืžื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื™ื™ืช ืœืื‘ ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื’ื•ื™ื

Rabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him, i.e., he will be successful, as it is stated: โ€œWalk before Me and you should be wholeheartedโ€ (Genesis 17:1), and it is written: โ€œAnd you shall be the father of a multitude of nationsโ€ (Genesis 17:4).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืžื ื—ืฉ ืœื• ื ื—ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืœื ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื”ื ื‘ืœืžื“ ืืœืฃ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืืœื ืžืฉื•ื ืžื“ื” ื›ื ื’ื“ ืžื“ื”

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Anyone who divines, i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, the sign will injure him, as it is stated: โ€œFor there is to him [lo] divination with Jacobโ€ (Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: But it is written lo with the letters lamed alef, meaning โ€œno divination,โ€ as opposed to with the letters lamed vav, meaning โ€œthere is to him divination.โ€ The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. Rather, the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather due to the concept of measure for measure: Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him.

ืชื ื™ ืื”ื‘ื” ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื™ืจื ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžื ื—ืฉ ืžื›ื ื™ืกื™ืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ืžื—ื™ืฆื” ืฉืืคื™ืœื• ืžืœืื›ื™ ื”ืฉืจืช ืื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ืŸ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ื‘ืชื•ื›ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื›ื™ ืœื ื ื—ืฉ ื‘ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ืœื ืงืกื ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Ahava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divine his future is brought inside a partition close to God to a place that even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: โ€œFor there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel, now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wroughtโ€ (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื‘ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืžื” ื ืขื ืฉ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืื‘ื™ื ื• ื•ื ืฉืชืขื‘ื“ื• ื‘ื ื™ื• ืœืžืฆืจื™ื ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืขืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืขืฉื” ืื ื’ืจื™ื™ื ื‘ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืจืง ืืช ื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื• ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื•

Rabbi Abbahu said that Rabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egypt for 210 years? Because he made a draft [angarya] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: โ€œHe led forth his trained men, born in his houseโ€ (Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars.

ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืคืจื™ื– ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ืžื” ืื“ืข ื›ื™ ืื™ืจืฉื ื” ื•ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ืคืจื™ืฉ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืžืœื”ื›ื ืก ืชื—ืช ื›ื ืคื™ ื”ืฉื›ื™ื ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ืชืŸ ืœื™ ื”ื ืคืฉ ื•ื”ืจื›ืฉ ืงื— ืœืš

And Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [hifriz] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: โ€œWhereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?โ€ (Genesis 15:8). And Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: He was punished because he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is stated that the king of Sodom said to him: โ€œGive me the people and take the goods to yourselfโ€ (Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.

ื•ื™ืจืง ืืช ื—ื ื™ื›ื™ื• ื™ืœื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ืชื• ืจื‘ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืงืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉืžื•ืืœ ืืžืจ ืฉื”ื•ืจื™ืงืŸ ื‘ื–ื”ื‘

The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: โ€œHe led forth [vayyarek] his trained men, born in his houseโ€ (Genesis 14:14). Rav said: He showered them [horikan] with Torah like someone who pours from one vessel into another, and Shmuel said: He showered them [horikan] with gold and gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.

ืฉืžื ื” ืขืฉืจ ื•ืฉืœืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื›ื ื’ื“ ื›ื•ืœื ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื•ื ื“ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื™

The Torah states that he took โ€œeighteen and three hundredโ€ (Genesis 14:14) men to war. Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezer was equivalent to all of them. There are those who say: Only Eliezer is referred to here, as the numerical value of the letters of his name is this amount, i.e., 318.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื‘ืŸ ืฉืœืฉ ืฉื ื™ื ื”ื›ื™ืจ ืื‘ืจื”ื ืืช ื‘ื•ืจืื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ืขืงื‘ ืืฉืจ ืฉืžืข ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ืงืœื™ ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ืžืื” ื•ืฉื‘ืขื™ืŸ ื•ืชืจื™ืŸ

And Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: โ€œBecause [ekev] Abraham hearkened to My voiceโ€ (Genesis 26:5). The numerical value of the letters of the word ekev is 172, indicating that he observed the halakha for this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื

And Rami bar Abba said in a similar manner:

ื”ืฉื˜ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื ื™ื” ืชืœืช ืžืื” ื•ืฉื™ืชื™ืŸ ื•ืืจื‘ืขื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ืจื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื‘ืจื”ื ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื”ืžืœื™ื›ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืขืœ ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืœืฉื” ืื‘ืจื™ื ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžืœื™ื›ื• ืขืœ ืžืืชื™ื ื•ืืจื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืื‘ืจื™ื

The letters of the term the Satan [haSatan] in numerical value is 364, which equals the number of days of the year, except for Yom Kippur, during which he has no power. And Rami bar Abba said: It is written โ€œAbram,โ€ and after he was commanded to perform circumcision it is written โ€œAbrahamโ€ (Genesis 17:5). Initially the Holy One, Blessed be He, enthroned him as ruler over 243 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abram. And in the end, after he was circumcised, He enthroned him as ruler over 248 limbs, which is the numerical equivalent of the letters of the word Abraham.

ืืœื• ื”ืŸ ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ื ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื™ื”

These are the additional limbs: Two eyes, and two ears, and the tip of the sex organ. Following his circumcision, he had total control over them, and they performed only according to his will.

ื•ืืžืจ ืจืžื™ ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืขื™ืจ ืงื˜ื ื” ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ืขื™ืจ ืงื˜ื ื” ื–ื” ื”ื’ื•ืฃ ื•ืื ืฉื™ื ื‘ื” ืžืขื˜ ืืœื• ืื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื‘ื ืืœื™ื” ืžืœืš ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ืกื‘ื‘ ืืชื” ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ื•ื‘ื ื” ืขืœื™ื” ืžืฆื•ื“ื™ื ื•ื—ืจืžื™ื ืืœื• ืขื•ื ื•ืช

And Rami bar Abba said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œThere was a little city and few men in it, and there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built great bulwarks against it. Now there was found in it a man poor and wise, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man remembered that same poor manโ€ (Ecclesiastes 9:14โ€“15)? โ€œA little city,โ€ this is referring to the body; โ€œand few men in it,โ€ this is referring to the limbs; โ€œand there came a great king against it and besieged it,โ€ this is referring to the evil inclination; โ€œand built great bulwarks against it,โ€ these are sins.

ื•ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืื™ืฉ ืžืกื›ืŸ ื•ื—ื›ื ื–ื” ื™ืฆืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืžืœื˜ ื”ื•ื ืืช ื”ืขื™ืจ ื‘ื—ื›ืžืชื• ื–ื• ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืื“ื ืœื ื–ื›ืจ ืืช ื”ืื™ืฉ ื”ืžืกื›ืŸ ื”ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืฉืขืช ื™ืฆืจ ื”ืจืข ืœื™ืช ื“ืžื“ื›ืจ ืœื™ื” ืœื™ืฆืจ ื˜ื•ื‘

The Gemara expounds on the next section of the verse: โ€œNow there was found in it a man poor and wise,โ€ this is referring to the good inclination; โ€œand he by his wisdom delivered the city,โ€ this is referring to repentance and good deeds that are cause by the good inclination. โ€œYet no man remembered that same poor manโ€ means that when the evil inclination overcomes the good inclination no one remembers the good inclination.

ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชืขื– ืœื—ื›ื ืžืขืฉืจื” ืฉืœื™ื˜ื™ื ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ืชืขื– ืœื—ื›ื ื–ื• ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื•ืžืขืฉื™ื ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ืžืขืฉืจื” ืฉืœื™ื˜ื™ื ืฉืชื™ ืขื™ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืื–ื ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ื™ื“ื™ื ื•ืฉืชื™ ืจื’ืœื™ื ื•ืจืืฉ ื”ื’ื•ื™ื™ื” ื•ืคื”

The Gemara interprets the following verse in a similar homiletical manner: โ€œWisdom is a stronghold to the wise man more than ten rulers that are in a cityโ€ (Ecclesiastes 7:19). โ€œWisdom is a stronghold to the wise man,โ€ this is referring to repentance and good deeds. โ€œMore than ten rulers,โ€ these are the two eyes, and two ears, and two hands, and two legs, and the tip of the sex organ, and the mouth, which are the limbs that are used by a person to interact with the world.

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื–ื›ืจื™ื” ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ื™ืงืฉ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืœื”ื•ืฆื™ื ื›ื”ื•ื ื” ืžืฉื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ืงื“ื™ื ื‘ืจื›ืช ืื‘ืจื”ื ืœื‘ืจื›ืช ื”ืžืงื•ื ื”ื•ืฆื™ืื” ืžืื‘ืจื”ื

Rabbi Zekharya said in the name of Rabbi Yishmael: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wanted the priesthood to emerge from Shem, so that his children would be priests, as it is stated: โ€œAnd Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:18). Once Melchizedek, traditionally identified as Shem, placed the blessing of Abraham before the blessing of the Omnipresent, He had the priesthood emerge from Abraham in particular, and not from any other descendant of Shem.

ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ื‘ืจื›ื”ื• ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื‘ืจื•ืš ืื‘ืจื ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืงื ื” ืฉืžื™ื ื•ืืจืฅ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืš ืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื‘ืจื”ื ื•ื›ื™ ืžืงื“ื™ืžื™ืŸ ื‘ืจื›ืช ืขื‘ื“ ืœื‘ืจื›ืช ืงื•ื ื• ืžื™ื“ ื ืชื ื” ืœืื‘ืจื”ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ืื ื”ืณ ืœืื“ื ื™ ืฉื‘ ืœื™ืžื™ื ื™ ืขื“ ืืฉื™ืช ืื™ื‘ื™ืš ื”ื“ื ืœืจื’ืœื™ืš ื•ื‘ืชืจื™ื” ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื ืฉื‘ืข ื”ืณ ื•ืœื ื™ื ื—ื ืืชื” ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื“ื‘ืจืชื™ ืžืœื›ื™ ืฆื“ืง ืขืœ ื“ื™ื‘ื•ืจื• ืฉืœ ืžืœื›ื™ ืฆื“ืง

As it is stated: โ€œAnd he blessed him and said: Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth, and blessed be God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:19โ€“20). Abraham said to him: And does one place the blessing of the servant before the blessing of his master? You should have blessed God first. Immediately the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave the priesthood to Abraham, as it is stated: โ€œThe Lord says to my lord: Sit at My right hand, until I make your enemies your footstoolโ€ (Psalms 110:1), and afterward it is written: โ€œThe Lord has sworn, and will not repent: you shall be a priest forever, because you are a king of righteousness [al divrati malki tzedek]โ€ (Psalms 110:4), which is explained homiletically to mean: Due to the improper words [divrati] of Melchizedek, the offspring of Abraham shall be priests of God forever.

ื•ื”ื™ื™ื ื• ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ืœืืœ ืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื›ื”ืŸ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ืจืขื• ื›ื”ืŸ

The Gemara comments: And this is as it is written: โ€œAnd he was priest of God the Most Highโ€ (Genesis 14:18), which emphasizes that he, Melchizedek, is a priest, but his children will not be priests.

ื”ื“ืจืŸ ืขืœืš ืืจื‘ืขื” ื ื“ืจื™ื

 

ืžืชื ื™ืณ ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื ืื” ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื™ืžื ื• ืžืื›ืœ ืืœื ื“ืจื™ืกืช ื”ืจื’ืœ ื•ื›ืœื™ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืขื•ืฉื™ืŸ ื‘ื”ื ืื•ื›ืœ ื ืคืฉ

MISHNA: The difference between one for whom benefit from another is forbidden by vow [hamuddar hanaโ€™a meแธฅaveiro] and one for whom benefit from his food is forbidden by vow concerns only setting foot on the other personโ€™s property and borrowing from that person utensils that one does not use in preparation of food but for other purposes. Those two benefits are forbidden to the former but permitted to the latter.

ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ืžืื›ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ื™ืฉืื™ืœื ื• ื ืคื” ื•ื›ื‘ืจื” ื•ืจื™ื—ื™ื ื•ืชื ื•ืจ ืื‘ืœ ืžืฉืื™ืœ ืœื• ื—ืœื•ืง ื•ื˜ื‘ืขืช ื•ื˜ืœื™ืช ื•ื ื–ืžื™ื

Therefore, with regard to one for whom benefit from anotherโ€™s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food, e.g., a sieve, or a strainer, or a millstone, or an oven. However, he may lend him a garment, or a finger ring, or a cloak, or nose rings, as these are not used in the preparation of food. However, he may not lend them to one for whom benefit from him is forbidden by vow.

ื’ืžืณ ืžืืŸ ืชื ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืื“ื ื‘ืจ ืื”ื‘ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืืคื™ืœื• ื•ื™ืชื•ืจ ืืกื•ืจ ื‘ืžื•ื“ืจ ื”ื ืื”

GEMARA: Who is the tanna who taught this mishna? Rav Adda bar Ahava said: It is Rabbi Eliezer, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said: Even overlooking [vittur] a matter for which one is typically indifferent to the actions of others, e.g., people setting foot on oneโ€™s property, is prohibited in the case of one prohibited by vow from deriving benefit from another.

ื”ืžื•ื“ืจ ืžืื›ืœ ืžื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืœื ื™ืฉืื™ืœื ื• ื•ื›ื•ืณ

ยง We learned in the mishna: With regard to one for whom benefit from anotherโ€™s food is forbidden by vow, that person may not lend him utensils used in the preparation of food.

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