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Today's Daf Yomi

December 29, 2019 | 讗壮 讘讟讘转 转砖状驻

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Niddah 67

What types of water is somewhat problematic for using for a mikveh? Which are not allowed at all? The gemara deals with laws of chatzitza – a separation between one’s body and the water. In what situations does a woman need to be concerned there was a chatzitza even if she doesn’t see it after leaving the mikveh? What is considered a chatzitza by Torah law? By rabbinic law? In what form should the woman’s body be when toveling? Can a woman go to the mikveh during the day – on the eighth day? On the seventh day? Can there be a separation of a day, two days, three days between shampooing/washing and tevila?


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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讘谞诪诇 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛砖转讗 诇讬讻讗 讗讬诪专 讘专讚讬讜谞讬 谞驻诇

in a port [banamal], where the boats are drawn up onto shore, as there is a lot of mud there, which can stick to her and interpose between her and the water. Even though now, after the immersion, there is no mud stuck to her feet or body, one can say that perhaps while she walked back after immersing the mud fell off. Since one cannot be certain that there was no mud stuck to her body while she immersed, she may not immerse in a port.

讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 注讘讚 诇讘谞转讬讛 诪拽讜讜讗讜转 讘讬讜诪讬 谞讬住谉 讜诪驻爪讬 讘讬讜诪讬 转砖专讬

The Gemara relates that Shmuel鈥檚 father prepared ritual baths for his daughters in the days of Nisan, by digging holes and letting them fill with natural rainwater, and he placed mats in the Euphrates River in the days of Tishrei. Since the water was shallow and the riverbed was muddy, he placed mats on the riverbed so that they could immerse without getting dirty.

讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞转谞讛 转讘砖讬诇 诇讘谞讛 讜讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛砖转讗 诇讬讻讗 讗讬诪专 讘专讚讬讜谞讬 谞驻诇

The Gemara cites a similar halakha involving the interposition of an item during immersion. Rav Giddel says that Rav says: If a woman gave a cooked dish to her son, and afterward she immersed in a ritual bath and ascended from the ritual bath, the immersion is ineffective for her. The reason is that even though now, after the immersion, there is no food stuck to her body, one can say that perhaps as she walked back after immersing the food fell off. Since one cannot be certain that there was no food stuck to her body while she immersed, she should not handle food immediately before immersing.

讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讛谞讬 专讘讚讬 讚讻讜住讬诇转讗 注讚 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 诇讗 讞讬讬爪讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讞讬讬爪讬

Rami bar Abba said: With regard to these bloodletting incisions [ravdei dekhusilta], until three days have passed since the bloodletting, when they have not yet formed a hard scab, they do not interpose and invalidate an immersion. From this point forward they interpose, as the scab is too hard for the water to penetrate.

讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇驻诇讜祝 砖讘注讬谉 诇讞 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讬讘砖 讞讜爪抓 讗讬诪转讬 谞拽专讗 讬讘砖 诪砖注讛 砖诪转讞讬诇 诇讬专拽

Mar Ukva said: With regard to mucus that is in the eye, if it is moist, it does not interpose and invalidate an immersion. But if the mucus is dry and hard it interposes. When is it called dry? It is called dry from the time that it begins to turn yellow.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讞讜诇 砖讘转讜讱 讛注讬谉 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讜砖注诇 讙讘讬 讛注讬谉 讞讜爪抓 讗诐 讛讬讜 注讬谞讬讛 驻讜专讞讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讛注讬谉 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓

Shmuel says: Eye shadow that is in the eye does not interpose and invalidate an immersion. But eye shadow that is on or around the eye interposes. And if the woman鈥檚 eyes were constantly blinking, then even eye shadow that is on or around the eye does not interpose, as the constant blinking removes the eye shadow.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 驻转讞讛 注讬谞讬讛 讘讬讜转专 讗讜 注爪诪讛 注讬谞讬讛 讘讬讜转专 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: If a woman opened her eyes very wide or closed her eyes very tightly while immersing, this immersion is ineffective for her. Such open or closed eyelids prevent the water from reaching the creases around the eyes.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讗砖讛 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 讗诇讗 讚专讱 讙讚讬诇转讛 讻讚转谞谉 讛讗讬砖 谞专讗讛 讻注讜讚专 讜诪讜住拽 讝讬转讬诐 讗砖讛 谞专讗转 讻讗讜专讙转 讜讻诪谞讬拽讛 讗转 讘谞讛

Reish Lakish says: A woman may immerse herself in a ritual bath only in the manner that she grows, i.e., she may not force her arms to her sides or close her legs tightly. She is not obligated to spread her limbs widely, but simply stand in her normal manner. As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 2:4): When a man has a leprous mark between his legs and stands before a priest for inspection, he should appear like one who is hoeing, i.e., with his legs slightly apart, and if it is under his arm, he should appear like one who is harvesting olives, with his arms slightly raised. If the mark is not visible when he is standing in that manner, it is not impure. By contrast, a woman with a leprous mark between her legs should appear like one who is weaving, and if the mark is beneath her breast she should appear like a woman who is nursing her son.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讗讞转 拽砖讜专讛 讞讜爪爪转

Rabba bar Rav Huna says: A single hair tied in a knot interposes and invalidates an immersion.

砖诇砖 讗讬谞谉 讞讜爪爪讜转 砖转讬诐 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗谞讜 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讗诇讗 讗讞转

Three hairs tied together in a knot do not interpose, as three hairs cannot be tied so tightly that water cannot penetrate them. With regard to two hairs tied together in a knot, I do not know the halakha. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: We have a tradition that only one hair interposes, but two or more do not prevent the water from reaching the body.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讘专 转讜专讛 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 注诇讬讜 讞讜爪抓 专讜讘讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 注诇讬讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讜讙讝专讜 注诇 专讜讘讜 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 讜讙讝专讜 注诇 诪讬注讜讟讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: By Torah law, if there is an interposition between a person and the water, and it covers the majority of his body, and he is particular and wants the interposing substance removed, it interposes and invalidates an immersion in a ritual bath. But if it covers the majority of his body but he is not particular about that substance, it does not interpose. But the Sages issued a decree prohibiting substances covering the majority of his body with regard to which he is not particular, due to substances covering the majority of his body about which he is particular. And likewise, they issued a decree against substances covering the minority of his body with regard to which he is particular, due to substances covering the majority of his body about which he is particular.

讜诇讙讝讜专 谞诪讬 注诇 诪讬注讜讟讜 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 诪讬注讜讟讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 讛讬讗 讙讜驻讛 讙讝专讛 讜讗谞谉 谞讬拽讜诐 讜谞讙讝讜专 讙讝专讛 诇讙讝专讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But let them also issue a decree prohibiting substances covering the minority of his body with regard to which he is not particular, due to substances covering the minority of his body about which he is particular. The Gemara answers: The Sages did not issue such a decree, as that prohibition is itself a rabbinic decree, and will we arise and issue a decree to prevent the violation of another decree?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讚讛 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 讜砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讘讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 诪砖讜诐 住专讱 讘转讛

搂 The Gemara returns to discuss the issue of the correct time for immersion. Rav says: A menstruating woman who wishes to immerse to complete her purification process at her time, i.e., at the end of seven days, may immerse only at night, i.e., on the night after the seventh day, the night of the eighth day. But a woman who wishes to immerse not at her time, i.e., on the eighth day or afterward, may immerse either during the day or at night. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Whether she is immersing at her time or not at her time, she may immerse only at night. This is because her daughter might follow her example when she is old enough, and also immerse in the daytime, but she may do so on the seventh day, when immersion is not valid.

讜讗祝 专讘 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讚讛 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 诪砖讜诐 住专讱 讘转讛

And even Rav retracted his opinion and ruled that a woman who is immersing after menstruation may never do so during the day. As Rabbi 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: A menstruating woman who wishes to immerse to complete her purification process, whether at her time or whether not at her time, may immerse only at night, because her daughter might follow her example and immerse during the daytime of the seventh day.

讗转拽讬谉 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘谞专砖 诇诪讟讘诇 讘讬讜诪讗 讚转诪谞讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讗专讬讜转讗 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讘驻驻讜谞讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讙谞讘讬

The Gemara cites examples of Sages who permitted immersion on the eighth day due to exceptional circumstances. Rav Idi decreed in Neresh that the women may immerse during the daytime on the eighth day due to the lions that roamed the area at night and posed a threat to women who immersed at that time. Rav A岣 bar Yaakov decreed in Pappunya that the women should immerse during the daytime on the eighth day due to thieves who posed a threat to women who immersed at that night.

专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讛 专讘讗 讘诪讞讜讝讗 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讜诇讗讬

Similarly, Rav Yehuda decreed in Pumbedita that the women should immerse in the daytime on the eighth day due to the cold of the night. Rava decreed in Me岣za that the women should immerse in the daytime on the eighth day due to the gatekeepers [abula鈥檈i], who were untrustworthy and might hurt the women on their way to and from immersion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜诇讗讘讬讬 诪讻讚讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讻讜诇讛讜 住驻拽 讝讘讜转 砖讜讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讬讟讘诇讬谞讛讜 讘讬诪诪讗 讚砖讘讬注讗讛

Rav Pappa said to Rava and to Abaye: Since nowadays the Sages have given all women who menstruate the status of an uncertain greater zava, may they immerse on the seventh day during the daytime? A greater zava, after counting seven clean days, may immerse on the seventh day. Since all women who menstruate now count seven clean days after the bleeding ceases, more than seven days from the onset of her menstruating have passed by the seventh clean day.

诪砖讜诐 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专 转讟讛专 讗讞专 讗讞专 诇讻讜诇谉 砖诇讗 转讛讗 讟讜诪讗讛 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讞专 转讟讛专 讗讞专 诪注砖讛 转讟讛专

Rava and Abaye replied that they may nevertheless not immerse on the seventh day, due to the statement of Rabbi Shimon. As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淏ut if she be purified of her ziva, then she shall count to herself seven days, and after that she shall be pure鈥 (Leviticus 15:28). The purification of a zava must be after the seven days, i.e., after all of the days, which must be consecutive so that there are no days of impurity separating between the seven clean days. Rabbi Shimon says that the phrase 鈥淎nd after that she shall be pure鈥 teaches that after the action of counting seven clean days she shall be pure. In other words, once she has examined herself at the beginning of the seventh day she may immerse on that day.

讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讻谉 砖诪讗 转讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽

Rabbi Shimon continues: But the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, i.e., to immerse on the seventh day, lest she come to a case of uncertainty. If she were to engage in intercourse with her husband on that seventh day after immersion, and afterward on the same day she experiences bleeding, it would retroactively nullify her entire seven clean days, which would mean that she engaged in intercourse with her husband while she was impure, rendering them both liable to receive the punishment of karet.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转

Rav Huna says: A woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the third day of the week, i.e., Monday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Monday night.

讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘专讘讬注讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转

Similarly, a woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the fourth day of the week, Tuesday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of the Festival that occurs after Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Tuesday night.

讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转

Furthermore, a woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the fifth day of the week, Wednesday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of two days of Rosh HaShana that occurs after Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Wednesday night.

讜专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖讻谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚讗驻砖专 讗驻砖专 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专 诇讗 讗驻砖专

But Rav 岣sda said: We say that all of these long gaps between a woman washing her hair and immersing are permitted. But we do not say as proof that since a woman washes her hair before Shabbat and immerses only several days later, she may do so during a regular week as well. One cannot learn this halakha from those situations involving Shabbat, as one cannot derive cases where alternatives are possible from those cases where alternatives are not possible. Where it is possible for a woman to wash her hair and immerse immediately, it is possible, and she is not allowed to do so any earlier. But where it is not possible for a woman to wash her hair immediately before immersion, e.g., when she must immerse after the conclusion of Shabbat or a festival, it is impossible, and for this reason she is permitted to wash her hair in advance.

讜专讘 讬讬诪专 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讻谉 谞诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讘专 诪讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讚诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讗讞专 讛砖讘转 诇讬转讗 讚讗驻砖专 讚讞讜驻驻转 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诇讬诇讛

And Rav Yeimar said: We even say the proof that since a woman washes her hair before Shabbat and immerses only several days later, she may do so during a regular week as well. Rav Yeimar agrees with Rav Huna in all cases apart from that of a woman who washes her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerses on the fifth day of the week, Wednesday night. He maintains that Rav Huna鈥檚 proof from the conclusion of two days of Rosh HaShana that is after Shabbat is not a sufficient proof, as even in such a case a woman may not wait so long. Rather, it is possible for her to wash her hair at night after the conclusion of Rosh HaShana and immerse on that same night, so that she should not have such a long gap between washing her hair and immersing.

讚专砖 诪专讬诪专 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讻讚诪转专抓 专讘 讬讬诪专

Mareimar taught: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, that a woman should not wash her hair many days before immersing except when there is no other possibility. And the halakha is also in accordance with the manner in which Rav Yeimar explains that if Rosh HaShana occurs after Shabbat a woman should wash her hair on the night of her immersion.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗砖讛 诪讛讜 砖转讞讜祝 讘诇讬诇讛 讜转讟讘讜诇 讘诇讬诇讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讜住专 讜专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 诪住讜专讗 砖专讬

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to whether a woman may wash her hair at night and immerse on that same night? Mar Zutra deems it prohibited for her to do so. Since she will be in a hurry to immerse and return to her husband, there is a concern that she will not wash and examine her hair thoroughly. And Rav 岣nnana from Sura deems it permitted for a woman to wash her hair on the night of her immersion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讚讗 诇专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 诪住讜专讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讘讚讘讬转讛讜 讚讗讘讗 诪专讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚讗讬拽讜讟 讗讝诇 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇驻讬讜住讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬转讬讛 讛砖转讗

Rav Adda said to Rav 岣nnana from Sura: Was there not an incident like this involving the wife of Abba Mari, the Exilarch, who quarreled with her husband, and as a result she did not want to immerse in a ritual bath to become permitted to him; and Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k went to appease her and to persuade her to immerse, and she said to him: What is there that can be done now? There is no reason for me to hurry and immerse now.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Niddah 67

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Niddah 67

讘谞诪诇 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛砖转讗 诇讬讻讗 讗讬诪专 讘专讚讬讜谞讬 谞驻诇

in a port [banamal], where the boats are drawn up onto shore, as there is a lot of mud there, which can stick to her and interpose between her and the water. Even though now, after the immersion, there is no mud stuck to her feet or body, one can say that perhaps while she walked back after immersing the mud fell off. Since one cannot be certain that there was no mud stuck to her body while she immersed, she may not immerse in a port.

讗讘讜讛 讚砖诪讜讗诇 注讘讚 诇讘谞转讬讛 诪拽讜讜讗讜转 讘讬讜诪讬 谞讬住谉 讜诪驻爪讬 讘讬讜诪讬 转砖专讬

The Gemara relates that Shmuel鈥檚 father prepared ritual baths for his daughters in the days of Nisan, by digging holes and letting them fill with natural rainwater, and he placed mats in the Euphrates River in the days of Tishrei. Since the water was shallow and the riverbed was muddy, he placed mats on the riverbed so that they could immerse without getting dirty.

讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 谞转谞讛 转讘砖讬诇 诇讘谞讛 讜讟讘诇讛 讜注诇转讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讛砖转讗 诇讬讻讗 讗讬诪专 讘专讚讬讜谞讬 谞驻诇

The Gemara cites a similar halakha involving the interposition of an item during immersion. Rav Giddel says that Rav says: If a woman gave a cooked dish to her son, and afterward she immersed in a ritual bath and ascended from the ritual bath, the immersion is ineffective for her. The reason is that even though now, after the immersion, there is no food stuck to her body, one can say that perhaps as she walked back after immersing the food fell off. Since one cannot be certain that there was no food stuck to her body while she immersed, she should not handle food immediately before immersing.

讗诪专 专诪讬 讘专 讗讘讗 讛谞讬 专讘讚讬 讚讻讜住讬诇转讗 注讚 转诇转讗 讬讜诪讬 诇讗 讞讬讬爪讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 讞讬讬爪讬

Rami bar Abba said: With regard to these bloodletting incisions [ravdei dekhusilta], until three days have passed since the bloodletting, when they have not yet formed a hard scab, they do not interpose and invalidate an immersion. From this point forward they interpose, as the scab is too hard for the water to penetrate.

讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 诇驻诇讜祝 砖讘注讬谉 诇讞 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讬讘砖 讞讜爪抓 讗讬诪转讬 谞拽专讗 讬讘砖 诪砖注讛 砖诪转讞讬诇 诇讬专拽

Mar Ukva said: With regard to mucus that is in the eye, if it is moist, it does not interpose and invalidate an immersion. But if the mucus is dry and hard it interposes. When is it called dry? It is called dry from the time that it begins to turn yellow.

讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讞讜诇 砖讘转讜讱 讛注讬谉 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讜砖注诇 讙讘讬 讛注讬谉 讞讜爪抓 讗诐 讛讬讜 注讬谞讬讛 驻讜专讞讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 注诇 讙讘讬 讛注讬谉 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓

Shmuel says: Eye shadow that is in the eye does not interpose and invalidate an immersion. But eye shadow that is on or around the eye interposes. And if the woman鈥檚 eyes were constantly blinking, then even eye shadow that is on or around the eye does not interpose, as the constant blinking removes the eye shadow.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 驻转讞讛 注讬谞讬讛 讘讬讜转专 讗讜 注爪诪讛 注讬谞讬讛 讘讬讜转专 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讛 讟讘讬诇讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan says: If a woman opened her eyes very wide or closed her eyes very tightly while immersing, this immersion is ineffective for her. Such open or closed eyelids prevent the water from reaching the creases around the eyes.

讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讛讗砖讛 诇讗 转讟讘讜诇 讗诇讗 讚专讱 讙讚讬诇转讛 讻讚转谞谉 讛讗讬砖 谞专讗讛 讻注讜讚专 讜诪讜住拽 讝讬转讬诐 讗砖讛 谞专讗转 讻讗讜专讙转 讜讻诪谞讬拽讛 讗转 讘谞讛

Reish Lakish says: A woman may immerse herself in a ritual bath only in the manner that she grows, i.e., she may not force her arms to her sides or close her legs tightly. She is not obligated to spread her limbs widely, but simply stand in her normal manner. As we learned in a mishna (Nega鈥檌m 2:4): When a man has a leprous mark between his legs and stands before a priest for inspection, he should appear like one who is hoeing, i.e., with his legs slightly apart, and if it is under his arm, he should appear like one who is harvesting olives, with his arms slightly raised. If the mark is not visible when he is standing in that manner, it is not impure. By contrast, a woman with a leprous mark between her legs should appear like one who is weaving, and if the mark is beneath her breast she should appear like a woman who is nursing her son.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讗讞转 拽砖讜专讛 讞讜爪爪转

Rabba bar Rav Huna says: A single hair tied in a knot interposes and invalidates an immersion.

砖诇砖 讗讬谞谉 讞讜爪爪讜转 砖转讬诐 讗讬谞讬 讬讜讚注 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗谞讜 讗讬谉 诇谞讜 讗诇讗 讗讞转

Three hairs tied together in a knot do not interpose, as three hairs cannot be tied so tightly that water cannot penetrate them. With regard to two hairs tied together in a knot, I do not know the halakha. And Rabbi Yo岣nan says: We have a tradition that only one hair interposes, but two or more do not prevent the water from reaching the body.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讘专 转讜专讛 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 注诇讬讜 讞讜爪抓 专讜讘讜 讜讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 注诇讬讜 讗讬谞讜 讞讜爪抓 讜讙讝专讜 注诇 专讜讘讜 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 讜讙讝专讜 注诇 诪讬注讜讟讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 专讜讘讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚

Rabbi Yitz岣k says: By Torah law, if there is an interposition between a person and the water, and it covers the majority of his body, and he is particular and wants the interposing substance removed, it interposes and invalidates an immersion in a ritual bath. But if it covers the majority of his body but he is not particular about that substance, it does not interpose. But the Sages issued a decree prohibiting substances covering the majority of his body with regard to which he is not particular, due to substances covering the majority of his body about which he is particular. And likewise, they issued a decree against substances covering the minority of his body with regard to which he is particular, due to substances covering the majority of his body about which he is particular.

讜诇讙讝讜专 谞诪讬 注诇 诪讬注讜讟讜 砖讗讬谞讜 诪拽驻讬讚 诪砖讜诐 诪讬注讜讟讜 讛诪拽驻讬讚 讛讬讗 讙讜驻讛 讙讝专讛 讜讗谞谉 谞讬拽讜诐 讜谞讙讝讜专 讙讝专讛 诇讙讝专讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But let them also issue a decree prohibiting substances covering the minority of his body with regard to which he is not particular, due to substances covering the minority of his body about which he is particular. The Gemara answers: The Sages did not issue such a decree, as that prohibition is itself a rabbinic decree, and will we arise and issue a decree to prevent the violation of another decree?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讚讛 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 讜砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讘讬谉 讘讬讜诐 讘讬谉 讘诇讬诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 诪砖讜诐 住专讱 讘转讛

搂 The Gemara returns to discuss the issue of the correct time for immersion. Rav says: A menstruating woman who wishes to immerse to complete her purification process at her time, i.e., at the end of seven days, may immerse only at night, i.e., on the night after the seventh day, the night of the eighth day. But a woman who wishes to immerse not at her time, i.e., on the eighth day or afterward, may immerse either during the day or at night. Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Whether she is immersing at her time or not at her time, she may immerse only at night. This is because her daughter might follow her example when she is old enough, and also immerse in the daytime, but she may do so on the seventh day, when immersion is not valid.

讜讗祝 专讘 讛讚专 讘讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗砖讬 讗诪专 专讘 谞讚讛 讘讬谉 讘讝诪谞讛 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 讘讝诪谞讛 讗讬谞讛 讟讜讘诇转 讗诇讗 讘诇讬诇讛 诪砖讜诐 住专讱 讘转讛

And even Rav retracted his opinion and ruled that a woman who is immersing after menstruation may never do so during the day. As Rabbi 岣yya bar Ashi said that Rav said: A menstruating woman who wishes to immerse to complete her purification process, whether at her time or whether not at her time, may immerse only at night, because her daughter might follow her example and immerse during the daytime of the seventh day.

讗转拽讬谉 专讘 讗讬讚讬 讘谞专砖 诇诪讟讘诇 讘讬讜诪讗 讚转诪谞讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讗专讬讜转讗 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讘驻驻讜谞讬讗 诪砖讜诐 讙谞讘讬

The Gemara cites examples of Sages who permitted immersion on the eighth day due to exceptional circumstances. Rav Idi decreed in Neresh that the women may immerse during the daytime on the eighth day due to the lions that roamed the area at night and posed a threat to women who immersed at that time. Rav A岣 bar Yaakov decreed in Pappunya that the women should immerse during the daytime on the eighth day due to thieves who posed a threat to women who immersed at that night.

专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 诪砖讜诐 爪谞讛 专讘讗 讘诪讞讜讝讗 诪砖讜诐 讗讘讜诇讗讬

Similarly, Rav Yehuda decreed in Pumbedita that the women should immerse in the daytime on the eighth day due to the cold of the night. Rava decreed in Me岣za that the women should immerse in the daytime on the eighth day due to the gatekeepers [abula鈥檈i], who were untrustworthy and might hurt the women on their way to and from immersion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇专讘讗 讜诇讗讘讬讬 诪讻讚讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讻讜诇讛讜 住驻拽 讝讘讜转 砖讜讬谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 诇讬讟讘诇讬谞讛讜 讘讬诪诪讗 讚砖讘讬注讗讛

Rav Pappa said to Rava and to Abaye: Since nowadays the Sages have given all women who menstruate the status of an uncertain greater zava, may they immerse on the seventh day during the daytime? A greater zava, after counting seven clean days, may immerse on the seventh day. Since all women who menstruate now count seven clean days after the bleeding ceases, more than seven days from the onset of her menstruating have passed by the seventh clean day.

诪砖讜诐 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚转谞讬讗 讗讞专 转讟讛专 讗讞专 讗讞专 诇讻讜诇谉 砖诇讗 转讛讗 讟讜诪讗讛 诪驻住拽转 讘讬谞讬讛谉 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗讞专 转讟讛专 讗讞专 诪注砖讛 转讟讛专

Rava and Abaye replied that they may nevertheless not immerse on the seventh day, due to the statement of Rabbi Shimon. As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淏ut if she be purified of her ziva, then she shall count to herself seven days, and after that she shall be pure鈥 (Leviticus 15:28). The purification of a zava must be after the seven days, i.e., after all of the days, which must be consecutive so that there are no days of impurity separating between the seven clean days. Rabbi Shimon says that the phrase 鈥淎nd after that she shall be pure鈥 teaches that after the action of counting seven clean days she shall be pure. In other words, once she has examined herself at the beginning of the seventh day she may immerse on that day.

讗讘诇 讗诪专讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讗住讜专 诇注砖讜转 讻谉 砖诪讗 转讘讗 诇讬讚讬 住驻拽

Rabbi Shimon continues: But the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, i.e., to immerse on the seventh day, lest she come to a case of uncertainty. If she were to engage in intercourse with her husband on that seventh day after immersion, and afterward on the same day she experiences bleeding, it would retroactively nullify her entire seven clean days, which would mean that she engaged in intercourse with her husband while she was impure, rendering them both liable to receive the punishment of karet.

讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘砖诇讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转

Rav Huna says: A woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the third day of the week, i.e., Monday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Monday night.

讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘专讘讬注讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转

Similarly, a woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the fourth day of the week, Tuesday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of the Festival that occurs after Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Tuesday night.

讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 砖讻谉 讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖讞诇 诇讛讬讜转 讗讞专 讛砖讘转

Furthermore, a woman may wash her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerse on the fifth day of the week, Wednesday night. The proof of this is that sometimes a woman washes her hair on the eve of Shabbat, but she does not immerse until the conclusion of two days of Rosh HaShana that occurs after Shabbat, which is the same interval as from Sunday to Wednesday night.

讜专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 讻讜诇讛讜 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖讻谉 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚讗驻砖专 讗驻砖专 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讗 讗驻砖专 诇讗 讗驻砖专

But Rav 岣sda said: We say that all of these long gaps between a woman washing her hair and immersing are permitted. But we do not say as proof that since a woman washes her hair before Shabbat and immerses only several days later, she may do so during a regular week as well. One cannot learn this halakha from those situations involving Shabbat, as one cannot derive cases where alternatives are possible from those cases where alternatives are not possible. Where it is possible for a woman to wash her hair and immerse immediately, it is possible, and she is not allowed to do so any earlier. But where it is not possible for a woman to wash her hair immediately before immersion, e.g., when she must immerse after the conclusion of Shabbat or a festival, it is impossible, and for this reason she is permitted to wash her hair in advance.

讜专讘 讬讬诪专 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讻谉 谞诪讬 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讘专 诪讗砖讛 讞讜驻驻转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘讞诪讬砖讬 讘砖讘转 讚诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖谞讬 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讗讞专 讛砖讘转 诇讬转讗 讚讗驻砖专 讚讞讜驻驻转 讘诇讬诇讛 讜讟讜讘诇转 讘诇讬诇讛

And Rav Yeimar said: We even say the proof that since a woman washes her hair before Shabbat and immerses only several days later, she may do so during a regular week as well. Rav Yeimar agrees with Rav Huna in all cases apart from that of a woman who washes her hair on the first day of the week, Sunday, and immerses on the fifth day of the week, Wednesday night. He maintains that Rav Huna鈥檚 proof from the conclusion of two days of Rosh HaShana that is after Shabbat is not a sufficient proof, as even in such a case a woman may not wait so long. Rather, it is possible for her to wash her hair at night after the conclusion of Rosh HaShana and immerse on that same night, so that she should not have such a long gap between washing her hair and immersing.

讚专砖 诪专讬诪专 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘 讞住讚讗 讜讻讚诪转专抓 专讘 讬讬诪专

Mareimar taught: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, that a woman should not wash her hair many days before immersing except when there is no other possibility. And the halakha is also in accordance with the manner in which Rav Yeimar explains that if Rosh HaShana occurs after Shabbat a woman should wash her hair on the night of her immersion.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 讗砖讛 诪讛讜 砖转讞讜祝 讘诇讬诇讛 讜转讟讘讜诇 讘诇讬诇讛 诪专 讝讜讟专讗 讗讜住专 讜专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 诪住讜专讗 砖专讬

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: What is the halakha with regard to whether a woman may wash her hair at night and immerse on that same night? Mar Zutra deems it prohibited for her to do so. Since she will be in a hurry to immerse and return to her husband, there is a concern that she will not wash and examine her hair thoroughly. And Rav 岣nnana from Sura deems it permitted for a woman to wash her hair on the night of her immersion.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 讗讚讗 诇专讘 讞讬谞谞讗 诪住讜专讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 注讜讘讚讗 讘讚讘讬转讛讜 讚讗讘讗 诪专讬 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 讚讗讬拽讜讟 讗讝诇 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇驻讬讜住讛 讜讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 诪讗讬 讗讬转讬讛 讛砖转讗

Rav Adda said to Rav 岣nnana from Sura: Was there not an incident like this involving the wife of Abba Mari, the Exilarch, who quarreled with her husband, and as a result she did not want to immerse in a ritual bath to become permitted to him; and Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k went to appease her and to persuade her to immerse, and she said to him: What is there that can be done now? There is no reason for me to hurry and immerse now.

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