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Daf Yomi

March 15, 2021 | 讘壮 讘谞讬住谉 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Bill Futornick in memory of Rabbi David Teitelbaum Z"L, who led Congregation Beth Jacob in Redwood City, CA for 38 years. He was an extraordinary leader, teacher, moral exemplar聽and family man聽who truly fought for equality and deeply embraced ahavat tzion.

Pesachim 114

Today’s Daf is sponsored by Tova and David Kestenbaum in memory of Tova’s grandmother, Yehudit bat Reuven Pinchas V’Chaya Gutsia. “She was a true Eshet Chayil, the best Bubby, and a woman whose “hachnassat orchim” knew no bounds.” And by Yehudit Robinson. “Happy birthday to Sarah and Bracha! Sarah, you are an amazing and inspiring mishna and talmud teacher and aunt, and Bracha, you are saving so many covid patients while also being an awesome aunt! You have both taught me so much about resilience and joy.”

The mishna describes that the first cup of wine is poured for Kiddush. Beit Hillel and Beit Shamai debate which blessing of Kiddush comes first 鈥 the one on the wine or on the sanctity of the holiday. Explanations are given to support each opinion. The next mishna describes what other foods they brought to the table 鈥 first a vegetable that they would dip then they would bring matza, chazeret, charoset, and two cooked foods. Is charoset a mitzva or not? When the Temple still stood, they would bring the meat of the Paschal sacrifice. Reish Lakish derives from the mishna that mitzvot require intent as if not, there would be no need for maror as one would have already filled one鈥檚 obligation using the vegetable dipped at the beginning of the meal. But not all agree with him and try to prove otherwise. What foods are used for the two cooked items and what is their purpose? What blessing is made on the vegetable eaten for karpas and what blessing is made on the vegetable eaten as maror?

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讞讗 讚砖诪注转讗 讛讜讗 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 驻谞讞住 讚讗讙讚转讗 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 (砖诪注讜 谞讗 讗讞讬讬 讜专注讬讬)


The Rabbi Yitzhak ben A岣 mentioned in a ruling of halakha is the same as the Rabbi Yitz岣k ben Pine岣s who appears in statements of aggada. And your mnemonic to remember the names is the standard phrase: Listen my brothers and friends [shimu na a岣i vere鈥檃i]. Shimu sounds like shema鈥檛a, the term for halakha, while a岣i is similar to the patronymic ben A岣.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讘讬 讗讬诇注讬 讗讻讜诇 讘爪诇 讜砖讘 讘爪诇 讜诇讗 转讬讻讜诇 讗讜讜讝讬谉 讜转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讜讬讛讗 诇讘讱 专讜讚祝 注诇讬讱 驻讞讜转 诪诪讬讻诇讱 讜诪诪砖转讬讱 讜转讜住讬祝 注诇 讚讬专转讱


Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said, citing Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai: Eat an onion [batzal] and sit in the shade [batzel], i.e., eat inexpensive food while sitting in a comfortable place, but do not eat expensive geese and chickens, as your heart will pursue you, i.e., you will develop a taste for luxuries. Devote less to your food and your drink and spend more on your house, as one鈥檚 house is a better investment than food.


讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪转诇讗 诪转诇讬谉 讘诪注专讘讗 讚讗讻讬诇 讗诇讬转讗 讟砖讬 讘注诇讬转讗 讚讗讻讬诇 拽拽讜诇讬 讗拽讬拽诇讬 讚诪转讗 砖讻讬讘:


When Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that they say the following proverb in the west, Eretz Yisrael: One who eats a fat tail [alita] must hide in the attic [aliyata] from creditors who think he is wealthy. One who eats vegetables [kakulei] can lie down in the city鈥檚 garbage [kiklei] without fear of others, as he is not in debt.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讝讙讜 诇讜 讻讜住 专讗砖讜谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐:


MISHNA: The tanna describes the beginning of the Passover seder. The attendants poured the wine of the first cup for the leader of the seder. Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the sanctification of the day, i.e., the kiddush for the Festival: Who blesses Israel and the Festivals, and thereafter he recites the blessing over the wine: Who creates fruit of the vine. And Beit Hillel say: One recites the blessing over the wine and thereafter recites the blessing over the day.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜诐 讙讜专诐 诇讬讬谉 砖讬讘讗 讜讻讘专 拽讬讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讬讬谉 诇讗 讘讗


GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal. Beit Shammai say: When reciting kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and thereafter recites a blessing over the wine, because the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason. The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come.


讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讬谉 讙讜专诐 诇拽讬讚讜砖 砖转讗诪专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐 讜讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇


And Beit Hillel say: One recites the blessing over the wine and thereafter recites a blessing over the day, because the wine causes kiddush to be recited. Since one does not recite kiddush without wine or bread, clearly the wine is the primary feature of the ritual. Alternatively, the blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice coincide, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.


诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛转诐 转专转讬 讜讛讻讗 讞讚讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐


The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara explains: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one; therefore, Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here too: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice coincide, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.


讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 驻砖讬讟讗 讚讛讗 谞驻讬拽 讘转 拽讜诇 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讘转 拽讜诇


It was taught in the Tosefta: And the halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara comments: It is obvious that this is so, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why was it necessary for the Tosefta to state that in this particular case the halakha is in accordance with their opinion? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that principle.


讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讞专 讘转 拽讜诇 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇:


And if you wish, say instead that this statement was indeed issued after the Divine Voice emerged, and the Tosefta is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one disregards a Divine Voice when deciding halakha. Just as Rabbi Yehoshua disregarded the Divine Voice in his dispute with Rabbi Eliezer, so too, one disregards the Divine Voice that proclaimed that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Therefore, it was necessary to state that the halakha is in fact in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel here.


诪转谞讬壮 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪讟讘诇 讘讞讝专转 注讚 砖诪讙讬注 诇驻专驻专转 讛驻转 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪爪讛 讜讞讝专转 讜讞专讜住转 讜砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讞专讜住转 诪爪讜讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 (讘谉) 爪讚讜拽 讗讜诪专 诪爪讜讛 讜讘诪拽讚砖 讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讙讜驻讜 砖诇 驻住讞:


MISHNA: The attendants brought vegetables before the leader of the seder prior to the meal, if there were no other vegetables on the table. He dips the 岣zeret into water or vinegar, to taste some food before he reaches the dessert of the bread, i.e., the bitter herbs, which were eaten after the matza. They brought before him matza and 岣zeret and 岣roset, and at least two cooked dishes in honor of the Festival. The tanna comments that this was the practice, although eating 岣roset is not a mitzva but merely a custom. Rabbi Eliezer ben Tzadok says: Actually, it is a mitzva to eat 岣roset. And in the period when the Temple stood and they offered the Paschal lamb, they brought before him the body of the Paschal lamb.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 诪爪讜转 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讘注讬讚谉 讞讬讜讘讗 讚诪专讜专 讛讜讗 讚讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讘讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讜讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 讗讬讻讜讜谉 诇诪专讜专 讛诇讻讱 讘注讬 诇诪讛讚专 诇讗讟讘讜诇讬 诇砖诐 诪专讜专 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讻讜讜谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讱 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讜讛讗 讟讘讬诇 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讝讬诪谞讗


GEMARA: Reish Lakish said: That is to say that mitzvot require intent. One who performs a mitzva must do so with the intent to fulfill his obligation. The proof of this from the mishna is that since one does not eat the lettuce at the time of his obligation to eat bitter herbs, he eats it after reciting only one blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground. And clearly the reason is that perhaps he did not intend to fulfill his obligation to eat bitter herbs, and therefore he needs to dip it again for the purpose of bitter herbs. For if it could enter your mind that mitzvot do not require intent, why do you need two dippings? But he has already dipped the lettuce once.


诪诪讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪爪讜转 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讚拽讗诪专转 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 诇诪讛 诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转


The Gemara rejects this contention: From where do you know that this is the case? Perhaps I can say that actually mitzvot do not require intent. And that which you said, why do I need two dippings, perhaps the reason is so that there should be a conspicuous distinction for the children, which will cause them to inquire into the difference between this night and all others.


讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬砖诪注讬谞谉 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讗讘诇 讞讝专转 诇讞讜讚讗 诇讗 讘注讬 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讞讝专转 讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讛讜讬 讘讬讛 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转


And if you say: If so, let the tanna teach us this halakha with regard to other vegetables as well, as there is no obvious reason that lettuce is chosen for this distinction. In response, I would say that had the mishna taught us about other vegetables, I would have said that it is only where there are other vegetables that one requires two dippings, one for the other vegetables and one for the bitter herbs; however, if one has only 岣zeret, he does not require two dippings, as one dipping is sufficient. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that even if one has just 岣zeret he requires two dippings, so that there be a conspicuous distinction for the children.


讜注讜讚 转谞讬讗 讗讻诇谉 讚诪讗讬 讬爪讗 讗讻诇谉 讘诇讗 诪转讻讜讬谉 讬爪讗 讗讻诇谉 诇讞爪讗讬谉 讬爪讗


And furthermore, it was taught in a baraita: On Passover, if one ate vegetables of doubtfully tithed produce, i.e., he bought the vegetables from an am ha鈥檃retz, he has fulfilled his obligation. If he ate them without the intent of the mitzva, he has fulfilled his obligation. If he ate them in halves, by eating half an olive-bulk of bitter herbs, pausing, and then eating an additional half an olive-bulk, he has fulfilled his obligation.


讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬砖讛讗 讘讬谉 讗讻讬诇讛 诇讞讘讬专转讛 讬讜转专 诪讻讚讬 讗讻讬诇转 驻专住


And the Gemara adds: With regard to this last case, one who eats an olive-bulk in halves, that is the halakha, provided that he does not pause between eating the first half an olive-bulk and the other half an olive-bulk more than the time it takes to eat a half-loaf of bread. If one takes longer than this amount of time, the two parts of bitter herbs cannot combine. This baraita indicates that even if one eats the bitter herbs without intention he has fulfilled his obligation, which presents a difficulty for Reish Lakish.


转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讟讬讘诇 讘讞讝专转 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讞讝专转 讜讞专讜住转 讜砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉


The Gemara answers: The issue of whether or not mitzvot require intent is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Although one has already dipped the 岣zeret once, it is a mitzva to bring before him 岣zeret and 岣roset, and two cooked dishes. Apparently, he lacked intention during his first consumption of lettuce, and therefore he must be given additional lettuce with which to fulfill his obligation.


讜讗讻转讬 诪诪讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪爪讜转 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讛讗讬 讚讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 讗诐 讻谉 诪讗讬 诪爪讜讛


The Gemara asks: And still this is no conclusive proof, as from where do I know that Rabbi Yosei is of the opinion that mitzvot require intent? Perhaps Rabbi Yosei maintains that mitzvot do not require intent, and the reason that we require two dippings is so that there should be a conspicuous distinction for the children. The Gemara rejects this argument: If so, for what reason does Rabbi Yosei use the term mitzva? There is no mitzva from the Torah to provide a distinction to stimulate the curiosity of the young ones. The mitzva is to eat bitter herbs, and evidently this individual must return and eat them again because he lacked intention the first time.


诪讗讬 砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 住讬诇拽讗 讜讗专讜讝讗 专讘讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讛讚专 讗住讬诇拽讗 讜讗专讜讝讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞驻讬拽 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗


The Gemara asks: What are these two cooked foods mentioned in the mishna? Rav Huna said: Beets and rice. The Gemara relates that Rava would seek beets and rice for his meal on Passover night, since this ruling came from Rav Huna鈥檚 mouth. Although Rava realized that Rav Huna was merely citing examples and did not mean that one must eat those specific foods, he wanted to fulfill the statement of his teacher precisely.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讬转 讚讞讬讬砖 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜专讝 诪讬谉 讚讙谉 讛讜讗 讜讞讬讬讘讬谉 注诇 讞讬诪讜爪讜 讻专转 讜讗讚诐 讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讘驻住讞


Rav Ashi said: Learn incidentally another halakha from this statement of Rav Huna, that there is no one who is concerned about that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri says: Rice is a type of grain in all regards; and one is liable to receive karet for eating it in its leavened state on Passover; and one fulfills his obligation with it on Passover, if it was properly baked into matza. It can be inferred from Rav Huna鈥檚 suggestion to use cooked rice, that rice cannot become leavened.


讞讝拽讬讛 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讙 讜讘讬爪讛 砖注诇讬讜 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 爪专讬讱 砖谞讬 诪讬谞讬 讘砖专 讗讞讚 讝讻专 诇驻住讞 讜讗讞讚 讝讻专 诇讞讙讬讙讛 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讙专诪讗 讜讘讬砖讜诇讗


岣zkiya said: The two cooked foods can even be fish and the egg that that was fried on it. Rav Yosef said: One requires two types of meat on Passover night, one in remembrance of the Paschal lamb and the other one in remembrance of the Festival peace-offering, which was also eaten on Passover night. Ravina said: For the two cooked foods one may use even the meat on the bone and the gravy in which it was cooked.


驻砖讬讟讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 诪讘专讱 讗砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讜讗讻讬诇 讜讛讚专 诪讘专讱 注诇 讗讻讬诇转 诪专讜专 讜讗讻讬诇


With regard to the halakha of eating vegetables, the Gemara clarifies: It is obvious that where there are other vegetables available besides bitter herbs, at the first dipping one recites over the other vegetables the blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground, and eats, with the intention of including in this blessing the bitter herbs he will eat later. And then, at the second dipping, he recites the blessing: Commanded us over eating bitter herbs, on the lettuce and eats it.


讛讬讻讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讗诇讗 讞住讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讘专讱 诪注讬拽专讗 讗诪专讜专 讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讜讗讻讬诇 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讘专讱 注诇讬讛 注诇 讗讻讬诇转 诪专讜专 讜讗讻讬诇


However, what is the halakha where there is only lettuce available? When should one recite each blessing? Rav Huna said: One initially recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground, over the bitter herbs, i.e., the lettuce, and eats them. And ultimately, after the matza, one recites the blessing: Commanded us over eating bitter herbs, over the lettuce and eats it.


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Terri Krivosha in memory of her father Nahum Mayar ben Dovid Baer. Judge Norman Krivosha was a remarkable individual who, in the words of Mary Oliver, did far more than "simply visit this world". Yehi Zichro Baruch.

This month's shiurim are sponsored by Bill Futornick in memory of Rabbi David Teitelbaum Z"L, who led Congregation Beth Jacob in Redwood City, CA for 38 years. He was an extraordinary leader, teacher, moral exemplar聽and family man聽who truly fought for equality and deeply embraced ahavat tzion.

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Pesachim 114

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 114

专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讞讗 讚砖诪注转讗 讛讜讗 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 驻谞讞住 讚讗讙讚转讗 讜住讬诪谞讬讱 (砖诪注讜 谞讗 讗讞讬讬 讜专注讬讬)


The Rabbi Yitzhak ben A岣 mentioned in a ruling of halakha is the same as the Rabbi Yitz岣k ben Pine岣s who appears in statements of aggada. And your mnemonic to remember the names is the standard phrase: Listen my brothers and friends [shimu na a岣i vere鈥檃i]. Shimu sounds like shema鈥檛a, the term for halakha, while a岣i is similar to the patronymic ben A岣.


讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讘讬 讗讬诇注讬 讗讻讜诇 讘爪诇 讜砖讘 讘爪诇 讜诇讗 转讬讻讜诇 讗讜讜讝讬谉 讜转专谞讙讜诇讬谉 讜讬讛讗 诇讘讱 专讜讚祝 注诇讬讱 驻讞讜转 诪诪讬讻诇讱 讜诪诪砖转讬讱 讜转讜住讬祝 注诇 讚讬专转讱


Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said, citing Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Elai: Eat an onion [batzal] and sit in the shade [batzel], i.e., eat inexpensive food while sitting in a comfortable place, but do not eat expensive geese and chickens, as your heart will pursue you, i.e., you will develop a taste for luxuries. Devote less to your food and your drink and spend more on your house, as one鈥檚 house is a better investment than food.


讻讬 讗转讗 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪转诇讗 诪转诇讬谉 讘诪注专讘讗 讚讗讻讬诇 讗诇讬转讗 讟砖讬 讘注诇讬转讗 讚讗讻讬诇 拽拽讜诇讬 讗拽讬拽诇讬 讚诪转讗 砖讻讬讘:


When Ulla came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said that they say the following proverb in the west, Eretz Yisrael: One who eats a fat tail [alita] must hide in the attic [aliyata] from creditors who think he is wealthy. One who eats vegetables [kakulei] can lie down in the city鈥檚 garbage [kiklei] without fear of others, as he is not in debt.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讝讙讜 诇讜 讻讜住 专讗砖讜谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐:


MISHNA: The tanna describes the beginning of the Passover seder. The attendants poured the wine of the first cup for the leader of the seder. Beit Shammai say: One recites the blessing over the sanctification of the day, i.e., the kiddush for the Festival: Who blesses Israel and the Festivals, and thereafter he recites the blessing over the wine: Who creates fruit of the vine. And Beit Hillel say: One recites the blessing over the wine and thereafter recites the blessing over the day.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘讬谉 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讘住注讜讚讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讜诐 讙讜专诐 诇讬讬谉 砖讬讘讗 讜讻讘专 拽讬讚砖 讛讬讜诐 讜注讚讬讬谉 讬讬谉 诇讗 讘讗


GEMARA: The Sages taught in the Tosefta: These are the matters of dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel with regard to the halakhot of a meal. Beit Shammai say: When reciting kiddush over wine, one recites a blessing over the sanctification of the day and thereafter recites a blessing over the wine, because the day causes the wine to come before the meal. And Beit Shammai offer an additional reason. The day has already been sanctified and the wine has not yet come.


讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讬谉 讜讗讞专 讻讱 诪讘专讱 注诇 讛讬讜诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讬讬谉 讙讜专诐 诇拽讬讚讜砖 砖转讗诪专 讚讘专 讗讞专 讘专讻转 讛讬讬谉 转讚讬专讛 讜讘专讻转 讛讬讜诐 讗讬谞讛 转讚讬专讛 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐 讜讛讬诇讻转讗 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇


And Beit Hillel say: One recites the blessing over the wine and thereafter recites a blessing over the day, because the wine causes kiddush to be recited. Since one does not recite kiddush without wine or bread, clearly the wine is the primary feature of the ritual. Alternatively, the blessing over wine is recited frequently and the blessing over the day is not recited frequently, and there is a general principle: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice coincide, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice. The Tosefta concludes: And the halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel.


诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛转诐 转专转讬 讜讛讻讗 讞讚讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 转专转讬 谞讬谞讛讜 转讚讬专 讜砖讗讬谞讜 转讚讬专 转讚讬专 拽讜讚诐


The Gemara asks: What is alternatively? Why did Beit Hillel cite an additional reason? The Gemara explains: And if you say that there Beit Shammai cite two reasons, and here Beit Hillel offer only one; therefore, Beit Hillel said they are two reasons here too: When a frequent practice and an infrequent practice coincide, the frequent practice takes precedence over the infrequent practice.


讜讛诇讻讛 讻讚讘专讬 讘讬转 讛诇诇 驻砖讬讟讗 讚讛讗 谞驻讬拽 讘转 拽讜诇 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 拽讜讚诐 讘转 拽讜诇


It was taught in the Tosefta: And the halakha is in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. The Gemara comments: It is obvious that this is so, as a Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that the halakha is always in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Why was it necessary for the Tosefta to state that in this particular case the halakha is in accordance with their opinion? The Gemara answers: If you wish, say that this Tosefta was taught before the Divine Voice emerged and proclaimed that principle.


讜讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讞专 讘转 拽讜诇 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪砖讙讬讞讬谉 讘讘转 拽讜诇:


And if you wish, say instead that this statement was indeed issued after the Divine Voice emerged, and the Tosefta is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua, who said that one disregards a Divine Voice when deciding halakha. Just as Rabbi Yehoshua disregarded the Divine Voice in his dispute with Rabbi Eliezer, so too, one disregards the Divine Voice that proclaimed that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. Therefore, it was necessary to state that the halakha is in fact in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel here.


诪转谞讬壮 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪讟讘诇 讘讞讝专转 注讚 砖诪讙讬注 诇驻专驻专转 讛驻转 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 诪爪讛 讜讞讝专转 讜讞专讜住转 讜砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讞专讜住转 诪爪讜讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 (讘谉) 爪讚讜拽 讗讜诪专 诪爪讜讛 讜讘诪拽讚砖 讛讬讜 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讙讜驻讜 砖诇 驻住讞:


MISHNA: The attendants brought vegetables before the leader of the seder prior to the meal, if there were no other vegetables on the table. He dips the 岣zeret into water or vinegar, to taste some food before he reaches the dessert of the bread, i.e., the bitter herbs, which were eaten after the matza. They brought before him matza and 岣zeret and 岣roset, and at least two cooked dishes in honor of the Festival. The tanna comments that this was the practice, although eating 岣roset is not a mitzva but merely a custom. Rabbi Eliezer ben Tzadok says: Actually, it is a mitzva to eat 岣roset. And in the period when the Temple stood and they offered the Paschal lamb, they brought before him the body of the Paschal lamb.


讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讝讗转 讗讜诪专转 诪爪讜转 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讗 讘注讬讚谉 讞讬讜讘讗 讚诪专讜专 讛讜讗 讚讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讘讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讛讜讗 讚讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讜讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 讗讬讻讜讜谉 诇诪专讜专 讛诇讻讱 讘注讬 诇诪讛讚专 诇讗讟讘讜诇讬 诇砖诐 诪专讜专 讚讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 诪爪讜讛 诇讗 讘注讬讗 讻讜讜谞讛 诇诪讛 诇讱 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讜讛讗 讟讘讬诇 诇讬讛 讞讚讗 讝讬诪谞讗


GEMARA: Reish Lakish said: That is to say that mitzvot require intent. One who performs a mitzva must do so with the intent to fulfill his obligation. The proof of this from the mishna is that since one does not eat the lettuce at the time of his obligation to eat bitter herbs, he eats it after reciting only one blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground. And clearly the reason is that perhaps he did not intend to fulfill his obligation to eat bitter herbs, and therefore he needs to dip it again for the purpose of bitter herbs. For if it could enter your mind that mitzvot do not require intent, why do you need two dippings? But he has already dipped the lettuce once.


诪诪讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 诪爪讜转 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讚拽讗诪专转 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 诇诪讛 诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转


The Gemara rejects this contention: From where do you know that this is the case? Perhaps I can say that actually mitzvot do not require intent. And that which you said, why do I need two dippings, perhaps the reason is so that there should be a conspicuous distinction for the children, which will cause them to inquire into the difference between this night and all others.


讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗诐 讻谉 诇讬砖诪注讬谞谉 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讗讬 讗砖诪注讬谞谉 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讗讘诇 讞讝专转 诇讞讜讚讗 诇讗 讘注讬 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讞讝专转 讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬讛讜讬 讘讬讛 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转


And if you say: If so, let the tanna teach us this halakha with regard to other vegetables as well, as there is no obvious reason that lettuce is chosen for this distinction. In response, I would say that had the mishna taught us about other vegetables, I would have said that it is only where there are other vegetables that one requires two dippings, one for the other vegetables and one for the bitter herbs; however, if one has only 岣zeret, he does not require two dippings, as one dipping is sufficient. Therefore, the mishna teaches us that even if one has just 岣zeret he requires two dippings, so that there be a conspicuous distinction for the children.


讜注讜讚 转谞讬讗 讗讻诇谉 讚诪讗讬 讬爪讗 讗讻诇谉 讘诇讗 诪转讻讜讬谉 讬爪讗 讗讻诇谉 诇讞爪讗讬谉 讬爪讗


And furthermore, it was taught in a baraita: On Passover, if one ate vegetables of doubtfully tithed produce, i.e., he bought the vegetables from an am ha鈥檃retz, he has fulfilled his obligation. If he ate them without the intent of the mitzva, he has fulfilled his obligation. If he ate them in halves, by eating half an olive-bulk of bitter herbs, pausing, and then eating an additional half an olive-bulk, he has fulfilled his obligation.


讜讘诇讘讚 砖诇讗 讬砖讛讗 讘讬谉 讗讻讬诇讛 诇讞讘讬专转讛 讬讜转专 诪讻讚讬 讗讻讬诇转 驻专住


And the Gemara adds: With regard to this last case, one who eats an olive-bulk in halves, that is the halakha, provided that he does not pause between eating the first half an olive-bulk and the other half an olive-bulk more than the time it takes to eat a half-loaf of bread. If one takes longer than this amount of time, the two parts of bitter herbs cannot combine. This baraita indicates that even if one eats the bitter herbs without intention he has fulfilled his obligation, which presents a difficulty for Reish Lakish.


转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讟讬讘诇 讘讞讝专转 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诇驻谞讬讜 讞讝专转 讜讞专讜住转 讜砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉


The Gemara answers: The issue of whether or not mitzvot require intent is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Although one has already dipped the 岣zeret once, it is a mitzva to bring before him 岣zeret and 岣roset, and two cooked dishes. Apparently, he lacked intention during his first consumption of lettuce, and therefore he must be given additional lettuce with which to fulfill his obligation.


讜讗讻转讬 诪诪讗讬 讚讬诇诪讗 拽住讘专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪爪讜转 讗讬谉 爪专讬讻讜转 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讛讗讬 讚讘注讬谞谉 转专讬 讟讬讘讜诇讬 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚转讬讛讜讬 讛讬讻讬专讗 诇转讬谞讜拽讜转 讗诐 讻谉 诪讗讬 诪爪讜讛


The Gemara asks: And still this is no conclusive proof, as from where do I know that Rabbi Yosei is of the opinion that mitzvot require intent? Perhaps Rabbi Yosei maintains that mitzvot do not require intent, and the reason that we require two dippings is so that there should be a conspicuous distinction for the children. The Gemara rejects this argument: If so, for what reason does Rabbi Yosei use the term mitzva? There is no mitzva from the Torah to provide a distinction to stimulate the curiosity of the young ones. The mitzva is to eat bitter herbs, and evidently this individual must return and eat them again because he lacked intention the first time.


诪讗讬 砖谞讬 转讘砖讬诇讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 住讬诇拽讗 讜讗专讜讝讗 专讘讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讛讚专 讗住讬诇拽讗 讜讗专讜讝讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讜谞驻讬拽 诪驻讜诪讬讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗


The Gemara asks: What are these two cooked foods mentioned in the mishna? Rav Huna said: Beets and rice. The Gemara relates that Rava would seek beets and rice for his meal on Passover night, since this ruling came from Rav Huna鈥檚 mouth. Although Rava realized that Rav Huna was merely citing examples and did not mean that one must eat those specific foods, he wanted to fulfill the statement of his teacher precisely.


讗诪专 专讘 讗砖讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 讚专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讬转 讚讞讬讬砖 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 谞讜专讬 讗讜诪专 讗讜专讝 诪讬谉 讚讙谉 讛讜讗 讜讞讬讬讘讬谉 注诇 讞讬诪讜爪讜 讻专转 讜讗讚诐 讬讜爪讗 讘讜 讬讚讬 讞讜讘转讜 讘驻住讞


Rav Ashi said: Learn incidentally another halakha from this statement of Rav Huna, that there is no one who is concerned about that statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri. As it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Nuri says: Rice is a type of grain in all regards; and one is liable to receive karet for eating it in its leavened state on Passover; and one fulfills his obligation with it on Passover, if it was properly baked into matza. It can be inferred from Rav Huna鈥檚 suggestion to use cooked rice, that rice cannot become leavened.


讞讝拽讬讛 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讚讙 讜讘讬爪讛 砖注诇讬讜 专讘 讬讜住祝 讗诪专 爪专讬讱 砖谞讬 诪讬谞讬 讘砖专 讗讞讚 讝讻专 诇驻住讞 讜讗讞讚 讝讻专 诇讞讙讬讙讛 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 讙专诪讗 讜讘讬砖讜诇讗


岣zkiya said: The two cooked foods can even be fish and the egg that that was fried on it. Rav Yosef said: One requires two types of meat on Passover night, one in remembrance of the Paschal lamb and the other one in remembrance of the Festival peace-offering, which was also eaten on Passover night. Ravina said: For the two cooked foods one may use even the meat on the bone and the gravy in which it was cooked.


驻砖讬讟讗 讛讬讻讗 讚讗讬讻讗 砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 诪讘专讱 讗砖讗专 讬专拽讜转 讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讜讗讻讬诇 讜讛讚专 诪讘专讱 注诇 讗讻讬诇转 诪专讜专 讜讗讻讬诇


With regard to the halakha of eating vegetables, the Gemara clarifies: It is obvious that where there are other vegetables available besides bitter herbs, at the first dipping one recites over the other vegetables the blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground, and eats, with the intention of including in this blessing the bitter herbs he will eat later. And then, at the second dipping, he recites the blessing: Commanded us over eating bitter herbs, on the lettuce and eats it.


讛讬讻讗 讚诇讬讻讗 讗诇讗 讞住讗 诪讗讬 讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讘专讱 诪注讬拽专讗 讗诪专讜专 讘讜专讗 驻专讬 讛讗讚诪讛 讜讗讻讬诇 讜诇讘住讜祝 诪讘专讱 注诇讬讛 注诇 讗讻讬诇转 诪专讜专 讜讗讻讬诇


However, what is the halakha where there is only lettuce available? When should one recite each blessing? Rav Huna said: One initially recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the ground, over the bitter herbs, i.e., the lettuce, and eats them. And ultimately, after the matza, one recites the blessing: Commanded us over eating bitter herbs, over the lettuce and eats it.


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