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Today's Daf Yomi

November 23, 2019 | 讻状讛 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Niddah 31

The gemara brings many statements regarding the creation and development of the fetus, pregnancy, the relationship between intercourse and birth, God’s provenance in the creation of children and more.


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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

诪讗讬 拽专讗 诪诪注讬 讗诪讬 讗转讛 讙讜讝讬 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讙讜讝讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗砖转讘讜注讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讙讝讬 谞讝专讱 讜讛砖诇讬讻讬

What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? 鈥淯pon You I have relied from birth; You are He Who took me out [gozi] of my mother鈥檚 womb鈥 (Psalms 71:6). From where may it be inferred that this word: Gozi,鈥 is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: 鈥淐ut off [gozi] your hair and cast it away鈥 (Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇诪讛 讜诇讚 讚讜诪讛 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诇讗讙讜讝 诪讜谞讞 讘住驻诇 砖诇 诪讬诐 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讗爪讘注讜 注诇讬讜 砖讜拽注 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉

And Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother鈥檚 womb comparable? It is comparable to a nut placed in a basin full of water, floating on top of the water. If a person puts his finger on top of the nut, it sinks either in this direction or in that direction.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛转讞转讜谉 讗诪爪注讬讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛讗诪爪注讬 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谞讜 诇爪讗转 诪转讛驻讱 讜讬讜爪讗 讜讝讛讜 讞讘诇讬 讗砖讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregnancy, the fetus resides in the lower compartment of the womb; in the middle three months, the fetus resides in the middle compartment; and during the last three months of pregnancy the fetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this is what causes labor pains.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚转谞谉 讞讘诇讬 砖诇 谞拽讘讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪砖诇 讝讻专

With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: And this is the explanation for that which we learned in a baraita: The labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male. The Gemara will explain this below.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讗砖专 注砖讬转讬 讘住转专 专拽诪转讬 讘转讞转讬讜转 讗专抓 讚专转讬 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 专拽诪转讬

And Rabbi Elazar says: What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? 鈥淲hen I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth鈥 (Psalms 139:15). Since it is not stated: I resided in the lowest parts of the earth, but rather: 鈥淚 was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth,鈥 this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus鈥檚 development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讞讘诇讬 谞拽讘讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪砖诇 讝讻专 讝讛 讘讗 讻讚专讱 转砖诪讬砖讜 讜讝讛 讘讗 讻讚专讱 转砖诪讬砖讜 讝讜 讛讜驻讻转 驻谞讬讛 讜讝讛 讗讬谉 讛讜驻讱 驻谞讬讜

The Gemara asks: What is different about the labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female, that they are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male? The Gemara answers: This one, a male fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse. Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. And that one, a female fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse, i.e., facing upward. Consequently, that one, a female fetus, turns its face around before it is born, but this one, a male fetus, does not turn its face around before it is born.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 转砖诪讬砖 拽砖讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讙诐 拽砖讛 诇讜诇讚 讗诪爪注讬讬诐 拽砖讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讬驻讛 诇讜诇讚 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讬驻讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讬驻讛 诇讜诇讚 砖诪转讜讱 讻讱 谞诪爪讗 讛讜诇讚 诪诇讜讘谉 讜诪讝讜专讝

The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregnancy, sexual intercourse is difficult and harmful for the woman and is also difficult for the offspring. During the middle three months, intercourse is difficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring. During the last three months, sexual intercourse is beneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned.

转谞讗 讛诪砖诪砖 诪讟转讜 诇讬讜诐 转砖注讬诐 讻讗讬诇讜 砖讜驻讱 讚诪讬诐 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪砖诪砖 讜讛讜诇讱 讜砖诪专 驻转讗讬诐 讛壮

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who engages in intercourse with his wife on the ninetieth day of her pregnancy, it is as though he spills her blood. The Gemara asks: How does one know that it is the ninetieth day of her pregnancy? Rather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercourse with his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, and rely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: 鈥淭he Lord preserves the simple鈥 (Psalms 116:6).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 砖讜转驻讬谉 讬砖 讘讗讚诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讗讘讬讜 诪讝专讬注 讛诇讜讘谉 砖诪诪谞讜 注爪诪讜转 讜讙讬讚讬诐 讜爪驻专谞讬诐 讜诪讜讞 砖讘专讗砖讜 讜诇讜讘谉 砖讘注讬谉 讗诪讜 诪讝专注转 讗讜讚诐 砖诪诪谞讜 注讜专 讜讘砖专 讜砖注专讜转 讜砖讞讜专 砖讘注讬谉 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讜转谉 讘讜 专讜讞 讜谞砖诪讛 讜拽诇住转专 驻谞讬诐 讜专讗讬讬转 讛注讬谉 讜砖诪讬注转 讛讗讜讝谉 讜讚讘讜专 驻讛 讜讛诇讜讱 专讙诇讬诐 讜讘讬谞讛 讜讛砖讻诇

The Sages taught: There are three partners in the creation of a person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from which the following body parts are formed: The bones, the sinews, the nails, the brain that is in its head, and the white of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from which are formed the skin, the flesh, the hair, and the black of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul, his countenance [ukelaster], eyesight, hearing of the ear, the capability of speech of the mouth, the capability of walking with the legs, understanding, and wisdom.

讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谞讜 诇讛驻讟专 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讜讟诇 讞诇拽讜 讜讞诇拽 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 诪谞讬讞 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 驻讜抓 诪诇讞讗 讜砖讚讬 讘砖专讗 诇讻诇讘讗

And when a person鈥檚 time to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part of the person鈥檚 father and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: This is in accordance with the adage that people say: Remove the salt from a piece of meat, and you may then toss the meat to a dog, as it has become worthless.

讚专砖 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讙讚诇讜转 注讚 讗讬谉 讞拽专 讜谞驻诇讗讜转 注讚 讗讬谉 诪住驻专 讘讗 讜专讗讛 砖诇讗 讻诪讚转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 谞讜转谉 讞驻抓 讘讞诪转 爪专讜专讛 讜驻讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 住驻拽 诪砖转诪专 住驻拽 讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 驻转讜讞讛 讜驻讬讛 诇诪讟讛 讜诪砖转诪专

Rav 岣nnana bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淲ho does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number鈥 (Job 9:10)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that if one puts an article in a flask, even if the flask is tied and its opening faces upward, it is uncertain whether the item is preserved from getting lost, and it is uncertain whether it is not preserved from being lost. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 open womb, and its opening faces downward, and yet the fetus is preserved.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讞驻爪讬讜 诇讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讘讬讚 讬讜专讚 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讘讬讚 讛讜诇讚 注讜诇讛 诇诪注诇讛

Another matter that demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when a person places his articles on a scale to be measured, the heavier the item is, the more it descends. But when the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms a fetus, the heavier the offspring gets, the more it ascends upward in the womb.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜讚讱 (讛壮) 注诇 讻讬 谞讜专讗讜转 谞驻诇讬转讬 谞驻诇讗讬诐 诪注砖讬讱 讜谞驻砖讬 讬讚注转 诪讗讚 讘讗 讜专讗讛 砖诇讗 讻诪讚转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讝专注讜谞讬诐 讘注专讜讙讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注讜诇讛 讘诪讬谞讜 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 讜讻讜诇诐 注讜诇讬谉 诇诪讬谉 讗讞讚

Rabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚 will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well鈥 (Psalms 139:14)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that when a person plants seeds of different species in one garden bed, each and every one of the seeds emerges as a grown plant according to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 womb, and all of the seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, emerge when the offspring is formed as one sex.

讚讘专 讗讞专 爪讘注 谞讜转谉 住诪谞讬谉 诇讬讜专讛 讻讜诇谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇爪讘注 讗讞讚 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注讜诇讛 诇诪讬谞讜

Alternatively, when a dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [leyora], they all emerge as one color of dye, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 womb, and each and every one of the seeds emerges as its own type. In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above.

讚专砖 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜讚讱 讛壮 讻讬 讗谞驻转 讘讬 讬砖讘 讗驻讱 讜转谞讞诪谞讬 讘诪讛 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

Rav Yosef taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd on that day you shall say: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me鈥 (Isaiah 12:1)? With regard to what matter is the verse speaking?

讘砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讬爪讗讜 诇住讞讜专讛 讬砖讘 诇讜 拽讜抓 诇讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讛转讞讬诇 诪讞专祝 讜诪讙讚祝 诇讬诪讬诐 砖诪注 砖讟讘注讛 住驻讬谞转讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讘讬诐 讛转讞讬诇 诪讜讚讛 讜诪砖讘讞 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讬砖讘 讗驻讱 讜转谞讞诪谞讬

It is referring, for example, to two people who left their homes to go on a business trip. A thorn penetrated the body of one of them, and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. He started blaspheming and cursing in frustration. After a period of time, he heard that the ship of the other person had sunk in the sea, and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then started thanking God and praising Him for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. Therefore, it is stated at the end of the verse: 鈥淵our anger is turned away, and You comfort me.鈥

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 谞驻诇讗讜转 (讙讚讜诇讜转) 诇讘讚讜 讜讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚讜 诇注讜诇诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘注诇 讛谞住 讗讬谞讜 诪讻讬专 讘谞住讜

And this statement is identical to that which Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏lessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, Who does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever鈥 (Psalms 72:18鈥19)? What does it mean that God 鈥渄oes wondrous things alone鈥? It means that even the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miracle that was performed for him.

讚专讬砖 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗专讞讬 讜专讘注讬 讝专讬转 讜讻诇 讚专讻讬 讛住讻谞转讛 诪诇诪讚 砖诇讗 谞讜爪专 讗讚诐 诪谉 讻诇 讛讟驻讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讘专讜专 砖讘讛 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讝讜专讛 讘讘讬转 讛讙专谞讜转 谞讜讟诇 讗转 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪谞讬讞 讗转 讛驻住讜诇转

Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou measure [zerita] my going about [or岣] and my lying down [riv鈥檌], and are acquainted with all my ways鈥 (Psalms 139:3)? This verse teaches that a person is not created from the entire drop of semen, but from its clear part. Zerita can mean to winnow, while or岣 and riv鈥檌 can both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: This matter is comparable to a person who winnows grain in the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste.

讻讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜转讝专谞讬 讞讬诇 讜讻转讬讘 讛讗诇 讛诪讗讝专谞讬 讞讬诇 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讝讬专讬转谞讬 讜讝专讝转谞讬

This is in accordance with a statement of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is written in one of King David鈥檚 psalms: 鈥淔or You have girded me [vatazreni] with strength for battle鈥 (II聽Samuel 22:40), without the letter alef in vatazreni; and it is written in another psalm: 鈥淲ho girds me [hame鈥檃zreni] with strength鈥 (Psalms 18:33), with an alef in hame鈥檃zreini. What is the difference between these two expressions? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [zeiritani], i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, and You have girded me [zeraztani] with strength.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬 诪谞讛 注驻专 讬注拽讘 讜诪住驻专 讗转 专讘注 讬砖专讗诇 诪诇诪讚 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜住讜驻专 讗转 专讘讬注讬讜转讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讬 转讘讗 讟讬驻讛 砖讛爪讚讬拽 谞讜爪专 讛讬诪谞讛

Rabbi Abbahu taught: What is the meaning of that which is written in Balaam鈥檚 blessing: 鈥淲ho has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [rova] of Israel鈥 (Numbers 23:10)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [revi鈥檌yyoteihem], anticipating the time when the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive.

讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 谞住诪讬转 注讬谞讜 砖诇 讘诇注诐 讛专砖注 讗诪专 诪讬 砖讛讜讗 讟讛讜专 讜拽讚讜砖 讜诪砖专转讬讜 讟讛讜专讬诐 讜拽讚讜砖讬诐 讬爪讬抓 讘讚讘专 讝讛 诪讬讚 谞住诪讬转 注讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 谞讗诐 讛讙讘专 砖转诐 讛注讬谉

And it was due to this matter that the eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: Should God, who is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blinded as a divine punishment, as it is written: 鈥淭he saying of the man whose eye is shut鈥 (Numbers 24:3).

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讻讘 注诪讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 住讬讬注 讘讗讜转讜 诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖砖讻专 讞诪讜专 讙专诐 讞诪讜专 讙专诐 诇讜 诇讬砖砖讻专

And this statement is the same as that which Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written, with regard to Leah鈥檚 conceiving Issachar: 鈥淎nd he lay with her that night鈥 (Genesis 30:16)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act. The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssachar is a large-boned [garem] donkey鈥 (Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob鈥檚 donkey toward Leah鈥檚 tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby causing [garam] Leah鈥檚 conceiving Issachar.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗砖讛 诪讝专注转 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬砖 诪讝专讬注 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖讛 讻讬 转讝专讬注 讜讬诇讚讛 讝讻专

Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the woman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: 鈥淚f a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male鈥 (Leviticus 12:2).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗砖讛 诪讝专注转 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬砖 诪讝专讬注 转讞诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 讜诇讗 驻讬专砖讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗转 讛讚讘专 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讜驻讬专砖讜 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 诇讗讛 讗砖专 讬诇讚讛 诇讬注拽讘 讘驻讚谉 讗专诐 讜讗转 讚讬谞讛 讘转讜 转诇讛 讛讝讻专讬诐 讘谞拽讘讜转 讜谞拽讘讜转 讘讝讻专讬诐

The Sages taught: At first, people would say that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explain from which verse this matter is derived, until Rabbi Tzadok came and explained that it is derived from the following verse: 鈥淭hese are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah鈥 (Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse attributes the males to the females, as the males are called: The sons of Leah, and it attributes the females to the males,in that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.

讜讬讛讬讜 讘谞讬 讗讜诇诐 讗谞砖讬诐 讙讘讜专讬 讞讬诇 讚专讻讬 拽砖转 讜诪专讘讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讜讻讬 讘讬讚讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诇讛专讘讜转 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱

This statement is also derived from the following verse: 鈥淎nd the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons鈥 sons鈥 (I聽Chronicles 8:40). Is it in a person鈥檚 power to have many sons and sons鈥 sons? Rather, because

砖诪砖讛讬谉 注爪诪谉 讘讘讟谉 讻讚讬 砖讬讝专讬注讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 转讞诇讛 砖讬讛讜 讘谞讬讛诐 讝讻专讬诐 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讛诐 诪专讘讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 拽讟讬谞讗 讬讻讜诇谞讬 诇注砖讜转 讻诇 讘谞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 讻诇 讘谞讬讜 讝讻专讬诐 讬讘注讜诇 讜讬砖谞讛

they delay while in their wives鈥 abdomen, initially refraining from emitting semen so that their wives will emit seed first, in order that their children will be male, the verse ascribes them credit as though they have many sons and sons鈥 sons. And this statement is the same as that which Rav Ketina said: I could have made all of my children males, by refraining from emitting seed until my wife emitted seed first. Rava says another method through which one can cause his children to be males: One who wishes to make all of his children males should engage in intercourse with his wife and repeat the act.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪转注讘专转 讗诇讗 住诪讜讱 诇讜住转讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谉 讘注讜讜谉 讞讜诇诇转讬

And Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: A woman becomes pregnant only by engaging in intercourse close to the onset of her menstrual cycle, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, I was brought forth in iniquity鈥 (Psalms 51:7). This iniquity is referring to intercourse close to the woman鈥檚 menstrual cycle, when intercourse is prohibited. Accordingly, David is saying that his mother presumably conceived him at this time.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 住诪讜讱 诇讟讘讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讞讟讗 讬讞诪转谞讬 讗诪讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: A woman becomes pregnant only by engaging in intercourse near the time of her immersion in a ritual bath, through which she is purified from her status as a menstruating woman, as it is stated in the continuation of the same verse: 鈥淎nd in sin [uv岣t] did my mother conceive me鈥 (Psalms 51:7).

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讞讟讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讚讻讜讬讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讞讟讗 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讜讬讚讻讬 讬转 讘讬转讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 转讞讟讗谞讬 讘讗讝讜讘 讜讗讟讛专

The Gemara explains this derivation: From where may it be inferred that this term 鈥岣t鈥 is a reference to purity? The Gemara answers: As it is written with regard to leprosy of houses: Ve岣ttei the house鈥 (Leviticus 14:52), and we translate the verse into Aramaic as: And he shall purify the house. And if you wish, say that the interpretation is derived from here: 鈥淧urge me [te岣tte鈥檈ni] with hyssop, and I shall be pure鈥 (Psalms 51:9). Evidently, the root 岣t, tet, alef refers to purification.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗 讝讻专 讘注讜诇诐 讘讗 砖诇讜诐 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖诇讞讜 讻专 诪讜砖诇 讗专抓 讝讻专 讝讛 讻专

And Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, i.e., when a male baby is born, peace comes to the world, as it is stated: 鈥淪end the lambs [khar] for the ruler of the land鈥 (Isaiah 16:1). This khar, or kar, a gift one sends the ruler, contributes to the stability of the government and peace, and the word male [zakhar] can be interpreted homiletically as an abbreviation of: This is a kar [zeh kar].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讘讗 讝讻专 讘注讜诇诐 讘讗 讻讻专讜 讘讬讚讜 讝讻专 讝讛 讻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讻专讛 诇讛诐 讻专讛 讙讚讜诇讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k from the school of Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, his loaf of bread, i.e., his sustenance, comes into his possession. In other words, a male can provide for himself. This is based on the aforementioned interpretation of the word male [zakhar] as an abbreviation of: This is a kar [zeh kar], and the term kar refers to sustenance, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he prepared great provision [kera] for them鈥 (II聽Kings 6:23).

谞拽讘讛 讗讬谉 注诪讛 讻诇讜诐 谞拽讘讛 谞拽讬讬讛 讘讗讛 注讚 讚讗诪专讛 诪讝讜谞讬 诇讗 讬讛讘讬 诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 谞拽讘讛 砖讻专讱 注诇讬 讜讗转谞讛

By contrast, when a female comes into the world, nothing, i.e., no sustenance, comes with her. This is derived from the homiletic interpretation of the word female [nekeva] as an abbreviation of the phrase: She comes clean [nekiya ba鈥檃], i.e., empty. Furthermore, until she says: Give me sustenance, people do not give her, as it is written in Laban鈥檚 request of Jacob: 鈥淎ppoint me [nokva] your wages, and I will give it鈥 (Genesis 30:28). Laban used the word nokva, similar to nekeva, when he said that he would pay Jacob only if he explicitly demanded his wages.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讬讜诇讚转 诪讘讬讗讛 拽专讘谉 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘砖注讛 砖讻讜专注转 诇讬诇讚 拽讜驻爪转 讜谞砖讘注转 砖诇讗 转讝拽拽 诇讘注诇讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 转讘讬讗 拽专讘谉

The students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i asked him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman after childbirth brings an offering? He said to them: At the time that a woman crouches to give birth, her pain is so great that she impulsively takes an oath that she will not engage in intercourse with her husband ever again, so that she will never again experience this pain. Therefore, the Torah says that she must bring an offering for violating her oath and continuing to engage in intercourse with her husband.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讛讗 诪讝讬讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讘讞专讟讛 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜注讜讚 拽专讘谉 砖讘讜注讛 讘注讬 讗讬转讜讬讬

Rav Yosef objects to this answer: But isn鈥檛 the woman an intentional violator of her oath? And if she wishes that her oath be dissolved, so that she may engage in intercourse with her husband, the matter depends on her regret of her oath. One is obligated to bring an offering for violating an oath of an utterance only if his transgression is unwitting. And furthermore, if the purpose of the offering that a woman brings after childbirth is to atone for violating an oath, then she should be required to bring a female lamb or goat as an offering, which is the requirement of one who violated an oath, rather than the bird offering brought by a woman after childbirth.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讝讻专 诇砖讘注讛 讜谞拽讘讛 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讝讻专 砖讛讻诇 砖诪讞讬诐 讘讜 诪转讞专讟转 诇砖讘注讛 谞拽讘讛 砖讛讻诇 注爪讘讬诐 讘讛 诪转讞专讟转 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专

And the students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i further inquired of him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman who gives birth to a male is ritually impure for seven days, but a woman who gives birth to a female is impure for fourteen days? Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i answered them: When a woman gives birth to a male, over which everyone is happy, she regrets her oath, that she will never again engage in intercourse with her husband, already seven days after giving birth. By contrast, after giving birth to a female, over which everyone is unhappy, she regrets her oath only fourteen days after giving birth.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 诪讬诇讛 诇砖诪讜谞讛 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 讻讜诇诐 砖诪讞讬诐 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 注爪讘讬诐

And the students further asked him: For what reason does the Torah say that circumcision is performed only on the eighth day of the baby鈥檚 life, and not beforehand? He answered them: It is so that there will not be a situation where everyone is happy at the circumcision ceremony but the father and mother of the infant are unhappy, as they are still prohibited from engaging in intercourse.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 谞讚讛 诇砖讘注讛 诪驻谞讬 砖专讙讬诇 讘讛 讜拽抓 讘讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 转讛讗 讟诪讗讛 砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讻讚讬 砖转讛讗 讞讘讬讘讛 注诇 讘注诇讛 讻砖注转 讻谞讬住转讛 诇讞讜驻讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: For what reason does the Torah say that a menstruating woman is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband for seven days? It is because if a woman were permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband all the time, her husband would be too accustomed to her, and would eventually be repulsed by her. Therefore, the Torah says that a menstruating woman shall be ritually impure for seven days, during which she is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband, so that when she becomes pure again she will be dear to her husband as at the time when she entered the wedding canopy with him.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讚讜住转讗讬 讘专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬砖 诪讞讝专 注诇 讗砖讛 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪讞讝专转 注诇 讗讬砖 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讗讘讚 诇讜 讗讘讬讚讛 诪讬 诪讞讝专 注诇 诪讬 讘注诇 讗讘讬讚讛 诪讞讝讬专 注诇 讗讘讬讚转讜

The students of Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, asked him: For what reason is it the norm that a man pursues a woman for marriage, but a woman does not pursue a man? Rabbi Dostai answered them by citing a parable of a person who lost an item. Who searches for what? Certainly the owner of the lost item searches for his item; the item does not search for its owner. Since the first woman was created from the body of the first man, the man seeks that which he has lost.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬砖 驻谞讬讜 诇诪讟讛 讜讗砖讛 驻谞讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 讻诇驻讬 讛讗讬砖 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转

And the students of Rabbi Dostai further asked him: For what reason does a man engage in intercourse facing down, and a woman engage in intercourse facing up toward the man? Rabbi Dostai answered them: This man faces the place from which he was created, i.e., the earth, and that woman faces the place from which she was created, namely man.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讗讬砖 诪拽讘诇 驻讬讜住 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪拽讘诇转 驻讬讜住 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转

And the students also inquired: For what reason is a man who is angry likely to accept appeasement, but a woman is not as likely to accept appeasement? Rabbi Dostai answered them: It is because this man behaves like the place from which he was created, i.e., the earth, which yields to pressure, and that woman behaves like the place from which she was created, i.e., from bone, which cannot be molded easily.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗砖讛 拽讜诇讛 注专讘 讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 拽讜诇讜 注专讘 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 拽讜诇讱 注专讘 讜诪专讗讱 谞讗讜讛

The students continued to ask Rabbi Dostai: For what reason is a woman鈥檚 voice pleasant, but a man鈥檚 voice is not pleasant? He answered: This man is similar to the place from which he was created, the earth, which does not issue a sound when it is struck, and that woman is similar to the place from which she was created, a bone, which makes a sound when it is struck. The proof that a woman鈥檚 voice is pleasant is that it is stated in Song of Songs that the man says to his beloved: 鈥淔or sweet is your voice, and your countenance is beautiful鈥 (Song of Songs 2:14).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛诪驻诇转 讞转讬讻讛

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘谞讜转 讻讜转讬诐 谞讚讜转 诪注专讬住转谉 讜讛讻讜转讬诐 诪讟诪讗讬诐 诪砖讻讘 转讞转讜谉 讻注诇讬讜谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛谉 讘讜注诇讬 谞讚讜转

MISHNA: Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. And the Samaritan men impart ritual impurity to the lower bedding like the upper bedding, i.e., all layers of bedding beneath them are impure, and their status is like the bedding above a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav]: The status of both levels of bedding is that of first-degree ritual impurity, which can impart impurity to food and drink. This is due to the fact that Samaritan men are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women.

讜讛谉 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇 讻诇 讚诐 讜讚诐

And they are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women because Samaritan women observe the seven-day menstrual period of ritual impurity for each and every emission of blood, even for blood that does not render them impure. Accordingly, if a Samaritan woman has an emission of impure blood during the seven-day period, she will nevertheless continue counting seven days from the first emission. It is therefore possible that the Samaritan men will engage in intercourse with their wives while they are still halakhically considered menstruating women, as the seven-day period of impurity should have been counted from the emission of the impure blood.

讜讗讬谉 讞讬讬讘讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注诇 讘讬讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬谉 砖讜专驻讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讛转专讜诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讟讜诪讗转谉 住驻拽

But one who enters the Temple while wearing those garments upon which a Samaritan had lain is not liable to bring an offering for entering the Temple in a status of impurity, nor does one burn teruma that came into contact with those garments, because their impurity is uncertain.

讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚拽讗 讞讝讬讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讚谉 谞诪讬 讜讗讬 讚诇讗 拽讞讝讬讬谉 讚讬讚讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讗

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of this statement? If the mishna is referring to girls who already see menstrual blood, then even our own, i.e., Jewish girls, are also considered menstruating women under such circumstances. And if it is referring to girls who do not yet see menstrual blood, then their girls, i.e., those of the Samaritans, should also not have the status of menstruating women.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘住转诪讗 讚讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诪讬注讜讟讗 讚讞讝讬讬谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 转谞讗 讚讞讬讬砖 诇诪讬注讜讟讗

Rava, son of Rav A岣 bar Rav Huna, says that Rav Sheshet says: Here we are dealing with an unspecified case, i.e., it is unknown whether these girls have experienced their first menstrual period. Since there is a minority of girls who see menstrual blood, we are concerned with regard to each Samaritan girl that she might be from this minority. The Gemara asks: And who is the tanna who taught that one must be concerned for the minority?

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Niddah 31

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 31

诪讗讬 拽专讗 诪诪注讬 讗诪讬 讗转讛 讙讜讝讬 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讙讜讝讬 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讗砖转讘讜注讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讙讝讬 谞讝专讱 讜讛砖诇讬讻讬

What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? 鈥淯pon You I have relied from birth; You are He Who took me out [gozi] of my mother鈥檚 womb鈥 (Psalms 71:6). From where may it be inferred that this word: Gozi,鈥 is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: 鈥淐ut off [gozi] your hair and cast it away鈥 (Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇诪讛 讜诇讚 讚讜诪讛 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诇讗讙讜讝 诪讜谞讞 讘住驻诇 砖诇 诪讬诐 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讗爪讘注讜 注诇讬讜 砖讜拽注 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉

And Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother鈥檚 womb comparable? It is comparable to a nut placed in a basin full of water, floating on top of the water. If a person puts his finger on top of the nut, it sinks either in this direction or in that direction.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛转讞转讜谉 讗诪爪注讬讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛讗诪爪注讬 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讜诇讚 讚专 讘诪讚讜专 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谞讜 诇爪讗转 诪转讛驻讱 讜讬讜爪讗 讜讝讛讜 讞讘诇讬 讗砖讛

The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregnancy, the fetus resides in the lower compartment of the womb; in the middle three months, the fetus resides in the middle compartment; and during the last three months of pregnancy the fetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this is what causes labor pains.

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚转谞谉 讞讘诇讬 砖诇 谞拽讘讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪砖诇 讝讻专

With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: And this is the explanation for that which we learned in a baraita: The labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male. The Gemara will explain this below.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讗砖专 注砖讬转讬 讘住转专 专拽诪转讬 讘转讞转讬讜转 讗专抓 讚专转讬 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 专拽诪转讬

And Rabbi Elazar says: What is the verse from which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? 鈥淲hen I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth鈥 (Psalms 139:15). Since it is not stated: I resided in the lowest parts of the earth, but rather: 鈥淚 was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth,鈥 this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus鈥檚 development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.

诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讞讘诇讬 谞拽讘讛 诪专讜讘讬谉 诪砖诇 讝讻专 讝讛 讘讗 讻讚专讱 转砖诪讬砖讜 讜讝讛 讘讗 讻讚专讱 转砖诪讬砖讜 讝讜 讛讜驻讻转 驻谞讬讛 讜讝讛 讗讬谉 讛讜驻讱 驻谞讬讜

The Gemara asks: What is different about the labor pains experienced by a woman who gives birth to a female, that they are greater than those experienced by a woman who gives birth to a male? The Gemara answers: This one, a male fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse. Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. And that one, a female fetus, emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse, i.e., facing upward. Consequently, that one, a female fetus, turns its face around before it is born, but this one, a male fetus, does not turn its face around before it is born.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛专讗砖讜谞讬诐 转砖诪讬砖 拽砖讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讙诐 拽砖讛 诇讜诇讚 讗诪爪注讬讬诐 拽砖讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讬驻讛 诇讜诇讚 讗讞专讜谞讬诐 讬驻讛 诇讗砖讛 讜讬驻讛 诇讜诇讚 砖诪转讜讱 讻讱 谞诪爪讗 讛讜诇讚 诪诇讜讘谉 讜诪讝讜专讝

The Sages taught in a baraita: During the first three months of pregnancy, sexual intercourse is difficult and harmful for the woman and is also difficult for the offspring. During the middle three months, intercourse is difficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring. During the last three months, sexual intercourse is beneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned.

转谞讗 讛诪砖诪砖 诪讟转讜 诇讬讜诐 转砖注讬诐 讻讗讬诇讜 砖讜驻讱 讚诪讬诐 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讗诇讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诪砖诪砖 讜讛讜诇讱 讜砖诪专 驻转讗讬诐 讛壮

The Sages taught in a baraita: With regard to one who engages in intercourse with his wife on the ninetieth day of her pregnancy, it is as though he spills her blood. The Gemara asks: How does one know that it is the ninetieth day of her pregnancy? Rather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercourse with his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, and rely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: 鈥淭he Lord preserves the simple鈥 (Psalms 116:6).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 砖讜转驻讬谉 讬砖 讘讗讚诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讗讘讬讜 诪讝专讬注 讛诇讜讘谉 砖诪诪谞讜 注爪诪讜转 讜讙讬讚讬诐 讜爪驻专谞讬诐 讜诪讜讞 砖讘专讗砖讜 讜诇讜讘谉 砖讘注讬谉 讗诪讜 诪讝专注转 讗讜讚诐 砖诪诪谞讜 注讜专 讜讘砖专 讜砖注专讜转 讜砖讞讜专 砖讘注讬谉 讜讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讜转谉 讘讜 专讜讞 讜谞砖诪讛 讜拽诇住转专 驻谞讬诐 讜专讗讬讬转 讛注讬谉 讜砖诪讬注转 讛讗讜讝谉 讜讚讘讜专 驻讛 讜讛诇讜讱 专讙诇讬诐 讜讘讬谞讛 讜讛砖讻诇

The Sages taught: There are three partners in the creation of a person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from which the following body parts are formed: The bones, the sinews, the nails, the brain that is in its head, and the white of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from which are formed the skin, the flesh, the hair, and the black of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul, his countenance [ukelaster], eyesight, hearing of the ear, the capability of speech of the mouth, the capability of walking with the legs, understanding, and wisdom.

讜讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讝诪谞讜 诇讛驻讟专 诪谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞讜讟诇 讞诇拽讜 讜讞诇拽 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 诪谞讬讞 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 驻讜抓 诪诇讞讗 讜砖讚讬 讘砖专讗 诇讻诇讘讗

And when a person鈥檚 time to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part of the person鈥檚 father and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: This is in accordance with the adage that people say: Remove the salt from a piece of meat, and you may then toss the meat to a dog, as it has become worthless.

讚专砖 专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 讙讚诇讜转 注讚 讗讬谉 讞拽专 讜谞驻诇讗讜转 注讚 讗讬谉 诪住驻专 讘讗 讜专讗讛 砖诇讗 讻诪讚转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 谞讜转谉 讞驻抓 讘讞诪转 爪专讜专讛 讜驻讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 住驻拽 诪砖转诪专 住驻拽 讗讬谉 诪砖转诪专 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 驻转讜讞讛 讜驻讬讛 诇诪讟讛 讜诪砖转诪专

Rav 岣nnana bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淲ho does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number鈥 (Job 9:10)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that if one puts an article in a flask, even if the flask is tied and its opening faces upward, it is uncertain whether the item is preserved from getting lost, and it is uncertain whether it is not preserved from being lost. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 open womb, and its opening faces downward, and yet the fetus is preserved.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讞驻爪讬讜 诇讻祝 诪讗讝谞讬诐 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讘讬讚 讬讜专讚 诇诪讟讛 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讻诇 讝诪谉 砖诪讻讘讬讚 讛讜诇讚 注讜诇讛 诇诪注诇讛

Another matter that demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when a person places his articles on a scale to be measured, the heavier the item is, the more it descends. But when the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms a fetus, the heavier the offspring gets, the more it ascends upward in the womb.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讛讙诇讬诇讬 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜讚讱 (讛壮) 注诇 讻讬 谞讜专讗讜转 谞驻诇讬转讬 谞驻诇讗讬诐 诪注砖讬讱 讜谞驻砖讬 讬讚注转 诪讗讚 讘讗 讜专讗讛 砖诇讗 讻诪讚转 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪讚转 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讗讚诐 谞讜转谉 讝专注讜谞讬诐 讘注专讜讙讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注讜诇讛 讘诪讬谞讜 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 讜讻讜诇诐 注讜诇讬谉 诇诪讬谉 讗讞讚

Rabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚 will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well鈥 (Psalms 139:14)? Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood is that when a person plants seeds of different species in one garden bed, each and every one of the seeds emerges as a grown plant according to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 womb, and all of the seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, emerge when the offspring is formed as one sex.

讚讘专 讗讞专 爪讘注 谞讜转谉 住诪谞讬谉 诇讬讜专讛 讻讜诇谉 注讜诇讬谉 诇爪讘注 讗讞讚 讜讗讬诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 爪专 讛注讜讘专 讘诪注讬 讗砖讛 讻诇 讗讞转 讜讗讞转 注讜诇讛 诇诪讬谞讜

Alternatively, when a dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [leyora], they all emerge as one color of dye, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman鈥檚 womb, and each and every one of the seeds emerges as its own type. In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above.

讚专砖 专讘 讬讜住祝 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗讜讚讱 讛壮 讻讬 讗谞驻转 讘讬 讬砖讘 讗驻讱 讜转谞讞诪谞讬 讘诪讛 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

Rav Yosef taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淎nd on that day you shall say: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me鈥 (Isaiah 12:1)? With regard to what matter is the verse speaking?

讘砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 砖讬爪讗讜 诇住讞讜专讛 讬砖讘 诇讜 拽讜抓 诇讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讛转讞讬诇 诪讞专祝 讜诪讙讚祝 诇讬诪讬诐 砖诪注 砖讟讘注讛 住驻讬谞转讜 砖诇 讞讘讬专讜 讘讬诐 讛转讞讬诇 诪讜讚讛 讜诪砖讘讞 诇讻讱 谞讗诪专 讬砖讘 讗驻讱 讜转谞讞诪谞讬

It is referring, for example, to two people who left their homes to go on a business trip. A thorn penetrated the body of one of them, and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. He started blaspheming and cursing in frustration. After a period of time, he heard that the ship of the other person had sunk in the sea, and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then started thanking God and praising Him for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. Therefore, it is stated at the end of the verse: 鈥淵our anger is turned away, and You comfort me.鈥

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 谞驻诇讗讜转 (讙讚讜诇讜转) 诇讘讚讜 讜讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚讜 诇注讜诇诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘注诇 讛谞住 讗讬谞讜 诪讻讬专 讘谞住讜

And this statement is identical to that which Rabbi Elazar said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淏lessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, Who does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever鈥 (Psalms 72:18鈥19)? What does it mean that God 鈥渄oes wondrous things alone鈥? It means that even the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miracle that was performed for him.

讚专讬砖 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讘专 驻驻讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗专讞讬 讜专讘注讬 讝专讬转 讜讻诇 讚专讻讬 讛住讻谞转讛 诪诇诪讚 砖诇讗 谞讜爪专 讗讚诐 诪谉 讻诇 讛讟驻讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛讘专讜专 砖讘讛 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讝讜专讛 讘讘讬转 讛讙专谞讜转 谞讜讟诇 讗转 讛讗讜讻诇 讜诪谞讬讞 讗转 讛驻住讜诇转

Rabbi 岣nina bar Pappa taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淵ou measure [zerita] my going about [or岣] and my lying down [riv鈥檌], and are acquainted with all my ways鈥 (Psalms 139:3)? This verse teaches that a person is not created from the entire drop of semen, but from its clear part. Zerita can mean to winnow, while or岣 and riv鈥檌 can both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: This matter is comparable to a person who winnows grain in the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste.

讻讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讚专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜转讝专谞讬 讞讬诇 讜讻转讬讘 讛讗诇 讛诪讗讝专谞讬 讞讬诇 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讝讬专讬转谞讬 讜讝专讝转谞讬

This is in accordance with a statement of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is written in one of King David鈥檚 psalms: 鈥淔or You have girded me [vatazreni] with strength for battle鈥 (II聽Samuel 22:40), without the letter alef in vatazreni; and it is written in another psalm: 鈥淲ho girds me [hame鈥檃zreni] with strength鈥 (Psalms 18:33), with an alef in hame鈥檃zreini. What is the difference between these two expressions? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [zeiritani], i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, and You have girded me [zeraztani] with strength.

讚专砖 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪讬 诪谞讛 注驻专 讬注拽讘 讜诪住驻专 讗转 专讘注 讬砖专讗诇 诪诇诪讚 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讬讜砖讘 讜住讜驻专 讗转 专讘讬注讬讜转讬讛诐 砖诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪转讬 转讘讗 讟讬驻讛 砖讛爪讚讬拽 谞讜爪专 讛讬诪谞讛

Rabbi Abbahu taught: What is the meaning of that which is written in Balaam鈥檚 blessing: 鈥淲ho has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [rova] of Israel鈥 (Numbers 23:10)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [revi鈥檌yyoteihem], anticipating the time when the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive.

讜注诇 讚讘专 讝讛 谞住诪讬转 注讬谞讜 砖诇 讘诇注诐 讛专砖注 讗诪专 诪讬 砖讛讜讗 讟讛讜专 讜拽讚讜砖 讜诪砖专转讬讜 讟讛讜专讬诐 讜拽讚讜砖讬诐 讬爪讬抓 讘讚讘专 讝讛 诪讬讚 谞住诪讬转 注讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 谞讗诐 讛讙讘专 砖转诐 讛注讬谉

And it was due to this matter that the eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: Should God, who is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blinded as a divine punishment, as it is written: 鈥淭he saying of the man whose eye is shut鈥 (Numbers 24:3).

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讻讘 注诪讛 讘诇讬诇讛 讛讜讗 诪诇诪讚 砖讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 住讬讬注 讘讗讜转讜 诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讬砖砖讻专 讞诪讜专 讙专诐 讞诪讜专 讙专诐 诇讜 诇讬砖砖讻专

And this statement is the same as that which Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written, with regard to Leah鈥檚 conceiving Issachar: 鈥淎nd he lay with her that night鈥 (Genesis 30:16)? The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act. The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, as it is stated: 鈥淚ssachar is a large-boned [garem] donkey鈥 (Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob鈥檚 donkey toward Leah鈥檚 tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby causing [garam] Leah鈥檚 conceiving Issachar.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗砖讛 诪讝专注转 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬砖 诪讝专讬注 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖讛 讻讬 转讝专讬注 讜讬诇讚讛 讝讻专

Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the woman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: 鈥淚f a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male鈥 (Leviticus 12:2).

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗砖讛 诪讝专注转 转讞讬诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 讝讻专 讗讬砖 诪讝专讬注 转讞诇讛 讬讜诇讚转 谞拽讘讛 讜诇讗 驻讬专砖讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗转 讛讚讘专 注讚 砖讘讗 专讘讬 爪讚讜拽 讜驻讬专砖讜 讗诇讛 讘谞讬 诇讗讛 讗砖专 讬诇讚讛 诇讬注拽讘 讘驻讚谉 讗专诐 讜讗转 讚讬谞讛 讘转讜 转诇讛 讛讝讻专讬诐 讘谞拽讘讜转 讜谞拽讘讜转 讘讝讻专讬诐

The Sages taught: At first, people would say that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, and if the man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explain from which verse this matter is derived, until Rabbi Tzadok came and explained that it is derived from the following verse: 鈥淭hese are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah鈥 (Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse attributes the males to the females, as the males are called: The sons of Leah, and it attributes the females to the males,in that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.

讜讬讛讬讜 讘谞讬 讗讜诇诐 讗谞砖讬诐 讙讘讜专讬 讞讬诇 讚专讻讬 拽砖转 讜诪专讘讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讜讻讬 讘讬讚讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 诇讛专讘讜转 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱

This statement is also derived from the following verse: 鈥淎nd the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons鈥 sons鈥 (I聽Chronicles 8:40). Is it in a person鈥檚 power to have many sons and sons鈥 sons? Rather, because

砖诪砖讛讬谉 注爪诪谉 讘讘讟谉 讻讚讬 砖讬讝专讬注讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 转讞诇讛 砖讬讛讜 讘谞讬讛诐 讝讻专讬诐 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讛谉 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讛诐 诪专讘讬诐 讘谞讬诐 讜讘谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 拽讟讬谞讗 讬讻讜诇谞讬 诇注砖讜转 讻诇 讘谞讬 讝讻专讬诐 讗诪专 专讘讗 讛专讜爪讛 诇注砖讜转 讻诇 讘谞讬讜 讝讻专讬诐 讬讘注讜诇 讜讬砖谞讛

they delay while in their wives鈥 abdomen, initially refraining from emitting semen so that their wives will emit seed first, in order that their children will be male, the verse ascribes them credit as though they have many sons and sons鈥 sons. And this statement is the same as that which Rav Ketina said: I could have made all of my children males, by refraining from emitting seed until my wife emitted seed first. Rava says another method through which one can cause his children to be males: One who wishes to make all of his children males should engage in intercourse with his wife and repeat the act.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪转注讘专转 讗诇讗 住诪讜讱 诇讜住转讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛谉 讘注讜讜谉 讞讜诇诇转讬

And Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: A woman becomes pregnant only by engaging in intercourse close to the onset of her menstrual cycle, as it is stated: 鈥淏ehold, I was brought forth in iniquity鈥 (Psalms 51:7). This iniquity is referring to intercourse close to the woman鈥檚 menstrual cycle, when intercourse is prohibited. Accordingly, David is saying that his mother presumably conceived him at this time.

讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 住诪讜讱 诇讟讘讬诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘讞讟讗 讬讞诪转谞讬 讗诪讬

And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: A woman becomes pregnant only by engaging in intercourse near the time of her immersion in a ritual bath, through which she is purified from her status as a menstruating woman, as it is stated in the continuation of the same verse: 鈥淎nd in sin [uv岣t] did my mother conceive me鈥 (Psalms 51:7).

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讞讟讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讚讻讜讬讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讜讞讟讗 讗转 讛讘讬转 讜诪转专讙诪讬谞谉 讜讬讚讻讬 讬转 讘讬转讗 讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 转讞讟讗谞讬 讘讗讝讜讘 讜讗讟讛专

The Gemara explains this derivation: From where may it be inferred that this term 鈥岣t鈥 is a reference to purity? The Gemara answers: As it is written with regard to leprosy of houses: Ve岣ttei the house鈥 (Leviticus 14:52), and we translate the verse into Aramaic as: And he shall purify the house. And if you wish, say that the interpretation is derived from here: 鈥淧urge me [te岣tte鈥檈ni] with hyssop, and I shall be pure鈥 (Psalms 51:9). Evidently, the root 岣t, tet, alef refers to purification.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讻讬讜谉 砖讘讗 讝讻专 讘注讜诇诐 讘讗 砖诇讜诐 讘注讜诇诐 砖谞讗诪专 砖诇讞讜 讻专 诪讜砖诇 讗专抓 讝讻专 讝讛 讻专

And Rabbi Yitz岣k says that Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, i.e., when a male baby is born, peace comes to the world, as it is stated: 鈥淪end the lambs [khar] for the ruler of the land鈥 (Isaiah 16:1). This khar, or kar, a gift one sends the ruler, contributes to the stability of the government and peace, and the word male [zakhar] can be interpreted homiletically as an abbreviation of: This is a kar [zeh kar].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讘讗 讝讻专 讘注讜诇诐 讘讗 讻讻专讜 讘讬讚讜 讝讻专 讝讛 讻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讻专讛 诇讛诐 讻专讛 讙讚讜诇讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k from the school of Rabbi Ami says: When a male comes into the world, his loaf of bread, i.e., his sustenance, comes into his possession. In other words, a male can provide for himself. This is based on the aforementioned interpretation of the word male [zakhar] as an abbreviation of: This is a kar [zeh kar], and the term kar refers to sustenance, as it is written: 鈥淎nd he prepared great provision [kera] for them鈥 (II聽Kings 6:23).

谞拽讘讛 讗讬谉 注诪讛 讻诇讜诐 谞拽讘讛 谞拽讬讬讛 讘讗讛 注讚 讚讗诪专讛 诪讝讜谞讬 诇讗 讬讛讘讬 诇讛 讚讻转讬讘 谞拽讘讛 砖讻专讱 注诇讬 讜讗转谞讛

By contrast, when a female comes into the world, nothing, i.e., no sustenance, comes with her. This is derived from the homiletic interpretation of the word female [nekeva] as an abbreviation of the phrase: She comes clean [nekiya ba鈥檃], i.e., empty. Furthermore, until she says: Give me sustenance, people do not give her, as it is written in Laban鈥檚 request of Jacob: 鈥淎ppoint me [nokva] your wages, and I will give it鈥 (Genesis 30:28). Laban used the word nokva, similar to nekeva, when he said that he would pay Jacob only if he explicitly demanded his wages.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讬讜讞讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讬讜诇讚转 诪讘讬讗讛 拽专讘谉 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘砖注讛 砖讻讜专注转 诇讬诇讚 拽讜驻爪转 讜谞砖讘注转 砖诇讗 转讝拽拽 诇讘注诇讛 诇驻讬讻讱 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 转讘讬讗 拽专讘谉

The students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i asked him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman after childbirth brings an offering? He said to them: At the time that a woman crouches to give birth, her pain is so great that she impulsively takes an oath that she will not engage in intercourse with her husband ever again, so that she will never again experience this pain. Therefore, the Torah says that she must bring an offering for violating her oath and continuing to engage in intercourse with her husband.

诪转拽讬祝 诇讛 专讘 讬讜住祝 讜讛讗 诪讝讬讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讘讞专讟讛 转诇讬讗 诪讬诇转讗 讜注讜讚 拽专讘谉 砖讘讜注讛 讘注讬 讗讬转讜讬讬

Rav Yosef objects to this answer: But isn鈥檛 the woman an intentional violator of her oath? And if she wishes that her oath be dissolved, so that she may engage in intercourse with her husband, the matter depends on her regret of her oath. One is obligated to bring an offering for violating an oath of an utterance only if his transgression is unwitting. And furthermore, if the purpose of the offering that a woman brings after childbirth is to atone for violating an oath, then she should be required to bring a female lamb or goat as an offering, which is the requirement of one who violated an oath, rather than the bird offering brought by a woman after childbirth.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讝讻专 诇砖讘注讛 讜谞拽讘讛 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讝讻专 砖讛讻诇 砖诪讞讬诐 讘讜 诪转讞专讟转 诇砖讘注讛 谞拽讘讛 砖讛讻诇 注爪讘讬诐 讘讛 诪转讞专讟转 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专

And the students of Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i further inquired of him: For what reason does the Torah say that a woman who gives birth to a male is ritually impure for seven days, but a woman who gives birth to a female is impure for fourteen days? Rabbi Shimon ben Yo岣i answered them: When a woman gives birth to a male, over which everyone is happy, she regrets her oath, that she will never again engage in intercourse with her husband, already seven days after giving birth. By contrast, after giving birth to a female, over which everyone is unhappy, she regrets her oath only fourteen days after giving birth.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 诪讬诇讛 诇砖诪讜谞讛 砖诇讗 讬讛讜 讻讜诇诐 砖诪讞讬诐 讜讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 注爪讘讬诐

And the students further asked him: For what reason does the Torah say that circumcision is performed only on the eighth day of the baby鈥檚 life, and not beforehand? He answered them: It is so that there will not be a situation where everyone is happy at the circumcision ceremony but the father and mother of the infant are unhappy, as they are still prohibited from engaging in intercourse.

转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 谞讚讛 诇砖讘注讛 诪驻谞讬 砖专讙讬诇 讘讛 讜拽抓 讘讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 转讛讗 讟诪讗讛 砖讘注讛 讬诪讬诐 讻讚讬 砖转讛讗 讞讘讬讘讛 注诇 讘注诇讛 讻砖注转 讻谞讬住转讛 诇讞讜驻讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: For what reason does the Torah say that a menstruating woman is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband for seven days? It is because if a woman were permitted to engage in intercourse with her husband all the time, her husband would be too accustomed to her, and would eventually be repulsed by her. Therefore, the Torah says that a menstruating woman shall be ritually impure for seven days, during which she is prohibited from engaging in intercourse with her husband, so that when she becomes pure again she will be dear to her husband as at the time when she entered the wedding canopy with him.

砖讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬讜 讗转 专讘讬 讚讜住转讗讬 讘专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬砖 诪讞讝专 注诇 讗砖讛 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪讞讝专转 注诇 讗讬砖 诪砖诇 诇讗讚诐 砖讗讘讚 诇讜 讗讘讬讚讛 诪讬 诪讞讝专 注诇 诪讬 讘注诇 讗讘讬讚讛 诪讞讝讬专 注诇 讗讘讬讚转讜

The students of Rabbi Dostai, son of Rabbi Yannai, asked him: For what reason is it the norm that a man pursues a woman for marriage, but a woman does not pursue a man? Rabbi Dostai answered them by citing a parable of a person who lost an item. Who searches for what? Certainly the owner of the lost item searches for his item; the item does not search for its owner. Since the first woman was created from the body of the first man, the man seeks that which he has lost.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬砖 驻谞讬讜 诇诪讟讛 讜讗砖讛 驻谞讬讛 诇诪注诇讛 讻诇驻讬 讛讗讬砖 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转

And the students of Rabbi Dostai further asked him: For what reason does a man engage in intercourse facing down, and a woman engage in intercourse facing up toward the man? Rabbi Dostai answered them: This man faces the place from which he was created, i.e., the earth, and that woman faces the place from which she was created, namely man.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讛讗讬砖 诪拽讘诇 驻讬讜住 讜讗讬谉 讗砖讛 诪拽讘诇转 驻讬讜住 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转

And the students also inquired: For what reason is a man who is angry likely to accept appeasement, but a woman is not as likely to accept appeasement? Rabbi Dostai answered them: It is because this man behaves like the place from which he was created, i.e., the earth, which yields to pressure, and that woman behaves like the place from which she was created, i.e., from bone, which cannot be molded easily.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗砖讛 拽讜诇讛 注专讘 讜讗讬谉 讗讬砖 拽讜诇讜 注专讘 讝讛 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗 讜讝讜 诪诪拽讜诐 砖谞讘专讗转 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 拽讜诇讱 注专讘 讜诪专讗讱 谞讗讜讛

The students continued to ask Rabbi Dostai: For what reason is a woman鈥檚 voice pleasant, but a man鈥檚 voice is not pleasant? He answered: This man is similar to the place from which he was created, the earth, which does not issue a sound when it is struck, and that woman is similar to the place from which she was created, a bone, which makes a sound when it is struck. The proof that a woman鈥檚 voice is pleasant is that it is stated in Song of Songs that the man says to his beloved: 鈥淔or sweet is your voice, and your countenance is beautiful鈥 (Song of Songs 2:14).

讛讚专谉 注诇讱 讛诪驻诇转 讞转讬讻讛

 

诪转谞讬壮 讘谞讜转 讻讜转讬诐 谞讚讜转 诪注专讬住转谉 讜讛讻讜转讬诐 诪讟诪讗讬诐 诪砖讻讘 转讞转讜谉 讻注诇讬讜谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛谉 讘讜注诇讬 谞讚讜转

MISHNA: Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. And the Samaritan men impart ritual impurity to the lower bedding like the upper bedding, i.e., all layers of bedding beneath them are impure, and their status is like the bedding above a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge [zav]: The status of both levels of bedding is that of first-degree ritual impurity, which can impart impurity to food and drink. This is due to the fact that Samaritan men are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women.

讜讛谉 讬讜砖讘讜转 注诇 讻诇 讚诐 讜讚诐

And they are considered men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women because Samaritan women observe the seven-day menstrual period of ritual impurity for each and every emission of blood, even for blood that does not render them impure. Accordingly, if a Samaritan woman has an emission of impure blood during the seven-day period, she will nevertheless continue counting seven days from the first emission. It is therefore possible that the Samaritan men will engage in intercourse with their wives while they are still halakhically considered menstruating women, as the seven-day period of impurity should have been counted from the emission of the impure blood.

讜讗讬谉 讞讬讬讘讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注诇 讘讬讗转 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬谉 砖讜专驻讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 讗转 讛转专讜诪讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讟讜诪讗转谉 住驻拽

But one who enters the Temple while wearing those garments upon which a Samaritan had lain is not liable to bring an offering for entering the Temple in a status of impurity, nor does one burn teruma that came into contact with those garments, because their impurity is uncertain.

讙诪壮 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 讚拽讗 讞讝讬讬谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讬讚谉 谞诪讬 讜讗讬 讚诇讗 拽讞讝讬讬谉 讚讬讚讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讗

GEMARA: The mishna teaches that Samaritan girls are considered menstruating women from the time they lie in their cradle. The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances of this statement? If the mishna is referring to girls who already see menstrual blood, then even our own, i.e., Jewish girls, are also considered menstruating women under such circumstances. And if it is referring to girls who do not yet see menstrual blood, then their girls, i.e., those of the Samaritans, should also not have the status of menstruating women.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘住转诪讗 讚讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬讻讗 诪讬注讜讟讗 讚讞讝讬讬谉 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 讜诪讗谉 转谞讗 讚讞讬讬砖 诇诪讬注讜讟讗

Rava, son of Rav A岣 bar Rav Huna, says that Rav Sheshet says: Here we are dealing with an unspecified case, i.e., it is unknown whether these girls have experienced their first menstrual period. Since there is a minority of girls who see menstrual blood, we are concerned with regard to each Samaritan girl that she might be from this minority. The Gemara asks: And who is the tanna who taught that one must be concerned for the minority?

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