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Daf Yomi

March 13, 2021 | ื›ืดื˜ ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 112

 

The gemara discusses the importance of washing oneโ€™s hands after particular activities such as cutting hair or nails. One should not drink water on particular nights or from streams and lakes as there are evil spirits. If one is thirsty, the gemara offers suggestions of what one can do. Why does the mishna tell us the obvious, that even poor people need to have four cups of wine, even if it means taking from charity? It is said according to Rabbi Akiva who thinks that poor people should eat on Shabbat as they would on a weekday rather than take charity. Even for Rabbi Akiva, because of the importance of publicizing the miracle, the poor need to take four cups of wine from charity. From here, the gemara diverges into statements made by Rabbi Akiva and others that they passed down to their sons or to their students about ways one should behave or ways to avoid evil spirits and other things.

ื“ืžืกื•ื›ืจ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ืฉื‘ืขื” ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžื–ื™ื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ืฉืงื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื™ื“ื ืืื•ืกื™ื ื“ืจื’ื ืœืคื—ื“ื ื™ื“ื ืืคื•ืชื ื“ืจื’ื ืœืฉื™ื ืชื


One who lets blood and does not wash his hands will be afraid for seven days. One who cuts his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid for three days. One who cuts his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid for one day, and he will not know what is frightening him. Placing oneโ€™s hand on his nostrils is a way to become afraid. Placing oneโ€™s hand on his forehead is a way to fall asleep.


ืชื ื ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ืชื—ืช ื”ืžื˜ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื—ื•ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื‘ืจื–ืœ ืจื•ื— ืจืขื” ืฉื•ืจื” ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉืชื” ืื“ื ืžื™ื ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืื ืฉืชื” ื“ืžื• ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืžืื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืจื•ื— ืจืขื”


A Sage taught: If food and drink are under oneโ€™s bed, even if they are covered with iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them. The Sages taught: A person should not drink water on Tuesday nights or on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights. And if he drinks water, his blood is upon his own head, due to the danger. The Gemara asks: What is this danger? The Gemara answers: The danger of the evil spirit that rules on these days.


ื•ืื ืฆื—ื™ ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื™ื” (ื ื™ืžื) ืฉื‘ืขื” ืงื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ื ืืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืจืขื™ื ื”ืณ ืขืœ ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื›ื— ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื”ื“ืจ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ืฉื•ื‘ืจ ืืจื–ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืจ ื”ืณ ืืช ืืจื–ื™ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื—ื•ืฆื‘ ืœื”ื‘ื•ืช ืืฉ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื™ื—ื™ืœ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื—ื™ืœ ื”ืณ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืฉ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื™ื—ื•ืœืœ ืื™ืœื•ืช ื•ื™ื—ืฉื•ืฃ ื™ืขืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ื”ื™ื›ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“


The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? What should he drink? The Gemara answers: He should say the seven voices that David said over the water, and afterward he may drink. As it is stated: โ€œThe voice of the Lord is upon the waters; God of glory thunders, even the Lord upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He makes them also skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. The voice of the Lord hews out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve, and strips the forests bare; and in His temple all say: Gloryโ€ (Psalms 29:3โ€“9).


ื•ืื™ ืœื (ื ื™ืžื) ื”ื›ื™ ืœื•ืœ ืฉืคืŸ ืื ื™ื’ืจื•ืŸ ืื ื™ืจื“ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืขื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืื–ื™ืœื ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ื ื™ืชืขืจื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืคืœื ืชื ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžืงืจืงืฉ ื ื›ืชืžื ืื—ืฆื‘ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื” ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™


And if he does not remember that verse, he should say as follows: Lul, Shafan, Anigron, Anirdafin, which are names of demons, I sit between the stars, I walk between thin and fat people, take any of them if you wish but leave me alone. And if he does not recall this incantation, if there is another person with him, he should wake him and say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water; and then he may drink. And if there is no other person with him, he should knock the cover on the cup and then drink. And if he is not able to do this, he should throw some object in it and then drink.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉืชื” ืื“ื ืžื™ื ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืื ืฉืชื” ื“ืžื• ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืกื›ื ื” ืžืื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืกื›ื ืช ืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ื•ืื™ ืฆื—ื™ ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืคืœื ืชื ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ ืœื (ื ื™ืžื) ืื™ื”ื• ืœื ืคืฉื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื™ืžื™ ืื™ื–ื“ื”ืจ ืžืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ืจื™ืจื™ ื™ืจื™ ืจื™ ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื‘ื›ืกื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™:


The Sages taught: A person should not drink water from rivers or from ponds at night. And if he drank, his blood is upon his own head due to the danger. The Gemara explains: What is this danger? The danger of blindness. The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? If there is another person with him, he should say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water. And if there is no one else with him, he should say to himself: So-and-so, my mother said to me to beware of shavrirei, the demon of blindness. He should continue to say the following incantation, in the first part of which the demonโ€™s name gradually disappears: Shavrirei berirei rirei yiri ri; I thirst for water in white earthenware cups. This is an incantation against those demons.


ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืŸ ื”ืชืžื—ื•ื™ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื


The Gemara returns to the statement of the mishna that on Passover one must drink no less than four cups of wine: And this halakha applies even if the poor person accepts funds from the charity plate. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case. If there is a mitzva to drink these four cups, they must be provided for him.


ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื ืืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืžืฉื•ื ืคืจืกื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกื (ืžื•ื“ื™)


The Gemara answers: The mishna is necessary only to teach that this halakha applies even according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like an ordinary weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. If one is unable to honor Shabbat without financial help from others, it is better for him to save money and eat his Shabbat meals as he would on a weekday rather than rely on other people. Here, in the case of the four cups, Rabbi Akiva concedes that it is appropriate for a poor person to request assistance from the community, due to the obligation to publicize the miracle.


ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืขื•ืฉื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืžืื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืกื ื“ื”ืจืกื ื ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ืชื™ืžื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืขื– ื›ื ืžืจ ื•ืงืœ ื›ื ืฉืจ ืจืฅ ื›ืฆื‘ื™ ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื›ืืจื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืš ืฉื‘ืฉืžื™ื


With regard to this issue, the school of Eliyahu taught that although Rabbi Akiva said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings; however, one should nevertheless perform some small alteration in his house to distinguish Shabbat from a weekday. The Gemara asks: What is this alteration? Rav Pappa said: For example, one should serve small, fried fish. As we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima says: Be bold like a leopard, light like an eagle, run like a deer, and be strong like a lion to perform the will of your Father in Heaven. This statement teaches that one should exert every effort to perform a mitzva.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื ื™ ืืœ ืชืฉื‘ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ื•ืชืฉื ื” ื•ืืœ ืชื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืฉืจืืฉื™ื” ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื


The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbiโ€™s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. The Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son, about seven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city, where many people pass, and study there, as the passersby will interrupt you. And do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars, as they are too busy studying to govern properly.


ื•ืืœ ืชื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชืš ืคืชืื•ื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ื•ืืœ ืชืžื ืข ืžื ืขืœื™ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ืš ื”ืฉื›ื ื•ืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื™ื ื” ื•ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ื™ ืžืฉืชื“ืœ ืขื ืื“ื ืฉื”ืฉืขื” ืžืฉื—ืงืช ืœื•


Rabbi Akiva continued: And do not enter your house suddenly, without knocking first; all the more so do not enter the house of another, as he might not be ready to receive you. And do not withhold shoes from your feet, as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. Wake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat, as it is best to eat before it grows hot, and in the winter due to the strength you will need to tolerate the cold. And make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with a person upon whom the hour smiles, i.e., a successful person.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœื ืœืžื™ื–ื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืžืื™ื•ื‘ ืžืชื‘ืจืš ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืžื™ื–ื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™


Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzแธฅak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œYou have blessed the work of his handsโ€ (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.


ื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื›ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืœืžื“ื ื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื™ ืžืœืžื“ืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืžืœืžื“ื ื™ ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื™ื•ื—ื™ ืื‘ื ื•ืžื•ืกืจืš ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉื”ืขื’ืœ ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื™ื ืง ืคืจื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื ื™ืง ืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืกื›ื ื” ื•ื”ืœื ืขื’ืœ ื‘ืกื›ื ื”


The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai to do five matters when Rabbi Akiva was imprisoned. Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon said to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah. Rabbi Akiva said to him: I will not teach you, as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon said to him in jest: If you will not teach me, I will tell Yoแธฅai my father, and he will turn you over to the government. In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva said: My son, know that more than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle, but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon said to him: And who is in danger? Isnโ€™t the calf in danger, as you are in jail and I am the one at risk?


ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื‘ืงืฉืช ืœื™ื—ื ืง ื”ื™ืชืœื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ืš ืœืžื“ื”ื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืžื•ื’ื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื‘ื—ื“ืชื ืฉื‘ืฉืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืœ ืขืœ


Rabbi Akiva said to him: If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, if you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree. This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. And when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? Rava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiya said: Rabbi Akiva was referring to learning a new topic, for once a mistake enters oneโ€™s mind, it has entered there and is difficult to put right.


ืœื ืชื‘ืฉืœ ื‘ืงื“ื™ืจื” ืฉื‘ื™ืฉืœ ื‘ื” ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื’ืจื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื’ืจื•ืฉ ืฉื ืฉื ื’ืจื•ืฉื” ืืจื‘ืข ื“ืขื•ืช ื‘ืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ืœืคื™


Rabbi Akiva further told Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: Do not cook in a pot in which your colleague cooked his food. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of this statement? The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva is referring to marrying a divorced woman in the lifetime of her former husband. As the Master said: If a divorced man marries a divorced woman, there are four minds in the bed during intimacy. Each person thinks about his current and former spouse, which verges on illegitimacy. And if you wish, say instead that this advice holds true even with regard to marrying a widow, as


ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ืฉื•ื•ืช


not all fingers are equal. It is possible that intimate relations with her second husband might not be as pleasing as with the first, leading her to disparage and even hate him.


ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื•ืฃ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื•ื›ืœ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืฉื›ืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื


Rabbi Akiva continued to offer instruction: It is a mitzva and a great material benefit to oneโ€™s body to eat fruits without payment. That is, when one lends money and takes land as collateral, deducting from the loan the value of the fruit he eats, both the borrower and the lender benefit from this practice. One who both performs a mitzva and retains a pure body is one who marries a woman, as his thoughts will remain pure and he will merit to have children.


ืืจื‘ืขื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื• ืืœ ืชื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืฉื›ื ืฆื™ื‘ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื™ืฆื ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื•ืžืฉื›ื• ืœืš ื‘ืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื


The Gemara cites more instructions issued by a Sage to his heirs. Our holy rabbi, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, commanded his sons to do four matters: Do not live in Shekhantziv in Babylonia, because they are mockers. And they will draw you in to their mockery and lead you to abandon your Torah studies.


ื•ืืœ ืชืฉื‘ ืขืœ ืžื˜ืช ืืจืžื™ืช ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ื’ื ื™ ื‘ืœื ืงืจื™ืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ื ืกื‘ ื’ื™ื•ืจืชื


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further commanded his sons: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman. This advice is explained in different ways. Some say it means that you should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as a Jew who does this acts like a gentile. And some say it means that you should not marry a convert, i.e., a Jewish woman who was once an Aramean.


ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืจืžืื™ืช ืžืžืฉ ื•ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื


And some say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi meant the actual bed of an Aramean woman, and this is due to the concern for a similar outcome to the later incident involving Rav Pappa. The incident in question was as follows: Rav Pappa entered the house of a gentile woman to collect a debt. The woman asked him to sit on her bed until she brought the money. As it turned out, she had placed her dead baby under the bed. Rav Pappa was subsequently accused of killing the baby and was forced to flee the district.


ื•ืืœ ืชื‘ืจื™ื— ืขืฆืžืš ืžืŸ ื”ืžื›ืก ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉื›ื—ื• ืœืš ื•ืฉืงืœื™ ืžื ืš ื›ืœ ื“ืื™ืช ืœืš ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื•ืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืฉื˜ืŸ ืžืจืงื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงืจื ื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกืŸ


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: And do not avoid paying taxes, lest they find you and confiscate everything you own. And do not stand before an ox when it emerges from the marsh because Satan dances between its horns, i.e., an ox is particularly menacing at that time. Rabbi Shmuel said: This is referring to a black ox, and specifically during the days of Nisan, when the ox is most dangerous.


ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ืจ ืชื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืžื” ืžืฉื•ืจ ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื•


Rav Oshaya teaches with regard to the same issue: One distances himself fifty cubits from an innocuous ox [shor tam], an ox with no consistent history of causing damage with the intent to injure. From a forewarned ox [shor muad], an ox whose owner was forewarned because his ox already gored a person three times, one distances himself until it is beyond eyeshot.


ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืชื•ืจื ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืœื ืกืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื•ืฉื“ื™ ื“ืจื’ื ืžืชื•ืชืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืชื•ืจื ื”ืŸ ื”ืŸ ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืืจื™ื” ื–ื” ื–ื” ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ื’ืžืœื ื“ื ื“ื ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืืจื‘ื ื”ื™ืœื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ืœื ื•ื”ื™ืœื•ืง ื”ื•ืœื™ื


A Sage taught citing the name of Rabbi Meir, in an exaggerated vein: Even if the head of the ox is in its food basket, go up to the roof and kick the ladder out from underneath you to escape from it. Rav said: The cry that one says to lead an ox is hen hen. The cry to lead a lion is zeh zeh. The cry to lead a camel is da da. The cry to laborers using ropes to pull a ship along a river is heleni, hayya, hela, vehilook, hulya.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืขื•ืจ ื“ื’ ื•ื›ื•ืก ื—ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื›ื ื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืขื•ืจ ืžืืŸ ื“ื’ื ื™ ืืžืฉื›ื ื“ืฆืœื ื“ื’ ืฉื™ื‘ื•ื˜ื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกืŸ ื›ื•ืก ืฉื™ื•ืจื™ ื›ืกื ื“ื”ืจืกื ื ื—ืžื™ืŸ ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ื“ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ืžืฉื“ืจื• ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื“ืจืš ืืงืœื™ืคื™ื ื›ื™ื ื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื—ื•ื•ืจ ืœื‘ื•ืฉื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื˜ื™ืจ ืœื™ื” ืชืžื ื™ื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืœื” ื‘ืจื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื ืš ื›ื™ื ื™ื ื•ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ


Abaye said: Hide, fish, and a cup, hot water, and eggs, and white lice all cause the other matter, i.e., leprosy. The Gemara elaborates: Hide is referring to one who sleeps on a tannerโ€™s hide before it has been tanned. Fish is referring to the shibuta fish in the days of Nisan. The cup is referring to one who eats the leftovers of small fried fish. Hot water is referring to very hot water that one pours on himself. Eggs means one who steps on eggshells. White lice is referring to one who washes his garment but does not keep it for eight days before wearing it again, a habit which creates these lice. And all of these practices cause the other matter, leprosy.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ืจื ืœื ื ื™ืขื•ืœ ื‘ื” ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ืœื ืžืกื ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื•ื ืจื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ืœื—ื™ื•ื™ื ื•ืื›ื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื•ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื™ื•ื™ื ื’ืจืžื™ ืงื˜ื™ื ื™ ื•ืื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืœื” ื’ืจืžื ื“ื—ื™ื•ื™ื ืื›ืจืขื™ื” ืœื ื ืคื™ืง ื•ืืกืชื›ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ืจื ืœื ื ื™ืขื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื›ืจื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื™ื›ืจื™ืš ื‘ื™ื” ื—ื•ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ื•ืžืกืชื›ืŸ


Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is a cat, a person should not enter there barefoot. What is the reason? Because the cat might kill a snake and eat it, and the snake has small bones, and if a small bone gets into oneโ€™s foot it cannot be removed, and he will be in danger. Some say that Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is no cat, a person should not enter there in the dark. What is the reason? Since there is no cat to hunt snakes, perhaps a snake will wrap itself around him without him knowing and he will be in danger.


ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ (ืžืงืฉ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ืืœ ืชืขืฉ ืžื•ื ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืœื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืœืš ื“ื™ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืชืœืชื ื“ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื“ื™ื ืš ื•ืชืจื™ ืกื”ื“ื™ ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงื— ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ืžื™ื


Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters. Parenthetically, the Gemara states that mem, kuf, shin is a mnemonic for the three statements, as it stands for mum, blemish, mekaแธฅ, a purchase, and ishtekha, your wife. The first matter is: Do not inflict a blemish upon yourself. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? The Gemara explains: Do not have a court case against three people, as one will be your opponent and two will act as witnesses and testify against you whatever they wish. And do not stand over and display interest in a purchase when you do not have enough money even for the price you are offering, as this constitutes fraud.


ืืฉืชืš ื˜ื‘ืœื” ืืœ ืชื–ืงืง ืœื” ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื“ื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ื—ื–ืง ืžืขื™ืŸ ืคืชื•ื— ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉื›ื” ื–ื™ื‘ื”


The Gemara cites the third instruction that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. After your wife has immersed, do not engage in intimacy with her on the first night. Rather, wait an additional night. Rav said: And this is referring to a menstruating woman whose status applies by Torah law. According to Torah law, even if a woman experiences a continuous emission of blood for seven days, if the flow stops on the seventh day, she may immerse that night and engage in relations with her husband without delay. However, Rav maintains that one must act stringently in this case. His reasoning is: Since there is a presumption that the flow of blood is open, perhaps her zava blood will continue afterward, i.e., she will see more blood after engaging in intimacy.


ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ืืœ ืชืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื•ืืœ ืชื›ื ืก ืœืžืจื—ืฅ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืžื ืชืคื—ืช ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื”ื•ื™ ื ื›ืคื” ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ืœืื•ืจ ื”ื ืจ ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื ื›ืคื™ืŸ


The Gemara continues: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters: Do not go out alone at night; do not stand naked before a candle; and do not enter a new bathhouse, lest it collapse when they light the fire beneath it. The Gemara asks: Until when is a bathhouse considered new? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Until twelve months have passed. With regard to the statement: And do not stand naked before a candle, the Gemara comments that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One who stands naked before a candle will become epileptic, and one who engages in intimacy by candlelight will have epileptic children.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ืขืœ ืžื˜ื” ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืง ื™ืฉืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืื•ืชื• ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื ื›ืคื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืชื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืชื ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ื’ื ื™ ืœื”ื“ื™ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื™ ืœื”ื“ื™ ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื ืžื ื— ื™ื“ื™ื” ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืžื ื— ื™ื“ื™ื” ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


Likewise, the Sages taught: One who engages in intimacy in a bed upon which a baby is sleeping, that child becomes epileptic. And we said that this will occur only if the child is not yet one year old; however, if he is one year old we have no problem with it, as he is old enough not to be affected. And furthermore, we said this only concerning a baby that is sleeping near the fatherโ€™s feet; but if the baby is sleeping near his head he is sufficiently far away so that we have no problem with it. And we said this only if he does not place his hand on the baby at the time, but if he places his hands on the baby to serve as a barrier between them, we have no problem with it.


ืืœ ืชืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืื’ืจืช ื‘ืช ืžื—ืœืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื•ื ืฉืœ ืžืœืื›ื™ ื—ื‘ืœื” ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื—ื‘ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื•


With regard to the instruction: Do not go out alone at night, the Gemara states that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One should not go out alone at night, neither on Tuesday nights nor on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, because the demon Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat, she and 180,000 angels of destruction go out at these times. And as each and every one of them has permission to destroy by itself, they are all the more dangerous when they go forth together.


ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื”ื•ื• ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื–ืžื ื ื—ื“ื ืคื’ืขื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืกื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ืžื›ืจื–ืŸ ืขืœืš ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื—ื ื™ื ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื• ืกื›ื ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืื™ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื’ื•ื–ืจ ืื ื™ ืขืœื™ืš ืฉืœื ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื˜ื•ืชื ืžื™ื ืš ืฉื‘ืง ืœื™ ืจื•ื•ื—ื ืคื•ืจืชื ืฉื‘ืง ืœื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช


The Gemara states: Initially, these demons were present every day. Once Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat, met Rabbi แธคanina ben Dosa and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of แธคanina and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never travel through inhabited places. She said to him: I beg you, leave me a little space. He left for her Shabbat nights and Tuesday nights.


ื•ืชื• ื—ื“ื ื–ืžื ื ืคื’ืขื” ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ืžื›ืจื–ื™ ืขืœืš ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื•ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื• ื”ื•ื” ืกื›ื ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืื™ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื’ื•ื–ืจื ื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื›ื™ ืฉืœื ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ืจื” ืืžืจื™ ื”ื ื™


And furthermore, once Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat met Abaye and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Naแธฅmani, Abaye, and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never pass through inhabited places. The Gemara asks: But we see that, notwithstanding these anecdotes, demons do pass through inhabited areas. The Sages say in explanation: These demons


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 112

ื“ืžืกื•ื›ืจ ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ืฉื‘ืขื” ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ืฉืงื™ืœ ืžื–ื™ื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ืชืœืชื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื“ืฉืงื™ืœ ื˜ื•ืคืจื™ื” ื•ืœื ืžืฉื™ ื™ื“ื™ื” ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื—ื“ ื™ื•ืžื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ืžืื™ ืงื ืžืคื—ื™ื“ ื™ื“ื ืืื•ืกื™ื ื“ืจื’ื ืœืคื—ื“ื ื™ื“ื ืืคื•ืชื ื“ืจื’ื ืœืฉื™ื ืชื


One who lets blood and does not wash his hands will be afraid for seven days. One who cuts his hair and does not wash his hands will be afraid for three days. One who cuts his nails and does not wash his hands will be afraid for one day, and he will not know what is frightening him. Placing oneโ€™s hand on his nostrils is a way to become afraid. Placing oneโ€™s hand on his forehead is a way to fall asleep.


ืชื ื ืื•ื›ืœื™ืŸ ื•ืžืฉืงื™ืŸ ืชื—ืช ื”ืžื˜ื” ืืคื™ืœื• ืžื—ื•ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœื™ ื‘ืจื–ืœ ืจื•ื— ืจืขื” ืฉื•ืจื” ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉืชื” ืื“ื ืžื™ื ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืื ืฉืชื” ื“ืžื• ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืžืื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืจื•ื— ืจืขื”


A Sage taught: If food and drink are under oneโ€™s bed, even if they are covered with iron vessels, an evil spirit rests upon them. The Sages taught: A person should not drink water on Tuesday nights or on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights. And if he drinks water, his blood is upon his own head, due to the danger. The Gemara asks: What is this danger? The Gemara answers: The danger of the evil spirit that rules on these days.


ื•ืื ืฆื—ื™ ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื™ื” (ื ื™ืžื) ืฉื‘ืขื” ืงื•ืœื•ืช ืฉืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ื ืืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“ ื”ืจืขื™ื ื”ืณ ืขืœ ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื›ื— ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ื”ื“ืจ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ืฉื•ื‘ืจ ืืจื–ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื‘ืจ ื”ืณ ืืช ืืจื–ื™ ื”ืœื‘ื ื•ืŸ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื—ื•ืฆื‘ ืœื”ื‘ื•ืช ืืฉ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื™ื—ื™ืœ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ื™ื—ื™ืœ ื”ืณ ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืงื“ืฉ ืงื•ืœ ื”ืณ ื™ื—ื•ืœืœ ืื™ืœื•ืช ื•ื™ื—ืฉื•ืฃ ื™ืขืจื•ืช ื•ื‘ื”ื™ื›ืœื• ื›ื•ืœื• ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื‘ื•ื“


The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? What should he drink? The Gemara answers: He should say the seven voices that David said over the water, and afterward he may drink. As it is stated: โ€œThe voice of the Lord is upon the waters; God of glory thunders, even the Lord upon many waters. The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaks the cedars; the Lord breaks in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He makes them also skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild ox. The voice of the Lord hews out flames of fire. The voice of the Lord shakes the wilderness; the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. The voice of the Lord makes the hinds to calve, and strips the forests bare; and in His temple all say: Gloryโ€ (Psalms 29:3โ€“9).


ื•ืื™ ืœื (ื ื™ืžื) ื”ื›ื™ ืœื•ืœ ืฉืคืŸ ืื ื™ื’ืจื•ืŸ ืื ื™ืจื“ืคื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ื™ืŸ ื‘ืœื™ืขื™ ืฉืžื™ื ื™ ืื–ื™ืœื ื ื•ืื™ ืœื ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ื ื™ืชืขืจื™ื” ื•ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืคืœื ืชื ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ืžืงืจืงืฉ ื ื›ืชืžื ืื—ืฆื‘ื ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™ ื•ืื™ ืœื ื ื™ืฉื“ื™ ื‘ื” ืžื™ื“ื™ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ื ื™ืฉืชื™


And if he does not remember that verse, he should say as follows: Lul, Shafan, Anigron, Anirdafin, which are names of demons, I sit between the stars, I walk between thin and fat people, take any of them if you wish but leave me alone. And if he does not recall this incantation, if there is another person with him, he should wake him and say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water; and then he may drink. And if there is no other person with him, he should knock the cover on the cup and then drink. And if he is not able to do this, he should throw some object in it and then drink.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืœื ื™ืฉืชื” ืื“ื ืžื™ื ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ืžื™ื ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืื ืฉืชื” ื“ืžื• ื‘ืจืืฉื• ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืกื›ื ื” ืžืื™ ืกื›ื ื” ืกื›ื ืช ืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ื•ืื™ ืฆื—ื™ ืžืื™ ืชืงื ืชื™ื” ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืœื™ืžื ืœื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ื‘ืจ ืคืœื ืชื ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื•ืื™ ืœื (ื ื™ืžื) ืื™ื”ื• ืœื ืคืฉื™ื” ืคืœื ื™ื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ ืื™ืžื™ ืื™ื–ื“ื”ืจ ืžืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ืฉื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ื‘ืจื™ืจื™ ืจื™ืจื™ ื™ืจื™ ืจื™ ืฆื—ื™ื ื ืžื™ื ื‘ื›ืกื™ ื—ื™ื•ืจื™:


The Sages taught: A person should not drink water from rivers or from ponds at night. And if he drank, his blood is upon his own head due to the danger. The Gemara explains: What is this danger? The danger of blindness. The Gemara asks: And if he is thirsty, what is his remedy? If there is another person with him, he should say to him: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, I thirst for water. And if there is no one else with him, he should say to himself: So-and-so, my mother said to me to beware of shavrirei, the demon of blindness. He should continue to say the following incantation, in the first part of which the demonโ€™s name gradually disappears: Shavrirei berirei rirei yiri ri; I thirst for water in white earthenware cups. This is an incantation against those demons.


ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืžืŸ ื”ืชืžื—ื•ื™ ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืคืฉื™ื˜ื


The Gemara returns to the statement of the mishna that on Passover one must drink no less than four cups of wine: And this halakha applies even if the poor person accepts funds from the charity plate. The Gemara asks: It is obvious that this is the case. If there is a mitzva to drink these four cups, they must be provided for him.


ืœื ื ืฆืจื›ื ืืœื ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื“ืืžืจ ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืžืฉื•ื ืคืจืกื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกื (ืžื•ื“ื™)


The Gemara answers: The mishna is necessary only to teach that this halakha applies even according to the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who said: Make your Shabbat like an ordinary weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. If one is unable to honor Shabbat without financial help from others, it is better for him to save money and eat his Shabbat meals as he would on a weekday rather than rely on other people. Here, in the case of the four cups, Rabbi Akiva concedes that it is appropriate for a poor person to request assistance from the community, due to the obligation to publicize the miracle.


ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ืื‘ืœ ืขื•ืฉื” ื”ื•ื ื“ื‘ืจ ืžื•ืขื˜ ื‘ืชื•ืš ื‘ื™ืชื• ืžืื™ ื ื™ื ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื›ืกื ื“ื”ืจืกื ื ื›ื“ืชื ืŸ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืŸ ืชื™ืžื ืื•ืžืจ ื”ื•ื™ ืขื– ื›ื ืžืจ ื•ืงืœ ื›ื ืฉืจ ืจืฅ ื›ืฆื‘ื™ ื•ื’ื‘ื•ืจ ื›ืืจื™ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ืจืฆื•ืŸ ืื‘ื™ืš ืฉื‘ืฉืžื™ื


With regard to this issue, the school of Eliyahu taught that although Rabbi Akiva said: Make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings; however, one should nevertheless perform some small alteration in his house to distinguish Shabbat from a weekday. The Gemara asks: What is this alteration? Rav Pappa said: For example, one should serve small, fried fish. As we learned in a mishna: Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima says: Be bold like a leopard, light like an eagle, run like a deer, and be strong like a lion to perform the will of your Father in Heaven. This statement teaches that one should exert every effort to perform a mitzva.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ืฉื‘ืขื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื ื™ ืืœ ืชืฉื‘ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื”ื” ืฉืœ ืขื™ืจ ื•ืชืฉื ื” ื•ืืœ ืชื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืขื™ืจ ืฉืจืืฉื™ื” ืชืœืžื™ื“ื™ ื—ื›ืžื™ื


The Gemara cites the full source of Rabbiโ€™s Akiva statement with regard to Shabbat preparations. The Sages taught: Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Yehoshua, his son, about seven matters: My son, do not sit at the high point of a city, where many people pass, and study there, as the passersby will interrupt you. And do not live in a city whose leaders are Torah scholars, as they are too busy studying to govern properly.


ื•ืืœ ืชื›ื ืก ืœื‘ื™ืชืš ืคืชืื•ื ื›ืœ ืฉื›ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ื•ืืœ ืชืžื ืข ืžื ืขืœื™ื ืžืจื’ืœื™ืš ื”ืฉื›ื ื•ืื›ื•ืœ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ืžืคื ื™ ื”ืฆื™ื ื” ื•ืขืฉื” ืฉื‘ืชืš ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืืœ ืชืฆื˜ืจืš ืœื‘ืจื™ื•ืช ื•ื”ื•ื™ ืžืฉืชื“ืœ ืขื ืื“ื ืฉื”ืฉืขื” ืžืฉื—ืงืช ืœื•


Rabbi Akiva continued: And do not enter your house suddenly, without knocking first; all the more so do not enter the house of another, as he might not be ready to receive you. And do not withhold shoes from your feet, as it is disgraceful to go barefoot. Wake up and eat, in the summer due to the heat, as it is best to eat before it grows hot, and in the winter due to the strength you will need to tolerate the cold. And make your Shabbat like a weekday and do not be beholden to other beings. And exert yourself to join together with a person upon whom the hour smiles, i.e., a successful person.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœื ืœืžื™ื–ื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืืœื ืœืžืขื‘ื“ ืฉื•ืชืคื•ืช ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ื•ื”ืฉืชื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืจ ื™ืฆื—ืง ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืžืขืฉื” ื™ื“ื™ื• ื‘ืจื›ืช ื›ืœ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืœ ืคืจื•ื˜ื” ืžืื™ื•ื‘ ืžืชื‘ืจืš ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืžื™ื–ื‘ืŸ ืžื™ื ื™ื” ื•ืœื–ื‘ื•ื ื™ ืœื™ื” ืฉืคื™ืจ ื“ืžื™


Rav Pappa said in explanation of this last statement: Do not buy from him and do not sell to him. If he is the beneficiary of good fortune, he will profit from any business transaction and you will suffer from it. Rather, form a partnership with him. And now we have heard that Rav Shmuel bar Yitzแธฅak said: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œYou have blessed the work of his handsโ€ (Job 1:10)? This means that anyone who took a peruta from Job would be blessed, even if he received it via a business transaction. This shows that one should engage in business with a person who is blessed, for even if he wishes to buy from him or to sell to him it is well, i.e., he will share in the good fortune of the other.


ื—ืžืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžืขื•ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื™ ื›ืฉื”ื™ื” ื—ื‘ื•ืฉ ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืืกื•ืจื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ืœืžื“ื ื™ ืชื•ืจื” ืืžืจ ืื™ื ื™ ืžืœืžื“ืš ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ืื™ืŸ ืืชื” ืžืœืžื“ื ื™ ืื ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ืœื™ื•ื—ื™ ืื‘ื ื•ืžื•ืกืจืš ืœืžืœื›ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืžื” ืฉื”ืขื’ืœ ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื™ื ืง ืคืจื” ืจื•ืฆื” ืœื”ื ื™ืง ืืžืจ ืœื• ื•ืžื™ ื‘ืกื›ื ื” ื•ื”ืœื ืขื’ืœ ื‘ืกื›ื ื”


The Gemara continues to cite similar advice dispensed by Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Akiva commanded Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai to do five matters when Rabbi Akiva was imprisoned. Beforehand, Rabbi Shimon said to him: Rabbi, teach me Torah. Rabbi Akiva said to him: I will not teach you, as it is dangerous to do so at the present time. Rabbi Shimon said to him in jest: If you will not teach me, I will tell Yoแธฅai my father, and he will turn you over to the government. In other words, I have no means of persuading you; you are already in prison. Rabbi Akiva said: My son, know that more than the calf wishes to suck, the cow wants to suckle, but I am afraid of the danger. Rabbi Shimon said to him: And who is in danger? Isnโ€™t the calf in danger, as you are in jail and I am the one at risk?


ืืžืจ ืœื• ืื ื‘ืงืฉืช ืœื™ื—ื ืง ื”ื™ืชืœื” ื‘ืื™ืœืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื•ื›ืฉืืชื” ืžืœืžื“ ืืช ื‘ื ืš ืœืžื“ื”ื• ื‘ืกืคืจ ืžื•ื’ื” ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ืชื™ืžื ืจื‘ ืžืฉืจืฉื™ื ื‘ื—ื“ืชื ืฉื‘ืฉืชื ื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื“ืขืœ ืขืœ


Rabbi Akiva said to him: If so, I will tell you a few matters. First of all, if you wish to strangle yourself, hang yourself on a tall tree. This proverb means that if one wants others to accept what he has to say, he should attribute his statement to a great man. And when you teach your son, teach him from a corrected text. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? Rava said, and some say Rav Mesharshiya said: Rabbi Akiva was referring to learning a new topic, for once a mistake enters oneโ€™s mind, it has entered there and is difficult to put right.


ืœื ืชื‘ืฉืœ ื‘ืงื“ื™ืจื” ืฉื‘ื™ืฉืœ ื‘ื” ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ื’ืจื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื‘ืขืœื” ื“ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื’ืจื•ืฉ ืฉื ืฉื ื’ืจื•ืฉื” ืืจื‘ืข ื“ืขื•ืช ื‘ืžื˜ื” ื•ืื™ ื‘ืขื™ืช ืื™ืžื ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืืœืžื ื” ืœืคื™


Rabbi Akiva further told Rabbi Shimon ben Yoแธฅai: Do not cook in a pot in which your colleague cooked his food. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of this statement? The Gemara explains: Rabbi Akiva is referring to marrying a divorced woman in the lifetime of her former husband. As the Master said: If a divorced man marries a divorced woman, there are four minds in the bed during intimacy. Each person thinks about his current and former spouse, which verges on illegitimacy. And if you wish, say instead that this advice holds true even with regard to marrying a widow, as


ืฉืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืืฆื‘ืขื•ืช ืฉื•ื•ืช


not all fingers are equal. It is possible that intimate relations with her second husband might not be as pleasing as with the first, leading her to disparage and even hate him.


ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื•ืฃ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ืื•ื›ืœ ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ืœื ืฉื›ืจ ืžืฆื•ื” ื•ื’ื•ืฃ ื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืืฉื” ื•ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื


Rabbi Akiva continued to offer instruction: It is a mitzva and a great material benefit to oneโ€™s body to eat fruits without payment. That is, when one lends money and takes land as collateral, deducting from the loan the value of the fruit he eats, both the borrower and the lender benefit from this practice. One who both performs a mitzva and retains a pure body is one who marries a woman, as his thoughts will remain pure and he will merit to have children.


ืืจื‘ืขื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ื ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ืืช ื‘ื ื™ื• ืืœ ืชื“ื•ืจ ื‘ืฉื›ื ืฆื™ื‘ ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืœื™ืฆื ื™ ื”ื•ื• ื•ืžืฉื›ื• ืœืš ื‘ืœื™ืฆื ื•ืชื


The Gemara cites more instructions issued by a Sage to his heirs. Our holy rabbi, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, commanded his sons to do four matters: Do not live in Shekhantziv in Babylonia, because they are mockers. And they will draw you in to their mockery and lead you to abandon your Torah studies.


ื•ืืœ ืชืฉื‘ ืขืœ ืžื˜ืช ืืจืžื™ืช ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ื’ื ื™ ื‘ืœื ืงืจื™ืช ืฉืžืข ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื“ืœื ืชื™ื ืกื‘ ื’ื™ื•ืจืชื


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further commanded his sons: Do not sit on the bed of an Aramean woman. This advice is explained in different ways. Some say it means that you should not go to sleep without reciting Shema, as a Jew who does this acts like a gentile. And some say it means that you should not marry a convert, i.e., a Jewish woman who was once an Aramean.


ื•ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ืืจืžืื™ืช ืžืžืฉ ื•ืžืฉื•ื ืžืขืฉื” ื“ืจื‘ ืคืคื


And some say that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi meant the actual bed of an Aramean woman, and this is due to the concern for a similar outcome to the later incident involving Rav Pappa. The incident in question was as follows: Rav Pappa entered the house of a gentile woman to collect a debt. The woman asked him to sit on her bed until she brought the money. As it turned out, she had placed her dead baby under the bed. Rav Pappa was subsequently accused of killing the baby and was forced to flee the district.


ื•ืืœ ืชื‘ืจื™ื— ืขืฆืžืš ืžืŸ ื”ืžื›ืก ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉื›ื—ื• ืœืš ื•ืฉืงืœื™ ืžื ืš ื›ืœ ื“ืื™ืช ืœืš ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืฉื•ืจ ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืขื•ืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืื’ื ืžืคื ื™ ืฉื”ืฉื˜ืŸ ืžืจืงื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืงืจื ื™ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืฉืžื•ืืœ ื‘ืฉื•ืจ ืฉื—ื•ืจ ื•ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกืŸ


Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi continued: And do not avoid paying taxes, lest they find you and confiscate everything you own. And do not stand before an ox when it emerges from the marsh because Satan dances between its horns, i.e., an ox is particularly menacing at that time. Rabbi Shmuel said: This is referring to a black ox, and specifically during the days of Nisan, when the ox is most dangerous.


ืชื ื™ ืจื‘ ืื•ืฉืขื™ื ืžืจื—ื™ืงื™ืŸ ืžืฉื•ืจ ืชื ื—ืžืฉื™ื ืืžื” ืžืฉื•ืจ ืžื•ืขื“ ื›ืžืœื ืขื™ื ื™ื•


Rav Oshaya teaches with regard to the same issue: One distances himself fifty cubits from an innocuous ox [shor tam], an ox with no consistent history of causing damage with the intent to injure. From a forewarned ox [shor muad], an ox whose owner was forewarned because his ox already gored a person three times, one distances himself until it is beyond eyeshot.


ืชื ื ืžืฉืžื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ื™ ืžืื™ืจ ืจื™ืฉ ืชื•ืจื ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืœื ืกืง ืœืื™ื’ืจื ื•ืฉื“ื™ ื“ืจื’ื ืžืชื•ืชืš ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืชื•ืจื ื”ืŸ ื”ืŸ ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืืจื™ื” ื–ื” ื–ื” ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ื’ืžืœื ื“ื ื“ื ื ื™ื–ื”ื ื“ืืจื‘ื ื”ื™ืœื ื™ ื”ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ืœื ื•ื”ื™ืœื•ืง ื”ื•ืœื™ื


A Sage taught citing the name of Rabbi Meir, in an exaggerated vein: Even if the head of the ox is in its food basket, go up to the roof and kick the ladder out from underneath you to escape from it. Rav said: The cry that one says to lead an ox is hen hen. The cry to lead a lion is zeh zeh. The cry to lead a camel is da da. The cry to laborers using ropes to pull a ship along a river is heleni, hayya, hela, vehilook, hulya.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ืขื•ืจ ื“ื’ ื•ื›ื•ืก ื—ืžื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื ื•ื›ื ื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื ื›ื•ืœืŸ ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ ืขื•ืจ ืžืืŸ ื“ื’ื ื™ ืืžืฉื›ื ื“ืฆืœื ื“ื’ ืฉื™ื‘ื•ื˜ื ื‘ื™ื•ืžื™ ื ื™ืกืŸ ื›ื•ืก ืฉื™ื•ืจื™ ื›ืกื ื“ื”ืจืกื ื ื—ืžื™ืŸ ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ื“ื—ืžื™ืžื™ ืžืฉื“ืจื• ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ื‘ื™ืฆื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื“ืจืš ืืงืœื™ืคื™ื ื›ื™ื ื™ื ืœื‘ื ื™ื ืžืืŸ ื“ืžื—ื•ื•ืจ ืœื‘ื•ืฉื™ื” ื•ืœื ื ื˜ื™ืจ ืœื™ื” ืชืžื ื™ื ื™ื•ืžื™ ื•ื”ื“ืจ ืœื‘ื•ืฉ ืœื” ื‘ืจื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื ืš ื›ื™ื ื™ื ื•ืงืฉื™ืŸ ืœื“ื‘ืจ ืื—ืจ


Abaye said: Hide, fish, and a cup, hot water, and eggs, and white lice all cause the other matter, i.e., leprosy. The Gemara elaborates: Hide is referring to one who sleeps on a tannerโ€™s hide before it has been tanned. Fish is referring to the shibuta fish in the days of Nisan. The cup is referring to one who eats the leftovers of small fried fish. Hot water is referring to very hot water that one pours on himself. Eggs means one who steps on eggshells. White lice is referring to one who washes his garment but does not keep it for eight days before wearing it again, a habit which creates these lice. And all of these practices cause the other matter, leprosy.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ืจื ืœื ื ื™ืขื•ืœ ื‘ื” ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ืœื ืžืกื ื™ ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ืžืฉื•ื ื“ืฉื•ื ืจื ืงื˜ื™ืœ ืœื—ื™ื•ื™ื ื•ืื›ื™ืœ ืœื™ื” ื•ืื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ื—ื™ื•ื™ื ื’ืจืžื™ ืงื˜ื™ื ื™ ื•ืื™ ื™ืชื™ื‘ ืœื” ื’ืจืžื ื“ื—ื™ื•ื™ื ืื›ืจืขื™ื” ืœื ื ืคื™ืง ื•ืืกืชื›ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืื™ื›ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื‘ื™ืชื ื“ืœื™ืช ื‘ื™ื” ืฉื•ื ืจื ืœื ื ื™ืขื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื” ืื™ื ื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื›ืจื ืžืื™ ื˜ืขืžื ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžื™ื›ืจื™ืš ื‘ื™ื” ื—ื•ื™ื ื•ืœื ื™ื“ืข ื•ืžืกืชื›ืŸ


Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is a cat, a person should not enter there barefoot. What is the reason? Because the cat might kill a snake and eat it, and the snake has small bones, and if a small bone gets into oneโ€™s foot it cannot be removed, and he will be in danger. Some say that Rav Pappa said: With regard to a house in which there is no cat, a person should not enter there in the dark. What is the reason? Since there is no cat to hunt snakes, perhaps a snake will wrap itself around him without him knowing and he will be in danger.


ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืืช ืจื‘ื™ (ืžืงืฉ ืกื™ืžืŸ) ืืœ ืชืขืฉ ืžื•ื ื‘ืขืฆืžืš ืžืื™ ื”ื™ื ืœื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืœืš ื“ื™ื ื ื‘ื”ื“ื™ ืชืœืชื ื“ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืขืœ ื“ื™ื ืš ื•ืชืจื™ ืกื”ื“ื™ ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืžืงื— ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืื™ืŸ ืœืš ื“ืžื™ื


Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters. Parenthetically, the Gemara states that mem, kuf, shin is a mnemonic for the three statements, as it stands for mum, blemish, mekaแธฅ, a purchase, and ishtekha, your wife. The first matter is: Do not inflict a blemish upon yourself. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of that statement? The Gemara explains: Do not have a court case against three people, as one will be your opponent and two will act as witnesses and testify against you whatever they wish. And do not stand over and display interest in a purchase when you do not have enough money even for the price you are offering, as this constitutes fraud.


ืืฉืชืš ื˜ื‘ืœื” ืืœ ืชื–ืงืง ืœื” ืœื™ืœื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื•ื‘ื ื“ื” ื“ืื•ืจื™ื™ืชื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ื”ื•ื—ื–ืง ืžืขื™ืŸ ืคืชื•ื— ื“ื™ืœืžื ืžืฉื›ื” ื–ื™ื‘ื”


The Gemara cites the third instruction that Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. After your wife has immersed, do not engage in intimacy with her on the first night. Rather, wait an additional night. Rav said: And this is referring to a menstruating woman whose status applies by Torah law. According to Torah law, even if a woman experiences a continuous emission of blood for seven days, if the flow stops on the seventh day, she may immerse that night and engage in relations with her husband without delay. However, Rav maintains that one must act stringently in this case. His reasoning is: Since there is a presumption that the flow of blood is open, perhaps her zava blood will continue afterward, i.e., she will see more blood after engaging in intimacy.


ืฉืœืฉื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืฆื•ื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืช ืจื‘ื™ ืืœ ืชืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื•ืืœ ืชื›ื ืก ืœืžืจื—ืฅ ื—ื“ืฉ ืฉืžื ืชืคื—ืช ืขื“ ื›ืžื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืœื•ื™ ืขื“ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื•ืืœ ืชืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ื”ืขื•ืžื“ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ื ืจ ืขืจื•ื ื”ื•ื™ ื ื›ืคื” ื•ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ืœืื•ืจ ื”ื ืจ ื”ื•ื™ื™ืŸ ืœื• ื‘ื ื™ื ื ื›ืคื™ืŸ


The Gemara continues: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, commanded Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi with regard to three matters: Do not go out alone at night; do not stand naked before a candle; and do not enter a new bathhouse, lest it collapse when they light the fire beneath it. The Gemara asks: Until when is a bathhouse considered new? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Until twelve months have passed. With regard to the statement: And do not stand naked before a candle, the Gemara comments that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One who stands naked before a candle will become epileptic, and one who engages in intimacy by candlelight will have epileptic children.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ืžืฉืžืฉ ืžื˜ืชื• ืขืœ ืžื˜ื” ืฉืชื™ื ื•ืง ื™ืฉืŸ ืขืœื™ื” ืื•ืชื• ืชื™ื ื•ืง ื ื›ืคื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืชื ืื‘ืœ ื”ื•ื™ ื‘ืจ ืฉืชื ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ื’ื ื™ ืœื”ื“ื™ ื›ืจืขื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ื’ื ื™ ืœื”ื“ื™ ืจื™ืฉื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื” ื•ืœื ืืžืจืŸ ืืœื ื“ืœื ืžื ื— ื™ื“ื™ื” ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืื‘ืœ ืžื ื— ื™ื“ื™ื” ืขื™ืœื•ื™ื” ืœื™ืช ืœืŸ ื‘ื”


Likewise, the Sages taught: One who engages in intimacy in a bed upon which a baby is sleeping, that child becomes epileptic. And we said that this will occur only if the child is not yet one year old; however, if he is one year old we have no problem with it, as he is old enough not to be affected. And furthermore, we said this only concerning a baby that is sleeping near the fatherโ€™s feet; but if the baby is sleeping near his head he is sufficiently far away so that we have no problem with it. And we said this only if he does not place his hand on the baby at the time, but if he places his hands on the baby to serve as a barrier between them, we have no problem with it.


ืืœ ืชืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ื“ืชื ื™ื ืœื ื™ืฆื ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช ื•ืœื ื‘ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืื’ืจืช ื‘ืช ืžื—ืœืช ื”ื™ื ื•ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ืจื‘ื•ื ืฉืœ ืžืœืื›ื™ ื—ื‘ืœื” ื™ื•ืฆืื™ืŸ ื•ื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ื•ืื—ื“ ื™ืฉ ืœื• ืจืฉื•ืช ืœื—ื‘ืœ ื‘ืคื ื™ ืขืฆืžื•


With regard to the instruction: Do not go out alone at night, the Gemara states that this is as it was taught in a baraita: One should not go out alone at night, neither on Tuesday nights nor on Shabbat nights, i.e., Friday nights, because the demon Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat, she and 180,000 angels of destruction go out at these times. And as each and every one of them has permission to destroy by itself, they are all the more dangerous when they go forth together.


ืžืขื™ืงืจื ื”ื•ื• ืฉื›ื™ื—ื™ ื›ื•ืœื™ ื™ื•ืžื ื–ืžื ื ื—ื“ื ืคื’ืขื” ื‘ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ื‘ืŸ ื“ื•ืกื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ืžื›ืจื–ืŸ ืขืœืš ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื—ื ื™ื ื ื•ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื• ืกื›ื ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืื™ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื’ื•ื–ืจ ืื ื™ ืขืœื™ืš ืฉืœื ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ื‘ืžื˜ื•ืชื ืžื™ื ืš ืฉื‘ืง ืœื™ ืจื•ื•ื—ื ืคื•ืจืชื ืฉื‘ืง ืœื” ืœื™ืœื™ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืช ื•ืœื™ืœื™ ืจื‘ื™ืขื™ื•ืช


The Gemara states: Initially, these demons were present every day. Once Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat, met Rabbi แธคanina ben Dosa and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of แธคanina and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never travel through inhabited places. She said to him: I beg you, leave me a little space. He left for her Shabbat nights and Tuesday nights.


ื•ืชื• ื—ื“ื ื–ืžื ื ืคื’ืขื” ื‘ื™ื” ื‘ืื‘ื™ื™ ืืžืจื” ืœื™ื” ืื™ ืœืื• ื“ืžื›ืจื–ื™ ืขืœืš ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื”ื–ื”ืจื• ื‘ื ื—ืžื ื™ ื•ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื• ื”ื•ื” ืกื›ื ืชื™ืš ืืžืจ ืœื” ืื™ ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื ื ื‘ืจืงื™ืข ื’ื•ื–ืจื ื™ ืขืœื™ื™ื›ื™ ืฉืœื ืชืขื‘ื•ืจื™ ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืขื•ืœื ื”ื ืงื ื—ื–ื™ื ืŸ ื“ืขื‘ืจื” ืืžืจื™ ื”ื ื™


And furthermore, once Agrat, daughter of Maแธฅalat met Abaye and said to him: Had they not announced about you in the Heavens: Be careful of Naแธฅmani, Abaye, and his Torah, I would have placed you in danger. He said to her: If I am considered important in Heaven, I decree upon you that you should never pass through inhabited places. The Gemara asks: But we see that, notwithstanding these anecdotes, demons do pass through inhabited areas. The Sages say in explanation: These demons


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