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Today's Daf Yomi

November 11, 2019 | 讬状讙 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Niddah 19

What color of blood render a woman a nidda? Are there blood colors that are pure? This is derived from the verses regarding a rebellious elder. The gemara goes over the different opinions in the mishna regarding colors. They define what exactly is “red” mentioned in the mishna.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜讚注转 诪讛 讛驻讬诇讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 讝讬诇 讘转专 专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 讜专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 砖诇 讗专讘注 诪讬谞讬 讚诪讬诐 讛讜讬讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讝讬诇 讘转专 专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

and she herself does not know exactly what the appearance of the piece of flesh that she miscarried was, e.g., if it was lost. In this case Rabbi Yehuda holds: Follow the majority of miscarriages of amorphous pieces of flesh, and the majority of pieces of flesh have the appearance of one of the four types of impure blood. And the Rabbis hold: We do not say: Follow the majority of miscarriages of amorphous pieces of flesh. Therefore, Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 mention of three cases is meant to exclude this statement of Rabbi Yehuda, who rules that the woman is definitely impure based on a majority.

诪转谞讬壮 讞诪砖讛 讚诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讘讗砖讛 讛讗讚讜诐 讜讛砖讞讜专 讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 讜讻诪讝讜讙 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讻诪讬诪讬 转诇转谉 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讘砖专 爪诇讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪讟讛专讬诐 讛讬专讜拽 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 诪讟诪讗 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟讛专讬谉

MISHNA: There are five distinct colors of ritually impure blood in a woman: Red, and black, and like the bright color of the crocus [karkom] flower, and like water that inundates red earth, and like diluted wine. Beit Shammai say: Even blood like the water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and like the liquid that drips from roast meat, are ritually impure, and Beit Hillel deem blood of those colors ritually pure. With regard to blood that is green, Akavya ben Mahalalel deems it impure and the Rabbis deem it pure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讻讱 讜诇讗 讻讱

Rabbi Meir said: Even if the green blood does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain or the blood of a menstruating woman, it is blood in that it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as one of the seven liquids that render food susceptible to impurity. Rabbi Yosei says: Neither in this sense, as the blood of a menstruating woman according to Akavya ben Mahalalel, nor in that sense, as a liquid that renders food susceptible to impurity according to Rabbi Meir, is green blood considered blood.

讗讬讝讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 讻讘专讜专 砖讘讜

The mishna asks: What is the red color that is impure? It is as red as the blood that flows from a wound. What is the black color that is impure? It is blood as black as 岣ret. If the black is deeper than that, the blood is ritually impure; if the black is lighter than that, the blood is ritually pure. And what is the color that is like the bright color of the crocus flower that is impure? It is like the brightest part in the flower, which is harvested to produce the orange-colored spice saffron.

讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪讬爪祝 诪讬诐 讜讻诪讝讜讙 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讬讬谉 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 讛砖专讜谞讬

And what is the color that is like water that inundates red earth that is impure? It is specifically earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and specifically when one inundates the earth with enough water until it pools on the surface. And what is the color that is like diluted wine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of two parts water and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讚诐 讟讛讜专 讘讗砖讛 讚诇诪讗 讻诇 讚诐 讚讗转讬 诪讬谞讛 讟诪讗

GEMARA: The fact that the mishna discusses the colors of ritually impure blood in a woman indicates that there is blood that is not impure. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that there is pure blood in a woman? Perhaps any type of blood that emerges from a woman is impure?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬 讬驻诇讗 诪诪讱 讚讘专 诇诪砖驻讟 讘讬谉 讚诐 诇讚诐 讘讬谉 讚诐 讟讛讜专 诇讚诐 讟诪讗

Rabbi 岣ma bar Yosef says that Rabbi Oshaya says: The verse states with regard to those who come before the court: 鈥淚f there arise a matter too hard for you in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between leprous mark and leprous mark, even matters of controversy within your gates, then you shall arise, and get up unto the place that the Lord your God shall choose鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:8). When the verse states: 鈥淏etween blood and blood,鈥 it means between pure blood and impure blood, which demonstrates that there must be types of pure blood that are emitted by a woman.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讘讬谉 谞讙注 诇谞讙注 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讘讬谉 谞讙注 讟诪讗 诇谞讙注 讟讛讜专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 谞讙注 讟讛讜专 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讻诇讜 讛驻讱 诇讘谉 讟讛讜专 讛讜讗 讛讛讜讗 讘讜讛拽 诪拽专讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, then does the other expression in the verse: 鈥淏etween leprous mark and leprous mark,鈥 also mean: Between a pure leprous mark and an impure leprous mark? And if you would say that indeed, this is what it means, is there a type of pure leprous mark? And if you would say that there is in fact a pure leprous mark, according to the verse: 鈥淭hen the priest shall look; and behold, if the leprosy has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce pure the one that has the leprous mark; it is all turned white: He is pure鈥 (Leviticus 13:13), that mark is not classified as a leprous mark; rather, it is called a paleness, as a leprous mark is by definition impure.

讗诇讗 讘讬谉 谞讙注讬 讗讚诐 诇谞讙注讬 讘转讬诐 讜诇谞讙注讬 讘讙讚讬诐 讜讻讜诇谉 讟诪讗讬谉 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬谉 讚诐 谞讚讛 诇讚诐 讝讬讘讛 讜讻讜诇谉 讟诪讗讬谉

Rather, the phrase 鈥渂etween leprous mark and leprous mark鈥 must mean the following: Between the leprous marks that afflict man (see Leviticus 13:1鈥46) and the leprous marks of houses (see Leviticus 14:33鈥53) and the leprous marks of garments (see Leviticus 13:47鈥59), as different halakhot pertain to these categories of leprous marks, and yet they are all ritually impure. Therefore, here too, when the verse states: 鈥淏etween blood and blood,鈥 it means: Between the blood of a menstruating woman and the blood of a discharge [ziva], and they are all ritually impure. If so, this verse cannot be cited as proof that there is a type of blood emitted by a woman that is pure.

讛讗讬 诪讗讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讛转诐 讗讬讻讗 诇讗驻诇讜讙讬 讘谞讙注讬 讗讚诐 讜讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘谞谉

The Gemara questions this interpretation: This verse serves as the source for the areas of halakha for which a rebellious elder is liable to receive the death penalty for publicly ruling in contradiction to a decision of the Sanhedrin, as it states: 鈥淎nd the man who does presumptuously, in not listening to the priest that stands to minister there before the Lord your God, or to the judge, that man shall die; and you shall exterminate the evil from Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:12). With this in mind, the Gemara asks: What is this explanation? Granted, there, with regard to leprous marks, even if all the leprous marks are impure, one can disagree with the Sanhedrin with regard to the leprous marks that afflict man, and therefore the rebellious elder could potentially disagree with the court with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute of Rabbi Yehoshua and the Rabbis.

讚转谞谉 讗诐 讘讛专转 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注专 诇讘谉 讟诪讗 讜讗诐 砖注专 诇讘谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讘讛专转 讟讛讜专 住驻拽 讟诪讗 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讻讛讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讛 讻讛讛 讜讟讛讜专

As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 4:11): If the snow-white leprous mark [baheret], which is one sign of leprosy, preceded the white hair, which is another sign, he is ritually impure, as stated in the Torah (see Leviticus 13:3). And if the white hair preceded the baheret he is pure, as this is not considered a sign of impurity. If there is uncertainty as to which came first, he is impure. And Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is dull [keha]. And Rabba says, explaining the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua: In the case of uncertainty, the leprous mark is deemed as though it is of a dull shade, and therefore the person is ritually pure.

讘谞讙注讬 讘转讬诐 讻讬 讛讗 驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讟诪讗 注讚 砖讬专讗讛 讻砖谞讬 讙专讬住讬谉 注诇 砖谞讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬诐 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转 讗专讻讜 讻砖谞讬 讙专讬住讬谉 讜专讞讘讜 讻讙专讬住

Likewise, with regard to the leprous marks of houses one can find a case where the rebellious elder might dispute the ruling of the Sanhedrin, such as that dispute between Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and the Rabbis. As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 12:3): Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: A house is never deemed impure with leprosy unless the leprous mark will be seen to be the size of two split beans, and it is found on two stones on two walls in a corner between two walls. The length of the mark is that of two split beans, and its width is that of one split bean.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讻转讬讘 拽讬专 讜讻转讬讘 拽讬专讜转 讗讬讝讛讜 拽讬专 砖讛讜讗 讻砖谞讬 拽讬专讜转 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara explains: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon? The word 鈥渨all鈥 is written in the verse, and the word 鈥渨alls鈥 is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd he shall see the leprous mark鈥n the walls of the house with hollow streaks, greenish or reddish, and their appearance is lower than the wall鈥 (Leviticus 14:37). Which is one wall that is like two walls? You must say: This is a corner between two walls.

讘谞讙注讬 讘讙讚讬诐 讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讗讘讟讜诇诪讜住 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讗讘讟讜诇诪讜住 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇驻专讬讞转 讘讙讚讬诐 砖讛讬讗 讟讛讜专讛

Similarly, with regard to the leprous marks on garments, it is possible that the rebellious elder disputed the ruling of the Sanhedrin with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute between Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos and the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos says: From where is it derived with regard to a case where there is a spread of leprosy in garments that culminates with the garment鈥檚 being completely covered with leprous marks, that the garment is pure, just as the halakha is with regard to a leprous mark that fully covers a person?

谞讗诪专 拽专讞转 讜讙讘讞转 讘讘讙讚讬诐 讜谞讗诪专 拽专讞转 讜讙讘讞转 讘讗讚诐

It is derived via a verbal analogy: A bareness within [kara岣t] and a bareness without [gabba岣t] are stated with regard to leprosy of garments: 鈥淎nd the priest shall look, after that the mark is washed; and, behold, if the mark has not changed its color, and the mark has not spread, it is impure; you shall burn it in the fire; it is a fret, whether the bareness be within or without鈥 (Leviticus 13:55); and a bald head [kara岣t] and a bald forehead [gabba岣t] are stated with regard to leprosy of a person: 鈥淏ut if there is in the bald head, or the bald forehead, a reddish-white mark, it is leprosy breaking out in his bald head, or his bald forehead鈥 (Leviticus 13:42).

诪讛 诇讛诇谉 驻专讞 讘讻讜诇讜 讟讛讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞诪讬 驻专讞 讘讻讜诇讜 讟讛讜专

Just as there, with regard to a person, if the leprosy spread to his entire body he is pure, as the verse states: 鈥淭hen the priest shall look; and behold, if the leprosy has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce pure the one who has the leprous mark; it is all turned white: He is pure鈥 (Leviticus 13:13), so too here, with regard to garments, if the leprosy spread to the entire garment it is pure.

讗诇讗 讛讻讗 讗讬 讚诐 讟讛讜专 诇讬讻讗 讘诪讗讬 驻诇讬讙讬

The Gemara concludes: But here, concerning the phrase 鈥渂etween blood and blood,鈥 if there is no type of pure blood at all, with regard to what issue could the rebellious elder disagree with the Sanhedrin? It must be that this verse is alluding to the fact that there is a type of blood of a woman that is pure.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛谞讬 讟讛讜专讬谉 讜讛谞讬 讟诪讗讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬专讗讜 诪讜讗讘 讗转 讛诪讬诐 讗讚诪讬诐 讻讚诐 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讚诐 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗讬诪讗 讗讚讜诐 讜转讜 诇讗

搂 Once it has been established that there are types of blood that are pure and other types that are impure, the Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that those types of blood that are not listed in the mishna are pure, and these ones that are mentioned in the mishna are impure? Rabbi Abbahu said that the verse states: 鈥淎nd the sun shone upon the water, and the Moabites saw the water some way off as red as blood鈥 (II聽Kings 3:22), which indicates that blood is red. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that blood is red? If so, one can say that only blood that is red like the blood of a wound is ritually impure, and no more colors of blood are impure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

Rabbi Abbahu said in response: The verse states, with regard to a menstruating woman: 鈥淎nd she shall be purified from the source of her blood [dameha]鈥 (Leviticus 12:7). The plural form of the word blood, dameha, indicates at least two types of blood. And another verse states: 鈥淎nd if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness, he has made naked her source, and she has uncovered the source of her blood [dameha]; both of them shall be cut off from among their people鈥 (Leviticus 20:18). The use of the plural form of blood once again indicates another two types, which means that there are four types of blood stated here.

讜讛讗 讗谞谉 讞诪砖讛 转谞谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that there are five types of impure blood in a woman, whereas the verses indicate that there are only four? Rabbi 岣nina says: The black blood mentioned in the mishna is actually red, but its color has faded, which is why it looks black. Therefore, although the mishna lists five kinds of blood, there are only four basic types.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讻讞讜诇 讟讛讜专 讜砖讞讜专 讝讛 诇讗 诪转讞诇转讜 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专 讗诇讗 讻砖谞注拽专 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专 诪砖诇 诇讚诐 诪讻讛 诇讻砖谞注拽专 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专

This opinion, that black blood is actually red blood, is also taught in a baraita: The black color of blood that is impure is blood as black as 岣ret. If the black is deeper than that, the blood is ritually impure; if the black is lighter than that, even if it is still as dark as blue, the blood is ritually pure. And this black blood does not blacken from its outset, when it is inside the body; rather, it blackens only when it is removed from the body. This is comparable to the blood of a wound, which is initially red, but when it is removed from the body it blackens.

讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讻诪讬诪讬 转诇转谉 讜诇讬转 诇讛讜 诇讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

搂 The mishna states that Beit Shammai say: Even blood like the water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and like the liquid that drips from roast meat, are ritually impure. The Gemara asks: But do Beit Shammai not accept the exposition of Rabbi Abbahu that the two mentions of the plural form of blood: Dameha (Leviticus 12:7), and Dameha (Leviticus 20:18), indicate that there are four types of blood here?

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讬转 诇讛讜 诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪诇拽讗 讛讜讗 讚诇拽讬

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Beit Shammai do not accept this opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, and they maintain that there are more than four types of blood in a woman. And if you wish, say instead that Beit Shammai do accept Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 exposition, and the apparent contradiction can be resolved as follows: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣nina say with regard to the black blood mentioned in the mishna that it is not an additional type, as it is actually red but its color has faded? So too, with regard to the colors of blood mentioned by Beit Shammai, that of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and that of the liquid that drips from roast meat, one can say that these are not additional types of blood. Rather, they too were initially red but their color faded.

讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

搂 The mishna states: And Beit Hillel deem blood of those colors, i.e., the color of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked or of the liquid that drips from roast meat, ritually pure. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this opinion of Beit Hillel identical to the opinion of the first tanna?

讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them

诇转诇讜转

with regard to whether to leave in abeyance, i.e., to treat as uncertain, blood the color of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, or the color of the liquid that drips from roast meat. According to the first tanna of the mishna there are five types of blood that are definitely impure, whereas other types, such as those mentioned by Beit Shammai, are deemed impure due to uncertainty. By contrast, Beit Hillel maintain that blood of these colors is entirely pure.

讛讬专讜拽 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 诪讟诪讗 讜诇讬转 诇讬讛 诇注拽讘讬讗 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

搂 The mishna states: Blood that is green, Akavya ben Mahalalel deems it impure. The Gemara asks: But does Akavya ben Mahalalel not accept the exposition of Rabbi Abbahu that the two verses: Dameha (Leviticus 12:7), and: Dameha (Leviticus 20:18), indicate that there are four types of blood here?

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诪诇拽讗 讛讜讗 讚诇拽讬

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Akavya ben Mahalalel does not accept this opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, as he maintains that there are more than four types of blood in a woman. And if you wish, say instead that Akavya ben Mahalalel accepts Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 exposition, and the apparent contradiction can be resolved as follows: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣nina say, with regard to the black blood mentioned in the mishna, that it is actually red but its color has faded? Here too, with regard to the green mentioned by Akavya ben Mahalalel, one can say that it was initially red but its color faded and turned green.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇转诇讜转

搂 The mishna states with regard to blood that is green: And the Rabbis deem it pure. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this opinion of the Rabbis identical to the opinion of the first tanna? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to whether to leave in abeyance blood that is green. According to the first tanna of the mishna there are five types of blood that are definitely impure, whereas other types, such as green, are impure due to uncertainty. By contrast, the Rabbis maintain that green blood is entirely pure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 讻讜壮

搂 The mishna states that Rabbi Meir said: Even if the green blood does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain or the blood of a menstruating woman, it is blood in that it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as one of the seven liquids that render food susceptible.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讬专讚 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇砖讬讟转 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 谞讛讬 讚讛讬讻讗 讚拽讗 诪砖讻讞转 讻转诐 讬专讜拽 讗诪谞讗 诇讗 诪讟诪讗讬转讜 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 诪讙讜驻讛 转讟诪讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Rabbi Meir accepted the opinion of Akavya ben Mahalalel and deemed green blood impure as blood of a menstruating woman. And as for his statement in the mishna, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Granted that in a case where a woman finds a green stain on an article of clothing you do not deem her ritually impure, as its greenness is an indication that it did not come from her body. But in a case where she actually sees green blood come from her body, she shall be impure.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讛 诪砖讜诐 专讜讗讛 诪讘注讬讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: If so, why did Rabbi Meir say: Even if it does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain, it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as a liquid? According to the above explanation, he should have said: If the woman saw the emission of this blood, she is impure as a menstruating woman.

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 谞讛讬 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讗 讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 诪讟诪讗讬转讜 讛讬讻讗 讚讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讗讚讜诐 讜讛讚专 讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 转讟诪讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪砖拽讛 讝讘 讜讝讘讛

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Granted that in a case where the woman sees green blood from the outset you do not deem her ritually impure, but in a case where she sees red blood and then sees green blood, she shall be impure. This is just as it is with regard to the halakha of the fluids of a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] and a woman who experiences a discharge of uterine blood after her menstrual period [zava]. All fluids emitted by a zav or zava, such as saliva and urine, are impure. Likewise, green blood that is emitted by this woman who has already emitted red blood should be impure.

讜专讘谞谉 讚讜诪讬讗 讚专讜拽 诪讛 专讜拽 砖诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 讗祝 讻诇 砖诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讛讗讬 讚讗讬谉 诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis respond to this? The Gemara answers: They maintain that the impure fluids of a menstruating woman are only those that are similar to saliva: Just as when saliva leaves one鈥檚 mouth it is first gathered together and then expelled from the body, so too, all impure fluids are those that are gathered together and then expelled. This definition serves to exclude this green blood, which is not gathered together and expelled. The Gemara asks: If so, the Rabbis spoke well to Rabbi Meir, i.e., their answer is convincing. Why does Rabbi Meir deem green blood impure?

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讛讜讬 讻诪砖拽讛 诇讛讻砖讬专 讗转 讛讝专注讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讘注讬 讚诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讜诇讬讻讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Let green blood be at least like one of the seven liquids that render seeds upon which they fall susceptible to ritual impurity. Why is green blood deemed pure even with regard to this matter? And the Rabbis disagree because they require that every type of blood that renders food susceptible to ritual impurity be like that mentioned in the verse: 鈥淎nd drink the blood of the slain鈥 (Numbers 23:24), i.e., the blood that flows at the time of death; and green blood is not the type that flows at the time of death. Therefore, it does not render food susceptible to ritual impurity. The Gemara again asks: If so, the Rabbis spoke well to Rabbi Meir. Why does he disagree with them?

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗诇驻讜讛 讘讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 砖诇讞讬讱 驻专讚住 专诪讜谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜砖诇讞 诪讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讞讜爪讜转

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Learn this halakha that green blood renders food susceptible to ritual impurity from the following verbal analogy: It is written here, in a description of the beloved woman that alludes to her menstrual blood: 鈥淵our shoots [shela岣yikh] are an orchard of pomegranates鈥 (Song of Songs 4:13), and it is written there: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the earth, and sends [veshole鈥檃岣] waters upon the fields鈥 (Job 5:10). This verbal analogy indicates that menstrual blood is similar to water in that both render food susceptible to ritual impurity.

讜专讘谞谉 讗讚诐 讚谉 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪注爪诪讜 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讚谉 讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 诪注爪诪讜

And the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Meir, as they do not have a tradition that this is an accepted verbal analogy, and there is a principle that although a person may derive an a fortiori inference on his own, i.e., even though he was not taught that particular logical argument by his teachers, a person may not derive a verbal analogy on his own, but only if he received it by tradition.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讻讱 讜讻讜壮 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诪讗谉 转谞讗 拽诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讚讘专 讘砖诐 讗讜诪专讜 诪讘讬讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诇注讜诇诐

搂 The mishna states that Rabbi Yosei says: Neither in this sense, as the blood of a menstruating woman according to Akavya ben Mahalalel, nor in that sense, as a liquid that renders food susceptible according to Rabbi Meir, is green blood considered blood. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn鈥檛 this the same as the opinion of the first tanna? The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is teaching us: Who is the first tanna? Rabbi Yosei. And the reason Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 name is mentioned is due to the principle that anyone who reports a statement in the name of the one who said it brings redemption to the world.

讗讬讝讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 诪讗讬 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讚诐 砖讜专 砖讞讜讟

搂 The mishna states: What is the red color of blood that is impure? It is as red as the blood that flows from a wound. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: As the blood that flows from a wound? Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: Like the blood of a slaughtered ox.

讜诇讬诪讗 讻讚诐 砖讞讬讟讛 讗讬 讗诪专 讻讚诐 砖讞讬讟讛 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讻讻讜诇讛 砖讞讬讟讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讻转讞讬诇转 讛讻讗讛 砖诇 住讻讬谉

The Gemara inquires: But if so, let the tanna of the mishna say explicitly that it is as red as the blood of slaughter. The Gemara explains: If the tanna had said that it is as red as the blood of slaughter, I would say that it means as red as the blood that flows throughout the entire slaughter, and it would apply to the shades of all blood emitted during the process. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that it is as red as the blood that flows from a wound, i.e., as the blood that flows at the beginning of the slitting with the slaughtering knife.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻讚诐 爪驻讜专 讞讬讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讞讬讛 诇讗驻讜拽讬 砖讞讜讟 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讻讞讜砖 转讬拽讜

The Gemara cites other definitions of the color described in the mishna as: Red as the blood that flows from a wound. Ulla says: It is red like the blood that flows from a living bird that was wounded. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When Ulla specified that the bird is living, did he mean that it was not dead, to exclude the blood of a slaughtered bird? Or perhaps he meant that the bird was healthy, to exclude the blood of a weak bird. No answer was found, and therefore the Gemara concludes that the dilemma shall stand unresolved.

讝注讬专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻讚诐 诪讗讻讜诇转 砖诇 专讗砖 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛专讙讛 诪讗讻讜诇转 讛专讬 讝讛 转讜诇讛 讘讛 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讻讜诇讬讛 讙讜驻讛 诇讗 讚专讗砖讛

The Gemara cites another definition: Ze鈥檈iri says that Rabbi 岣nina says: It is red like the blood that comes from a squashed head louse. The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna that discusses a stain found on a woman鈥檚 garment (58b): If a woman killed a louse and subsequently found a blood stain on her garment or body, this woman may attribute the stain to that louse, and she remains pure. The Gemara explains the objection: What, is it not correct to say that this is referring to a louse from all parts of her body, not just the head, as claimed by Rabbi 岣nina? If so, the color of impure blood is like the color of the blood of a louse from anywhere on the body. The Gemara answers: No; this halakha is referring specifically to a louse that was on her head.

讗诪讬 讜专讚讬谞讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讚诐 讗爪讘注 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 讬讚 砖谞讙驻讛 讜讞讬讬转讛 讜讞讝专讛 讜谞讙驻讛 讜诇讗 砖诇 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖诇讗 谞砖讗 讗砖讛 讜注讚 讻诪讛 注讚 讘谉 注砖专讬诐

The Gemara cites yet another definition of the color described in the mishna as: Red as the blood that flows from a wound. The Sage Ami of Vardina says that Rabbi Abbahu says: It is red as the blood that flows from the smallest finger of the hand, which was wounded and later healed and was subsequently wounded again. And this is not referring to the finger of any person, but specifically to the finger of a young man who has not yet married a woman. And furthermore, this does not mean any young man; rather, until what age must he be? Until twenty years old.

诪讬转讬讘讬 转讜诇讛 讘讘谞讛 讜讘讘注诇讛 讘砖诇诪讗 讘讘谞讛 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讗诇讗 讘注诇讛 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection from the aforementioned mishna (58b): If the woman鈥檚 husband or son suffered an injury, she may attribute a blood stain she finds on her garment to her son or to her husband, and she remains pure. The Gemara analyzes this halakha: Granted, with regard to the ruling that she may attribute it to her son, you can find a case where this meets all the requirements specified by Rabbi Abbahu, i.e., he could be younger than twenty and unmarried. But with regard to the ruling that she may attribute it to her husband, how can you find a case where her husband is unmarried?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇讞讜驻讛 讜诇讗 谞讘注诇讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: It is possible in a case where this woman entered the marriage canopy but has not yet engaged in intercourse with her husband. In such a situation, although he is her husband he is physically akin to an unmarried young man. Therefore, she can attribute the blood stain to his wound.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讻讚诐 讛拽讝讛 诪讬转讬讘讬 诪注砖讛 讜转诇讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Na岣an says: This red is like the blood spilled in the process of bloodletting. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: An incident occurred involving a blood stain found on a woman鈥檚 garment, and Rabbi Meir attributed

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Niddah 19

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 19

讜讗讬谞讛 讬讜讚注转 诪讛 讛驻讬诇讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘专 讝讬诇 讘转专 专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 讜专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 砖诇 讗专讘注 诪讬谞讬 讚诪讬诐 讛讜讬讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讝讬诇 讘转专 专讜讘 讞转讬讻讜转 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

and she herself does not know exactly what the appearance of the piece of flesh that she miscarried was, e.g., if it was lost. In this case Rabbi Yehuda holds: Follow the majority of miscarriages of amorphous pieces of flesh, and the majority of pieces of flesh have the appearance of one of the four types of impure blood. And the Rabbis hold: We do not say: Follow the majority of miscarriages of amorphous pieces of flesh. Therefore, Rabbi Yo岣nan鈥檚 mention of three cases is meant to exclude this statement of Rabbi Yehuda, who rules that the woman is definitely impure based on a majority.

诪转谞讬壮 讞诪砖讛 讚诪讬诐 讟诪讗讬诐 讘讗砖讛 讛讗讚讜诐 讜讛砖讞讜专 讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 讜讻诪讝讜讙 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讻诪讬诪讬 转诇转谉 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讘砖专 爪诇讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪讟讛专讬诐 讛讬专讜拽 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 诪讟诪讗 讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟讛专讬谉

MISHNA: There are five distinct colors of ritually impure blood in a woman: Red, and black, and like the bright color of the crocus [karkom] flower, and like water that inundates red earth, and like diluted wine. Beit Shammai say: Even blood like the water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and like the liquid that drips from roast meat, are ritually impure, and Beit Hillel deem blood of those colors ritually pure. With regard to blood that is green, Akavya ben Mahalalel deems it impure and the Rabbis deem it pure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讛 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讻讱 讜诇讗 讻讱

Rabbi Meir said: Even if the green blood does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain or the blood of a menstruating woman, it is blood in that it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as one of the seven liquids that render food susceptible to impurity. Rabbi Yosei says: Neither in this sense, as the blood of a menstruating woman according to Akavya ben Mahalalel, nor in that sense, as a liquid that renders food susceptible to impurity according to Rabbi Meir, is green blood considered blood.

讗讬讝讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 讻讘专讜专 砖讘讜

The mishna asks: What is the red color that is impure? It is as red as the blood that flows from a wound. What is the black color that is impure? It is blood as black as 岣ret. If the black is deeper than that, the blood is ritually impure; if the black is lighter than that, the blood is ritually pure. And what is the color that is like the bright color of the crocus flower that is impure? It is like the brightest part in the flower, which is harvested to produce the orange-colored spice saffron.

讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪讬爪祝 诪讬诐 讜讻诪讝讜讙 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讬讬谉 诪谉 讛讬讬谉 讛砖专讜谞讬

And what is the color that is like water that inundates red earth that is impure? It is specifically earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and specifically when one inundates the earth with enough water until it pools on the surface. And what is the color that is like diluted wine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of two parts water and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael.

讙诪壮 诪谞诇谉 讚讗讬讻讗 讚诐 讟讛讜专 讘讗砖讛 讚诇诪讗 讻诇 讚诐 讚讗转讬 诪讬谞讛 讟诪讗

GEMARA: The fact that the mishna discusses the colors of ritually impure blood in a woman indicates that there is blood that is not impure. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive that there is pure blood in a woman? Perhaps any type of blood that emerges from a woman is impure?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞诪讗 讘专 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讻讬 讬驻诇讗 诪诪讱 讚讘专 诇诪砖驻讟 讘讬谉 讚诐 诇讚诐 讘讬谉 讚诐 讟讛讜专 诇讚诐 讟诪讗

Rabbi 岣ma bar Yosef says that Rabbi Oshaya says: The verse states with regard to those who come before the court: 鈥淚f there arise a matter too hard for you in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between leprous mark and leprous mark, even matters of controversy within your gates, then you shall arise, and get up unto the place that the Lord your God shall choose鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:8). When the verse states: 鈥淏etween blood and blood,鈥 it means between pure blood and impure blood, which demonstrates that there must be types of pure blood that are emitted by a woman.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讘讬谉 谞讙注 诇谞讙注 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讘讬谉 谞讙注 讟诪讗 诇谞讙注 讟讛讜专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 谞讙注 讟讛讜专 诪讬 讗讬讻讗 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讻诇讜 讛驻讱 诇讘谉 讟讛讜专 讛讜讗 讛讛讜讗 讘讜讛拽 诪拽专讬

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, then does the other expression in the verse: 鈥淏etween leprous mark and leprous mark,鈥 also mean: Between a pure leprous mark and an impure leprous mark? And if you would say that indeed, this is what it means, is there a type of pure leprous mark? And if you would say that there is in fact a pure leprous mark, according to the verse: 鈥淭hen the priest shall look; and behold, if the leprosy has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce pure the one that has the leprous mark; it is all turned white: He is pure鈥 (Leviticus 13:13), that mark is not classified as a leprous mark; rather, it is called a paleness, as a leprous mark is by definition impure.

讗诇讗 讘讬谉 谞讙注讬 讗讚诐 诇谞讙注讬 讘转讬诐 讜诇谞讙注讬 讘讙讚讬诐 讜讻讜诇谉 讟诪讗讬谉 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬谉 讚诐 谞讚讛 诇讚诐 讝讬讘讛 讜讻讜诇谉 讟诪讗讬谉

Rather, the phrase 鈥渂etween leprous mark and leprous mark鈥 must mean the following: Between the leprous marks that afflict man (see Leviticus 13:1鈥46) and the leprous marks of houses (see Leviticus 14:33鈥53) and the leprous marks of garments (see Leviticus 13:47鈥59), as different halakhot pertain to these categories of leprous marks, and yet they are all ritually impure. Therefore, here too, when the verse states: 鈥淏etween blood and blood,鈥 it means: Between the blood of a menstruating woman and the blood of a discharge [ziva], and they are all ritually impure. If so, this verse cannot be cited as proof that there is a type of blood emitted by a woman that is pure.

讛讗讬 诪讗讬 讘砖诇诪讗 讛转诐 讗讬讻讗 诇讗驻诇讜讙讬 讘谞讙注讬 讗讚诐 讜讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜专讘谞谉

The Gemara questions this interpretation: This verse serves as the source for the areas of halakha for which a rebellious elder is liable to receive the death penalty for publicly ruling in contradiction to a decision of the Sanhedrin, as it states: 鈥淎nd the man who does presumptuously, in not listening to the priest that stands to minister there before the Lord your God, or to the judge, that man shall die; and you shall exterminate the evil from Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:12). With this in mind, the Gemara asks: What is this explanation? Granted, there, with regard to leprous marks, even if all the leprous marks are impure, one can disagree with the Sanhedrin with regard to the leprous marks that afflict man, and therefore the rebellious elder could potentially disagree with the court with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute of Rabbi Yehoshua and the Rabbis.

讚转谞谉 讗诐 讘讛专转 拽讜讚诐 诇砖注专 诇讘谉 讟诪讗 讜讗诐 砖注专 诇讘谉 拽讜讚诐 诇讘讛专转 讟讛讜专 住驻拽 讟诪讗 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讗讜诪专 讻讛讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讛 讻讛讛 讜讟讛讜专

As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 4:11): If the snow-white leprous mark [baheret], which is one sign of leprosy, preceded the white hair, which is another sign, he is ritually impure, as stated in the Torah (see Leviticus 13:3). And if the white hair preceded the baheret he is pure, as this is not considered a sign of impurity. If there is uncertainty as to which came first, he is impure. And Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is dull [keha]. And Rabba says, explaining the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua: In the case of uncertainty, the leprous mark is deemed as though it is of a dull shade, and therefore the person is ritually pure.

讘谞讙注讬 讘转讬诐 讻讬 讛讗 驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讗讬谉 讛讘讬转 讟诪讗 注讚 砖讬专讗讛 讻砖谞讬 讙专讬住讬谉 注诇 砖谞讬 讗讘谞讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬诐 讘拽专谉 讝讜讬转 讗专讻讜 讻砖谞讬 讙专讬住讬谉 讜专讞讘讜 讻讙专讬住

Likewise, with regard to the leprous marks of houses one can find a case where the rebellious elder might dispute the ruling of the Sanhedrin, such as that dispute between Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, and the Rabbis. As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 12:3): Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, says: A house is never deemed impure with leprosy unless the leprous mark will be seen to be the size of two split beans, and it is found on two stones on two walls in a corner between two walls. The length of the mark is that of two split beans, and its width is that of one split bean.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讻转讬讘 拽讬专 讜讻转讬讘 拽讬专讜转 讗讬讝讛讜 拽讬专 砖讛讜讗 讻砖谞讬 拽讬专讜转 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 拽专谉 讝讜讬转

The Gemara explains: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon? The word 鈥渨all鈥 is written in the verse, and the word 鈥渨alls鈥 is written in the same verse: 鈥淎nd he shall see the leprous mark鈥n the walls of the house with hollow streaks, greenish or reddish, and their appearance is lower than the wall鈥 (Leviticus 14:37). Which is one wall that is like two walls? You must say: This is a corner between two walls.

讘谞讙注讬 讘讙讚讬诐 讘驻诇讜讙转讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讗讘讟讜诇诪讜住 讜专讘谞谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 讗讘讟讜诇诪讜住 讗讜诪专 诪谞讬谉 诇驻专讬讞转 讘讙讚讬诐 砖讛讬讗 讟讛讜专讛

Similarly, with regard to the leprous marks on garments, it is possible that the rebellious elder disputed the ruling of the Sanhedrin with regard to the issue that is the subject of the dispute between Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos and the Rabbis. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos says: From where is it derived with regard to a case where there is a spread of leprosy in garments that culminates with the garment鈥檚 being completely covered with leprous marks, that the garment is pure, just as the halakha is with regard to a leprous mark that fully covers a person?

谞讗诪专 拽专讞转 讜讙讘讞转 讘讘讙讚讬诐 讜谞讗诪专 拽专讞转 讜讙讘讞转 讘讗讚诐

It is derived via a verbal analogy: A bareness within [kara岣t] and a bareness without [gabba岣t] are stated with regard to leprosy of garments: 鈥淎nd the priest shall look, after that the mark is washed; and, behold, if the mark has not changed its color, and the mark has not spread, it is impure; you shall burn it in the fire; it is a fret, whether the bareness be within or without鈥 (Leviticus 13:55); and a bald head [kara岣t] and a bald forehead [gabba岣t] are stated with regard to leprosy of a person: 鈥淏ut if there is in the bald head, or the bald forehead, a reddish-white mark, it is leprosy breaking out in his bald head, or his bald forehead鈥 (Leviticus 13:42).

诪讛 诇讛诇谉 驻专讞 讘讻讜诇讜 讟讛讜专 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞诪讬 驻专讞 讘讻讜诇讜 讟讛讜专

Just as there, with regard to a person, if the leprosy spread to his entire body he is pure, as the verse states: 鈥淭hen the priest shall look; and behold, if the leprosy has covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce pure the one who has the leprous mark; it is all turned white: He is pure鈥 (Leviticus 13:13), so too here, with regard to garments, if the leprosy spread to the entire garment it is pure.

讗诇讗 讛讻讗 讗讬 讚诐 讟讛讜专 诇讬讻讗 讘诪讗讬 驻诇讬讙讬

The Gemara concludes: But here, concerning the phrase 鈥渂etween blood and blood,鈥 if there is no type of pure blood at all, with regard to what issue could the rebellious elder disagree with the Sanhedrin? It must be that this verse is alluding to the fact that there is a type of blood of a woman that is pure.

讜诪诪讗讬 讚讛谞讬 讟讛讜专讬谉 讜讛谞讬 讟诪讗讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讜讬专讗讜 诪讜讗讘 讗转 讛诪讬诐 讗讚诪讬诐 讻讚诐 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讚诐 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗讬诪讗 讗讚讜诐 讜转讜 诇讗

搂 Once it has been established that there are types of blood that are pure and other types that are impure, the Gemara asks: And from where is it derived that those types of blood that are not listed in the mishna are pure, and these ones that are mentioned in the mishna are impure? Rabbi Abbahu said that the verse states: 鈥淎nd the sun shone upon the water, and the Moabites saw the water some way off as red as blood鈥 (II聽Kings 3:22), which indicates that blood is red. The Gemara asks: Is this to say that blood is red? If so, one can say that only blood that is red like the blood of a wound is ritually impure, and no more colors of blood are impure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 拽专讗 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

Rabbi Abbahu said in response: The verse states, with regard to a menstruating woman: 鈥淎nd she shall be purified from the source of her blood [dameha]鈥 (Leviticus 12:7). The plural form of the word blood, dameha, indicates at least two types of blood. And another verse states: 鈥淎nd if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness, he has made naked her source, and she has uncovered the source of her blood [dameha]; both of them shall be cut off from among their people鈥 (Leviticus 20:18). The use of the plural form of blood once again indicates another two types, which means that there are four types of blood stated here.

讜讛讗 讗谞谉 讞诪砖讛 转谞谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna that there are five types of impure blood in a woman, whereas the verses indicate that there are only four? Rabbi 岣nina says: The black blood mentioned in the mishna is actually red, but its color has faded, which is why it looks black. Therefore, although the mishna lists five kinds of blood, there are only four basic types.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讻讞讜诇 讟讛讜专 讜砖讞讜专 讝讛 诇讗 诪转讞诇转讜 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专 讗诇讗 讻砖谞注拽专 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专 诪砖诇 诇讚诐 诪讻讛 诇讻砖谞注拽专 讛讜讗 诪砖讞讬专

This opinion, that black blood is actually red blood, is also taught in a baraita: The black color of blood that is impure is blood as black as 岣ret. If the black is deeper than that, the blood is ritually impure; if the black is lighter than that, even if it is still as dark as blue, the blood is ritually pure. And this black blood does not blacken from its outset, when it is inside the body; rather, it blackens only when it is removed from the body. This is comparable to the blood of a wound, which is initially red, but when it is removed from the body it blackens.

讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讻诪讬诪讬 转诇转谉 讜诇讬转 诇讛讜 诇讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

搂 The mishna states that Beit Shammai say: Even blood like the water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and like the liquid that drips from roast meat, are ritually impure. The Gemara asks: But do Beit Shammai not accept the exposition of Rabbi Abbahu that the two mentions of the plural form of blood: Dameha (Leviticus 12:7), and Dameha (Leviticus 20:18), indicate that there are four types of blood here?

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讬转 诇讛讜 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讬转 诇讛讜 诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 诪诇拽讗 讛讜讗 讚诇拽讬

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Beit Shammai do not accept this opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, and they maintain that there are more than four types of blood in a woman. And if you wish, say instead that Beit Shammai do accept Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 exposition, and the apparent contradiction can be resolved as follows: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣nina say with regard to the black blood mentioned in the mishna that it is not an additional type, as it is actually red but its color has faded? So too, with regard to the colors of blood mentioned by Beit Shammai, that of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, and that of the liquid that drips from roast meat, one can say that these are not additional types of blood. Rather, they too were initially red but their color faded.

讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗

搂 The mishna states: And Beit Hillel deem blood of those colors, i.e., the color of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked or of the liquid that drips from roast meat, ritually pure. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this opinion of Beit Hillel identical to the opinion of the first tanna?

讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜

The Gemara explains: There is a practical difference between them

诇转诇讜转

with regard to whether to leave in abeyance, i.e., to treat as uncertain, blood the color of water in which a fenugreek plant is soaked, or the color of the liquid that drips from roast meat. According to the first tanna of the mishna there are five types of blood that are definitely impure, whereas other types, such as those mentioned by Beit Shammai, are deemed impure due to uncertainty. By contrast, Beit Hillel maintain that blood of these colors is entirely pure.

讛讬专讜拽 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 诪讟诪讗 讜诇讬转 诇讬讛 诇注拽讘讬讗 讚诪讬讛 讚诪讬讛 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讗专讘注讛

搂 The mishna states: Blood that is green, Akavya ben Mahalalel deems it impure. The Gemara asks: But does Akavya ben Mahalalel not accept the exposition of Rabbi Abbahu that the two verses: Dameha (Leviticus 12:7), and: Dameha (Leviticus 20:18), indicate that there are four types of blood here?

讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讗讬转 诇讬讛 诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诪诇拽讗 讛讜讗 讚诇拽讬

The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that Akavya ben Mahalalel does not accept this opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, as he maintains that there are more than four types of blood in a woman. And if you wish, say instead that Akavya ben Mahalalel accepts Rabbi Abbahu鈥檚 exposition, and the apparent contradiction can be resolved as follows: Didn鈥檛 Rabbi 岣nina say, with regard to the black blood mentioned in the mishna, that it is actually red but its color has faded? Here too, with regard to the green mentioned by Akavya ben Mahalalel, one can say that it was initially red but its color faded and turned green.

讜讞讻诪讬诐 诪讟讛专讬谉 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讬谞讬讬讛讜 诇转诇讜转

搂 The mishna states with regard to blood that is green: And the Rabbis deem it pure. The Gemara asks: Isn鈥檛 this opinion of the Rabbis identical to the opinion of the first tanna? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them with regard to whether to leave in abeyance blood that is green. According to the first tanna of the mishna there are five types of blood that are definitely impure, whereas other types, such as green, are impure due to uncertainty. By contrast, the Rabbis maintain that green blood is entirely pure.

讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 讻讜壮

搂 The mishna states that Rabbi Meir said: Even if the green blood does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain or the blood of a menstruating woman, it is blood in that it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as one of the seven liquids that render food susceptible.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讬专讚 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇砖讬讟转 注拽讘讬讗 讘谉 诪讛诇诇讗诇 讜讟讬诪讗 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 谞讛讬 讚讛讬讻讗 讚拽讗 诪砖讻讞转 讻转诐 讬专讜拽 讗诪谞讗 诇讗 诪讟诪讗讬转讜 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 诪讙讜驻讛 转讟诪讗

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Rabbi Meir accepted the opinion of Akavya ben Mahalalel and deemed green blood impure as blood of a menstruating woman. And as for his statement in the mishna, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Granted that in a case where a woman finds a green stain on an article of clothing you do not deem her ritually impure, as its greenness is an indication that it did not come from her body. But in a case where she actually sees green blood come from her body, she shall be impure.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 讻转诐 诪讟诪讗 诪砖讜诐 诪砖拽讛 诪砖讜诐 专讜讗讛 诪讘注讬讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty with this interpretation: If so, why did Rabbi Meir say: Even if it does not transmit impurity due to the halakhot of a blood stain, it renders food susceptible to ritual impurity due to its status as a liquid? According to the above explanation, he should have said: If the woman saw the emission of this blood, she is impure as a menstruating woman.

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 谞讛讬 讛讬讻讗 讚拽讗 讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 诪注讬拽专讗 诇讗 诪讟诪讗讬转讜 讛讬讻讗 讚讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讗讚讜诐 讜讛讚专 讞讝讬讗 讚诐 讬专讜拽 转讟诪讗 诪讬讚讬 讚讛讜讛 讗诪砖拽讛 讝讘 讜讝讘讛

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Granted that in a case where the woman sees green blood from the outset you do not deem her ritually impure, but in a case where she sees red blood and then sees green blood, she shall be impure. This is just as it is with regard to the halakha of the fluids of a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav] and a woman who experiences a discharge of uterine blood after her menstrual period [zava]. All fluids emitted by a zav or zava, such as saliva and urine, are impure. Likewise, green blood that is emitted by this woman who has already emitted red blood should be impure.

讜专讘谞谉 讚讜诪讬讗 讚专讜拽 诪讛 专讜拽 砖诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 讗祝 讻诇 砖诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讛讗讬 讚讗讬谉 诪转注讙诇 讜讬讜爪讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara asks: And how would the Rabbis respond to this? The Gemara answers: They maintain that the impure fluids of a menstruating woman are only those that are similar to saliva: Just as when saliva leaves one鈥檚 mouth it is first gathered together and then expelled from the body, so too, all impure fluids are those that are gathered together and then expelled. This definition serves to exclude this green blood, which is not gathered together and expelled. The Gemara asks: If so, the Rabbis spoke well to Rabbi Meir, i.e., their answer is convincing. Why does Rabbi Meir deem green blood impure?

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 诇讛讜讬 讻诪砖拽讛 诇讛讻砖讬专 讗转 讛讝专注讬诐 讜专讘谞谉 讘注讬 讚诐 讞诇诇讬诐 讜诇讬讻讗 讗讬 讛讻讬 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Let green blood be at least like one of the seven liquids that render seeds upon which they fall susceptible to ritual impurity. Why is green blood deemed pure even with regard to this matter? And the Rabbis disagree because they require that every type of blood that renders food susceptible to ritual impurity be like that mentioned in the verse: 鈥淎nd drink the blood of the slain鈥 (Numbers 23:24), i.e., the blood that flows at the time of death; and green blood is not the type that flows at the time of death. Therefore, it does not render food susceptible to ritual impurity. The Gemara again asks: If so, the Rabbis spoke well to Rabbi Meir. Why does he disagree with them?

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗诇驻讜讛 讘讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 砖诇讞讬讱 驻专讚住 专诪讜谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讜砖诇讞 诪讬诐 注诇 驻谞讬 讞讜爪讜转

Rather, this is what Rabbi Meir was saying to the Rabbis: Learn this halakha that green blood renders food susceptible to ritual impurity from the following verbal analogy: It is written here, in a description of the beloved woman that alludes to her menstrual blood: 鈥淵our shoots [shela岣yikh] are an orchard of pomegranates鈥 (Song of Songs 4:13), and it is written there: 鈥淲ho gives rain upon the earth, and sends [veshole鈥檃岣] waters upon the fields鈥 (Job 5:10). This verbal analogy indicates that menstrual blood is similar to water in that both render food susceptible to ritual impurity.

讜专讘谞谉 讗讚诐 讚谉 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪注爪诪讜 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 讚谉 讙讝专讛 砖讜讛 诪注爪诪讜

And the Rabbis disagree with Rabbi Meir, as they do not have a tradition that this is an accepted verbal analogy, and there is a principle that although a person may derive an a fortiori inference on his own, i.e., even though he was not taught that particular logical argument by his teachers, a person may not derive a verbal analogy on his own, but only if he received it by tradition.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诇讗 讻讱 讜讻讜壮 讛讬讬谞讜 转谞讗 拽诪讗 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诪讗谉 转谞讗 拽诪讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 讚讘专 讘砖诐 讗讜诪专讜 诪讘讬讗 讙讗讜诇讛 诇注讜诇诐

搂 The mishna states that Rabbi Yosei says: Neither in this sense, as the blood of a menstruating woman according to Akavya ben Mahalalel, nor in that sense, as a liquid that renders food susceptible according to Rabbi Meir, is green blood considered blood. The Gemara raises a difficulty: Isn鈥檛 this the same as the opinion of the first tanna? The Gemara answers that this is what the mishna is teaching us: Who is the first tanna? Rabbi Yosei. And the reason Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 name is mentioned is due to the principle that anyone who reports a statement in the name of the one who said it brings redemption to the world.

讗讬讝讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 诪讗讬 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讚诐 砖讜专 砖讞讜讟

搂 The mishna states: What is the red color of blood that is impure? It is as red as the blood that flows from a wound. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: As the blood that flows from a wound? Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: Like the blood of a slaughtered ox.

讜诇讬诪讗 讻讚诐 砖讞讬讟讛 讗讬 讗诪专 讻讚诐 砖讞讬讟讛 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讻讻讜诇讛 砖讞讬讟讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讚诐 讛诪讻讛 讻转讞讬诇转 讛讻讗讛 砖诇 住讻讬谉

The Gemara inquires: But if so, let the tanna of the mishna say explicitly that it is as red as the blood of slaughter. The Gemara explains: If the tanna had said that it is as red as the blood of slaughter, I would say that it means as red as the blood that flows throughout the entire slaughter, and it would apply to the shades of all blood emitted during the process. Therefore, the tanna teaches us that it is as red as the blood that flows from a wound, i.e., as the blood that flows at the beginning of the slitting with the slaughtering knife.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻讚诐 爪驻讜专 讞讬讛 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讞讬讛 诇讗驻讜拽讬 砖讞讜讟 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讻讞讜砖 转讬拽讜

The Gemara cites other definitions of the color described in the mishna as: Red as the blood that flows from a wound. Ulla says: It is red like the blood that flows from a living bird that was wounded. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: When Ulla specified that the bird is living, did he mean that it was not dead, to exclude the blood of a slaughtered bird? Or perhaps he meant that the bird was healthy, to exclude the blood of a weak bird. No answer was found, and therefore the Gemara concludes that the dilemma shall stand unresolved.

讝注讬专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻讚诐 诪讗讻讜诇转 砖诇 专讗砖 诪讬转讬讘讬 讛专讙讛 诪讗讻讜诇转 讛专讬 讝讛 转讜诇讛 讘讛 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讚讻讜诇讬讛 讙讜驻讛 诇讗 讚专讗砖讛

The Gemara cites another definition: Ze鈥檈iri says that Rabbi 岣nina says: It is red like the blood that comes from a squashed head louse. The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna that discusses a stain found on a woman鈥檚 garment (58b): If a woman killed a louse and subsequently found a blood stain on her garment or body, this woman may attribute the stain to that louse, and she remains pure. The Gemara explains the objection: What, is it not correct to say that this is referring to a louse from all parts of her body, not just the head, as claimed by Rabbi 岣nina? If so, the color of impure blood is like the color of the blood of a louse from anywhere on the body. The Gemara answers: No; this halakha is referring specifically to a louse that was on her head.

讗诪讬 讜专讚讬谞讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讚诐 讗爪讘注 拽讟谞讛 砖诇 讬讚 砖谞讙驻讛 讜讞讬讬转讛 讜讞讝专讛 讜谞讙驻讛 讜诇讗 砖诇 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讗 砖诇 讘讞讜专 砖诇讗 谞砖讗 讗砖讛 讜注讚 讻诪讛 注讚 讘谉 注砖专讬诐

The Gemara cites yet another definition of the color described in the mishna as: Red as the blood that flows from a wound. The Sage Ami of Vardina says that Rabbi Abbahu says: It is red as the blood that flows from the smallest finger of the hand, which was wounded and later healed and was subsequently wounded again. And this is not referring to the finger of any person, but specifically to the finger of a young man who has not yet married a woman. And furthermore, this does not mean any young man; rather, until what age must he be? Until twenty years old.

诪讬转讬讘讬 转讜诇讛 讘讘谞讛 讜讘讘注诇讛 讘砖诇诪讗 讘讘谞讛 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛 讗诇讗 讘注诇讛 讛讬讻讬 诪砖讻讞转 诇讛

The Gemara raises an objection from the aforementioned mishna (58b): If the woman鈥檚 husband or son suffered an injury, she may attribute a blood stain she finds on her garment to her son or to her husband, and she remains pure. The Gemara analyzes this halakha: Granted, with regard to the ruling that she may attribute it to her son, you can find a case where this meets all the requirements specified by Rabbi Abbahu, i.e., he could be younger than twenty and unmarried. But with regard to the ruling that she may attribute it to her husband, how can you find a case where her husband is unmarried?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇讞讜驻讛 讜诇讗 谞讘注诇讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k says: It is possible in a case where this woman entered the marriage canopy but has not yet engaged in intercourse with her husband. In such a situation, although he is her husband he is physically akin to an unmarried young man. Therefore, she can attribute the blood stain to his wound.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 讻讚诐 讛拽讝讛 诪讬转讬讘讬 诪注砖讛 讜转诇讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Na岣an says: This red is like the blood spilled in the process of bloodletting. The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: An incident occurred involving a blood stain found on a woman鈥檚 garment, and Rabbi Meir attributed

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