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Daf Yomi

March 12, 2021 | 讻状讞 讘讗讚专 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

Pesachim 111

Today’s Daf is sponsored by Danny Sadinoff in memory of Frank Sadinoff, Efraim Mordechai ben Menachem Mendel z”l. “Remembered as a loving father, brother, husband and son.” And by Romi Sussman in honor of her husband, Josh. “Happy birthday! Thank you for always inspiring me to keep learning and growing. You are such a role model to our sons. Love Romi and the boys.” And by Zev Gewurz in honor of his wife, Risa鈥檚, 50th Hebrew birthday “and in celebration of everything she does, including learning Arvei Pesachim this year, together with our daughters, in preparation for Pesach.”

The gemara mentions all sorts of things that are dangerous to do because demons or evil spirits can catch a person in these situations. The gemara limits some cases and also offers solutions to what to do if one encounters such a situation gets into trouble with a demon or witchcraft. Some are related to dangerous places or situations, some are related to immodesty, and some to other things that are less understood. The gemara brings names of demons and details about the number of demons that are in certain situations so that we know how to write an amulet to deal with them.

讞讜抓 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讞诪讬诪讬 诇讙讜 拽专讬专讬 讜拽专讬专讬 诇讙讜 讞诪讬诪讬 讗讘诇 讞诪讬诪讬 诇讙讜 讞诪讬诪讬 讜拽专讬专讬 诇讙讜 拽专讬专讬 诇讗


except for water. If one mixes water with other water, it is not considered diluted and does not count toward the number of cups. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even water joins the number of cups. Rav Pappa said: We said this statement only about hot water poured into cold water, and cold water poured into hot water. Rabbi Yo岣nan maintains that these cups are considered diluted. However, everyone agrees that hot water poured into hot water or cold water poured into cold water, no, they are not considered diluted.


讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讛注讜砖讛 讗讜转谉 讚诪讜 讘专讗砖讜 讜诪转讞讬讬讘 讘谞驻砖讜 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬谉 讚拽诇 诇讻讜转诇 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讚拽诇讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖讗讜诇讬谉 讜讛注讜讘专 注诇 诪讬诐 砖驻讜讻讬谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖驻讻转讜 讗砖转讜 讘驻谞讬讜


The Gemara cites more statements concerning superstitions and witchcraft. Reish Lakish said: There are four matters. The one who performs them, his blood is upon his own head, and he is held liable for his own life, due to the evil spirit that rests upon him: One who relieves himself in a spot between a palm tree and a wall, one who passes between two palm trees, one who drinks borrowed water, and one who passes over spilled water, even if his wife poured it out in front of him.


讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬谉 讚拽诇 诇讻讜转诇 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讘诇 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讻讬 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara elaborates: With regard to one who relieves himself between a palm tree and a wall, we said that he places himself in danger only when there are not four cubits of space between the two objects. However, if there are four cubits, we have no problem with it. The demons have enough room to pass, and he will not obstruct them. And furthermore, even when there are not four cubits, we said there is a problem only when the demons have no other route besides that one. However, if they have another route, we have no problem with it.


讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讚拽诇讬诐 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住拽讬谞讛讜 专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 讗讘诇 驻住拽讬谞讛讜 专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖讗讜诇讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚砖讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 拽讟谉 讗讘诇 讙讚讜诇 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And with regard to one who passes between two palm trees, we said that he is in danger only if a public domain does not cross between them. However, if a public domain crosses between them, we have no problem with it, as demons are not permitted to cause harm in a public place. And with regard to one who drinks borrowed water, we said it is dangerous only if a minor borrowed it. However, if an adult borrowed the water, we have no problem with it.


讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 拽讟谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛 讚诇讗 砖讻讬讞讬 讗讘诇 讘注讬专 讚砖讻讬讞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讚讛 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诪讬讗 讗讘诇 讞诪专讗 讜砖讬讻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And even if a minor borrowed it, we said this poses a danger only if it occurred in a field, where water is not found. However, in a city, where water can be found, we have no problem with it. And even in a field, we said there is cause for concern only in a case of borrowed water; however, with regard to wine and beer, we have no problem with it.


讜讛注讜讘专 注诇 诪讬诐 砖驻讜讻讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讗驻住拽讬谞讛讜 讘注驻专讗 讜诇讗 转祝 讘讛讜 专讜拽讗 讗讘诇 讗驻住拽讬谞讛讜 讗讜 转祝 讘讛讜 专讜拽讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬诪砖讗 讜诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬转讬谉 谞讬讙专讬 讗讘诇 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬诪砖讗 讜注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬转讬谉 谞讬讙专讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜诇讗 住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讗讘诇 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And with regard to one who passes over spilled water, we said he places himself in danger only if no one sprinkled dirt over it and no one spat in it. However, if someone sprinkled dirt over it or spat in it, we have no problem with it. And we said this is a concern only if the sun did not pass over it, i.e., it occurred at night, and sixty steps of people walking in the area have not passed over it. However, if the sun passed over it and sixty steps passed over it, we have no problem with it. And we said this concern only if he was not riding a donkey and not wearing shoes; however, if he was riding a donkey and wearing shoes, we have no problem with it.


讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讬讻讗 诇诪讬讞砖 诇讻砖驻讬诐 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬讞砖 诇讻砖驻讬诐 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬讻讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 (讜讛讛讜讗) 讙讘专讗 讚专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讜讙诪讜讚 诪住讗谞讬讛 讜爪讜讜 讻专注讬讛


The Gemara comments: And all this applies only where there is no reason for concern for witchcraft, as no one is interested in harming him. However, where there is reason for concern for witchcraft, even if all of these limiting conditions are in place, we are nevertheless concerned. And this is similar to what happened to a certain man who was riding a donkey and wearing shoes. Nevertheless, he passed over water and his shoes shrank and his feet shriveled up.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 诪诪爪注讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转诪爪注讬谉 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讛讻诇讘 讜讛讚拽诇 讜讛讗砖讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛讞讝讬专 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛谞讞砖


The Gemara continues to discuss this issue. The Sages taught: Three objects should not be allowed to pass between two people walking along a road, and people should not walk between two of them: A dog, a palm tree, and a woman. And some say: Also a pig. And some say: Also a snake. All of these were associated with witchcraft.


讜讗讬 诪诪爪注讬谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 谞驻转讞 讘讗诇 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘讗诇


The Gemara asks: And if they pass between them, what is the remedy to prevent one from harm? Rav Pappa said: He should begin reciting a verse that starts with the word God and conclude with a verse that ends with the word God. In other words, he should recite the passage: 鈥淕od Who brought them out of Egypt is for them like the lofty horns of the wild ox. For there is no enchantment with Jacob, nor is there any divination with Israel; now is it said of Jacob and of Israel: What has been performed by God鈥 (Numbers 23:22鈥23). This verse indicates that spells do not affect the Jewish people.


讗讬 谞诪讬 谞驻转讞 讘诇讗 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘诇讗


Alternatively, he should open with a verse that begins with the word lo, no, and should conclude with the same verse that ends with lo: 鈥淣o [lo] man is God that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent. When He has said will He not do it, or when He has spoken will He not [lo] make it good?鈥 (Numbers 23:19).


讛谞讬 讘讬 转专讬 讚诪爪注讗 诇讛讜 讗砖讛 谞讚讛 讗诐 转讞诇转 谞讚转讛 讛讬讗 讛讜专讙转 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讗诐 住讜祝 谞讚转讛 讛讬讗 诪专讬讘讛 注讜砖讛 讘讬谞讬讛谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 谞驻转讞 讘讗诇 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘讗诇


Similarly, these two men, between whom a menstruating woman passes, if she is at the beginning of her menstruation she kills one of them, i.e., she causes the death of one of the two men. If she is at the end of her menstruation she does not kill, but she causes a fight between them. What is his remedy? He should open with a verse that begins with the word God and he should conclude with a verse that ends with the word God, as explained above.


讛谞讬 转专讬 谞砖讬 讚讬转讘谉 讘驻专砖转 讚专讻讬诐 讞讚讗 讘讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讚砖讘讬诇讗 讜讞讚讗 讘讗讬讚讱 讙讬住讗 讜诪讻讜讜谞谉 讗驻讬讬讛讜 诇讛讚讚讬 讜讚讗讬 讘讻砖驻讬诐 注住讬拽谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讘讛 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讘讛讚讬讛 谞讬谞拽讟讜 诇讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜谞讬讞诇驻讜 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗讙专转 讗讝诇转 讗住讬讗 讘诇讜住讬讗 诪转拽讟诇讗 讘讞讬拽 拽讘诇


The Gemara further states: These two women, who are sitting at a crossroads, one on this side of the road and the other on the other side, and they are facing each other, they are certainly engaging in witchcraft. What is the remedy for one who walks by? If there is another route, he should go by it. And if there is no other route, if there is another person with him, they should hold hands and switch places. And if there is no other person with him, he should say as follows: Iggeret, Azlat, Asiya, Belusiya are killed by arrows. These are names of demons invoked by witches.


讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚驻讙注 讘讗讬转转讗 讘注讬讚谞讗 讚住诇拽讗 诪讟讘讬诇转 诪爪讜讛 讗讬 讗讬讛讜 拽讚讬诐 讜诪砖诪砖 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬讛 专讜讞 讝谞讜谞讬诐 讗讬 讗讬讛讬 拽讚诪讛 讜诪砖诪砖讛 讗讞讚讗 诇讛 诇讚讬讚讛 专讜讞 讝谞讜谞讬诐 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讜驻讱 讘讜讝 注诇 谞讚讬讘讬诐 讜讬转注诐 讘转讜讛讜 诇讗 讚专讱


The Gemara cites a related statement: One who meets a woman when she is ascending from the ritual immersion of a mitzva, after her menstruation, if he has intercourse with any woman first, a spirit of immorality overtakes him; if she has intercourse first, a spirit of immorality overtakes her. What is his remedy? He should say this: 鈥淗e pours contempt upon princes, and causes them to wander in the waste, where there is no way鈥 (Psalms 107:40).


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讻讬 讗诇讱 讘讙讬讗 爪诇诪讜转 诇讗 讗讬专讗 专注 讻讬 讗转讛 注诪讚讬 讝讛 讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 讜讘爪诇 诇讘谞讛 讜讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗讘诇 谞驻诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


Rav Yitz岣k said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hough I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me鈥 (Psalms 23:4)? This is a person who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, and in the shadow of the moon. Despite his dangerous position, he trusts God and is not afraid. The Gemara qualifies the previous statement: And with regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, we said he is in danger only if the shadow of another palm tree does not fall upon him. However, if the shadow of another palm tree falls upon him, we have no problem with it.


讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 讘讞爪专 讜讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 诇讘谞讛 讚诪讜 讘专讗砖讜 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 诇讬诪讗 讚诇讗 谞驻诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讚讛 谞诪讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘讞爪专 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚谞驻讬诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


The Gemara asks: But what about that which was taught in a baraita: With regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree in a courtyard and one who sleeps in the shadow of the moon, his blood is upon his own head. What are the circumstances? If we say that the shadow of another palm tree does not fall on him, he would also be harmed if he were in a field. Rather, must one not conclude from this baraita that if one is in a courtyard, even if the shadow of another tree fell on him, it remains dangerous? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is so.


讜讘爪讬诇讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘诪注专讘讛 讗讘诇 讘诪讚讬谞讞转讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara adds: And with regard to the shadow of the moon, we said it is dangerous to sleep there only at the end of the month when the moon shines in the east, and therefore its shadow is in the west. However, at the start of the month, when the moon shines in the west and its shadow is in the east, we have no problem with it.


讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚诪驻谞讬 讗讙讬专讚讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬讛 专讜讞 驻诇讙讗 讜讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚诪爪诇讬 专讬砖讬讛 讗讙讬专讚讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 专讜讞 爪专讚讗 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚驻住注讬 讗讚讬拽诇讗 讗讬 诪讬拽讟诇 拽讟讬诇 讗讬 讗讬注拽专 诪讬注拽专 讜诪讬讬转 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 讻专注讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗讘诇 诪谞讞 讻专注讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara continues to discuss harmful spirits. One who relieves himself on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of sickness, and one who places his head on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of a headache of half his head, i.e., a migraine. One who walks over a palm tree, if the tree is cut down, he too will be killed. If that tree is uprooted, he will also be uprooted and will die. The Gemara comments: This statement applies only if he does not place his legs upon it; however, if he places his legs upon it, we have no problem with it.


讞诪砖讛 讟讜诇讬 讛讜讬 讟讜诇讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讬讞讬讚讗 讟讜诇讗 讚讻谞讚讗 讟讜诇讗 讚驻专讞讗 讟讜诇讗 讚讝专讚转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗祝 讟讜诇讗 讚讗专讘讗 讜讟讜诇讗 讚注专讘转讗 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 讚谞驻讬砖 注谞驻讬讛 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛


The Gemara cites another statement with regard to shadows. There are five types of dangerous shadows: The shadow of a single palm tree, the shadow of a tree called kanda, the shadow of a caper-bush, and the shadow of the sorb tree. Some say: Also the shadow of a ship and the shadow of a willow. The general rule of the matter is: Whatever has many branches, its shadow is dangerous.


讜讻诇 讚拽砖讬 住讬诇讜讬讛 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛 诇讘专 诪讻专讜 诪砖讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚拽砖讬 住讬诇讜讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛 讚讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖讬讚讗 诇讘专讛 驻讬专讞讬 谞驻砖讬讱 诪讻专讜 诪砖讗 讚讗讬讛讜 讛讜讗 讚拽讟讬诇 诇讗讘讜讱 讜拽讟讬诇 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬谞讗 诇专讘 讻讛谞讗 讚驻专讬砖 诪讻讜诇讛讜 讟讜诇讬


And any tree whose wood is hard, its shadow is dangerous, except for the tree called kero masa. Although its wood is hard, its shadow is not dangerous, as the demon said to her son: Leave the kero masa tree alone, as it was that tree that killed your father. And the tree later killed the son too. The kero masa tree is harmful to demons. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana avoided all types of shadows.


讘讬 驻专讞讬 专讜讞讬 讚讘讬 讝专讚转讗 砖讬讚讗 讚讘讬 讗讬讙专讬 专讬砖驻讬 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇拽诪讬注讗


The Gemara comments: The demons near the caper-bush are called ru岣i. A demon found near the sorb trees is called shida. The demons found on roofs are called rishfei. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of these definitions? It makes a difference for writing an amulet on behalf of one who has been harmed. It is necessary to know the name of the demon who caused the damage.


讚讘讬 驻专讞讬 讘专讬讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 注讬谞讬诐 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇讙讝讜讝讬 诇讛 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇讗驻谞讜讬讬 诇讘讬 驻专讞讬 砖诪注 讚拽讗 讗转讗 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜讙讝讬 诇讛 讻讬 讗讝诇讗 讞讘拽讬讛 诇讚讬拽诇讗 爪讜讜讞 讚讬拽诇讗 讜驻拽注讛 讛讬讗


The Gemara further comments: The demon found near the caper-bush is a creature with no eyes. What is the practical halakhic difference of this observation? It is relevant with regard to fleeing from it. The Gemara relates: Once a Torah scholar went to relieve himself near a caper-bush. He heard the demon coming and fled from it. When this evil spirit went, it grabbed a palm tree and got stuck there. The palm tree dried out and the demon burst.


驻专讞讗 讚讘讬 讝专讚转讗 砖讬讚讬 讛讗 讝专讚转讗 讚住诪讬讻讛 诇诪转讗 诇讗 驻讞转讗 诪砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注讗


It was stated above that the demons found near the sorb tree are called sheidei. The Gemara comments: This sorb tree that is close to the city contains no less than sixty demons. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of this statement? The Gemara answers: It is relevant for writing an amulet for this number.


讛讛讜讗 讘专 拽砖讗 讚诪转讗 讚讗讝讬诇 讜拽讗讬 讙讘讬 讝专讚转讗 讚讛讜讛 住诪讬讱 诇诪转讗 注诇讜 讘讬讛 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讜讗讬住转讻谉 讗转讗 诇讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚诇讗 讬讚注 讚讝专讚转讗 讚砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讛讬讗 讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注 诇讞讚讗 砖讬讚讗 砖诪注 讚转诇讜 讞讬谞讙讗 讘讙讜讜讬讛 讜拽讗 诪砖专讜 讛讻讬 住讜讚专讬讛 讚诪专 讻讬 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讘讚讬拽谞讗 讘讬讛 讘诪专 讚诇讗 讬讚注 讘专讜讱 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚讬讚注 讚讝专讚转讗 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讛讜讛 讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注讗 讚砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 砖诪注 讚拽讗 讗诪专讜 驻谞讜 诪谞讬讬讻讜 诪讛讻讗


The Gemara relates: A certain ruler of a city walked and stood by a sorb tree that was near a city. Sixty sheidei demons came upon him and he was in danger. One of the Sages who did not know that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei came and wrote him an amulet for one shida demon. That man heard that there was a celebration inside the tree, and the demons were singing: The scarf of the Master is like that of a Torah scholar, but we checked the Master and he does not know how to say barukh, the blessing when donning a scarf. The demons were mocking him and saying that he did not know how to write an amulet. Another one of the Sages, who knew that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei, came and wrote an amulet against sixty demons. He heard them saying: Clear your items away from here.


拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 转专讬 拽讟讘讬 讛讜讜 讞讚 诪拽诪讬 讟讬讛专讗 讜讞讚 诪讘转专 讟讬讛专讗 讚诪拽诪讬 讟讬讛专讗 拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 砖诪讜 讜诪讬讞讝讬 讘讬 讻讚讗 讚讻诪讻讗 讜讛讚专 讘讬讛 讘讞砖讗 讚讘转专 讟讬讛专讗 拽讟讘 讬砖讜讚 爪讛专讬诐 砖诪讜 讜诪讬讞讝讬 讘讬 拽专谞讗 讚注讬讝讗 讜讛讚专 讘讬讛 讻谞驻讬讗


The Gemara discusses the ketev meriri, a demon mentioned in the Torah (Deuteronomy 32:24). There are two types of ketev demons, one that comes before noon in the morning and the other one comes in the afternoon. The one that comes before noon is called ketev meriri, and it appears in a jug of kuta岣, a Babylonian spice, and continuously revolves around inside it. The ketev in the afternoon is called ketev yashud tzaharayim (Psalms 91:6), and it appears inside the horn of a goat and revolves around inside it like a sifter.


讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 砖拽讬诇 讜讗讝讬诇 讜讗讝讬诇 专讘 驻驻讗 诪讬诪讬谞讬讛 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诪砖诪讗诇讬讛 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 讚拽讗 讗转讬 诇讗驻讬讛 讚砖诪讗诇讬讛 讗讛讚专讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖诪讗诇讬讛 讜诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诇讬诪讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讗谞讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚诇讗 讞砖砖 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转 砖注转讗 拽讬讬诪转 诇讱


The Gemara relates: Abaye was coming and walking along the street. And Rav Pappa was walking on his right and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, was on his left. Abaye saw a certain ketev meriri coming on his left side and he switched Rav Pappa to his left and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, to his right. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: And I, what is different that you were not concerned about any possible harm to me? Abaye said to him: The time is in your favor. You are wealthy and fortunate, and therefore I believe that you will most likely not be harmed by the demon.


诪讞讚 讘转诪讜讝 注讚 砖讬转住专 讘讬讛 讜讚讗讬 砖讻讬讞讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 住驻拽 砖讻讬讞讬 住驻拽 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讬 讜诪砖转讻讞讬 讘讟讜诇讬 讚讞爪讘讗 讚诇讗 讞爪讘 讙专诪讬讚讗 讜讘讟讜诇讬 讚爪驻专讗 讜驻谞讬讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讬 讙专诪讬讚讗 讜注讬拽专 讘讟讜诇讬 讚讘讬转 讛讻住讗


The Gemara comments: From the first of Tammuz to the sixteenth of that month, these demons are certainly found. From here onward it is uncertain whether they are found or whether they are not found. And they can be found in the shadow of a sea squill that has not grown a cubit, and in the shadow of objects in the morning and evening when their length is less than a cubit. And they are mostly found in the shadow of a privy.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛谞讬 转诇转 诪讬诇讬 讬讛讬讘 讗专讘讜谞讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 诪谉 讚住专讬拽 专讬砖讬讛 讬讘砖 讜诪谉 讚砖转讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝 讜诪谉 讚住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讗讚诪讬讬转谞讬讛 讻专注讗


Rav Yosef said: These three matters cause blindness to the light of one鈥檚 eyes: One who combs his hair when it is dry, one who drinks wine that is dripping from the barrel, and one who puts on shoes when his feet are wet after being washed.


转诇讗讬 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 转诇讗 住讬诇转讗 转诇讗 诪讝讜谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 专讬驻转讗 讗讘诇 讘讬砖专讗 讜讻讜讜专讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讗讜专讞讬讛 讛讬讗 驻讗专讬 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 谞砖讜专讗 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 讘诇讬诇讬 砖讘转讜转 讜讘诇讬诇讬 专讘讬注讬转 砖专讜 诪讝讬拽讬谉 注讬诇讜讬讛


If a food is hanging in one鈥檚 house, it causes poverty. This is as people say in a popular proverb: He who hangs the basket hangs his sustenance, i.e., he loses it. And we said this only about hanging bread; however, if one hangs meat and fish, we have no problem with it. The reason is that it is the common practice to hang meat and fish. Bran [parei] in the house causes poverty. Bread crumbs in the house cause poverty. If these crumbs are spread throughout the house on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, or on Tuesday nights, when demons are present, harmful spirits rest on them.


讗讬住专讗 讚诪讝讜谞讬 谞拽讬讚 砖诪讬讛 讗讬住专讗 讚注谞讬讜转讗 谞讘诇 砖诪讬讛 爪注讗 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讞爪讘讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 诪讗谉 讚砖转讬 诪讬讗 讘爪注讬 拽砖讬 诇讘专讜拽转讬 讚讗讻讬诇 转讞诇讬 讜诇讗 诪砖讬 讬讚讬讛 诪驻讞讬讚 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉


The administering angel appointed over food is called Nakid, i.e., he is clean [naki] and particular about cleanliness. The administering angel appointed over poverty is called Naval. The angel appointed over food will not stay in a dirty place, while the angel appointed over poverty will thrive there. A plate placed on a jug causes poverty. One who drinks water from a plate causes eye pain. One who eats cress without washing his hands will be afraid for thirty days.


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

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Pesachim 111

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 111

讞讜抓 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讜专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讞诪讬诪讬 诇讙讜 拽专讬专讬 讜拽专讬专讬 诇讙讜 讞诪讬诪讬 讗讘诇 讞诪讬诪讬 诇讙讜 讞诪讬诪讬 讜拽专讬专讬 诇讙讜 拽专讬专讬 诇讗


except for water. If one mixes water with other water, it is not considered diluted and does not count toward the number of cups. And Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even water joins the number of cups. Rav Pappa said: We said this statement only about hot water poured into cold water, and cold water poured into hot water. Rabbi Yo岣nan maintains that these cups are considered diluted. However, everyone agrees that hot water poured into hot water or cold water poured into cold water, no, they are not considered diluted.


讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讛注讜砖讛 讗讜转谉 讚诪讜 讘专讗砖讜 讜诪转讞讬讬讘 讘谞驻砖讜 讗诇讜 讛谉 讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬谉 讚拽诇 诇讻讜转诇 讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讚拽诇讬诐 讜讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖讗讜诇讬谉 讜讛注讜讘专 注诇 诪讬诐 砖驻讜讻讬谉 讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖驻讻转讜 讗砖转讜 讘驻谞讬讜


The Gemara cites more statements concerning superstitions and witchcraft. Reish Lakish said: There are four matters. The one who performs them, his blood is upon his own head, and he is held liable for his own life, due to the evil spirit that rests upon him: One who relieves himself in a spot between a palm tree and a wall, one who passes between two palm trees, one who drinks borrowed water, and one who passes over spilled water, even if his wife poured it out in front of him.


讛谞驻谞讛 讘讬谉 讚拽诇 诇讻讜转诇 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讗讘诇 讗讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讻讬 诇讬转 诇讬讛 讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讘诇 讗讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara elaborates: With regard to one who relieves himself between a palm tree and a wall, we said that he places himself in danger only when there are not four cubits of space between the two objects. However, if there are four cubits, we have no problem with it. The demons have enough room to pass, and he will not obstruct them. And furthermore, even when there are not four cubits, we said there is a problem only when the demons have no other route besides that one. However, if they have another route, we have no problem with it.


讜讛注讜讘专 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讚拽诇讬诐 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 驻住拽讬谞讛讜 专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 讗讘诇 驻住拽讬谞讛讜 专砖讜转 讛专讘讬诐 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讛砖讜转讛 诪讬诐 砖讗讜诇讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚砖讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 拽讟谉 讗讘诇 讙讚讜诇 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And with regard to one who passes between two palm trees, we said that he is in danger only if a public domain does not cross between them. However, if a public domain crosses between them, we have no problem with it, as demons are not permitted to cause harm in a public place. And with regard to one who drinks borrowed water, we said it is dangerous only if a minor borrowed it. However, if an adult borrowed the water, we have no problem with it.


讜讗驻讬诇讜 砖讬讬诇讬谞讛讜 拽讟谉 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘砖讚讛 讚诇讗 砖讻讬讞讬 讗讘诇 讘注讬专 讚砖讻讬讞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讚讛 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 诪讬讗 讗讘诇 讞诪专讗 讜砖讬讻专讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And even if a minor borrowed it, we said this poses a danger only if it occurred in a field, where water is not found. However, in a city, where water can be found, we have no problem with it. And even in a field, we said there is cause for concern only in a case of borrowed water; however, with regard to wine and beer, we have no problem with it.


讜讛注讜讘专 注诇 诪讬诐 砖驻讜讻讬谉 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 讗驻住拽讬谞讛讜 讘注驻专讗 讜诇讗 转祝 讘讛讜 专讜拽讗 讗讘诇 讗驻住拽讬谞讛讜 讗讜 转祝 讘讛讜 专讜拽讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬诪砖讗 讜诇讗 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬转讬谉 谞讬讙专讬 讗讘诇 注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬诪砖讗 讜注讘专 注诇讬讬讛讜 砖讬转讬谉 谞讬讙专讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜诇讗 住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讗讘诇 专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


And with regard to one who passes over spilled water, we said he places himself in danger only if no one sprinkled dirt over it and no one spat in it. However, if someone sprinkled dirt over it or spat in it, we have no problem with it. And we said this is a concern only if the sun did not pass over it, i.e., it occurred at night, and sixty steps of people walking in the area have not passed over it. However, if the sun passed over it and sixty steps passed over it, we have no problem with it. And we said this concern only if he was not riding a donkey and not wearing shoes; however, if he was riding a donkey and wearing shoes, we have no problem with it.


讜讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讛讬讻讗 讚诇讬讻讗 诇诪讬讞砖 诇讻砖驻讬诐 讗讘诇 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 诇诪讬讞砖 诇讻砖驻讬诐 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚讗讬讻讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 (讜讛讛讜讗) 讙讘专讗 讚专讻讬讘 讞诪专讗 讜住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讜讙诪讜讚 诪住讗谞讬讛 讜爪讜讜 讻专注讬讛


The Gemara comments: And all this applies only where there is no reason for concern for witchcraft, as no one is interested in harming him. However, where there is reason for concern for witchcraft, even if all of these limiting conditions are in place, we are nevertheless concerned. And this is similar to what happened to a certain man who was riding a donkey and wearing shoes. Nevertheless, he passed over water and his shoes shrank and his feet shriveled up.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 讗讬谉 诪诪爪注讬谉 讜诇讗 诪转诪爪注讬谉 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讛讻诇讘 讜讛讚拽诇 讜讛讗砖讛 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛讞讝讬专 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 讛谞讞砖


The Gemara continues to discuss this issue. The Sages taught: Three objects should not be allowed to pass between two people walking along a road, and people should not walk between two of them: A dog, a palm tree, and a woman. And some say: Also a pig. And some say: Also a snake. All of these were associated with witchcraft.


讜讗讬 诪诪爪注讬谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 谞驻转讞 讘讗诇 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘讗诇


The Gemara asks: And if they pass between them, what is the remedy to prevent one from harm? Rav Pappa said: He should begin reciting a verse that starts with the word God and conclude with a verse that ends with the word God. In other words, he should recite the passage: 鈥淕od Who brought them out of Egypt is for them like the lofty horns of the wild ox. For there is no enchantment with Jacob, nor is there any divination with Israel; now is it said of Jacob and of Israel: What has been performed by God鈥 (Numbers 23:22鈥23). This verse indicates that spells do not affect the Jewish people.


讗讬 谞诪讬 谞驻转讞 讘诇讗 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘诇讗


Alternatively, he should open with a verse that begins with the word lo, no, and should conclude with the same verse that ends with lo: 鈥淣o [lo] man is God that he should lie; neither the son of man that he should repent. When He has said will He not do it, or when He has spoken will He not [lo] make it good?鈥 (Numbers 23:19).


讛谞讬 讘讬 转专讬 讚诪爪注讗 诇讛讜 讗砖讛 谞讚讛 讗诐 转讞诇转 谞讚转讛 讛讬讗 讛讜专讙转 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讗诐 住讜祝 谞讚转讛 讛讬讗 诪专讬讘讛 注讜砖讛 讘讬谞讬讛谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 谞驻转讞 讘讗诇 讜谞驻住讬拽 讘讗诇


Similarly, these two men, between whom a menstruating woman passes, if she is at the beginning of her menstruation she kills one of them, i.e., she causes the death of one of the two men. If she is at the end of her menstruation she does not kill, but she causes a fight between them. What is his remedy? He should open with a verse that begins with the word God and he should conclude with a verse that ends with the word God, as explained above.


讛谞讬 转专讬 谞砖讬 讚讬转讘谉 讘驻专砖转 讚专讻讬诐 讞讚讗 讘讛讗讬 讙讬住讗 讚砖讘讬诇讗 讜讞讚讗 讘讗讬讚讱 讙讬住讗 讜诪讻讜讜谞谉 讗驻讬讬讛讜 诇讛讚讚讬 讜讚讗讬 讘讻砖驻讬诐 注住讬拽谉 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 诇讬讝讬诇 讘讛 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讚讬专讻讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 讗讬 讗讬讻讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 讘讛讚讬讛 谞讬谞拽讟讜 诇讬讚讬讬讛讜 讘讛讚讬 讛讚讚讬 讜谞讬讞诇驻讜 讜讗讬 诇讬讻讗 讗讬谞讬砖 讗讞专讬谞讗 谞讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗讙专转 讗讝诇转 讗住讬讗 讘诇讜住讬讗 诪转拽讟诇讗 讘讞讬拽 拽讘诇


The Gemara further states: These two women, who are sitting at a crossroads, one on this side of the road and the other on the other side, and they are facing each other, they are certainly engaging in witchcraft. What is the remedy for one who walks by? If there is another route, he should go by it. And if there is no other route, if there is another person with him, they should hold hands and switch places. And if there is no other person with him, he should say as follows: Iggeret, Azlat, Asiya, Belusiya are killed by arrows. These are names of demons invoked by witches.


讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚驻讙注 讘讗讬转转讗 讘注讬讚谞讗 讚住诇拽讗 诪讟讘讬诇转 诪爪讜讛 讗讬 讗讬讛讜 拽讚讬诐 讜诪砖诪砖 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬讛 专讜讞 讝谞讜谞讬诐 讗讬 讗讬讛讬 拽讚诪讛 讜诪砖诪砖讛 讗讞讚讗 诇讛 诇讚讬讚讛 专讜讞 讝谞讜谞讬诐 诪讗讬 转拽谞转讬讛 诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 砖讜驻讱 讘讜讝 注诇 谞讚讬讘讬诐 讜讬转注诐 讘转讜讛讜 诇讗 讚专讱


The Gemara cites a related statement: One who meets a woman when she is ascending from the ritual immersion of a mitzva, after her menstruation, if he has intercourse with any woman first, a spirit of immorality overtakes him; if she has intercourse first, a spirit of immorality overtakes her. What is his remedy? He should say this: 鈥淗e pours contempt upon princes, and causes them to wander in the waste, where there is no way鈥 (Psalms 107:40).


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讙诐 讻讬 讗诇讱 讘讙讬讗 爪诇诪讜转 诇讗 讗讬专讗 专注 讻讬 讗转讛 注诪讚讬 讝讛 讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 讜讘爪诇 诇讘谞讛 讜讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 谞驻讬诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗讘诇 谞驻诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


Rav Yitz岣k said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hough I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me鈥 (Psalms 23:4)? This is a person who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, and in the shadow of the moon. Despite his dangerous position, he trusts God and is not afraid. The Gemara qualifies the previous statement: And with regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree, we said he is in danger only if the shadow of another palm tree does not fall upon him. However, if the shadow of another palm tree falls upon him, we have no problem with it.


讗诇讗 讛讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 讚拽诇 讬讞讬讚讬 讘讞爪专 讜讛讬砖谉 讘爪诇 诇讘谞讛 讚诪讜 讘专讗砖讜 讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 讗讬 诇讬诪讗 讚诇讗 谞驻诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讚讛 谞诪讬 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讘讞爪专 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚谞驻讬诇 讟讜诇讗 讚讞讘专讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛


The Gemara asks: But what about that which was taught in a baraita: With regard to one who sleeps in the shadow of a single palm tree in a courtyard and one who sleeps in the shadow of the moon, his blood is upon his own head. What are the circumstances? If we say that the shadow of another palm tree does not fall on him, he would also be harmed if he were in a field. Rather, must one not conclude from this baraita that if one is in a courtyard, even if the shadow of another tree fell on him, it remains dangerous? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is so.


讜讘爪讬诇讛 砖诇 诇讘谞讛 诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 讘诪注专讘讛 讗讘诇 讘诪讚讬谞讞转讗 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara adds: And with regard to the shadow of the moon, we said it is dangerous to sleep there only at the end of the month when the moon shines in the east, and therefore its shadow is in the west. However, at the start of the month, when the moon shines in the west and its shadow is in the east, we have no problem with it.


讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚诪驻谞讬 讗讙讬专讚讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 诇讚讬讚讬讛 专讜讞 驻诇讙讗 讜讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚诪爪诇讬 专讬砖讬讛 讗讙讬专讚讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讗讞讚讗 诇讬讛 专讜讞 爪专讚讗 讛讗讬 诪讗谉 讚驻住注讬 讗讚讬拽诇讗 讗讬 诪讬拽讟诇 拽讟讬诇 讗讬 讗讬注拽专 诪讬注拽专 讜诪讬讬转 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讚诇讗 诪谞讞 讻专注讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 讗讘诇 诪谞讞 讻专注讬讛 注讬诇讜讬讛 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛


The Gemara continues to discuss harmful spirits. One who relieves himself on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of sickness, and one who places his head on the stump of a palm tree will be seized by a spirit of a headache of half his head, i.e., a migraine. One who walks over a palm tree, if the tree is cut down, he too will be killed. If that tree is uprooted, he will also be uprooted and will die. The Gemara comments: This statement applies only if he does not place his legs upon it; however, if he places his legs upon it, we have no problem with it.


讞诪砖讛 讟讜诇讬 讛讜讬 讟讜诇讗 讚讚讬拽诇讗 讬讞讬讚讗 讟讜诇讗 讚讻谞讚讗 讟讜诇讗 讚驻专讞讗 讟讜诇讗 讚讝专讚转讗 讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 讗祝 讟讜诇讗 讚讗专讘讗 讜讟讜诇讗 讚注专讘转讗 讻诇诇讗 讚诪讬诇转讗 讻诇 讚谞驻讬砖 注谞驻讬讛 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛


The Gemara cites another statement with regard to shadows. There are five types of dangerous shadows: The shadow of a single palm tree, the shadow of a tree called kanda, the shadow of a caper-bush, and the shadow of the sorb tree. Some say: Also the shadow of a ship and the shadow of a willow. The general rule of the matter is: Whatever has many branches, its shadow is dangerous.


讜讻诇 讚拽砖讬 住讬诇讜讬讛 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛 诇讘专 诪讻专讜 诪砖讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 讚拽砖讬 住讬诇讜讬讛 诇讗 拽砖讬 讟讜诇讬讛 讚讗诪专讛 诇讛 砖讬讚讗 诇讘专讛 驻讬专讞讬 谞驻砖讬讱 诪讻专讜 诪砖讗 讚讗讬讛讜 讛讜讗 讚拽讟讬诇 诇讗讘讜讱 讜拽讟讬诇 诇讚讬讚讬讛 讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 讞讝讬谞讗 诇专讘 讻讛谞讗 讚驻专讬砖 诪讻讜诇讛讜 讟讜诇讬


And any tree whose wood is hard, its shadow is dangerous, except for the tree called kero masa. Although its wood is hard, its shadow is not dangerous, as the demon said to her son: Leave the kero masa tree alone, as it was that tree that killed your father. And the tree later killed the son too. The kero masa tree is harmful to demons. Rav Ashi said: I saw that Rav Kahana avoided all types of shadows.


讘讬 驻专讞讬 专讜讞讬 讚讘讬 讝专讚转讗 砖讬讚讗 讚讘讬 讗讬讙专讬 专讬砖驻讬 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇拽诪讬注讗


The Gemara comments: The demons near the caper-bush are called ru岣i. A demon found near the sorb trees is called shida. The demons found on roofs are called rishfei. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of these definitions? It makes a difference for writing an amulet on behalf of one who has been harmed. It is necessary to know the name of the demon who caused the damage.


讚讘讬 驻专讞讬 讘专讬讛 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 注讬谞讬诐 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇讙讝讜讝讬 诇讛 讝讬诪谞讗 讞讚讗 讛讜讛 讗讝讬诇 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇讗驻谞讜讬讬 诇讘讬 驻专讞讬 砖诪注 讚拽讗 讗转讗 注讬诇讜讬讛 讜讙讝讬 诇讛 讻讬 讗讝诇讗 讞讘拽讬讛 诇讚讬拽诇讗 爪讜讜讞 讚讬拽诇讗 讜驻拽注讛 讛讬讗


The Gemara further comments: The demon found near the caper-bush is a creature with no eyes. What is the practical halakhic difference of this observation? It is relevant with regard to fleeing from it. The Gemara relates: Once a Torah scholar went to relieve himself near a caper-bush. He heard the demon coming and fled from it. When this evil spirit went, it grabbed a palm tree and got stuck there. The palm tree dried out and the demon burst.


驻专讞讗 讚讘讬 讝专讚转讗 砖讬讚讬 讛讗 讝专讚转讗 讚住诪讬讻讛 诇诪转讗 诇讗 驻讞转讗 诪砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注讗


It was stated above that the demons found near the sorb tree are called sheidei. The Gemara comments: This sorb tree that is close to the city contains no less than sixty demons. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference of this statement? The Gemara answers: It is relevant for writing an amulet for this number.


讛讛讜讗 讘专 拽砖讗 讚诪转讗 讚讗讝讬诇 讜拽讗讬 讙讘讬 讝专讚转讗 讚讛讜讛 住诪讬讱 诇诪转讗 注诇讜 讘讬讛 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讜讗讬住转讻谉 讗转讗 诇讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚诇讗 讬讚注 讚讝专讚转讗 讚砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讛讬讗 讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注 诇讞讚讗 砖讬讚讗 砖诪注 讚转诇讜 讞讬谞讙讗 讘讙讜讜讬讛 讜拽讗 诪砖专讜 讛讻讬 住讜讚专讬讛 讚诪专 讻讬 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 讘讚讬拽谞讗 讘讬讛 讘诪专 讚诇讗 讬讚注 讘专讜讱 讗转讗 讛讛讜讗 诪专讘谞谉 讚讬讚注 讚讝专讚转讗 砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 讛讜讛 讻转讘 诇讛 拽诪讬注讗 讚砖讬转讬谉 砖讬讚讬 砖诪注 讚拽讗 讗诪专讜 驻谞讜 诪谞讬讬讻讜 诪讛讻讗


The Gemara relates: A certain ruler of a city walked and stood by a sorb tree that was near a city. Sixty sheidei demons came upon him and he was in danger. One of the Sages who did not know that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei came and wrote him an amulet for one shida demon. That man heard that there was a celebration inside the tree, and the demons were singing: The scarf of the Master is like that of a Torah scholar, but we checked the Master and he does not know how to say barukh, the blessing when donning a scarf. The demons were mocking him and saying that he did not know how to write an amulet. Another one of the Sages, who knew that it was a sorb tree of sixty sheidei, came and wrote an amulet against sixty demons. He heard them saying: Clear your items away from here.


拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 转专讬 拽讟讘讬 讛讜讜 讞讚 诪拽诪讬 讟讬讛专讗 讜讞讚 诪讘转专 讟讬讛专讗 讚诪拽诪讬 讟讬讛专讗 拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 砖诪讜 讜诪讬讞讝讬 讘讬 讻讚讗 讚讻诪讻讗 讜讛讚专 讘讬讛 讘讞砖讗 讚讘转专 讟讬讛专讗 拽讟讘 讬砖讜讚 爪讛专讬诐 砖诪讜 讜诪讬讞讝讬 讘讬 拽专谞讗 讚注讬讝讗 讜讛讚专 讘讬讛 讻谞驻讬讗


The Gemara discusses the ketev meriri, a demon mentioned in the Torah (Deuteronomy 32:24). There are two types of ketev demons, one that comes before noon in the morning and the other one comes in the afternoon. The one that comes before noon is called ketev meriri, and it appears in a jug of kuta岣, a Babylonian spice, and continuously revolves around inside it. The ketev in the afternoon is called ketev yashud tzaharayim (Psalms 91:6), and it appears inside the horn of a goat and revolves around inside it like a sifter.


讗讘讬讬 讛讜讛 砖拽讬诇 讜讗讝讬诇 讜讗讝讬诇 专讘 驻驻讗 诪讬诪讬谞讬讛 讜专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诪砖诪讗诇讬讛 讞讝讬讬讛 诇讛讛讜讗 拽讟讘 诪专讬专讬 讚拽讗 讗转讬 诇讗驻讬讛 讚砖诪讗诇讬讛 讗讛讚专讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖诪讗诇讬讛 讜诇专讘 讛讜谞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讬讛讜砖注 诇讬诪讬谞讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 讗谞讗 诪讗讬 砖谞讗 讚诇讗 讞砖砖 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转 砖注转讗 拽讬讬诪转 诇讱


The Gemara relates: Abaye was coming and walking along the street. And Rav Pappa was walking on his right and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, was on his left. Abaye saw a certain ketev meriri coming on his left side and he switched Rav Pappa to his left and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, to his right. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: And I, what is different that you were not concerned about any possible harm to me? Abaye said to him: The time is in your favor. You are wealthy and fortunate, and therefore I believe that you will most likely not be harmed by the demon.


诪讞讚 讘转诪讜讝 注讚 砖讬转住专 讘讬讛 讜讚讗讬 砖讻讬讞讬 诪讻讗谉 讜讗讬诇讱 住驻拽 砖讻讬讞讬 住驻拽 诇讗 砖讻讬讞讬 讜诪砖转讻讞讬 讘讟讜诇讬 讚讞爪讘讗 讚诇讗 讞爪讘 讙专诪讬讚讗 讜讘讟讜诇讬 讚爪驻专讗 讜驻谞讬讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讬 讙专诪讬讚讗 讜注讬拽专 讘讟讜诇讬 讚讘讬转 讛讻住讗


The Gemara comments: From the first of Tammuz to the sixteenth of that month, these demons are certainly found. From here onward it is uncertain whether they are found or whether they are not found. And they can be found in the shadow of a sea squill that has not grown a cubit, and in the shadow of objects in the morning and evening when their length is less than a cubit. And they are mostly found in the shadow of a privy.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讛谞讬 转诇转 诪讬诇讬 讬讛讬讘 讗专讘讜谞讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 诪谉 讚住专讬拽 专讬砖讬讛 讬讘砖 讜诪谉 讚砖转讬 讟讬祝 讟讬祝 讜诪谉 讚住讬讬诐 诪住谞讬 讗讚诪讬讬转谞讬讛 讻专注讗


Rav Yosef said: These three matters cause blindness to the light of one鈥檚 eyes: One who combs his hair when it is dry, one who drinks wine that is dripping from the barrel, and one who puts on shoes when his feet are wet after being washed.


转诇讗讬 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讗讬谞砖讬 转诇讗 住讬诇转讗 转诇讗 诪讝讜谞讬讛 讜诇讗 讗诪专谉 讗诇讗 专讬驻转讗 讗讘诇 讘讬砖专讗 讜讻讜讜专讬 诇讬转 诇谉 讘讛 讗讜专讞讬讛 讛讬讗 驻讗专讬 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 谞砖讜专讗 讘讘讬转讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 讘诇讬诇讬 砖讘转讜转 讜讘诇讬诇讬 专讘讬注讬转 砖专讜 诪讝讬拽讬谉 注讬诇讜讬讛


If a food is hanging in one鈥檚 house, it causes poverty. This is as people say in a popular proverb: He who hangs the basket hangs his sustenance, i.e., he loses it. And we said this only about hanging bread; however, if one hangs meat and fish, we have no problem with it. The reason is that it is the common practice to hang meat and fish. Bran [parei] in the house causes poverty. Bread crumbs in the house cause poverty. If these crumbs are spread throughout the house on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, or on Tuesday nights, when demons are present, harmful spirits rest on them.


讗讬住专讗 讚诪讝讜谞讬 谞拽讬讚 砖诪讬讛 讗讬住专讗 讚注谞讬讜转讗 谞讘诇 砖诪讬讛 爪注讗 讗驻讜诪讗 讚讞爪讘讗 拽砖讬 诇注谞讬讜转讗 诪讗谉 讚砖转讬 诪讬讗 讘爪注讬 拽砖讬 诇讘专讜拽转讬 讚讗讻讬诇 转讞诇讬 讜诇讗 诪砖讬 讬讚讬讛 诪驻讞讬讚 转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉


The administering angel appointed over food is called Nakid, i.e., he is clean [naki] and particular about cleanliness. The administering angel appointed over poverty is called Naval. The angel appointed over food will not stay in a dirty place, while the angel appointed over poverty will thrive there. A plate placed on a jug causes poverty. One who drinks water from a plate causes eye pain. One who eats cress without washing his hands will be afraid for thirty days.


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