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Today's Daf Yomi

November 12, 2019 | 讬状讚 讘诪专讞砖讜谉 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Niddah 20

The rabbis try to describe the different colors and shades – are shades also impure? In the time o fthe emoraim there were rabbis that were hesitant to pasken regarding colors are they were unsure of the differences between pure and impure colors.

转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讘拽讬诇讜专 讜专讘讬 转诇讛 讘砖专祝 砖拽诪讛 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讗讚讜诐

it to an eye salve [bekilor], which the woman had previously handled. And likewise, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed a stain to the sap of a sycamore tree the woman had touched. The Gemara explains the objection: What, is it not the case that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed red bloodstains to these causes because they are red, albeit not as red as blood? Evidently, the color of impure blood can be similar to such shades of red as well, which means that all these distinctions mentioned by the amora鈥檌m above are irrelevant.

诇讗 讗砖讗专 讚诪讬诐

The Gemara answers: No; Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed stains to an eye salve and the sap of a sycamore tree because those stains were like the other types of blood mentioned in the mishna.

讗诪讬诪专 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讜专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讛 讗讜诪谞讗 砖拽诇讬 诇讬讛 拽专谞讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诇讗诪讬诪专 讞讝讬讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讚转谞谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 砖拽诇讬 诇讬讛 讗讞专讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讙讜谉 讗谞讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讬谉 讛讗讬 诇讛讗讬 诇讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬 诇诪讞讝讬 讚诪讗

The Gemara relates that Ameimar and Mar Zutra and Rav Ashi were sitting before a bloodletter, to receive treatment. The bloodletter removed blood in a bloodletter鈥檚 horn from Ameimar for his first treatment. Ameimar saw the blood and said to his colleagues: The red color that we learned about in the mishna is like this blood in the horn. The bloodletter again removed blood from Ameimar, this time using another horn. Upon seeing the blood in this horn, Ameimar said to them: The color of this blood has changed compared to the blood in the first horn. Rav Ashi, who saw both types of blood, said: Any Sage such as myself, as I do not know how to distinguish between this blood and that blood, should not see, i.e., examine, different types of blood to issue a ruling as to whether they are pure or impure.

砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讞专转 砖讗诪专讜 讚讬讜 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 讜砖讞讜专 砖讗诪专讜 讚讬讜 讜诇讬诪讗 讚讬讜 讗讬 讗诪专 讚讬讜 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讻讬 驻讻讞讜转讗 讚讚讬讜转讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬 讞专讜转讗 讚讚讬讜转讗

搂 The mishna teaches: What is the black color that is impure? It is blood as black as 岣ret. Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This 岣ret of which the Sages spoke is ink. The Gemara notes that this opinion is also taught in a baraita: This black color is like 岣ret, and the black of which the Sages spoke is ink. The Gemara asks: But if so, why does the tanna of this baraita mention both terms? Let him say simply: Ink. The Gemara explains: If the tanna had said only: Ink, I would say that he means that it is like the clear part of the ink, i.e., the upper portion of ink in an inkwell, which is very bright. Therefore, the tanna of the baraita teaches us that it is like the blackness [岣ruta] of the ink, the lower part of the inkwell, which is darker.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘诇讞讛 讗讜 讘讬讘砖转讗 转讗 砖诪注 讚专讘讬 讗诪讬 驻诇讬 拽讜专讟讗 讚讚讬讜转讗 讜讘讚讬拽 讘讛

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: To which type of 岣ret were the Sages referring? Were they referring to moist or dry 岣ret? Come and hear a resolution from a practical ruling, as when black blood was brought before Rabbi Ami he would break up pieces of dried ink and examine blood with it.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻拽讬专 讻讚讬讜 讜讻注谞讘 讟诪讗讛 讜讝讜讛讬 砖砖谞讬谞讜 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讝讬转 讻讝驻转 讜讻注讜专讘 讟讛讜专 讜讝讜讛讬 砖砖谞讬谞讜 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专

搂 The mishna states that if the blackness of the blood is deeper than ink, it is impure, whereas if it is lighter it is pure. In this regard, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: If a woman saw blood whose color was like black wax [kekir] or like black ink or like a black grape, she is ritually impure. And this is the meaning of that which we learned in the mishna: If the black is deeper than that, it is ritually impure. Rabbi Elazar says: If a woman saw blood whose color was like a black olive, or like black tar, or like a black raven, this blood is pure. And this is the meaning of that which we learned in the mishna: If the black is lighter than that, it is ritually pure.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讘讜砖讗 住讬讜讗讛 注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讟讬讬注讗 讚诇讘讜砖 诇讘讜砖讗 讗讜讻诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖讞讜专 讚转谞谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 诪专讟讜 诪讬谞讬讛 驻讜专转讗 驻讜专转讗 讬讛讘讜 讘讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬

Ulla says: When the mishna states that black blood is impure, it means like the garments of the inhabitants of Siva鈥檃, which were extremely black. The Gemara relates that when Ulla happened to go to Pumbedita, he saw a certain Arab [tayya鈥檃] who was dressed in a black garment. Ulla said to the Sages of Pumbedita: The black color that we learned about in the mishna is like this color. Since people wanted a sample of the shade of blood mentioned in the mishna, they tore the Arab鈥檚 garment from him bit by bit, and in recompense they gave him four hundred dinars.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗诇讜 讻诇讬诐 讛讗讜诇讬讬专讬谉 讛讘讗讬诐 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讜讻诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讛讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讘谞讬讜 讘谞讬 讗诇 转拽讘专讜谞讬 诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 砖诪讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讛讬讛 讻讗讘诇 讘讬谉 讛讞转谞讬诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖诪讗 诇讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讛讬讛 讻讞转谉 讘讬谉 讛讗讘诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 讛讗讜诇讬讬专讬谉 讛讘讗讬诐 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The black blood that the mishna says is impure is like these cloths of the bath attendants [haolyarin] who come from overseas. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that these are black cloths? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yannai say to his sons: My sons, do not bury me in black cloths nor in white cloths. Not in black, lest I be acquitted in judgment and I will be among the righteous like a mourner among the grooms. And not in white, lest I not be acquitted in judgment and I will be among the wicked like a groom among the mourners. Rather, bury me in the cloths of the bath attendants who come from overseas, which are neither black nor white. Apparently, these cloths of the bath attendants are not black.

讗诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜讻诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讙诇讬诪讗 讛讗 讘驻转讜专讗

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as a distinction can be made. When Rabbi Yannai indicates that they are not black, that is referring to a regular garment, whereas with regard to the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan that indicates that they are black, that is referring to a cloth placed on an item such as a table or a bed.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讻讜诇诐 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟诇讬转 诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讜讚讬诪讬 讜砖讞讜专 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讚讜诐

搂 With regard to the examination of the five types of blood mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: And with regard to all of them, in their various shades, one examines them only when they are placed on a white linen cloth, as only in this fashion can one properly discern the precise color of the blood. Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi says: And in the case of black blood, one must place it on a red linen cloth.

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 诪讚驻转讬 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘砖讞讜专 讛讗 讘砖讗专 讚诪讬诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬 讛讻讬 诇讬诪讗 砖诪讜讗诇 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘砖讞讜专 讙讜驻讬讛 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬

Rav Yirmeya of Difti says: And Shmuel and Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi do not disagree, as this statement of Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi is referring specifically to black blood, whereas that ruling of Shmuel that one must use a white cloth is referring to the other four types of blood listed in the mishna. Rav Ashi objects to this interpretation: If so, let Shmuel say: With regard to all of them except for black, one examines them only when they are placed on a white linen cloth. Rather, Rav Ashi says: Shmuel and Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi disagree with regard to black blood itself, whether it should be examined against the background of a white or a red cloth.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讻砖讞讜专

Ulla says: With regard to all of these five types of blood enumerated in the mishna, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna the blood is ritually impure; if it is lighter than it, the blood is ritually pure, as explicitly stated in the mishna with regard to black.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 砖讞讜专 讚谞拽讟 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讬诇讻讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 谞诪讬 诇讬讟诪讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: But if so, what is different about black, that the mishna mentions this halakha only with regard to that color? The Gemara answers: The reason is that it might enter your mind to say that since Rabbi 岣nina says: The black blood mentioned in the mishna is actually red but its color has faded, therefore, even if it is lighter than that which is described in the mishna, it should also be impure. Consequently, the mishna teaches us that even with regard to black blood, if the color is lighter than the shade mentioned in the mishna, it is pure.

专讘讬 讗诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 谞诪讬 讟诪讗 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讛谞讬 砖讬注讜专讬讛 讚专讘谞谉 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讚讬讛讛 讚讚讬讛讛

Rabbi Ami bar Abba says: And with regard to all of these five types of blood, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna, the blood is ritually impure; if it is lighter than that which is described in the mishna, it is also ritually impure, except for black, which is pure if it is lighter. The Gemara asks: But if these types of blood, except for black, are impure whether they are deeper or lighter than the specific shade described in the mishna, what purpose do the measures specified by the Sages in the mishna serve? The Gemara answers that these descriptions are to the exclusion of a color that is lighter than lighter, i.e., the color is so faint that it does not qualify as impure blood.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讜诇讛讻讬 诪讛谞讬 砖讬注讜专讬讛 讚专讘谞谉

And there are those who say a different version of the above statement. Rami bar Abba says: And with regard to all of these five types of blood, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna, it is ritually pure; if it is lighter than that, it is also ritually pure, except for black, which is impure if it is deeper. And for this reason the measures, i.e., descriptions, of the Sages are effective, as any discrepancy from these descriptions means that the blood is pure.

讘专 拽驻专讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪诪讝讙 砖注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讚讬讛讜 诇讬讛 讜讚讻讬 讗注诪讬拽讜 诇讬讛 讜讚讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻诪讛 谞驻讬砖 讙讘专讗 讚诇讘讬讛 讻诪砖诪注转讬讛

Bar Kappara says: And with regard to all of them, if the color is deeper than that, the blood is impure; if it is lighter than that, it is pure, except for blood the color of diluted wine, with regard to which if the color is deeper than that, the blood is pure, and if it is lighter than that, it is also pure. The Gemara relates that in an effort to test bar Kappara, the Sages brought before him blood that had the appearance of diluted wine and they lightened it, and bar Kappara deemed it pure. On another occasion they deepened the color of blood that looked like diluted wine, and again bar Kappara deemed it pure. Rabbi 岣nina says in astonishment: How great is this man whose heart, which is so sensitive it can distinguish between such similar shades of blood, is in accordance with his ruling of halakha.

讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 转谞讗 诇讞 讜诇讗 讬讘砖

搂 The mishna teaches, with regard to the colors of impure blood: And what is the color that is like the bright color of the crocus flower that is impure? It is like the brightest part of the flower, which is used to produce the orange-colored spice saffron. The Sages taught: This is referring to the appearance of moist saffron that is still fresh and not to its dry counterpart.

转谞讬 讞讚讗 讻转讞转讜谉 诇讗 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜诇讗 讻转讞转讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讻转讞转讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻转讞转讜谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讻注诇讬讜谉

With regard to this color, it is taught in one baraita that it is like the lower part of the crocus flower, not like its upper part; and it is taught in another baraita that it is like the upper part of the flower and not like its lower part; and it is taught in another baraita that it is like its upper part, and all the more so blood whose color is like its lower part is impure; and it is taught in yet another baraita that it is like its lower part, and all the more so blood whose color is like its upper part is impure.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转诇转讗 讚专讬 讜转诇转讗 讟专驻谉 讛讜讬讬谉

Abaye says that these baraitot do not contradict one another, as the crocus has three layers of the brightly colored parts of the crocus flower harvested for saffron, one above the other, and in each layer there are three leaves, i.e., styles or stigmata.

谞拽讜讟 讚专讗 诪爪讬注讗讛 讜讟专驻讗 诪爪讬注转讗 讘讬讚讱

In order to examine blood whose color is similar to saffron, you should grasp the middle leaf of the middle layer in your hand and compare it to the blood. If they are similar, the blood is impure. Consequently, the four baraitot do not contradict one another: The first two baraitot are referring to the layer of leaves that must be examined. The first baraita says that it is the lower one, as the middle layer is lower than the upper one, while the second baraita states the reverse because the middle layer is higher than the lower one. Meanwhile, the last two baraitot are dealing with the leaves within the middle layer. The baraita that states: Like its lower part, and all the more so like its upper part, means: Like the lowest of the three leaves and all the more so like the middle leaf, which is above that leaf, while the other baraita states a similar idea with regard to the upper and middle leaves. In any event, all four baraitot are referring to the part of the crocus flower that is called by the mishna its brightest part.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讙讜砖讬讬讛讜 砖谞讬谞讜

The Gemara relates: When people would come before Rabbi Abbahu for him to examine blood whose color was similar to saffron, he would say to them: We learned that the mishna is referring specifically to crocus flowers that are still in their clumps of earth in which they grew, as once they are detached from that earth their color changes.

讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘讬讗 讗讚诪讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪爪讬祝 注诇讬讛 诪讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪讘拽注转 讬讜讚驻转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪讘拽注转 住讻谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪讘拽注转 讙谞讜住专 讜讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉

搂 The mishna states: And what is the color that is like water that inundates red earth that is impure? In this regard the Sages taught in a baraita: In order to examine blood that is like water that inundates red earth, one brings fertile earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and one inundates the earth with enough water until it pools on the surface; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Akiva says: One brings earth from the Yodfat Valley. Rabbi Yosei says: From the Sikhnei Valley. Rabbi Shimon says: One can even bring earth from the Genosar Valley or from similar places.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘讬讗 讗讚诪讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪爪讬祝 注诇讬讛 诪讬诐 讻拽诇讬驻转 讛砖讜诐 讜讗讬谉 砖讬注讜专 诇诪讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬谉 砖讬注讜专 诇注驻专 讜讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转谉 爪诇讜诇讬谉 讗诇讗 注讻讜专讬谉 爪诇诇讜 讞讜讝专 讜注讜讻专谉 讜讻砖讛讜讗 注讜讻专谉 讗讬谉 注讜讻专谉 讘讬讚 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬

It is taught in another baraita: And to test whether blood is like water that inundates red earth, one brings fertile earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and one inundates the earth with an amount of water that rises above the earth by the thickness of the husk of garlic. And there is no required measure for the water, because there is no required measure for the earth with which the examination must be performed; it is sufficient to use a small amount of earth with a small amount of water. And one does not examine it when the water is clear, as it does not have the color of the earth, but rather when it is muddy from the earth. And if the water became clear because the earth settled, one must muddy it again. And when one muddies it he does not muddy it by hand but rather with a vessel.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗讬谉 注讜讻专讬谉 讗讜转谉 讘讬讚 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬 讚诇讗 诇专诪讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讜诇注讻专讬谞讛讜 讗讘诇 讘诪谞讗 讻讬 注讻专 诇讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讚诇讗 诇注讻专讬谞讛讜 讘讬讚讬讛 讗诇讗 讘诪谞讗

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Does the statement that one does not muddy it by hand but rather with a vessel mean that one should not put the dirt into his hand and muddy the water with dirt in his hand, but in a case where the earth is in a vessel, when one muddies it by mixing the earth and water with his hand one may well do so? Or perhaps the baraita means that even when the earth is in a vessel one should not muddy the water by mixing it with earth with his hand, but rather with a vessel?

转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讛讜讗 讘讜讚拽谉 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽谉 讗诇讗 讘讻讜住 讜注讚讬讬谉 转讘注讬 诇讱 讘讚讬拽讛 讘讻讜住 注讻讬专讛 讘诪讗讬 转讬拽讜

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a baraita: When one examines this water, he examines it only with a cup. Evidently, it is necessary to use a vessel. The Gemara rejects this proof: But you still have a dilemma. This baraita merely states that the examination must be performed while the water is in a cup, but with what is the muddying performed? Must this be done by means of a vessel alone, or may one use his hand as well? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘诪拽讜诪讛 砖谞讬谞讜 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 驻诇讬 拽讜专讟讗 讚讙专讙砖转讗 讜讘讚讬拽 讘讬讛 诇讬讬讟 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讗住讻专讛

搂 The Gemara relates: When people would come before Rabba bar Avuh to examine blood that is similar to water that inundates red earth, he would say to them: We learned that the examination must be conducted in its place, i.e., the location the earth was taken from. But if the earth was transported elsewhere, the examination is no longer effective. The Gemara further relates that Rabbi 岣nina would break up a clump of earth and examine with it, without mixing it in water. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, would curse anyone who used this method that they should be punished with diphtheria.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞讻讬诐 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讞讻讬诪讬 讛讻讬

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, explained: It is only Rabbi 岣nina who is permitted to examine the blood in this fashion, as he is wise, but everyone else is not so wise that they can successfully perform the examination without water.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞讻诪转讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚诇讗 讗讞讝讬 讚诪讗 诪讟诪讬谞讗 诪讟讛专 诪讟讛专谞讗 诪讟诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚讞讝讗讬 讚诪讗 讜诪讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚注谞讜转谉 讛讜讗 诪讞讬转 谞驻砖讬讛 诇住驻拽 讜讞讝讬 讗谞讗 诇讗 讗讞讝讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 wisdom causes me not to see blood for a halakhic examination. When I would examine blood and deem it impure, he would deem it pure, and when I would deem it pure, he would deem it impure. Conversely, Rabbi Elazar says: Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 humility causes me to see blood, as I reason to myself: If Rabbi 岣nina, who is humble, places himself into a situation of uncertainty and sees various types of blood to determine their status, should I, who am not nearly as humble, not see blood for an examination?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讟讘注讗 讚讘讘诇 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚诇讗 讞讝讗讬 讚诪讗 讚讗诪讬谞讗 讘讟讘注讗 诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讚诪讗 讬讚注谞讗

Rabbi Zeira says: The complex nature of the residents of Babylonia causes me not to see blood for a halakhic examination, as I say to myself: Even matters involving the complex nature of people I do not know; can I then claim that I know about matters of blood?

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讘讟讘注讗 转诇讬讗 诪诇转讗 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注 讘讟讘注讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讘讚诪讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 拽讗诪专 讜诪讛 专讘讛 讚讬讚注 讘讟讘注讗 诇讗 讞讝讗 讚诪讗 讜讗谞讗 讗讞讝讬

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that the matter of the appearance of blood is dependent on the nature of people, i.e., that it changes in accordance with their nature? But Rabba is an example of someone who knew about the complex nature of the people of Babylonia, and yet he did not know how to distinguish between different types of blood. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira took this factor into account and said to himself: All the more so; if Rabba, who knew about the complex nature of these people, nevertheless would not see blood, should I, who am unknowledgeable about the nature of these people, see blood for examination?

注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讗讬讬转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪讗 讜诇讗 讞讝讗 讗诪专 讜诪讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讻讬 诪拽诇注 诇讗转专讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讞讝讬 讚诪讗 讗谞讗 讗讞讝讬

The Gemara relates that Ulla happened to come to Pumbedita, where they brought blood before him for an examination, but he would not see it, as he said: If Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom, when he would happen to come to the locale of Rabbi Yehuda, he would not see blood, shall I see blood here?

讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讛讛讬讗 讗转转讗 讚讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘讬 讗诪讬 拽诪讬讛 讗专讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 讛讗讬 讚诐 讞讬诪讜讚 讛讜讗 讘转专 讚谞驻拽讛 讗讟驻诇 诇讛 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讘注诇讬 讛讬讛 讘讚专讱 讜讞诪讚转讬讜 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 住讜讚 讛壮 诇讬专讗讬讜

The Gemara asks: And why would they call Rabbi Elazar the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom? The Gemara explains that there was an incident involving a certain woman who brought blood before Rabbi Elazar for examination, and Rabbi Ami was sitting before him. Rabbi Ami observed that Rabbi Elazar smelled the blood and said to the woman: This is blood of desire, i.e., your desire for your husband caused you to emit this blood, and it is not the blood of menstruation. After the woman left Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 presence, Rabbi Ami caught up with her and inquired into the circumstances of her case. She said to him: My husband was absent on a journey, and I desired him. Rabbi Ami read the following verse about Rabbi Elazar: 鈥淭he counsel of the Lord is with those who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know it鈥 (Psalms 25:14), i.e., God reveals secret matters to those who fear Him.

讗驻专讗 讛讜专诪讬讝 讗诪讬讛 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 砖讚专讛 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 注讜讘讚讬讛 拽诪讬讛 讗专讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 讛讗讬 讚诐 讞讬诪讜讚 讛讜讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 转讗 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讞讻讬诪讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讚诇诪讗 讻住讜诪讗 讘讗专讜讘讛

The Gemara further relates that Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, sent blood before Rava for examination, as she sought to convert and was practicing the halakhot of menstruation. At that time Rav Ovadya was sitting before Rava. Rav Ovadya observed that Rava smelled the blood and later said to the woman: This is blood of desire. She said to her son: Come and see how wise the Jews are, as Rava is correct. Her son said to her: Perhaps Rava was like a blind man who escapes from a chimney, i.e., it was a lucky guess.

讛讚专 砖讚专讛 诇讬讛 砖转讬谉 诪讬谞讬 讚诪讗 讜讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专讬谞讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讘转专讗 讚诐 讻谞讬诐 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讗住转讬讬注 诪讬诇转讗 讜砖讚专 诇讛 住专讬拽讜转讗 讚诪拽讟诇讗 讻诇诪讬 讗诪专讛 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讘转讜讜谞讬 讚诇讘讗 讬转讘讬转讜

Ifera Hurmiz then sent Rava sixty different types of blood, some impure and others pure, and with regard to all of them Rava accurately told her their origin. The Gemara adds: That last sample of blood sent by Ifera Hurmiz was blood of lice, and Rava did not know what it was. He received support in this matter in the form of heavenly guidance, as he unwittingly sent her as a gift a comb for killing lice. She said in exclamation: Jews, you must dwell in the chamber of people鈥檚 hearts.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪专讬砖讗 讛讜讛 讞讝讬谞讗 讚诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诪讬讛 讚讬爪讞拽 讘专讬 讛讗讬 讟讬驻转讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诇讗 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 诇讛 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚讝讛讬诪讗 诇讗 讞讝讬谞讗

搂 The Gemara cites more statements of the Sages with regard to the examination of blood. Rav Yehuda says: At first I would see blood, i.e., perform examinations of blood, but I changed my conduct when the mother of my son Yitz岣k, i.e., my wife, said to me that she acts as follows: With regard to this first drop of blood that I see, I do not bring it before the Sages, because it is not pristine blood, i.e., other substances are mixed with it. After hearing this, I decided I would no longer see blood, as it is possible that the first drop, which I do not get to see, was impure.

讘讬谉 讟诪讗讛 诇讟讛讜专讛 讜讚讗讬 讞讝讬谞讗

Rav Yehuda continues: But with regard to the examination of blood that a woman who gave birth emitted after the completion of her days of purity, i.e., at least forty days after giving birth to a male, or eighty after giving birth to a female (see Leviticus, chapter 12), in order to determine whether she is ritually impure or pure, I certainly see this blood and determine her status based on its color. This blood is clean, as the woman has been bleeding for a long period of time.

讬诇转讗 讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讟诪讬 诇讛 讛讚专 讗讬讬转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讚讻讬 诇讛

搂 The Gemara relates that Yalta, Rav Na岣an鈥檚 wife, brought blood before Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he deemed her ritually impure. She then brought it before Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure.

讜讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞讻诐 砖讟讬诪讗 讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讟讛专 讗住专 讗讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讛转讬专

The Gemara asks: But how could Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, act in this manner? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: In the case of a halakhic authority who deemed an item impure, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it pure; if one halakhic authority deemed a matter prohibited, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it permitted?

诪注讬拽专讗 讟诪讜讬讬 讛讜讛 诪讟诪讬 诇讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪讚讻讬 诇讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜谞讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞砖 讘注讬谞讬讛 讚讻讬 诇讛

The Gemara explains that initially Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her impure, but he changed his mind when Yalta said to him: Every day that I bring blood of this kind of color to Rabba bar bar 岣na he deems me pure, and specifically now he issued a different ruling, as he feels pain in his eye. Upon hearing this, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her pure.

讜诪讬 诪讛讬诪谞讬 讗讬谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 讻讝讛 专讗讬转讬 讜讗讘讚转讬讜

The Gemara asks: But are people deemed credible to present claims such as the one presented by Yalta? The Gemara answers: Yes; and likewise it is taught in a baraita: A woman is deemed credible if she says: I saw blood like this color, but I lost it before it could be examined.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讻讝讛 讟讬讛专 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 讞讻诐 诪讛讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If a woman states to her friend who showed her blood: My blood, which has an appearance like this, so-and-so, the halakhic authority, deemed it pure, what is the halakha? Is she deemed credible concerning its status?

转讗 砖诪注 谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 讻讝讛 专讗讬转讬 讜讗讘讚转讬讜 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚诇讬转讬讛 诇拽诪讛

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from the baraita cited above: A woman is deemed credible if she says: I saw blood like this color, but I lost it. This demonstrates that a woman may issue claims of this kind. The Gemara rejects this proof: There it is different, as in that case the blood is not before her, and therefore the Sages were lenient. But here, the woman鈥檚 friend can take her blood to a halakhic authority for examination.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讬诇转讗 讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讟诪讬 诇讛 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讚讻讬 诇讛 讜讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞讻诐 砖讟讬诪讗 讗讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讟讛专 讜讻讜壮

The Gemara further suggests: Come and hear the incident cited above, as Yalta brought blood before Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he deemed her ritually impure; she then brought it before Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. And the Gemara asked: How could Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, act in this manner? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: In the case of a halakhic authority who deemed an item impure, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it pure?

讜讗诪专讬谞谉 讟诪讜讬讬 讛讜讛 诪讟诪讬 诇讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讚讻讬 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜谞讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞砖 讘注讬谞讬讛 讛讚专 讚讻讬 诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诪讛讬诪谞讗 诇讛

And we say in response that initially Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her impure, but he changed his mind when she said to him that every day that she brings blood of this kind of color to Rabba bar bar 岣na he deems her pure, and specifically now he issued a different ruling, as he feels pain in his eye. The Gemara summarizes: The conclusion of the story was that upon hearing this, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, then deemed her pure. Evidently, when a woman issues claims with regard to blood that is presented, we deem her claims credible.

专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讙诪专讬讛 住诪讱

The Gemara answers: That incident does not provide proof, as Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, relied on his studies in his lenient ruling. At first, he was reluctant to issue his ruling, in deference to Rabba bar bar 岣na, who had said the blood was impure. But when he heard Yalta鈥檚 explanation he deemed the blood pure, as he had originally thought. Therefore, there is no proof from there that a woman鈥檚 statements of this kind are accepted.

专讘讬 专讗讛 讚诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讟讬诪讗 专讗讛 讘讬讜诐 讜讟讬讛专 讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讟讬诪讗 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖诪讗 讟注讬转讬

搂 The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once saw a woman鈥檚 blood at night and deemed it impure. He again saw that blood in the day, after it had dried, and deemed it pure. He waited one hour and then deemed it impure again. It is assumed that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not conduct another examination at this point; rather, he reasoned that the previous night鈥檚 examination had been correct, and the blood鈥檚 color should be deemed impure because of how it had looked when it was moist. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then said: Woe is me! Perhaps I erred by declaring the blood impure, as based on its color it should be pure.

砖诪讗 讟注讬转讬 讜讚讗讬 讟注讛 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讞讻诐 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 诇讞 讛讬讛 讜讚讗讬 讟诪讗

The Gemara questions this statement: Perhaps I erred? He certainly erred, as it is taught in a baraita that a halakhic authority may not say: If the blood were moist it would certainly have been impure, and yet here, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deemed the blood impure based on that type of reasoning.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讚讬讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讛 砖注讬谞讬讜 专讜讗讜转 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讞讝拽讬讛 讘讟诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 诇爪驻专讗 讚讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 (诇讬讛) 讜讚讗讬 讟讛讜专 讛讜讛 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讗转讞讝讬 砖驻讬专 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 讚讛讚专 讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 讛讗讬 讟诪讗 讛讜讗 讜诪驻讻讞 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪驻讻讞 讜讗讝讬诇

The Gemara explains that the incident did not unfold as initially assumed. Rather, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi examined the blood three times, as he said: A judge has only what his eyes see as the basis for his ruling. Initially, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi established the presumptive status of the blood as ritually impure, but when he saw in the morning that its color had changed, he said: It was definitely pure last night as well, and only because it was at night I thought that it was impure, because it could not be seen well. Subsequently, when he saw after a short while that its color again changed, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: This blood is impure, and it is gradually becoming lighter as its color fades.

专讘讬 讘讚讬拽 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住祝 讘讚讬拽 讘讬讜诐 讛诪注讜谞谉 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗诪讬 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讻讜诇谉 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转谉 讗诇讗 讘讬谉 讞诪讛 诇爪诇 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讘讞诪讛 讜讘爪诇 讬讚讜

With regard to the manner in which the Sages would examine blood, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would examine blood by candlelight. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosef, would examine blood between the pillars of the study hall even on a cloudy day, despite the fact that it was not very light there. Rav Ami bar Shmuel says: And in all these cases, one examines blood only between sunlight and shade. Rav Na岣an says that Rabba bar Avuh says: One stands in a place lit by the sun, and he conducts the examination under the shadow of his hand, i.e., he places his hand over the blood. In this manner the color of the blood can be best discerned.

讜讻诪讝讜讙 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 讻讜壮 转谞讗

搂 The mishna states: And what is the color that is like diluted wine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of two parts water and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael. The Sages taught in a baraita:

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Niddah 20

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 20

讘拽讬诇讜专 讜专讘讬 转诇讛 讘砖专祝 砖拽诪讛 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讗讗讚讜诐

it to an eye salve [bekilor], which the woman had previously handled. And likewise, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed a stain to the sap of a sycamore tree the woman had touched. The Gemara explains the objection: What, is it not the case that Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed red bloodstains to these causes because they are red, albeit not as red as blood? Evidently, the color of impure blood can be similar to such shades of red as well, which means that all these distinctions mentioned by the amora鈥檌m above are irrelevant.

诇讗 讗砖讗专 讚诪讬诐

The Gemara answers: No; Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi attributed stains to an eye salve and the sap of a sycamore tree because those stains were like the other types of blood mentioned in the mishna.

讗诪讬诪专 讜诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讜专讘 讗砖讬 讛讜讜 讬转讘讬 拽诪讬讛 讗讜诪谞讗 砖拽诇讬 诇讬讛 拽专谞讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诇讗诪讬诪专 讞讝讬讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讚讜诐 讚转谞谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 砖拽诇讬 诇讬讛 讗讞专讬转讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讻讙讜谉 讗谞讗 讚诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讬谉 讛讗讬 诇讛讗讬 诇讗 诪讘注讬 诇讬 诇诪讞讝讬 讚诪讗

The Gemara relates that Ameimar and Mar Zutra and Rav Ashi were sitting before a bloodletter, to receive treatment. The bloodletter removed blood in a bloodletter鈥檚 horn from Ameimar for his first treatment. Ameimar saw the blood and said to his colleagues: The red color that we learned about in the mishna is like this blood in the horn. The bloodletter again removed blood from Ameimar, this time using another horn. Upon seeing the blood in this horn, Ameimar said to them: The color of this blood has changed compared to the blood in the first horn. Rav Ashi, who saw both types of blood, said: Any Sage such as myself, as I do not know how to distinguish between this blood and that blood, should not see, i.e., examine, different types of blood to issue a ruling as to whether they are pure or impure.

砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讞专转 砖讗诪专讜 讚讬讜 转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 砖讞讜专 讻讞专转 讜砖讞讜专 砖讗诪专讜 讚讬讜 讜诇讬诪讗 讚讬讜 讗讬 讗诪专 讚讬讜 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讻讬 驻讻讞讜转讗 讚讚讬讜转讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讻讬 讞专讜转讗 讚讚讬讜转讗

搂 The mishna teaches: What is the black color that is impure? It is blood as black as 岣ret. Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This 岣ret of which the Sages spoke is ink. The Gemara notes that this opinion is also taught in a baraita: This black color is like 岣ret, and the black of which the Sages spoke is ink. The Gemara asks: But if so, why does the tanna of this baraita mention both terms? Let him say simply: Ink. The Gemara explains: If the tanna had said only: Ink, I would say that he means that it is like the clear part of the ink, i.e., the upper portion of ink in an inkwell, which is very bright. Therefore, the tanna of the baraita teaches us that it is like the blackness [岣ruta] of the ink, the lower part of the inkwell, which is darker.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讘诇讞讛 讗讜 讘讬讘砖转讗 转讗 砖诪注 讚专讘讬 讗诪讬 驻诇讬 拽讜专讟讗 讚讚讬讜转讗 讜讘讚讬拽 讘讛

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: To which type of 岣ret were the Sages referring? Were they referring to moist or dry 岣ret? Come and hear a resolution from a practical ruling, as when black blood was brought before Rabbi Ami he would break up pieces of dried ink and examine blood with it.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻拽讬专 讻讚讬讜 讜讻注谞讘 讟诪讗讛 讜讝讜讛讬 砖砖谞讬谞讜 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讻讝讬转 讻讝驻转 讜讻注讜专讘 讟讛讜专 讜讝讜讛讬 砖砖谞讬谞讜 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专

搂 The mishna states that if the blackness of the blood is deeper than ink, it is impure, whereas if it is lighter it is pure. In this regard, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: If a woman saw blood whose color was like black wax [kekir] or like black ink or like a black grape, she is ritually impure. And this is the meaning of that which we learned in the mishna: If the black is deeper than that, it is ritually impure. Rabbi Elazar says: If a woman saw blood whose color was like a black olive, or like black tar, or like a black raven, this blood is pure. And this is the meaning of that which we learned in the mishna: If the black is lighter than that, it is ritually pure.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讻诇讘讜砖讗 住讬讜讗讛 注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讟讬讬注讗 讚诇讘讜砖 诇讘讜砖讗 讗讜讻诪讗 讗诪专 诇讛讜 砖讞讜专 讚转谞谉 讻讬 讛讗讬 诪专讟讜 诪讬谞讬讛 驻讜专转讗 驻讜专转讗 讬讛讘讜 讘讬讛 讗专讘注 诪讗讛 讝讜讝讬

Ulla says: When the mishna states that black blood is impure, it means like the garments of the inhabitants of Siva鈥檃, which were extremely black. The Gemara relates that when Ulla happened to go to Pumbedita, he saw a certain Arab [tayya鈥檃] who was dressed in a black garment. Ulla said to the Sages of Pumbedita: The black color that we learned about in the mishna is like this color. Since people wanted a sample of the shade of blood mentioned in the mishna, they tore the Arab鈥檚 garment from him bit by bit, and in recompense they gave him four hundred dinars.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗诇讜 讻诇讬诐 讛讗讜诇讬讬专讬谉 讛讘讗讬诐 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讗讜讻诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讛讗诪专 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讘谞讬讜 讘谞讬 讗诇 转拽讘专讜谞讬 诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 讜诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖讞讜专讬诐 砖诪讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讛讬讛 讻讗讘诇 讘讬谉 讛讞转谞讬诐 诇讘谞讬诐 砖诪讗 诇讗 讗讝讻讛 讜讗讛讬讛 讻讞转谉 讘讬谉 讛讗讘诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬诐 讛讗讜诇讬讬专讬谉 讛讘讗讬诐 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: The black blood that the mishna says is impure is like these cloths of the bath attendants [haolyarin] who come from overseas. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that these are black cloths? But didn鈥檛 Rabbi Yannai say to his sons: My sons, do not bury me in black cloths nor in white cloths. Not in black, lest I be acquitted in judgment and I will be among the righteous like a mourner among the grooms. And not in white, lest I not be acquitted in judgment and I will be among the wicked like a groom among the mourners. Rather, bury me in the cloths of the bath attendants who come from overseas, which are neither black nor white. Apparently, these cloths of the bath attendants are not black.

讗诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜讻诪讬 谞讬谞讛讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讙诇讬诪讗 讛讗 讘驻转讜专讗

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as a distinction can be made. When Rabbi Yannai indicates that they are not black, that is referring to a regular garment, whereas with regard to the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan that indicates that they are black, that is referring to a cloth placed on an item such as a table or a bed.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讻讜诇诐 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗诇讗 注诇 讙讘讬 诪讟诇讬转 诇讘谞讛 讗诪专 专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讗讘讜讚讬诪讬 讜砖讞讜专 注诇 讙讘讬 讗讚讜诐

搂 With regard to the examination of the five types of blood mentioned in the mishna, Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: And with regard to all of them, in their various shades, one examines them only when they are placed on a white linen cloth, as only in this fashion can one properly discern the precise color of the blood. Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi says: And in the case of black blood, one must place it on a red linen cloth.

讗诪专 专讘 讬专诪讬讛 诪讚驻转讬 讜诇讗 驻诇讬讙讬 讛讗 讘砖讞讜专 讛讗 讘砖讗专 讚诪讬诐 诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬 讛讻讬 诇讬诪讗 砖诪讜讗诇 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讘砖讞讜专 讙讜驻讬讛 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬

Rav Yirmeya of Difti says: And Shmuel and Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi do not disagree, as this statement of Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi is referring specifically to black blood, whereas that ruling of Shmuel that one must use a white cloth is referring to the other four types of blood listed in the mishna. Rav Ashi objects to this interpretation: If so, let Shmuel say: With regard to all of them except for black, one examines them only when they are placed on a white linen cloth. Rather, Rav Ashi says: Shmuel and Rav Yitz岣k bar Avudimi disagree with regard to black blood itself, whether it should be examined against the background of a white or a red cloth.

讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讻砖讞讜专

Ulla says: With regard to all of these five types of blood enumerated in the mishna, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna the blood is ritually impure; if it is lighter than it, the blood is ritually pure, as explicitly stated in the mishna with regard to black.

讜讗诇讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 砖讞讜专 讚谞拽讟 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 砖讞讜专 讗讚讜诐 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 砖诇拽讛 讛讬诇讻讱 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 谞诪讬 诇讬讟诪讗 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: But if so, what is different about black, that the mishna mentions this halakha only with regard to that color? The Gemara answers: The reason is that it might enter your mind to say that since Rabbi 岣nina says: The black blood mentioned in the mishna is actually red but its color has faded, therefore, even if it is lighter than that which is described in the mishna, it should also be impure. Consequently, the mishna teaches us that even with regard to black blood, if the color is lighter than the shade mentioned in the mishna, it is pure.

专讘讬 讗诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 谞诪讬 讟诪讗 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讛谞讬 砖讬注讜专讬讛 讚专讘谞谉 诇讗驻讜拽讬 讚讬讛讛 讚讚讬讛讛

Rabbi Ami bar Abba says: And with regard to all of these five types of blood, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna, the blood is ritually impure; if it is lighter than that which is described in the mishna, it is also ritually impure, except for black, which is pure if it is lighter. The Gemara asks: But if these types of blood, except for black, are impure whether they are deeper or lighter than the specific shade described in the mishna, what purpose do the measures specified by the Sages in the mishna serve? The Gemara answers that these descriptions are to the exclusion of a color that is lighter than lighter, i.e., the color is so faint that it does not qualify as impure blood.

讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪砖讞讜专 讜诇讛讻讬 诪讛谞讬 砖讬注讜专讬讛 讚专讘谞谉

And there are those who say a different version of the above statement. Rami bar Abba says: And with regard to all of these five types of blood, if the color is deeper than that which is described in the mishna, it is ritually pure; if it is lighter than that, it is also ritually pure, except for black, which is impure if it is deeper. And for this reason the measures, i.e., descriptions, of the Sages are effective, as any discrepancy from these descriptions means that the blood is pure.

讘专 拽驻专讗 讗诪专 讜讻讜诇谉 注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟诪讗 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讞讜抓 诪诪讝讙 砖注诪讜拽 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讚讬讛讛 诪讻谉 讟讛讜专 讘专 拽驻专讗 讗讚讬讛讜 诇讬讛 讜讚讻讬 讗注诪讬拽讜 诇讬讛 讜讚讻讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讻诪讛 谞驻讬砖 讙讘专讗 讚诇讘讬讛 讻诪砖诪注转讬讛

Bar Kappara says: And with regard to all of them, if the color is deeper than that, the blood is impure; if it is lighter than that, it is pure, except for blood the color of diluted wine, with regard to which if the color is deeper than that, the blood is pure, and if it is lighter than that, it is also pure. The Gemara relates that in an effort to test bar Kappara, the Sages brought before him blood that had the appearance of diluted wine and they lightened it, and bar Kappara deemed it pure. On another occasion they deepened the color of blood that looked like diluted wine, and again bar Kappara deemed it pure. Rabbi 岣nina says in astonishment: How great is this man whose heart, which is so sensitive it can distinguish between such similar shades of blood, is in accordance with his ruling of halakha.

讜讻拽专谉 讻专讻讜诐 转谞讗 诇讞 讜诇讗 讬讘砖

搂 The mishna teaches, with regard to the colors of impure blood: And what is the color that is like the bright color of the crocus flower that is impure? It is like the brightest part of the flower, which is used to produce the orange-colored spice saffron. The Sages taught: This is referring to the appearance of moist saffron that is still fresh and not to its dry counterpart.

转谞讬 讞讚讗 讻转讞转讜谉 诇讗 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜诇讗 讻转讞转讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻注诇讬讜谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讻转讞转讜谉 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻转讞转讜谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讻注诇讬讜谉

With regard to this color, it is taught in one baraita that it is like the lower part of the crocus flower, not like its upper part; and it is taught in another baraita that it is like the upper part of the flower and not like its lower part; and it is taught in another baraita that it is like its upper part, and all the more so blood whose color is like its lower part is impure; and it is taught in yet another baraita that it is like its lower part, and all the more so blood whose color is like its upper part is impure.

讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 转诇转讗 讚专讬 讜转诇转讗 讟专驻谉 讛讜讬讬谉

Abaye says that these baraitot do not contradict one another, as the crocus has three layers of the brightly colored parts of the crocus flower harvested for saffron, one above the other, and in each layer there are three leaves, i.e., styles or stigmata.

谞拽讜讟 讚专讗 诪爪讬注讗讛 讜讟专驻讗 诪爪讬注转讗 讘讬讚讱

In order to examine blood whose color is similar to saffron, you should grasp the middle leaf of the middle layer in your hand and compare it to the blood. If they are similar, the blood is impure. Consequently, the four baraitot do not contradict one another: The first two baraitot are referring to the layer of leaves that must be examined. The first baraita says that it is the lower one, as the middle layer is lower than the upper one, while the second baraita states the reverse because the middle layer is higher than the lower one. Meanwhile, the last two baraitot are dealing with the leaves within the middle layer. The baraita that states: Like its lower part, and all the more so like its upper part, means: Like the lowest of the three leaves and all the more so like the middle leaf, which is above that leaf, while the other baraita states a similar idea with regard to the upper and middle leaves. In any event, all four baraitot are referring to the part of the crocus flower that is called by the mishna its brightest part.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘讙讜砖讬讬讛讜 砖谞讬谞讜

The Gemara relates: When people would come before Rabbi Abbahu for him to examine blood whose color was similar to saffron, he would say to them: We learned that the mishna is referring specifically to crocus flowers that are still in their clumps of earth in which they grew, as once they are detached from that earth their color changes.

讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘讬讗 讗讚诪讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪爪讬祝 注诇讬讛 诪讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 诪讘拽注转 讬讜讚驻转 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 诪讘拽注转 住讻谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诪讘拽注转 讙谞讜住专 讜讻讬讜爪讗 讘讛谉

搂 The mishna states: And what is the color that is like water that inundates red earth that is impure? In this regard the Sages taught in a baraita: In order to examine blood that is like water that inundates red earth, one brings fertile earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and one inundates the earth with enough water until it pools on the surface; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Akiva says: One brings earth from the Yodfat Valley. Rabbi Yosei says: From the Sikhnei Valley. Rabbi Shimon says: One can even bring earth from the Genosar Valley or from similar places.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讜讻诪讬诪讬 讗讚诪讛 诪讘讬讗 讗讚诪讛 砖诪谞讛 诪讘拽注转 讘讬转 讻专诐 讜诪爪讬祝 注诇讬讛 诪讬诐 讻拽诇讬驻转 讛砖讜诐 讜讗讬谉 砖讬注讜专 诇诪讬诐 诪砖讜诐 讚讗讬谉 砖讬注讜专 诇注驻专 讜讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转谉 爪诇讜诇讬谉 讗诇讗 注讻讜专讬谉 爪诇诇讜 讞讜讝专 讜注讜讻专谉 讜讻砖讛讜讗 注讜讻专谉 讗讬谉 注讜讻专谉 讘讬讚 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬

It is taught in another baraita: And to test whether blood is like water that inundates red earth, one brings fertile earth from the Beit Kerem Valley and one inundates the earth with an amount of water that rises above the earth by the thickness of the husk of garlic. And there is no required measure for the water, because there is no required measure for the earth with which the examination must be performed; it is sufficient to use a small amount of earth with a small amount of water. And one does not examine it when the water is clear, as it does not have the color of the earth, but rather when it is muddy from the earth. And if the water became clear because the earth settled, one must muddy it again. And when one muddies it he does not muddy it by hand but rather with a vessel.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗讬谉 注讜讻专讬谉 讗讜转谉 讘讬讚 讗诇讗 讘讻诇讬 讚诇讗 诇专诪讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 讜诇注讻专讬谞讛讜 讗讘诇 讘诪谞讗 讻讬 注讻专 诇讬讛 讘讬讚讬讛 砖驻讬专 讚诪讬 讗讜 讚诇诪讗 讚诇讗 诇注讻专讬谞讛讜 讘讬讚讬讛 讗诇讗 讘诪谞讗

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Does the statement that one does not muddy it by hand but rather with a vessel mean that one should not put the dirt into his hand and muddy the water with dirt in his hand, but in a case where the earth is in a vessel, when one muddies it by mixing the earth and water with his hand one may well do so? Or perhaps the baraita means that even when the earth is in a vessel one should not muddy the water by mixing it with earth with his hand, but rather with a vessel?

转讗 砖诪注 讻砖讛讜讗 讘讜讚拽谉 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽谉 讗诇讗 讘讻讜住 讜注讚讬讬谉 转讘注讬 诇讱 讘讚讬拽讛 讘讻讜住 注讻讬专讛 讘诪讗讬 转讬拽讜

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a baraita: When one examines this water, he examines it only with a cup. Evidently, it is necessary to use a vessel. The Gemara rejects this proof: But you still have a dilemma. This baraita merely states that the examination must be performed while the water is in a cup, but with what is the muddying performed? Must this be done by means of a vessel alone, or may one use his hand as well? The Gemara concludes: The dilemma shall stand unresolved.

讻讬 讗转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讘诪拽讜诪讛 砖谞讬谞讜 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 驻诇讬 拽讜专讟讗 讚讙专讙砖转讗 讜讘讚讬拽 讘讬讛 诇讬讬讟 注诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘讗住讻专讛

搂 The Gemara relates: When people would come before Rabba bar Avuh to examine blood that is similar to water that inundates red earth, he would say to them: We learned that the examination must be conducted in its place, i.e., the location the earth was taken from. But if the earth was transported elsewhere, the examination is no longer effective. The Gemara further relates that Rabbi 岣nina would break up a clump of earth and examine with it, without mixing it in water. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, would curse anyone who used this method that they should be punished with diphtheria.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞讻讬诐 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讗讜 讞讻讬诪讬 讛讻讬

Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, explained: It is only Rabbi 岣nina who is permitted to examine the blood in this fashion, as he is wise, but everyone else is not so wise that they can successfully perform the examination without water.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讞讻诪转讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚诇讗 讗讞讝讬 讚诪讗 诪讟诪讬谞讗 诪讟讛专 诪讟讛专谞讗 诪讟诪讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 注谞讜讜转谞讜转讗 讚专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚讞讝讗讬 讚诪讗 讜诪讛 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讚注谞讜转谉 讛讜讗 诪讞讬转 谞驻砖讬讛 诇住驻拽 讜讞讝讬 讗谞讗 诇讗 讗讞讝讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 wisdom causes me not to see blood for a halakhic examination. When I would examine blood and deem it impure, he would deem it pure, and when I would deem it pure, he would deem it impure. Conversely, Rabbi Elazar says: Rabbi 岣nina鈥檚 humility causes me to see blood, as I reason to myself: If Rabbi 岣nina, who is humble, places himself into a situation of uncertainty and sees various types of blood to determine their status, should I, who am not nearly as humble, not see blood for an examination?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讟讘注讗 讚讘讘诇 讙专诪讗 诇讬 讚诇讗 讞讝讗讬 讚诪讗 讚讗诪讬谞讗 讘讟讘注讗 诇讗 讬讚注谞讗 讘讚诪讗 讬讚注谞讗

Rabbi Zeira says: The complex nature of the residents of Babylonia causes me not to see blood for a halakhic examination, as I say to myself: Even matters involving the complex nature of people I do not know; can I then claim that I know about matters of blood?

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讘讟讘注讗 转诇讬讗 诪诇转讗 讜讛讗 专讘讛 讛讜讗 讚讬讚注 讘讟讘注讗 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讘讚诪讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 拽讗诪专 讜诪讛 专讘讛 讚讬讚注 讘讟讘注讗 诇讗 讞讝讗 讚诪讗 讜讗谞讗 讗讞讝讬

The Gemara asks: Is this to say that the matter of the appearance of blood is dependent on the nature of people, i.e., that it changes in accordance with their nature? But Rabba is an example of someone who knew about the complex nature of the people of Babylonia, and yet he did not know how to distinguish between different types of blood. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira took this factor into account and said to himself: All the more so; if Rabba, who knew about the complex nature of these people, nevertheless would not see blood, should I, who am unknowledgeable about the nature of these people, see blood for examination?

注讜诇讗 讗拽诇注 诇驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 讗讬讬转讜 诇拽诪讬讛 讚诪讗 讜诇讗 讞讝讗 讗诪专 讜诪讛 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讚诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讛 讻讬 诪拽诇注 诇讗转专讗 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讞讝讬 讚诪讗 讗谞讗 讗讞讝讬

The Gemara relates that Ulla happened to come to Pumbedita, where they brought blood before him for an examination, but he would not see it, as he said: If Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom, when he would happen to come to the locale of Rabbi Yehuda, he would not see blood, shall I see blood here?

讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讜 诇讬讛 诪专讗 讚讗专注讗 讚讬砖专讗诇 讚讛讛讬讗 讗转转讗 讚讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘讬 讗诪讬 拽诪讬讛 讗专讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 讛讗讬 讚诐 讞讬诪讜讚 讛讜讗 讘转专 讚谞驻拽讛 讗讟驻诇 诇讛 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讘注诇讬 讛讬讛 讘讚专讱 讜讞诪讚转讬讜 拽专讬 注诇讬讛 住讜讚 讛壮 诇讬专讗讬讜

The Gemara asks: And why would they call Rabbi Elazar the master of Eretz Yisrael in wisdom? The Gemara explains that there was an incident involving a certain woman who brought blood before Rabbi Elazar for examination, and Rabbi Ami was sitting before him. Rabbi Ami observed that Rabbi Elazar smelled the blood and said to the woman: This is blood of desire, i.e., your desire for your husband caused you to emit this blood, and it is not the blood of menstruation. After the woman left Rabbi Elazar鈥檚 presence, Rabbi Ami caught up with her and inquired into the circumstances of her case. She said to him: My husband was absent on a journey, and I desired him. Rabbi Ami read the following verse about Rabbi Elazar: 鈥淭he counsel of the Lord is with those who fear Him; and His covenant, to make them know it鈥 (Psalms 25:14), i.e., God reveals secret matters to those who fear Him.

讗驻专讗 讛讜专诪讬讝 讗诪讬讛 讚砖讘讜专 诪诇讻讗 砖讚专讛 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 专讘 注讜讘讚讬讛 拽诪讬讛 讗专讞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛 讛讗讬 讚诐 讞讬诪讜讚 讛讜讗 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诇讘专讬讛 转讗 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讞讻讬诪讬 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛 讚诇诪讗 讻住讜诪讗 讘讗专讜讘讛

The Gemara further relates that Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, sent blood before Rava for examination, as she sought to convert and was practicing the halakhot of menstruation. At that time Rav Ovadya was sitting before Rava. Rav Ovadya observed that Rava smelled the blood and later said to the woman: This is blood of desire. She said to her son: Come and see how wise the Jews are, as Rava is correct. Her son said to her: Perhaps Rava was like a blind man who escapes from a chimney, i.e., it was a lucky guess.

讛讚专 砖讚专讛 诇讬讛 砖转讬谉 诪讬谞讬 讚诪讗 讜讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专讬谞讛讜 讛讛讜讗 讘转专讗 讚诐 讻谞讬诐 讛讜讛 讜诇讗 讬讚注 讗住转讬讬注 诪讬诇转讗 讜砖讚专 诇讛 住专讬拽讜转讗 讚诪拽讟诇讗 讻诇诪讬 讗诪专讛 讬讛讜讚讗讬 讘转讜讜谞讬 讚诇讘讗 讬转讘讬转讜

Ifera Hurmiz then sent Rava sixty different types of blood, some impure and others pure, and with regard to all of them Rava accurately told her their origin. The Gemara adds: That last sample of blood sent by Ifera Hurmiz was blood of lice, and Rava did not know what it was. He received support in this matter in the form of heavenly guidance, as he unwittingly sent her as a gift a comb for killing lice. She said in exclamation: Jews, you must dwell in the chamber of people鈥檚 hearts.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪专讬砖讗 讛讜讛 讞讝讬谞讗 讚诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬 讗诪讬讛 讚讬爪讞拽 讘专讬 讛讗讬 讟讬驻转讗 拽诪讬讬转讗 诇讗 诪讬讬转讬谞谉 诇讛 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 诪砖讜诐 讚讝讛讬诪讗 诇讗 讞讝讬谞讗

搂 The Gemara cites more statements of the Sages with regard to the examination of blood. Rav Yehuda says: At first I would see blood, i.e., perform examinations of blood, but I changed my conduct when the mother of my son Yitz岣k, i.e., my wife, said to me that she acts as follows: With regard to this first drop of blood that I see, I do not bring it before the Sages, because it is not pristine blood, i.e., other substances are mixed with it. After hearing this, I decided I would no longer see blood, as it is possible that the first drop, which I do not get to see, was impure.

讘讬谉 讟诪讗讛 诇讟讛讜专讛 讜讚讗讬 讞讝讬谞讗

Rav Yehuda continues: But with regard to the examination of blood that a woman who gave birth emitted after the completion of her days of purity, i.e., at least forty days after giving birth to a male, or eighty after giving birth to a female (see Leviticus, chapter 12), in order to determine whether she is ritually impure or pure, I certainly see this blood and determine her status based on its color. This blood is clean, as the woman has been bleeding for a long period of time.

讬诇转讗 讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讟诪讬 诇讛 讛讚专 讗讬讬转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讚讻讬 诇讛

搂 The Gemara relates that Yalta, Rav Na岣an鈥檚 wife, brought blood before Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he deemed her ritually impure. She then brought it before Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure.

讜讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞讻诐 砖讟讬诪讗 讗讬谉 讞讘专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讟讛专 讗住专 讗讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讛转讬专

The Gemara asks: But how could Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, act in this manner? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: In the case of a halakhic authority who deemed an item impure, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it pure; if one halakhic authority deemed a matter prohibited, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it permitted?

诪注讬拽专讗 讟诪讜讬讬 讛讜讛 诪讟诪讬 诇讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讛讜讛 诪讚讻讬 诇讬 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜谞讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞砖 讘注讬谞讬讛 讚讻讬 诇讛

The Gemara explains that initially Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her impure, but he changed his mind when Yalta said to him: Every day that I bring blood of this kind of color to Rabba bar bar 岣na he deems me pure, and specifically now he issued a different ruling, as he feels pain in his eye. Upon hearing this, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her pure.

讜诪讬 诪讛讬诪谞讬 讗讬谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 讻讝讛 专讗讬转讬 讜讗讘讚转讬讜

The Gemara asks: But are people deemed credible to present claims such as the one presented by Yalta? The Gemara answers: Yes; and likewise it is taught in a baraita: A woman is deemed credible if she says: I saw blood like this color, but I lost it before it could be examined.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讻讝讛 讟讬讛专 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 讞讻诐 诪讛讜

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If a woman states to her friend who showed her blood: My blood, which has an appearance like this, so-and-so, the halakhic authority, deemed it pure, what is the halakha? Is she deemed credible concerning its status?

转讗 砖诪注 谞讗诪谞转 讗砖讛 诇讜诪专 讻讝讛 专讗讬转讬 讜讗讘讚转讬讜 砖讗谞讬 讛转诐 讚诇讬转讬讛 诇拽诪讛

The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a resolution to this dilemma from the baraita cited above: A woman is deemed credible if she says: I saw blood like this color, but I lost it. This demonstrates that a woman may issue claims of this kind. The Gemara rejects this proof: There it is different, as in that case the blood is not before her, and therefore the Sages were lenient. But here, the woman鈥檚 friend can take her blood to a halakhic authority for examination.

转讗 砖诪注 讚讬诇转讗 讗讬讬转讗 讚诪讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讜讟诪讬 诇讛 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讚讻讬 诇讛 讜讛讬讻讬 注讘讬讚 讛讻讬 讜讛转谞讬讗 讞讻诐 砖讟讬诪讗 讗讬谉 讞讘讬专讜 专砖讗讬 诇讟讛专 讜讻讜壮

The Gemara further suggests: Come and hear the incident cited above, as Yalta brought blood before Rabba bar bar 岣na, and he deemed her ritually impure; she then brought it before Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. And the Gemara asked: How could Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, act in this manner? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: In the case of a halakhic authority who deemed an item impure, another halakhic authority is not allowed to deem it pure?

讜讗诪专讬谞谉 讟诪讜讬讬 讛讜讛 诪讟诪讬 诇讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讚讻诇 讬讜诪讗 诪讚讻讬 诇讛 讻讬 讛讗讬 讙讜谞讗 讜讛讗讬讚谞讗 讛讜讗 讚讞砖 讘注讬谞讬讛 讛讚专 讚讻讬 诇讛 讗诇诪讗 诪讛讬诪谞讗 诇讛

And we say in response that initially Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, deemed her impure, but he changed his mind when she said to him that every day that she brings blood of this kind of color to Rabba bar bar 岣na he deems her pure, and specifically now he issued a different ruling, as he feels pain in his eye. The Gemara summarizes: The conclusion of the story was that upon hearing this, Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, then deemed her pure. Evidently, when a woman issues claims with regard to blood that is presented, we deem her claims credible.

专讘 讬爪讞拽 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讙诪专讬讛 住诪讱

The Gemara answers: That incident does not provide proof, as Rav Yitz岣k, son of Rav Yehuda, relied on his studies in his lenient ruling. At first, he was reluctant to issue his ruling, in deference to Rabba bar bar 岣na, who had said the blood was impure. But when he heard Yalta鈥檚 explanation he deemed the blood pure, as he had originally thought. Therefore, there is no proof from there that a woman鈥檚 statements of this kind are accepted.

专讘讬 专讗讛 讚诐 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讟讬诪讗 专讗讛 讘讬讜诐 讜讟讬讛专 讛诪转讬谉 砖注讛 讗讞转 讞讝专 讜讟讬诪讗 讗诪专 讗讜讬 诇讬 砖诪讗 讟注讬转讬

搂 The Gemara further relates: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi once saw a woman鈥檚 blood at night and deemed it impure. He again saw that blood in the day, after it had dried, and deemed it pure. He waited one hour and then deemed it impure again. It is assumed that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not conduct another examination at this point; rather, he reasoned that the previous night鈥檚 examination had been correct, and the blood鈥檚 color should be deemed impure because of how it had looked when it was moist. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then said: Woe is me! Perhaps I erred by declaring the blood impure, as based on its color it should be pure.

砖诪讗 讟注讬转讬 讜讚讗讬 讟注讛 讚转谞讬讗 诇讗 讬讗诪专 讞讻诐 讗讬诇讜 讛讬讛 诇讞 讛讬讛 讜讚讗讬 讟诪讗

The Gemara questions this statement: Perhaps I erred? He certainly erred, as it is taught in a baraita that a halakhic authority may not say: If the blood were moist it would certainly have been impure, and yet here, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deemed the blood impure based on that type of reasoning.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讬谉 诇讜 诇讚讬讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讛 砖注讬谞讬讜 专讜讗讜转 诪注讬拽专讗 讗讞讝拽讬讛 讘讟诪讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 诇爪驻专讗 讚讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 (诇讬讛) 讜讚讗讬 讟讛讜专 讛讜讛 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 讗转讞讝讬 砖驻讬专 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 讚讛讚专 讗砖转谞讬 讗诪专 讛讗讬 讟诪讗 讛讜讗 讜诪驻讻讞 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诪驻讻讞 讜讗讝讬诇

The Gemara explains that the incident did not unfold as initially assumed. Rather, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi examined the blood three times, as he said: A judge has only what his eyes see as the basis for his ruling. Initially, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi established the presumptive status of the blood as ritually impure, but when he saw in the morning that its color had changed, he said: It was definitely pure last night as well, and only because it was at night I thought that it was impure, because it could not be seen well. Subsequently, when he saw after a short while that its color again changed, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: This blood is impure, and it is gradually becoming lighter as its color fades.

专讘讬 讘讚讬拽 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住祝 讘讚讬拽 讘讬讜诐 讛诪注讜谞谉 讘讬谞讬 注诪讜讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讗诪讬 讘专 砖诪讜讗诇 讜讻讜诇谉 讗讬谉 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜转谉 讗诇讗 讘讬谉 讞诪讛 诇爪诇 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讘讞诪讛 讜讘爪诇 讬讚讜

With regard to the manner in which the Sages would examine blood, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would examine blood by candlelight. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosef, would examine blood between the pillars of the study hall even on a cloudy day, despite the fact that it was not very light there. Rav Ami bar Shmuel says: And in all these cases, one examines blood only between sunlight and shade. Rav Na岣an says that Rabba bar Avuh says: One stands in a place lit by the sun, and he conducts the examination under the shadow of his hand, i.e., he places his hand over the blood. In this manner the color of the blood can be best discerned.

讜讻诪讝讜讙 砖谞讬 讞诇拽讬诐 讻讜壮 转谞讗

搂 The mishna states: And what is the color that is like diluted wine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of two parts water and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael. The Sages taught in a baraita:

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