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Today's Daf Yomi

December 19, 2022 | 讻状讛 讘讻住诇讜 转砖驻状讙

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

Nedarim 55

This week鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Rella Feldman in loving memory of Dr. Charles Feldman on his 11th yahrzeit, 2nd day of Chanuka. 鈥淏eloved husband, father & saba, devoted doctor & community leader. Learning sustained him during his illness & he鈥檇 be proud of his family members devoted to daily learning.鈥
Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Carol Robinson and Arthur Gould in loving memory of Carol鈥檚 father Louis Robinson, Yehuda Leib ben Moshe z鈥漧. 鈥淭oday 鈥 the first day of Hanukkah 鈥 we mark his 23rd yahrzeit. Louis was a devoted family man and active participant in his synagogue. We love him and miss him very much.”
Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Tina Lamm in memory of her aunt鈥檚 29th yahrzeit, Roberta Cahen. Bracha bat Gershon HaCohen and Bina. 鈥淪he was witty and independent, and I feel honored that she is my daughter鈥檚 namesake.”

What is included in the term “dagan” “tevuah” “allalta“? Which one is more specific? Which is more general? What if one vows using the term “the produce of the year” or “all things that grew this year”? What is not included in the vow if one vows not to wear clothing? Rabbi Yehuda disagrees with tana kama and holds that when it comes to vows, it all depends on the particular situation. The Gemara compares the laws of carrying on Shabbat to the laws of vows. One can go out on Shabbat with clothing but not with items not considered clothing. The definition of what is considered clothing for those laws is different than what is included in one’s vow.

诪转谞讬壮 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讘驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 讬讘砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讘讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讗讘诇 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 讜诪讜转专 讘驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讜讘讬专拽

MISHNA: For one who vows that grain [dagan] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to eat the dry cowpea, because, like grain, its final stage of production involves being placed in a pile; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is prohibited for him to partake of only the five species of grain: Wheat, barley, oats, spelt, and rye, as that is the connotation of the term dagan in the Torah. Rabbi Meir says: For one who vows that grain is forbidden to him, and therefore he will refrain from eating grain [tevua], it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. However, for one who vows that grain is forbidden to him, and therefore he will refrain from eating grain [dagan], it is prohibited to eat all produce whose final stage of production involves being placed in a pile, e.g., dry cowpea, and it is permitted for him to eat fruits of the tree and vegetables.

讙诪壮 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讚讙谉 讻诇 讚诪讬讚讙谉 诪砖诪注 诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 [ 专讗砖讬转] 讚讙谉 转讬专讜砖 讜讬爪讛专 讜讻诇 转讘讜讗转 砖讚讛 诇专讘 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讚讙谉 讻诇 讚诪讬讚讙谉 诪砖诪注 诪讗讬 讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讜讬专拽

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Is this to say that according to Rabbi Meir, the term dagan means any produce that is harvested at one time and placed in a pile [midgan]? Rav Yosef raised an objection: After King Hezekiah called upon the people to give teruma and tithes properly, the verse states: 鈥淎nd as soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first fruits of dagan, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the tevua of the field; and the tithe of all that they brought in abundance鈥 (II聽Chronicles 31:5). And if you say that dagan means any produce that is placed in a pile, what is the meaning of the words 鈥淎s soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first fruits of dagan鈥nd of all the tevua of the field鈥? There is no need to list both dagan and all tevua of the field. Abaye said: Tevua comes to include fruits of the tree and vegetables, which they tithed although they are not included in dagan, as they are not harvested at one time and placed in a pile.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讜讬谉 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 转讘讜讗讛 讻诇 诪诇讬 诪砖诪注 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗 诪砖诪注 讻诇 诪诇讬

搂 We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Meir says: For one who vows that grain [tevua] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Everyone concedes with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. The Rabbis do not disagree with Rabbi Meir in that regard. That is also taught in a baraita: And they agree with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious, as it is only those species that are called tevua. The Gemara answers: It is necessary; lest you say that tevua means all items that grow from the ground, therefore, the tanna teaches us that this expression does not mean all items that grow from the ground.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诇讞讜讚 转讘讜讗转 砖讚讛 诇讞讜讚

Rav Yosef raised an objection: With regard to the verse 鈥淎nd as soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance鈥and of all the tevua of the field,鈥 the phrase 鈥渁nd of all the tevua of the field鈥 comes to include all crops that grow in the field. Rava said: Tevua is discrete and refers to only the five species of grain, and tevua of the field is discrete and refers to all crops that grow in the field.

讘专 诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 驻拽讬讚 讚诇讬转谞讜谉 转诇讬住专 讗诇驻讬 讝讜讝讬 诇专讘讗 诪谉 注诇诇转讗 讚谞讛专 驻谞讬讗 砖诇讞讛 专讘讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讻讬 诪讬拽专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讛讬讗 讜砖讜讬谉 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬 讚诪讬 转讘讜讗讛 诇讗 诪砖诪注 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 注诇诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪砖诪注

搂 The Gemara relates: The son of Master Shmuel commanded his workers that they give thirteen thousand dinars to Rava from the crop [alalta] produced in his fields on the banks of the Panya River. Rava sent this question before Rav Yosef: What is called alalta; what crops are included in the category of alalta? Rav Yosef said: It is as it is taught in the baraita cited above: And they agree with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain; just as tevua includes only the five species, so too alalta includes only the five species. Abaye said to him: Are the two cases comparable? Although tevua means grain and includes only the five species, alalta means crop and includes all items that grow.

讗讛讚专讜讛讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 讚注诇诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪砖诪注 讛讚讗 讛讜讗 讚讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 砖讻专 讘转讬诐 讜砖讻专 住驻讬谞讜转 诪讗讬 诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 讻讬讜谉 讚驻讞转谉 诇讗讜 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讬讚讬注 驻讞转讬讬讛讜 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讗 讗诪专讜讛 专讘谞谉 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 讚诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇谉 讗诪讗讬 砖诇讞 诇谉 讗讬拽驻讚 专讘 讬讜住祝

The messengers returned with the answer to his question and came before Rava. He said: That was not a dilemma for me, i.e., the fact that alalta means all items that grow. This is the matter that is a dilemma for me: What is the legal status of profits from the rent of houses and the rent of boats? Do we say: Since they depreciate, their legal status is not comparable to that of a crop? Only items that are consistently profitable are similar to crops. House boats deteriorate with use, and their depreciation diminishes the profits. Or perhaps, since their depreciation is not conspicuous, their legal status is comparable to that of a crop. The Rabbis stated Rava鈥檚 reaction before Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef said: And since he does not need us, and he believes that he knows the answer himself, why did he send us the question? Rav Yosef became angry with Rava.

砖诪注 专讘讗 讜讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讘诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻驻讜专讬 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讝讬讙 拽诪讬讛 讻住讗 讚讞诪专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讘 诇讬 讚讗诪讝讬讙 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讜拽讗 诪讝讬讙 讗讬讛讜 讻住讗 讚讞诪专讗 讻讬 拽讗 砖转讬 讗诪专 讛讚讬谉 诪讬讝讙讗 讚诪讬 诇诪讬讝讙讗 讚专讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专 讞诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 谞讬讛讜

Rava heard that Rav Yosef was angry and came before him on Yom Kippur eve to appease him. He found the attendant of Rav Yosef, who was diluting a cup of wine with water before him. Rava said to the attendant: Give me the cup so that I will dilute the wine for him. The attendant gave it to him and Rava diluted the cup of wine. While Rav Yosef, who was blind, was drinking the wine, he said: This dilution is similar to the dilution of Rava, son of Rav Yosef bar 岣ma, who would dilute wine with more than the standard amount of water. Rava said to him: Correct, it is he.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讬转讬讘 讗讻专注讱 注讚 讚讗诪专转 诇讬 驻讬专讜砖讗 讚讛讚讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诪诪讚讘专 诪转谞讛 讜诪诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讬讗诇 讜诪谞讞诇讬讗诇 讘诪讜转

Rav Yosef said to Rava: Do not sit on your feet until you tell me the explanation of this matter: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd from the wilderness Mattana and from Mattana Nahaliel, and from Nahaliel Bamot鈥 (Numbers 21:18鈥19)?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 砖注讜砖讛 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 讻诪讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 诪讜驻拽专 诇讻诇 转讜专讛 谞讬转谞讛 诇讜 讘诪转谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诪讚讘专 诪转谞讛 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞讬转谞讛 诇讜 讘诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讜 讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讬讗诇 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞讞诇讜 讗诇 注讜诇讛 诇讙讚讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪谞讞诇讬讗诇 讘诪讜转 讜讗诐 讛讙讘讬讛 注爪诪讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讬诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪讘诪讜转 讛讙讬讗 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖砖讜拽注讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘拽专拽注 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞砖拽驻讛 注诇 驻谞讬 讛讬砖讬诪讜谉 讜讗诐 讞讜讝专 讘讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讙讘讬讛讜

Rava said to him that it means: Once a person renders himself like a wilderness, deserted before all, the Torah is given to him as a gift [mattana], as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from the wilderness Mattana.鈥 And once it is given to him as a gift, God bequeaths [na岣lo] it to him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from Mattana Nahaliel.鈥 And once God bequeaths it to him, he rises to greatness, as it is stated: And from Nahaliel, Bamot, which are elevated places. And if he elevates himself and is arrogant about his Torah, the Holy One, Blessed be He, degrades him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from Bamot the valley鈥 (Numbers 21:20). And not only is he degraded, but one lowers him into the ground, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd looking over [nishkafa] the face of the wasteland鈥 (Numbers 21:20), like a threshold [iskopa] that is sunken into the ground. And if he reverses his arrogance and becomes humble, the Holy One, Blessed be He, elevates him,

砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 讙讬讗 讬谞砖讗

as it is stated: 鈥淓very valley shall be lifted鈥 (Isaiah 40:4). When Rav Yosef heard that interpretation, he understood that Rava was aware of the error of his ways in acting arrogantly toward his teacher, and was pacified by Rava鈥檚 display of humility.

转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讗祝 讘驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 讬讘砖 讜诪讜转专 讘诇讞 讜诪讜转专 讘讗讜专讝 讘讞讬诇拽讗 讘讟专讙讬住 讜讘讟讬住谞讬 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛砖谞讛 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 驻讬专讜转 讛砖谞讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讙讚讬讬诐 讜讘讟诇讗讬诐 讜讘讞诇讘 讜讘讘讬爪讬诐 讜讘讙讜讝诇讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讙讬讚讜诇讬 砖谞讛 注诇讬 讗住讜专 讘讻讜诇谉

It is taught in a baraita: For one who vows that grain [dagan] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to partake of the dry cowpea, and it is permitted for him to partake of fresh cowpea. And it is permitted for him to partake of rice, as well as of wheat kernels split into two parts [岣lka], of wheat kernels crushed into three parts [targeis], and wheat kernels crushed into four parts [tisnei]. For one who vows that produce of the year is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to partake of all produce of the year that grew from the ground or on trees, and it is permitted for him to partake of goats, and of lambs, and of milk, and of eggs, and of chicks born that year, as they are not included in the category of produce. And if he said: Growths of the year are forbidden to me, it is prohibited for him to eat all of them.

讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛讗专抓 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗专抓 讜诪讜转专 讘讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讙讬讚讜诇讬 拽专拽注 注诇讬 讗住讜专 讘讻讜诇谉

For one who vows that produce of the land is forbidden to him, it is prohibited for him to partake of all produce that grow from the land, and it is permitted for him to partake of truffles and mushrooms that are not in the category of produce of the land. But if he said: The growths of the ground are forbidden to me, it is prohibited for him to eat all of them.

讜专诪讬谞讛讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讗讜诪专 砖讛讻诇 谞讛讬讛 讘讚讘专讜 讜转谞讬讗 注诇 讛诪诇讞 讜注诇 讛讝诪讬转 讜注诇 讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讗讜诪专 砖讛讻诇 谞讛讬讛 讘讚讘专讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪讬专讘讗 专讘讜 诪讗专注讗 诪讬谞拽 诪讗讜讬专讗 讬谞拽讬 讜诇讗 诪讗专注讗 讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 转谞讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讬讜谞拽 诪谉 讛讗专抓

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Berakhot 40b): And over a food item whose growth is not from the ground, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be. And it is taught in a baraita: Over salt and over brine [zamit], and over truffles and mushrooms, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be. Apparently, truffles and mushrooms are not in the category of growths of the ground. Abaye said: They grow from the earth, but with regard to sustenance, they draw sustenance from the air and not from the earth. The Gemara asks: Why is that distinction significant? Isn鈥檛 it taught: Over a food item whose growth is not from the ground one recites the blessing: By whose word all things came to be? Even according to Abaye, mushrooms grow from the ground. The Gemara answers: Emend the mishna to read: Over a food item that does not draw sustenance from the ground, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be.

诪转谞讬壮 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讻住讜转 诪讜转专 讘砖拽 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讘讙讬讝讬 爪诪专讛驻砖转谉 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讘讗谞讬爪讬 驻砖转谉

MISHNA: For one who vows that a garment is forbidden to him, it is permitted to wear sackcloth, and to wear a sheet, and to wear a coarse curtain [岣mila], as these are not in the category of garments. For one who said: Wool is konam for me and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with wool fleece, which is not considered a garment, and it is prohibited for him to wear only a woolen fabric. For one who said: Flax is konam for me and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with uncombed flax in bundles, and it is prohibited for him to wear only a flaxen fabric.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讟注谉 讜讛讝讬注 讜讛讬讛 专讬讞讜 拽砖讛 讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 讜驻砖转讬诐 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讜讗住讜专 诇讛驻砖讬诇 诇讗讞讜专讬讜

Rabbi Yehuda says: Everything is determined according to the one who vows. If one was bearing a burden of wool and linen, and was sweating, and its smell was unpleasant for him, and in reaction, he said: Wool and linen are konam for me and I will therefore not place them upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with wool and linen garments, but it is prohibited for him to sling them over his shoulder behind him as a burden. The circumstances of his vow make it clear that he intends to forswear carrying wool and linen as a burden rather than the wearing of them as a garment.

讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讻住讜转 诪讜转专 讘砖拽 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 讜讗住讜专 讘驻讜谞讚讗 讜讘驻住拽讬讗 讜讘住拽讜专讟讬讗 讜讘拽讟讘诇讬讗 讜讗谞驻诇讬讗 讜驻诇讬谞讬讗 讜诪讻谞住讬诐 讜讻讜讘注 诪讗讬 讗讬住拽讜专讟讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讞谞讛 讻讬转讜谞讗 讚爪诇讗

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: For one who vows that a garment is forbidden to him, it is permitted to wear sackcloth, and to wear a sheet and to wear a coarse curtain, and it is prohibited for him to wear a money belt [punda], or to wear a sash [pesakiyya], or to wear a sekurtiyya, or to wear a leather spread [katavliyya], or to wear a leather sock [anpilya] or to wear a leather apron [pelinya], and trousers, and a hat. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of iskurtei, mentioned in the baraita as sekurtiyya? Rabba bar 岣na said: It means a tanner鈥檚 apron.

转谞讬讗 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘砖拽 注讘讛 讜讘住讙讜住 注讘讛 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘转讬讘讛 讜诇讗 讘拽讜驻讛 讜诇讗 讘诪讞爪诇转 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讛专讜注讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘砖拽讬诐 讜诇讗 专讜注讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 砖讚讘专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讛讜讜讛

It is taught in a baraita: One may go out into the public domain on Shabbat covered in thick sackcloth or in a coarse woolen blanket [sagos], or in a sheet or in a coarse curtain as protection from the rain. They are considered garments, not burdens. However, he may neither go out covered in a box, nor in a basket, nor in a mat as protection from the rain, as they are considered burdens, not garments. Shepherds may go out on Shabbat covered in sackcloth, as they typically go out in sackcloth garments. And the Sages did not say this only with regard to shepherds; rather, they said that all people may go out wearing sackcloth; however, the Sages spoke in the present, addressing situations that were prevalent.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讛讬讛 诇讘讜砖 爪诪专 讜讛爪专 讜讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 讗住讜专 诇诇讘讜砖 讜诪讜转专 诇讟注讜谉 讛讬讛 讟注讜谉 驻砖转谉 讜讛讝讬注 讜讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 驻砖转谉 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇诇讘讜砖 讜讗住讜专 诇讟注讜谉

搂 We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: Everything is determined according to the one who vows. It is taught in a baraita: How, i.e., in what circumstances, did Rabbi Yehuda say: Everything is according to the one who vows? If one was wearing a woolen garment and it caused him discomfort, and in reaction he said: Wool is konam for me, and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is prohibited for him to wear woolen garments, but it is permitted to place a burden of woolen garments upon him. If one was burdened with flax and was sweating, and said: Flax is konam for me, and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to wear flaxen garments and it is prohibited for him to place a burden of flaxen garments upon him.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Hadran Women of Silver Spring in memory of Nicki Toys, Nechama bat Shmuel Tzadok.

  • Masechet Nedarim is sponsored by Aviva and Benny Adler in honor of our mother Lorraine Kahane and in loving memory of our parents Joseph Kahane z"l, Miriam and Ari Adler z"l.

  • This month鈥檚 learning is sponsored by Shlomo and Amalia Klapper in honor of the birth of Chiyenna Yochana, named after her great-great-grandmother, Chiyenna Kossovsky.

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Nedarim 55

诪转谞讬壮 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讘驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 讬讘砖 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 讘讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讗讬谞讜 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讗讘诇 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 讜诪讜转专 讘驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讜讘讬专拽

MISHNA: For one who vows that grain [dagan] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to eat the dry cowpea, because, like grain, its final stage of production involves being placed in a pile; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: It is prohibited for him to partake of only the five species of grain: Wheat, barley, oats, spelt, and rye, as that is the connotation of the term dagan in the Torah. Rabbi Meir says: For one who vows that grain is forbidden to him, and therefore he will refrain from eating grain [tevua], it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. However, for one who vows that grain is forbidden to him, and therefore he will refrain from eating grain [dagan], it is prohibited to eat all produce whose final stage of production involves being placed in a pile, e.g., dry cowpea, and it is permitted for him to eat fruits of the tree and vegetables.

讙诪壮 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讚讙谉 讻诇 讚诪讬讚讙谉 诪砖诪注 诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 [ 专讗砖讬转] 讚讙谉 转讬专讜砖 讜讬爪讛专 讜讻诇 转讘讜讗转 砖讚讛 诇专讘 讜讙讜壮 讜讗讬 讗诪专转 讚讙谉 讻诇 讚诪讬讚讙谉 诪砖诪注 诪讗讬 讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讜讬专拽

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: Is this to say that according to Rabbi Meir, the term dagan means any produce that is harvested at one time and placed in a pile [midgan]? Rav Yosef raised an objection: After King Hezekiah called upon the people to give teruma and tithes properly, the verse states: 鈥淎nd as soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first fruits of dagan, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the tevua of the field; and the tithe of all that they brought in abundance鈥 (II聽Chronicles 31:5). And if you say that dagan means any produce that is placed in a pile, what is the meaning of the words 鈥淎s soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first fruits of dagan鈥nd of all the tevua of the field鈥? There is no need to list both dagan and all tevua of the field. Abaye said: Tevua comes to include fruits of the tree and vegetables, which they tithed although they are not included in dagan, as they are not harvested at one time and placed in a pile.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 讜讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讻诇 诪讜讚讬诐 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讜讬谉 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 转讘讜讗讛 讻诇 诪诇讬 诪砖诪注 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗 诪砖诪注 讻诇 诪诇讬

搂 We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Meir says: For one who vows that grain [tevua] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Everyone concedes with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. The Rabbis do not disagree with Rabbi Meir in that regard. That is also taught in a baraita: And they agree with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 that obvious, as it is only those species that are called tevua. The Gemara answers: It is necessary; lest you say that tevua means all items that grow from the ground, therefore, the tanna teaches us that this expression does not mean all items that grow from the ground.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讻驻专抓 讛讚讘专 讛专讘讜 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讘讜讗讛 诇讞讜讚 转讘讜讗转 砖讚讛 诇讞讜讚

Rav Yosef raised an objection: With regard to the verse 鈥淎nd as soon as the matter was publicized, the children of Israel gave in abundance鈥and of all the tevua of the field,鈥 the phrase 鈥渁nd of all the tevua of the field鈥 comes to include all crops that grow in the field. Rava said: Tevua is discrete and refers to only the five species of grain, and tevua of the field is discrete and refers to all crops that grow in the field.

讘专 诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 驻拽讬讚 讚诇讬转谞讜谉 转诇讬住专 讗诇驻讬 讝讜讝讬 诇专讘讗 诪谉 注诇诇转讗 讚谞讛专 驻谞讬讗 砖诇讞讛 专讘讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讻讬 诪讬拽专讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讛讬讗 讜砖讜讬谉 讘谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬谉 讗住讜专 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诪讬 讚诪讬 转讘讜讗讛 诇讗 诪砖诪注 讗诇讗 诪讞诪砖转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 注诇诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪砖诪注

搂 The Gemara relates: The son of Master Shmuel commanded his workers that they give thirteen thousand dinars to Rava from the crop [alalta] produced in his fields on the banks of the Panya River. Rava sent this question before Rav Yosef: What is called alalta; what crops are included in the category of alalta? Rav Yosef said: It is as it is taught in the baraita cited above: And they agree with regard to one who vows that tevua is forbidden to him that it is prohibited for him to eat from only the five species of grain; just as tevua includes only the five species, so too alalta includes only the five species. Abaye said to him: Are the two cases comparable? Although tevua means grain and includes only the five species, alalta means crop and includes all items that grow.

讗讛讚专讜讛讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 诇讗 拽讗 诪讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 讚注诇诇转讗 讻诇 诪讬诇讬 诪砖诪注 讛讚讗 讛讜讗 讚讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讬 砖讻专 讘转讬诐 讜砖讻专 住驻讬谞讜转 诪讗讬 诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 讻讬讜谉 讚驻讞转谉 诇讗讜 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讬讚讬注 驻讞转讬讬讛讜 注诇诇转讗 讛讬讗 讗诪专讜讛 专讘谞谉 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 讚诇讗 爪专讬讱 诇谉 讗诪讗讬 砖诇讞 诇谉 讗讬拽驻讚 专讘 讬讜住祝

The messengers returned with the answer to his question and came before Rava. He said: That was not a dilemma for me, i.e., the fact that alalta means all items that grow. This is the matter that is a dilemma for me: What is the legal status of profits from the rent of houses and the rent of boats? Do we say: Since they depreciate, their legal status is not comparable to that of a crop? Only items that are consistently profitable are similar to crops. House boats deteriorate with use, and their depreciation diminishes the profits. Or perhaps, since their depreciation is not conspicuous, their legal status is comparable to that of a crop. The Rabbis stated Rava鈥檚 reaction before Rav Yosef. Rav Yosef said: And since he does not need us, and he believes that he knows the answer himself, why did he send us the question? Rav Yosef became angry with Rava.

砖诪注 专讘讗 讜讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讘诪注诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讚讻驻讜专讬 讗砖讻讞讬讛 诇砖诪注讬讛 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讝讬讙 拽诪讬讛 讻住讗 讚讞诪专讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讘 诇讬 讚讗诪讝讬讙 诇讬讛 讗谞讗 讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讜拽讗 诪讝讬讙 讗讬讛讜 讻住讗 讚讞诪专讗 讻讬 拽讗 砖转讬 讗诪专 讛讚讬谉 诪讬讝讙讗 讚诪讬 诇诪讬讝讙讗 讚专讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 讘专 讞诪讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 谞讬讛讜

Rava heard that Rav Yosef was angry and came before him on Yom Kippur eve to appease him. He found the attendant of Rav Yosef, who was diluting a cup of wine with water before him. Rava said to the attendant: Give me the cup so that I will dilute the wine for him. The attendant gave it to him and Rava diluted the cup of wine. While Rav Yosef, who was blind, was drinking the wine, he said: This dilution is similar to the dilution of Rava, son of Rav Yosef bar 岣ma, who would dilute wine with more than the standard amount of water. Rava said to him: Correct, it is he.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇讗 转讬转讬讘 讗讻专注讱 注讚 讚讗诪专转 诇讬 驻讬专讜砖讗 讚讛讚讬谉 诪讬诇转讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诪诪讚讘专 诪转谞讛 讜诪诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讬讗诇 讜诪谞讞诇讬讗诇 讘诪讜转

Rav Yosef said to Rava: Do not sit on your feet until you tell me the explanation of this matter: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd from the wilderness Mattana and from Mattana Nahaliel, and from Nahaliel Bamot鈥 (Numbers 21:18鈥19)?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 砖注讜砖讛 讗讚诐 讗转 注爪诪讜 讻诪讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 诪讜驻拽专 诇讻诇 转讜专讛 谞讬转谞讛 诇讜 讘诪转谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诪讚讘专 诪转谞讛 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞讬转谞讛 诇讜 讘诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讜 讗诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪诪转谞讛 谞讞诇讬讗诇 讜讻讬讜谉 砖谞讞诇讜 讗诇 注讜诇讛 诇讙讚讜诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪谞讞诇讬讗诇 讘诪讜转 讜讗诐 讛讙讘讬讛 注爪诪讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讬诇讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪讘诪讜转 讛讙讬讗 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖砖讜拽注讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘拽专拽注 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞砖拽驻讛 注诇 驻谞讬 讛讬砖讬诪讜谉 讜讗诐 讞讜讝专 讘讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讙讘讬讛讜

Rava said to him that it means: Once a person renders himself like a wilderness, deserted before all, the Torah is given to him as a gift [mattana], as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from the wilderness Mattana.鈥 And once it is given to him as a gift, God bequeaths [na岣lo] it to him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from Mattana Nahaliel.鈥 And once God bequeaths it to him, he rises to greatness, as it is stated: And from Nahaliel, Bamot, which are elevated places. And if he elevates himself and is arrogant about his Torah, the Holy One, Blessed be He, degrades him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from Bamot the valley鈥 (Numbers 21:20). And not only is he degraded, but one lowers him into the ground, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd looking over [nishkafa] the face of the wasteland鈥 (Numbers 21:20), like a threshold [iskopa] that is sunken into the ground. And if he reverses his arrogance and becomes humble, the Holy One, Blessed be He, elevates him,

砖谞讗诪专 讻诇 讙讬讗 讬谞砖讗

as it is stated: 鈥淓very valley shall be lifted鈥 (Isaiah 40:4). When Rav Yosef heard that interpretation, he understood that Rava was aware of the error of his ways in acting arrogantly toward his teacher, and was pacified by Rava鈥檚 display of humility.

转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讚讙谉 讗住讜专 讗祝 讘驻讜诇 讛诪爪专讬 讬讘砖 讜诪讜转专 讘诇讞 讜诪讜转专 讘讗讜专讝 讘讞讬诇拽讗 讘讟专讙讬住 讜讘讟讬住谞讬 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛砖谞讛 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 驻讬专讜转 讛砖谞讛 讜诪讜转专 讘讙讚讬讬诐 讜讘讟诇讗讬诐 讜讘讞诇讘 讜讘讘讬爪讬诐 讜讘讙讜讝诇讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讙讬讚讜诇讬 砖谞讛 注诇讬 讗住讜专 讘讻讜诇谉

It is taught in a baraita: For one who vows that grain [dagan] is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to partake of the dry cowpea, and it is permitted for him to partake of fresh cowpea. And it is permitted for him to partake of rice, as well as of wheat kernels split into two parts [岣lka], of wheat kernels crushed into three parts [targeis], and wheat kernels crushed into four parts [tisnei]. For one who vows that produce of the year is forbidden to him, it is prohibited to partake of all produce of the year that grew from the ground or on trees, and it is permitted for him to partake of goats, and of lambs, and of milk, and of eggs, and of chicks born that year, as they are not included in the category of produce. And if he said: Growths of the year are forbidden to me, it is prohibited for him to eat all of them.

讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛讗专抓 讗住讜专 讘讻诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗专抓 讜诪讜转专 讘讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜讗诐 讗诪专 讙讬讚讜诇讬 拽专拽注 注诇讬 讗住讜专 讘讻讜诇谉

For one who vows that produce of the land is forbidden to him, it is prohibited for him to partake of all produce that grow from the land, and it is permitted for him to partake of truffles and mushrooms that are not in the category of produce of the land. But if he said: The growths of the ground are forbidden to me, it is prohibited for him to eat all of them.

讜专诪讬谞讛讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讗讜诪专 砖讛讻诇 谞讛讬讛 讘讚讘专讜 讜转谞讬讗 注诇 讛诪诇讞 讜注诇 讛讝诪讬转 讜注诇 讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讗讜诪专 砖讛讻诇 谞讛讬讛 讘讚讘专讜 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪讬专讘讗 专讘讜 诪讗专注讗 诪讬谞拽 诪讗讜讬专讗 讬谞拽讬 讜诇讗 诪讗专注讗 讜讛讗 拽转谞讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 转谞讬 注诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谉 讬讜谞拽 诪谉 讛讗专抓

And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a mishna (Berakhot 40b): And over a food item whose growth is not from the ground, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be. And it is taught in a baraita: Over salt and over brine [zamit], and over truffles and mushrooms, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be. Apparently, truffles and mushrooms are not in the category of growths of the ground. Abaye said: They grow from the earth, but with regard to sustenance, they draw sustenance from the air and not from the earth. The Gemara asks: Why is that distinction significant? Isn鈥檛 it taught: Over a food item whose growth is not from the ground one recites the blessing: By whose word all things came to be? Even according to Abaye, mushrooms grow from the ground. The Gemara answers: Emend the mishna to read: Over a food item that does not draw sustenance from the ground, one recites: By Whose word all things came to be.

诪转谞讬壮 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讻住讜转 诪讜转专 讘砖拽 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讘讙讬讝讬 爪诪专讛驻砖转谉 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讘讗谞讬爪讬 驻砖转谉

MISHNA: For one who vows that a garment is forbidden to him, it is permitted to wear sackcloth, and to wear a sheet, and to wear a coarse curtain [岣mila], as these are not in the category of garments. For one who said: Wool is konam for me and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with wool fleece, which is not considered a garment, and it is prohibited for him to wear only a woolen fabric. For one who said: Flax is konam for me and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with uncombed flax in bundles, and it is prohibited for him to wear only a flaxen fabric.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讟注谉 讜讛讝讬注 讜讛讬讛 专讬讞讜 拽砖讛 讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 讜驻砖转讬诐 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇讛转讻住讜转 讜讗住讜专 诇讛驻砖讬诇 诇讗讞讜专讬讜

Rabbi Yehuda says: Everything is determined according to the one who vows. If one was bearing a burden of wool and linen, and was sweating, and its smell was unpleasant for him, and in reaction, he said: Wool and linen are konam for me and I will therefore not place them upon myself, it is permitted for him to cover himself with wool and linen garments, but it is prohibited for him to sling them over his shoulder behind him as a burden. The circumstances of his vow make it clear that he intends to forswear carrying wool and linen as a burden rather than the wearing of them as a garment.

讙诪壮 转谞讬讗 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讻住讜转 诪讜转专 讘砖拽 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 讜讗住讜专 讘驻讜谞讚讗 讜讘驻住拽讬讗 讜讘住拽讜专讟讬讗 讜讘拽讟讘诇讬讗 讜讗谞驻诇讬讗 讜驻诇讬谞讬讗 讜诪讻谞住讬诐 讜讻讜讘注 诪讗讬 讗讬住拽讜专讟讬 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讞谞讛 讻讬转讜谞讗 讚爪诇讗

GEMARA: It is taught in a baraita: For one who vows that a garment is forbidden to him, it is permitted to wear sackcloth, and to wear a sheet and to wear a coarse curtain, and it is prohibited for him to wear a money belt [punda], or to wear a sash [pesakiyya], or to wear a sekurtiyya, or to wear a leather spread [katavliyya], or to wear a leather sock [anpilya] or to wear a leather apron [pelinya], and trousers, and a hat. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of iskurtei, mentioned in the baraita as sekurtiyya? Rabba bar 岣na said: It means a tanner鈥檚 apron.

转谞讬讗 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘砖拽 注讘讛 讜讘住讙讜住 注讘讛 讜讘讬专讬注讛 讜讘讞诪讬诇讛 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘转讬讘讛 讜诇讗 讘拽讜驻讛 讜诇讗 讘诪讞爪诇转 诪驻谞讬 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讛专讜注讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讘砖拽讬诐 讜诇讗 专讜注讬诐 讘诇讘讚 讗诪专讜 讗诇讗 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 砖讚讘专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讛讜讜讛

It is taught in a baraita: One may go out into the public domain on Shabbat covered in thick sackcloth or in a coarse woolen blanket [sagos], or in a sheet or in a coarse curtain as protection from the rain. They are considered garments, not burdens. However, he may neither go out covered in a box, nor in a basket, nor in a mat as protection from the rain, as they are considered burdens, not garments. Shepherds may go out on Shabbat covered in sackcloth, as they typically go out in sackcloth garments. And the Sages did not say this only with regard to shepherds; rather, they said that all people may go out wearing sackcloth; however, the Sages spoke in the present, addressing situations that were prevalent.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讻讜壮 转谞讬讗 讻讬爪讚 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讻诇 诇驻讬 讛谞讜讚专 讛讬讛 诇讘讜砖 爪诪专 讜讛爪专 讜讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 爪诪专 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 讗住讜专 诇诇讘讜砖 讜诪讜转专 诇讟注讜谉 讛讬讛 讟注讜谉 驻砖转谉 讜讛讝讬注 讜讗诪专 拽讜谞诐 驻砖转谉 注讜诇讛 注诇讬 诪讜转专 诇诇讘讜砖 讜讗住讜专 诇讟注讜谉

搂 We learned in the mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: Everything is determined according to the one who vows. It is taught in a baraita: How, i.e., in what circumstances, did Rabbi Yehuda say: Everything is according to the one who vows? If one was wearing a woolen garment and it caused him discomfort, and in reaction he said: Wool is konam for me, and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is prohibited for him to wear woolen garments, but it is permitted to place a burden of woolen garments upon him. If one was burdened with flax and was sweating, and said: Flax is konam for me, and I will therefore not place it upon myself, it is permitted for him to wear flaxen garments and it is prohibited for him to place a burden of flaxen garments upon him.

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