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Today's Daf Yomi

November 23, 2020 | 讝壮 讘讻住诇讜 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month of learning is dedicated by Pam and Yoav Schwartz to honor the 5th yahrtzeit of their nephew Ezra Schwartz. Ezra's life was full of love, curiosity, laughter, and friendship. May this learning replace some of the light that was lost from this world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

Pesachim 2

This week’s shiurim are sponsored by Valerie Adler in honor of her girlfriends who have been learning and sharing this journey – Sherry Begner, Kay Wineberger, Eti Kornbluth, Lisa Baratz and her daughter Anoushka Adler.

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Judy Shapiro for the 13th yahrzeit of my beloved father, Albert Tychman, z”l. And by Deborah Kotz in memory of her grandmother, Frieda bat Yosef z”l on her yahrzeit and remembering how much she inspired her students. May her neshama have an aliyah. And by Lesley Nadel in memory of her late sister Ruth Lewis, Rachel bat Berel Halevy of blessed memory whose yahrzeit is today and in recognition of her husband Don who has now completed the entire Shas cycle and begins today his second cycle of Daf Yomi.

One needs to check for chametz on the fourteenth of Nissan at night. Why? One does not need to check a place where there is never chametz. The mishna uses the word “light” to denote night when stating when the check (bedika) should be done. The gemara brings two different opinions about the word “light” – does it mean day or night? Several sources are brought to question each of the opinions.

 

 

诪转谞讬壮 讗讜专 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗转 讛讞诪抓 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讜 讞诪抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讘讚讬拽讛 讜讘诪讛 讗诪专讜 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 讘诪专转祝 诪拽讜诐 砖诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讜 讞诪抓 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 注诇 驻谞讬 讻诇 讛诪专转祝 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 讛讞讬爪讜谞讜转 砖讛谉 讛注诇讬讜谞讜转:

MISHNA: On the evening [or] of the fourteenth of the month of Nisan, one searches for leavened bread in his home by candlelight. Any place into which one does not typically take leavened bread does not require a search, as it is unlikely that there is any leavened bread there. And with regard to what the Sages of previous generations meant when they said that one must search two rows of wine barrels in a cellar, i.e., a place into which one typically takes some leavened bread, the early tanna鈥檌m are in dispute. Beit Shammai say that this is referring to searching the first two rows across the entire cellar, and Beit Hillel say: There is no need to search that extensively, as it is sufficient to search the two external rows, which are the upper ones. This dispute will be explained and illustrated in the Gemara.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗讜专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 谞讙讛讬 讜专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬诇讬 拽讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞讙讛讬 谞讙讛讬 诪诪砖 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讬诇讬 诇讬诇讬 诪诪砖

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term or, translated as: The evening of? The Gemara provides two answers. Rav Huna said: It means light, and Rav Yehuda said: In this context, it means evening. At first glance, it could enter your mind to suggest that the one who said light means that one searches for leaven by the actual light of day, on the morning of the fourteenth of Nisan, and the one who said evening is referring to the actual evening of the fourteenth.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讜讛讗谞砖讬诐 砖诇讞讜 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 诪讬 讻转讬讘 讛讗讜专 讘拽专 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讻转讬讘 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 爪驻专讗 谞讛专 讜讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讬爪讗 讘讻讬 讟讜讘

To clarify the meaning of the word or, the Gemara analyzes biblical verses and rabbinic statements. The Gemara raises an objection from a verse: 鈥淎s soon as the morning was or, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys鈥 (Genesis 44:3). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Is it written: The light was morning? 鈥淭he morning was light鈥 is written. In this context, or is a verb not a noun, as the one who said: The morning lightened. And this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always enter an unfamiliar city with 鈥渋t is good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), i.e., before sunset, while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression 鈥渋t is good鈥 with regard to light upon its creation. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one leaves a city he should leave with 鈥渋t is good,鈥 meaning after sunrise the next morning.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讬讝专讞 砖诪砖 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 诪讬 讻转讬讘 讗讜专 讘拽专 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻注讬谉 讝专讬讞转 砖诪砖 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

The Gemara raises an objection from another verse: 鈥淎nd as the light [or] of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds; when through clear shining after rain the tender grass springs out of the earth鈥 (II Samuel 23:4). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Is it written that the light was morning? 鈥淎s the light of the morning鈥 is written, and this is what the verse is saying: And as brightly as the morning light of this world shines at its peak, so will be the rising of the sun for the righteous in the World-to-Come, as in those days the light of the sun will be seven times stronger than at present (see Isaiah 30:26).

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讬拽专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讗讜专 讬讜诐 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇诪讗讬专 讜讘讗 拽专讗讜 讬讜诐 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜诇讞砖讱 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 诇诪讞砖讬讱 讜讘讗 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讛讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎nd God called the or Day, and the darkness He called Night鈥 (Genesis 1:5). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well. This is what the verse is saying: God called the advancing light Day. As stated previously, the word or can also be a verb; in this context, God called the beginning of that which eventually brightens, Day. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, the continuation of the verse, 鈥渁nd the darkness He called Night,鈥 should be understood to mean: He called the advancing darkness Night, even before it is actually dark. However, this cannot be the correct interpretation of the verse, as we maintain it is day until the emergence of the stars. Since the stars emerge only after the sky begins to darken, the advancing evening cannot be defined as part of the night.

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 拽专讬讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 讜驻拽讚讬讛 讗诪爪讜转讗 讚讬诪诪讗 讜拽专讬讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讞砖讜讻讗 讜驻拽讚讬讛 讗诪爪讜转讗 讚诇讬诇讛

The Gemara rejects the previous explanation. Rather, this is what the verse is saying: God called the light to come and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the day, and God called the darkness and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the night. Called, in this context, does not connote the giving of a name. It means that He instructed the day and night to carry out their characteristic functions.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 讻讜讻讘讬 讗讜专 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 讻讜讻讘讬诐 讛诪讗讬专讬诐 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讻讜讻讘讬诐 讛诪讗讬专讬诐 讛讜讗 讚讘注讜 砖讘讜讞讬 砖讗讬谞谉 诪讗讬专讬谉 诇讗 讘注讜 砖讘讜讞讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 爪讘讗讬讜

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淧raise Him, sun and moon; praise Him, all the stars of or (Psalms 148:3). Apparently, or is the evening, as the stars of light appear at night. The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what the verse is saying: Praise Him, all the stars that radiate, as in this context or is not a noun but rather a verb that describes the activity of the stars. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, does the verse mean that it is the stars that radiate that are required to praise God, whereas those that do not radiate light are not required to praise Him? But isn鈥檛 it written in the previous verse: 鈥淧raise Him, all His legions,鈥 indicating that all stars should praise God?

讗诇讗 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讜专 讚讻讜讻讘讬诐 谞诪讬 讗讜专 讛讜讗 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讗讜专 (讚转谞谉) 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讗住讜专 讘讗讜专谉 砖诇 讻讜讻讘讬诐

Rather, this phrase, the stars of light, comes to teach us that the light of stars is also considered light. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that emerges from the fact that the light of the stars is classified as light? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard to one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light. It is necessary to define precisely what is included in the term light. As we learned in a mishna: For one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light, it is prohibited to benefit even from the light of the stars.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诇讗讜专 讬拽讜诐 专讜爪讞 讬拽讟诇 注谞讬 讜讗讘讬讜谉 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讬讛讬 讻讙谞讘

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎 murderer rises with the or to kill the poor and needy; and in the night he is as a thief鈥 (Job 24:14).

讛讗 诪讚拽讗诪专 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讬讛讬 讻讙谞讘 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 讻谞讛讜专讗 讚讗谞驻砖讜转 拽讗转讬 专讜爪讞 讛讜讗 讜谞讬转谉 诇讛爪讬诇讜 讘谞驻砖讜 讜讗讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 讻诇讬诇讬讗 讬讛讬 讘注讬谞讬讱 讻讙谞讘 讜诇讗 谞讬转谉 诇讛爪讬诇讜 讘谞驻砖讜

From the fact that the end of the verse states: 鈥淎nd in the night he is as a thief,鈥 apparently the word or at the beginning of the verse is a reference to day, as the verse contrasts between night and or. The Gemara rejects this contention. There, this is what the verse is saying: If the matter is as clear to you as light, that the thief has come into the house prepared to take a life, he is a murderer; and the owner of the house may save himself by taking the life of the intruder. In that case, one may protect himself from a thief who breaks into his house, even by killing the intruder if necessary. And if the matter is as unclear to you as the night, he should be nothing more than a thief in your eyes and not a murderer; and therefore one may not save himself by taking the life of the thief. This verse is not referring to actual day and night; rather, it uses these terms as metaphors for certainty and uncertainty.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讬讞砖讻讜 讻讜讻讘讬 谞砖驻讜 讬拽讜 诇讗讜专 讜讗讬谉 讜讗诇 讬专讗讛 讘注驻注驻讬 砖讞专 诪讚拽讗诪专 讬拽讜 诇讗讜专 讜讗讬谉 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 诪讬诇讟 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诇讬讬讟 诇讬讛 讗讬讜讘 诇诪讝诇讬讛 讗诪专 讬讛讗 专注讜讗 讚诇讬爪驻讬讛 讛讱 讙讘专讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 讜诇讗 诇讬砖讻讞讬讛

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion that or means evening: 鈥淟et the stars of the twilight be dark; let it look for or but have none; neither let it see the eyelids of the morning鈥 (Job 3:9). From the fact that the verse states: 鈥淟et it look for or but have none,鈥 apparently or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Actually, it is possible that or, in this context, means light in general, not specifically day. There, Job is cursing his fortune. He said: Let it be His will that this man, referring to himself, will seek light and not find it.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讗讜诪专 讗讱 讞砖讱 讬砖讜驻谞讬 讜诇讬诇讛 讗讜专 讘注讚谞讬 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讗讱 讞砖讱 讬砖讜驻谞讬 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讬讜诐 注讻砖讬讜 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 砖讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇诇讬诇讛 讗讜专 讘注讚谞讬

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎nd I say, yet the darkness shall envelop me, and the or about me shall be night鈥 (Psalms 139:11). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof. This is what David is saying there: I said after I sinned that darkness shall envelop me in the World-to-Come, which is like day. Now that I know that I have been forgiven, even this world, which is like darkness, is light for me. That being the case, it cannot be derived from here that the word or describes the day.

诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜专 (诇讗专讘注讛) 注砖专 讜讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞专讬转 讜讘砖注转 讛讘讬注讜专 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜专 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞专讬转 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: One searches on or of the fourteenth of Nisan, on the fourteenth in the morning, and at the time of the removal of leavened bread. The Gemara infers from Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 teaching: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that one searches on or of the fourteenth and on the fourteenth in the morning, apparently or is the evening. In the order of Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 list, or of the fourteenth precedes the morning of the fourteenth. Therefore, or must be referring to the evening. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪讗讬诪转讬 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 诪砖注转 讛讗讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖注转 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

The Gemara raises an objection from a different source: From when on the fourteenth of Nisan is it prohibited to perform labor, for those who are accustomed not to work on Passover eve? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: From the time of or. Rabbi Yehuda says: From sunrise.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 讛讬讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讬讜诐 砖诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 注爪诪讜 讬讜讻讬讞 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓

Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yehuda: And where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? If, as you claim, the prohibition against performing labor takes effect only from sunrise, whereas the fourteenth of Nisan begins with the emergence of stars the previous evening, it is permitted to perform labor during the first part of the fourteenth, while during the second part of the same day labor is prohibited. He said to him: The fourteenth day itself can prove to be a precedent, as in part of it, from the beginning until the sixth hour of the day, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during another part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited.

诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖注转 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讜专 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

With regard to the matter under discussion, the Gemara infers: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that it is prohibited to perform labor from sunrise, apparently the word or that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov is saying, is referring to the evening. This is an additional proof that or means night. The Gemara rejects this contention: No, this is not a proof. What is meant by or? It means dawn. The dispute of the tanna鈥檌m is not whether the prohibition of labor begins at night or in the morning. Rather, they disagree as to whether labor is prohibited from dawn or only from sunrise.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讬讜诐 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 谞讬诪讗 讗讬讛讜 诇谞驻砖讬讛 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 诇讬诇讛 讚拽讗 砖专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘

The Gemara challenges this assumption: If so, consider that which Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yehuda: Where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? Let him say to himself: Isn鈥檛 there the night, during which even Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov himself permits performance of labor at night? He certainly would not raise a difficulty against the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, which is equally difficult according to his own opinion.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘砖诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讗砖讻讞谞讗 讚拽讗 驻诇讙讬 专讘谞谉 讘讬谉 讬诪诪讗 诇诇讬诇讬讗 (讚转谞谉) 讙讘讬 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 注讚 诪转讬 讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讚 拽专讜转 讛讙讘专 讗诇讗 诇讚讬讚讱 讛讬讻讗 讗砖讻讞谞讗 讬诪诪讗 讙讜驻讬讛 讚驻诇讙讬 讘讬讛 专讘谞谉

The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov is saying: Granted, according to my opinion, I find situations in which the Sages distinguished between the day and the preceding night, as we learned in a mishna with regard to a lenient communal fast: Until when may one eat and drink before the fast? It is permitted to eat and drink until dawn; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov. Rabbi Shimon says: One may eat until the call of the rooster, which precedes dawn. In that case, the Sages distinguished between day and night. However, according to your opinion, where do we find a halakha with regard to which the Sages divided the day itself?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 注爪诪讜 讬讜讻讬讞 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗谞讗 诪诇讗讻讛 讚专讘谞谉 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诇讬 讞诪抓 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚注讚 讛讻讗 讗住专 专讞诪谞讗 讜注讚 讛讻讗 砖专讗 专讞诪谞讗

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov: The day of the fourteenth itself can prove my opinion, as during part of it, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yehuda has spoken well to Rabbi Eliezer; how can Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov counter this contention? The Gemara answers that this is what Rabbi Eliezer is saying to him in response: I said to you the prohibition of labor, which is by rabbinic law, and you said to me the prohibition of leavened bread, which is by Torah law. With regard to a Torah prohibition, it is possible that until this point, God prohibited doing so, and until that point, God permitted doing so, as the halakha is determined by a Torah decree. On the other hand, rabbinic prohibitions are enacted within clearly defined categories; in this case, an entire day.

讜讗讬讚讱 砖注讜转 讚专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: And what is the response of the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, to this contention? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda notes that the hours when the prohibition of leaven is in effect on the morning of the fourteenth are determined by rabbinic law. Despite the fact it is prohibited by Torah law to eat leaven from midday, the distinction within the morning hours between the time when one may consume leaven and the time when one may derive benefit from leaven but not consume it is determined by the Sages. Apparently, the Sages institute ordinances that apply to part of a day.

讜讗讬讚讱 讛专讞拽讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚 专讘谞谉 诇讚讗讜专讬讬转讗

The Gemara asks: And how can the other Sage, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov, respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov would say that in this case the Sages established a preventive measure for a Torah law, and decrees of this type are at times in effect for only part of the day. By contrast, when the Sages instituted independent ordinances, they invariably did so for the entire day. In any case, this source does not conclusively prove that or means evening.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讗诇讗 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬诪转讬 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诇讗讜专 注讘讜专讜 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection: The court messengers kindle torches on the mountaintops as a signal that the court has sanctified and established a new month only for a month that appeared at its proper time, on the thirtieth day of the previous month, to sanctify it on that day. And when do the messengers kindle these torches? They light them on or of its additional day, at the end of the thirtieth day from the beginning of the previous month, leading into the evening of the thirty-first day. The thirtieth day is called the additional day because it is sometimes appended to the previous month, which would otherwise consist of twenty-nine days. Apparently, or is the evening, as the court messengers would certainly not light the bonfires by day. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讜诪拽专讬讘 注诇 讛诪讝讘讞 诇讗讜专讛 讟注讜谉 拽讬讚讜砖 讬讚讬诐 讜专讙诇讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗讜专讛 砖讗谞讬:

The Gemara raises an objection: If a priest was standing all night and sacrificing the limbs of offerings on the altar, in the ora he is required to sanctify his hands and feet again, by washing them in water from the basin; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Since a new day has begun, the priest must wash his hands and feet from the basin, a prerequisite for each day鈥檚 service. With regard to the issue under discussion, apparently or means day. The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not a conclusive proof, as ora is different, and indeed it is referring to the day. However, the word or may yet refer to the evening.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪专 讝讜讟专讗

Mar Zutra raises an objection

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month of learning is dedicated by Pam and Yoav Schwartz to honor the 5th yahrtzeit of their nephew Ezra Schwartz. Ezra's life was full of love, curiosity, laughter, and friendship. May this learning replace some of the light that was lost from this world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by the Kessler, Wolkenfeld and Grossman families in loving memory of Mia Rose bat Matan Yehoshua v鈥 Elana Malka. "讛 谞转谉 讜讛 诇拽讞. 讬讛讬 砖诐 讛 诪讘讜专讱"

  • This month's shiurim are sponsored by Shoshana Shur for the refuah shleima of Meira Bat Zelda Zahava.

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Pesachim 2

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Pesachim 2

诪转谞讬壮 讗讜专 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗转 讛讞诪抓 诇讗讜专 讛谞专 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讜 讞诪抓 讗讬谉 爪专讬讱 讘讚讬拽讛 讜讘诪讛 讗诪专讜 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 讘诪专转祝 诪拽讜诐 砖诪讻谞讬住讬谉 讘讜 讞诪抓 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 注诇 驻谞讬 讻诇 讛诪专转祝 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖转讬 砖讜专讜转 讛讞讬爪讜谞讜转 砖讛谉 讛注诇讬讜谞讜转:

MISHNA: On the evening [or] of the fourteenth of the month of Nisan, one searches for leavened bread in his home by candlelight. Any place into which one does not typically take leavened bread does not require a search, as it is unlikely that there is any leavened bread there. And with regard to what the Sages of previous generations meant when they said that one must search two rows of wine barrels in a cellar, i.e., a place into which one typically takes some leavened bread, the early tanna鈥檌m are in dispute. Beit Shammai say that this is referring to searching the first two rows across the entire cellar, and Beit Hillel say: There is no need to search that extensively, as it is sufficient to search the two external rows, which are the upper ones. This dispute will be explained and illustrated in the Gemara.

讙诪壮 诪讗讬 讗讜专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗诪专 谞讙讛讬 讜专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 诇讬诇讬 拽讗 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 谞讙讛讬 谞讙讛讬 诪诪砖 讜诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 诇讬诇讬 诇讬诇讬 诪诪砖

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term or, translated as: The evening of? The Gemara provides two answers. Rav Huna said: It means light, and Rav Yehuda said: In this context, it means evening. At first glance, it could enter your mind to suggest that the one who said light means that one searches for leaven by the actual light of day, on the morning of the fourteenth of Nisan, and the one who said evening is referring to the actual evening of the fourteenth.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讜讛讗谞砖讬诐 砖诇讞讜 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 诪讬 讻转讬讘 讛讗讜专 讘拽专 讛讘拽专 讗讜专 讻转讬讘 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 爪驻专讗 谞讛专 讜讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诇注讜诇诐 讬讻谞住 讗讚诐 讘讻讬 讟讜讘 讜讬爪讗 讘讻讬 讟讜讘

To clarify the meaning of the word or, the Gemara analyzes biblical verses and rabbinic statements. The Gemara raises an objection from a verse: 鈥淎s soon as the morning was or, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys鈥 (Genesis 44:3). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Is it written: The light was morning? 鈥淭he morning was light鈥 is written. In this context, or is a verb not a noun, as the one who said: The morning lightened. And this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always enter an unfamiliar city with 鈥渋t is good鈥 (Genesis 1:4), i.e., before sunset, while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression 鈥渋t is good鈥 with regard to light upon its creation. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one leaves a city he should leave with 鈥渋t is good,鈥 meaning after sunrise the next morning.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讬讝专讞 砖诪砖 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 诪讬 讻转讬讘 讗讜专 讘拽专 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讻转讬讘 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讜讻讗讜专 讘拽专 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讻注讬谉 讝专讬讞转 砖诪砖 诇爪讚讬拽讬诐 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

The Gemara raises an objection from another verse: 鈥淎nd as the light [or] of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds; when through clear shining after rain the tender grass springs out of the earth鈥 (II Samuel 23:4). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Is it written that the light was morning? 鈥淎s the light of the morning鈥 is written, and this is what the verse is saying: And as brightly as the morning light of this world shines at its peak, so will be the rising of the sun for the righteous in the World-to-Come, as in those days the light of the sun will be seven times stronger than at present (see Isaiah 30:26).

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讬拽专讗 讗诇讛讬诐 诇讗讜专 讬讜诐 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇诪讗讬专 讜讘讗 拽专讗讜 讬讜诐 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜诇讞砖讱 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 诇诪讞砖讬讱 讜讘讗 拽专讗 诇讬诇讛 讜讛讗 拽讬讬诪讗 诇谉 讚注讚 爪讗转 讛讻讜讻讘讬诐 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎nd God called the or Day, and the darkness He called Night鈥 (Genesis 1:5). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well. This is what the verse is saying: God called the advancing light Day. As stated previously, the word or can also be a verb; in this context, God called the beginning of that which eventually brightens, Day. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, the continuation of the verse, 鈥渁nd the darkness He called Night,鈥 should be understood to mean: He called the advancing darkness Night, even before it is actually dark. However, this cannot be the correct interpretation of the verse, as we maintain it is day until the emergence of the stars. Since the stars emerge only after the sky begins to darken, the advancing evening cannot be defined as part of the night.

讗诇讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 拽专讬讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 讜驻拽讚讬讛 讗诪爪讜转讗 讚讬诪诪讗 讜拽专讬讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讞砖讜讻讗 讜驻拽讚讬讛 讗诪爪讜转讗 讚诇讬诇讛

The Gemara rejects the previous explanation. Rather, this is what the verse is saying: God called the light to come and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the day, and God called the darkness and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the night. Called, in this context, does not connote the giving of a name. It means that He instructed the day and night to carry out their characteristic functions.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 讻讜讻讘讬 讗讜专 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 讻讜讻讘讬诐 讛诪讗讬专讬诐 讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讻讜讻讘讬诐 讛诪讗讬专讬诐 讛讜讗 讚讘注讜 砖讘讜讞讬 砖讗讬谞谉 诪讗讬专讬谉 诇讗 讘注讜 砖讘讜讞讬 讜讛讗 讻转讬讘 讛诇诇讜讛讜 讻诇 爪讘讗讬讜

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淧raise Him, sun and moon; praise Him, all the stars of or (Psalms 148:3). Apparently, or is the evening, as the stars of light appear at night. The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what the verse is saying: Praise Him, all the stars that radiate, as in this context or is not a noun but rather a verb that describes the activity of the stars. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, does the verse mean that it is the stars that radiate that are required to praise God, whereas those that do not radiate light are not required to praise Him? But isn鈥檛 it written in the previous verse: 鈥淧raise Him, all His legions,鈥 indicating that all stars should praise God?

讗诇讗 讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗讜专 讚讻讜讻讘讬诐 谞诪讬 讗讜专 讛讜讗 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讗讜专 (讚转谞谉) 讛谞讜讚专 诪谉 讛讗讜专 讗住讜专 讘讗讜专谉 砖诇 讻讜讻讘讬诐

Rather, this phrase, the stars of light, comes to teach us that the light of stars is also considered light. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that emerges from the fact that the light of the stars is classified as light? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard to one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light. It is necessary to define precisely what is included in the term light. As we learned in a mishna: For one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light, it is prohibited to benefit even from the light of the stars.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诇讗讜专 讬拽讜诐 专讜爪讞 讬拽讟诇 注谞讬 讜讗讘讬讜谉 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讬讛讬 讻讙谞讘

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎 murderer rises with the or to kill the poor and needy; and in the night he is as a thief鈥 (Job 24:14).

讛讗 诪讚拽讗诪专 讜讘诇讬诇讛 讬讛讬 讻讙谞讘 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 讻谞讛讜专讗 讚讗谞驻砖讜转 拽讗转讬 专讜爪讞 讛讜讗 讜谞讬转谉 诇讛爪讬诇讜 讘谞驻砖讜 讜讗讬 诪住驻拽讗 诇讱 诪讬诇转讗 讻诇讬诇讬讗 讬讛讬 讘注讬谞讬讱 讻讙谞讘 讜诇讗 谞讬转谉 诇讛爪讬诇讜 讘谞驻砖讜

From the fact that the end of the verse states: 鈥淎nd in the night he is as a thief,鈥 apparently the word or at the beginning of the verse is a reference to day, as the verse contrasts between night and or. The Gemara rejects this contention. There, this is what the verse is saying: If the matter is as clear to you as light, that the thief has come into the house prepared to take a life, he is a murderer; and the owner of the house may save himself by taking the life of the intruder. In that case, one may protect himself from a thief who breaks into his house, even by killing the intruder if necessary. And if the matter is as unclear to you as the night, he should be nothing more than a thief in your eyes and not a murderer; and therefore one may not save himself by taking the life of the thief. This verse is not referring to actual day and night; rather, it uses these terms as metaphors for certainty and uncertainty.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讬讞砖讻讜 讻讜讻讘讬 谞砖驻讜 讬拽讜 诇讗讜专 讜讗讬谉 讜讗诇 讬专讗讛 讘注驻注驻讬 砖讞专 诪讚拽讗诪专 讬拽讜 诇讗讜专 讜讗讬谉 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 诪讬诇讟 讛讜讗 讚拽讗 诇讬讬讟 诇讬讛 讗讬讜讘 诇诪讝诇讬讛 讗诪专 讬讛讗 专注讜讗 讚诇讬爪驻讬讛 讛讱 讙讘专讗 诇谞讛讜专讗 讜诇讗 诇讬砖讻讞讬讛

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion that or means evening: 鈥淟et the stars of the twilight be dark; let it look for or but have none; neither let it see the eyelids of the morning鈥 (Job 3:9). From the fact that the verse states: 鈥淟et it look for or but have none,鈥 apparently or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Actually, it is possible that or, in this context, means light in general, not specifically day. There, Job is cursing his fortune. He said: Let it be His will that this man, referring to himself, will seek light and not find it.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讜讗讜诪专 讗讱 讞砖讱 讬砖讜驻谞讬 讜诇讬诇讛 讗讜专 讘注讚谞讬 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讬诪诪讗 讛讜讗 讛转诐 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讚讜讚 讗谞讬 讗诪专转讬 讗讱 讞砖讱 讬砖讜驻谞讬 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇讬讜诐 注讻砖讬讜 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 砖讛讜讗 讚讜诪讛 诇诇讬诇讛 讗讜专 讘注讚谞讬

The Gemara raises an objection: 鈥淎nd I say, yet the darkness shall envelop me, and the or about me shall be night鈥 (Psalms 139:11). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof. This is what David is saying there: I said after I sinned that darkness shall envelop me in the World-to-Come, which is like day. Now that I know that I have been forgiven, even this world, which is like darkness, is light for me. That being the case, it cannot be derived from here that the word or describes the day.

诪讬转讬讘讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜专 (诇讗专讘注讛) 注砖专 讜讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞专讬转 讜讘砖注转 讛讘讬注讜专 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讜讚拽讬谉 讗讜专 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 砖讞专讬转 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: One searches on or of the fourteenth of Nisan, on the fourteenth in the morning, and at the time of the removal of leavened bread. The Gemara infers from Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 teaching: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that one searches on or of the fourteenth and on the fourteenth in the morning, apparently or is the evening. In the order of Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 list, or of the fourteenth precedes the morning of the fourteenth. Therefore, or must be referring to the evening. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪讗讬诪转讬 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 诪砖注转 讛讗讜专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪砖注转 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛

The Gemara raises an objection from a different source: From when on the fourteenth of Nisan is it prohibited to perform labor, for those who are accustomed not to work on Passover eve? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: From the time of or. Rabbi Yehuda says: From sunrise.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 讛讬讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讬讜诐 砖诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 注爪诪讜 讬讜讻讬讞 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓

Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yehuda: And where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? If, as you claim, the prohibition against performing labor takes effect only from sunrise, whereas the fourteenth of Nisan begins with the emergence of stars the previous evening, it is permitted to perform labor during the first part of the fourteenth, while during the second part of the same day labor is prohibited. He said to him: The fourteenth day itself can prove to be a precedent, as in part of it, from the beginning until the sixth hour of the day, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during another part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited.

诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖注转 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 诇讗 诪讗讬 讗讜专 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专

With regard to the matter under discussion, the Gemara infers: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that it is prohibited to perform labor from sunrise, apparently the word or that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov is saying, is referring to the evening. This is an additional proof that or means night. The Gemara rejects this contention: No, this is not a proof. What is meant by or? It means dawn. The dispute of the tanna鈥檌m is not whether the prohibition of labor begins at night or in the morning. Rather, they disagree as to whether labor is prohibited from dawn or only from sunrise.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讚拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讬讻谉 诪爪讬谞讜 讬讜诐 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 谞讬诪讗 讗讬讛讜 诇谞驻砖讬讛 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 诇讬诇讛 讚拽讗 砖专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘

The Gemara challenges this assumption: If so, consider that which Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov said to Rabbi Yehuda: Where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? Let him say to himself: Isn鈥檛 there the night, during which even Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov himself permits performance of labor at night? He certainly would not raise a difficulty against the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, which is equally difficult according to his own opinion.

讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘砖诇诪讗 诇讚讬讚讬 讗砖讻讞谞讗 讚拽讗 驻诇讙讬 专讘谞谉 讘讬谉 讬诪诪讗 诇诇讬诇讬讗 (讚转谞谉) 讙讘讬 转注谞讬转 爪讘讜专 注讚 诪转讬 讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 注讚 砖讬注诇讛 注诪讜讚 讛砖讞专 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 注讚 拽专讜转 讛讙讘专 讗诇讗 诇讚讬讚讱 讛讬讻讗 讗砖讻讞谞讗 讬诪诪讗 讙讜驻讬讛 讚驻诇讙讬 讘讬讛 专讘谞谉

The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov is saying: Granted, according to my opinion, I find situations in which the Sages distinguished between the day and the preceding night, as we learned in a mishna with regard to a lenient communal fast: Until when may one eat and drink before the fast? It is permitted to eat and drink until dawn; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov. Rabbi Shimon says: One may eat until the call of the rooster, which precedes dawn. In that case, the Sages distinguished between day and night. However, according to your opinion, where do we find a halakha with regard to which the Sages divided the day itself?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讜讗 注爪诪讜 讬讜讻讬讞 砖诪拽爪转讜 诪讜转专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 讜诪拽爪转讜 讗住讜专 讘讗讻讬诇转 讞诪抓 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 讗谞讗 诪诇讗讻讛 讚专讘谞谉 讜讗转 讗诪专转 诇讬 讞诪抓 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讚注讚 讛讻讗 讗住专 专讞诪谞讗 讜注讚 讛讻讗 砖专讗 专讞诪谞讗

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov: The day of the fourteenth itself can prove my opinion, as during part of it, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yehuda has spoken well to Rabbi Eliezer; how can Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov counter this contention? The Gemara answers that this is what Rabbi Eliezer is saying to him in response: I said to you the prohibition of labor, which is by rabbinic law, and you said to me the prohibition of leavened bread, which is by Torah law. With regard to a Torah prohibition, it is possible that until this point, God prohibited doing so, and until that point, God permitted doing so, as the halakha is determined by a Torah decree. On the other hand, rabbinic prohibitions are enacted within clearly defined categories; in this case, an entire day.

讜讗讬讚讱 砖注讜转 讚专讘谞谉

The Gemara asks: And what is the response of the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, to this contention? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda notes that the hours when the prohibition of leaven is in effect on the morning of the fourteenth are determined by rabbinic law. Despite the fact it is prohibited by Torah law to eat leaven from midday, the distinction within the morning hours between the time when one may consume leaven and the time when one may derive benefit from leaven but not consume it is determined by the Sages. Apparently, the Sages institute ordinances that apply to part of a day.

讜讗讬讚讱 讛专讞拽讛 讛讜讗 讚注讘讜讚 专讘谞谉 诇讚讗讜专讬讬转讗

The Gemara asks: And how can the other Sage, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov, respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov would say that in this case the Sages established a preventive measure for a Torah law, and decrees of this type are at times in effect for only part of the day. By contrast, when the Sages instituted independent ordinances, they invariably did so for the entire day. In any case, this source does not conclusively prove that or means evening.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讗讬谉 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 讗诇讗 注诇 讛讞讚砖 砖谞专讗讛 讘讝诪谞讜 诇拽讚砖讜 讜讗讬诪转讬 诪砖讬讗讬谉 诪砖讜讗讜转 诇讗讜专 注讘讜专讜 讗诇诪讗 讗讜专 讗讜专转讗 讛讜讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara raises an objection: The court messengers kindle torches on the mountaintops as a signal that the court has sanctified and established a new month only for a month that appeared at its proper time, on the thirtieth day of the previous month, to sanctify it on that day. And when do the messengers kindle these torches? They light them on or of its additional day, at the end of the thirtieth day from the beginning of the previous month, leading into the evening of the thirty-first day. The thirtieth day is called the additional day because it is sometimes appended to the previous month, which would otherwise consist of twenty-nine days. Apparently, or is the evening, as the court messengers would certainly not light the bonfires by day. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

诪讬转讬讘讬 讛讬讛 注讜诪讚 讻诇 讛诇讬诇讛 讜诪拽专讬讘 注诇 讛诪讝讘讞 诇讗讜专讛 讟注讜谉 拽讬讚讜砖 讬讚讬诐 讜专讙诇讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讗讜专讛 砖讗谞讬:

The Gemara raises an objection: If a priest was standing all night and sacrificing the limbs of offerings on the altar, in the ora he is required to sanctify his hands and feet again, by washing them in water from the basin; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Since a new day has begun, the priest must wash his hands and feet from the basin, a prerequisite for each day鈥檚 service. With regard to the issue under discussion, apparently or means day. The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not a conclusive proof, as ora is different, and indeed it is referring to the day. However, the word or may yet refer to the evening.

诪讬转讬讘讬 诪专 讝讜讟专讗

Mar Zutra raises an objection

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