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September 25, 2021 | י״ט בתשרי תשפ״ב | TODAY'S DAF: Beitzah 25 - Shabbat Chol Hamoed, September 25

Today's Daf Yomi

November 23, 2020 | ז׳ בכסלו תשפ״א

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month of learning is dedicated by Pam and Yoav Schwartz to honor the 5th yahrtzeit of their nephew Ezra Schwartz. Ezra's life was full of love, curiosity, laughter, and friendship. May this learning replace some of the light that was lost from this world.

Pesachim 2

This week’s shiurim are sponsored by Valerie Adler in honor of her girlfriends who have been learning and sharing this journey – Sherry Begner, Kay Wineberger, Eti Kornbluth, Lisa Baratz and her daughter Anoushka Adler.

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Judy Shapiro for the 13th yahrzeit of my beloved father, Albert Tychman, z”l. And by Deborah Kotz in memory of her grandmother, Frieda bat Yosef z”l on her yahrzeit and remembering how much she inspired her students. May her neshama have an aliyah. And by Lesley Nadel in memory of her late sister Ruth Lewis, Rachel bat Berel Halevy of blessed memory whose yahrzeit is today and in recognition of her husband Don who has now completed the entire Shas cycle and begins today his second cycle of Daf Yomi.

One needs to check for chametz on the fourteenth of Nissan at night. Why? One does not need to check a place where there is never chametz. The mishna uses the word “light” to denote night when stating when the check (bedika) should be done. The gemara brings two different opinions about the word “light” – does it mean day or night? Several sources are brought to question each of the opinions.

 

 

מתני׳ אור לארבעה עשר בודקין את החמץ לאור הנר כל מקום שאין מכניסין בו חמץ אין צריך בדיקה ובמה אמרו שתי שורות במרתף מקום שמכניסין בו חמץ בית שמאי אומרים שתי שורות על פני כל המרתף ובית הלל אומרים שתי שורות החיצונות שהן העליונות:

MISHNA: On the evening [or] of the fourteenth of the month of Nisan, one searches for leavened bread in his home by candlelight. Any place into which one does not typically take leavened bread does not require a search, as it is unlikely that there is any leavened bread there. And with regard to what the Sages of previous generations meant when they said that one must search two rows of wine barrels in a cellar, i.e., a place into which one typically takes some leavened bread, the early tanna’im are in dispute. Beit Shammai say that this is referring to searching the first two rows across the entire cellar, and Beit Hillel say: There is no need to search that extensively, as it is sufficient to search the two external rows, which are the upper ones. This dispute will be explained and illustrated in the Gemara.

גמ׳ מאי אור רב הונא אמר נגהי ורב יהודה אמר לילי קא סלקא דעתך דמאן דאמר נגהי נגהי ממש ומאן דאמר לילי לילי ממש

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term or, translated as: The evening of? The Gemara provides two answers. Rav Huna said: It means light, and Rav Yehuda said: In this context, it means evening. At first glance, it could enter your mind to suggest that the one who said light means that one searches for leaven by the actual light of day, on the morning of the fourteenth of Nisan, and the one who said evening is referring to the actual evening of the fourteenth.

מיתיבי הבקר אור והאנשים שלחו אלמא אור יממא הוא מי כתיב האור בקר הבקר אור כתיב כמאן דאמר צפרא נהר וכדרב יהודה אמר רב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יכנס אדם בכי טוב ויצא בכי טוב

To clarify the meaning of the word or, the Gemara analyzes biblical verses and rabbinic statements. The Gemara raises an objection from a verse: “As soon as the morning was or, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys” (Genesis 44:3). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Is it written: The light was morning? “The morning was light” is written. In this context, or is a verb not a noun, as the one who said: The morning lightened. And this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always enter an unfamiliar city with “it is good” (Genesis 1:4), i.e., before sunset, while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression “it is good” with regard to light upon its creation. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one leaves a city he should leave with “it is good,” meaning after sunrise the next morning.

מיתיבי וכאור בקר יזרח שמש אלמא אור יממא הוא מי כתיב אור בקר וכאור בקר כתיב והכי קאמר וכאור בקר בעולם הזה כעין זריחת שמש לצדיקים לעולם הבא

The Gemara raises an objection from another verse: “And as the light [or] of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds; when through clear shining after rain the tender grass springs out of the earth” (II Samuel 23:4). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Is it written that the light was morning? “As the light of the morning” is written, and this is what the verse is saying: And as brightly as the morning light of this world shines at its peak, so will be the rising of the sun for the righteous in the World-to-Come, as in those days the light of the sun will be seven times stronger than at present (see Isaiah 30:26).

מיתיבי ויקרא אלהים לאור יום אלמא אור יממא הוא הכי קאמר למאיר ובא קראו יום אלא מעתה ולחשך קרא לילה למחשיך ובא קרא לילה והא קיימא לן דעד צאת הכוכבים יממא הוא

The Gemara raises an objection: “And God called the or Day, and the darkness He called Night” (Genesis 1:5). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well. This is what the verse is saying: God called the advancing light Day. As stated previously, the word or can also be a verb; in this context, God called the beginning of that which eventually brightens, Day. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, the continuation of the verse, “and the darkness He called Night,” should be understood to mean: He called the advancing darkness Night, even before it is actually dark. However, this cannot be the correct interpretation of the verse, as we maintain it is day until the emergence of the stars. Since the stars emerge only after the sky begins to darken, the advancing evening cannot be defined as part of the night.

אלא הכי קאמר קרייה רחמנא לנהורא ופקדיה אמצותא דיממא וקרייה רחמנא לחשוכא ופקדיה אמצותא דלילה

The Gemara rejects the previous explanation. Rather, this is what the verse is saying: God called the light to come and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the day, and God called the darkness and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the night. Called, in this context, does not connote the giving of a name. It means that He instructed the day and night to carry out their characteristic functions.

מיתיבי הללוהו כל כוכבי אור אלמא אור אורתא הוא הכי קאמר הללוהו כל כוכבים המאירים אלא מעתה כוכבים המאירים הוא דבעו שבוחי שאינן מאירין לא בעו שבוחי והא כתיב הללוהו כל צבאיו

The Gemara raises an objection: “Praise Him, sun and moon; praise Him, all the stars of or (Psalms 148:3). Apparently, or is the evening, as the stars of light appear at night. The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what the verse is saying: Praise Him, all the stars that radiate, as in this context or is not a noun but rather a verb that describes the activity of the stars. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, does the verse mean that it is the stars that radiate that are required to praise God, whereas those that do not radiate light are not required to praise Him? But isn’t it written in the previous verse: “Praise Him, all His legions,” indicating that all stars should praise God?

אלא הא קא משמע לן דאור דכוכבים נמי אור הוא למאי נפקא מינה לנודר מן האור (דתנן) הנודר מן האור אסור באורן של כוכבים

Rather, this phrase, the stars of light, comes to teach us that the light of stars is also considered light. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that emerges from the fact that the light of the stars is classified as light? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard to one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light. It is necessary to define precisely what is included in the term light. As we learned in a mishna: For one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light, it is prohibited to benefit even from the light of the stars.

מיתיבי לאור יקום רוצח יקטל עני ואביון ובלילה יהי כגנב

The Gemara raises an objection: “A murderer rises with the or to kill the poor and needy; and in the night he is as a thief” (Job 24:14).

הא מדקאמר ובלילה יהי כגנב אלמא אור יממא הוא התם הכי קאמר אי פשיטא לך מילתא כנהורא דאנפשות קאתי רוצח הוא וניתן להצילו בנפשו ואי מספקא לך מילתא כליליא יהי בעיניך כגנב ולא ניתן להצילו בנפשו

From the fact that the end of the verse states: “And in the night he is as a thief,” apparently the word or at the beginning of the verse is a reference to day, as the verse contrasts between night and or. The Gemara rejects this contention. There, this is what the verse is saying: If the matter is as clear to you as light, that the thief has come into the house prepared to take a life, he is a murderer; and the owner of the house may save himself by taking the life of the intruder. In that case, one may protect himself from a thief who breaks into his house, even by killing the intruder if necessary. And if the matter is as unclear to you as the night, he should be nothing more than a thief in your eyes and not a murderer; and therefore one may not save himself by taking the life of the thief. This verse is not referring to actual day and night; rather, it uses these terms as metaphors for certainty and uncertainty.

מיתיבי יחשכו כוכבי נשפו יקו לאור ואין ואל יראה בעפעפי שחר מדקאמר יקו לאור ואין אלמא אור יממא הוא התם מילט הוא דקא לייט ליה איוב למזליה אמר יהא רעוא דליצפיה הך גברא לנהורא ולא לישכחיה

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion that or means evening: “Let the stars of the twilight be dark; let it look for or but have none; neither let it see the eyelids of the morning” (Job 3:9). From the fact that the verse states: “Let it look for or but have none,” apparently or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Actually, it is possible that or, in this context, means light in general, not specifically day. There, Job is cursing his fortune. He said: Let it be His will that this man, referring to himself, will seek light and not find it.

מיתיבי ואומר אך חשך ישופני ולילה אור בעדני אלמא אור יממא הוא התם הכי קאמר דוד אני אמרתי אך חשך ישופני לעולם הבא שהוא דומה ליום עכשיו העולם הזה שהוא דומה ללילה אור בעדני

The Gemara raises an objection: “And I say, yet the darkness shall envelop me, and the or about me shall be night” (Psalms 139:11). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof. This is what David is saying there: I said after I sinned that darkness shall envelop me in the World-to-Come, which is like day. Now that I know that I have been forgiven, even this world, which is like darkness, is light for me. That being the case, it cannot be derived from here that the word or describes the day.

מיתיבי רבי יהודה אומר בודקין אור (לארבעה) עשר ובארבעה עשר שחרית ובשעת הביעור מדקאמר רבי יהודה בודקין אור ארבעה עשר ובארבעה עשר שחרית אלמא אור אורתא הוא שמע מינה

The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: One searches on or of the fourteenth of Nisan, on the fourteenth in the morning, and at the time of the removal of leavened bread. The Gemara infers from Rabbi Yehuda’s teaching: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that one searches on or of the fourteenth and on the fourteenth in the morning, apparently or is the evening. In the order of Rabbi Yehuda’s list, or of the fourteenth precedes the morning of the fourteenth. Therefore, or must be referring to the evening. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

מיתיבי מאימתי ארבעה עשר אסור בעשיית מלאכה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר משעת האור רבי יהודה אומר משעת הנץ החמה

The Gemara raises an objection from a different source: From when on the fourteenth of Nisan is it prohibited to perform labor, for those who are accustomed not to work on Passover eve? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: From the time of or. Rabbi Yehuda says: From sunrise.

אמר ליה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב לרבי יהודה וכי היכן מצינו יום שמקצתו אסור בעשיית מלאכה ומקצתו מותר בעשיית מלאכה אמר ליה הוא עצמו יוכיח שמקצתו מותר באכילת חמץ ומקצתו אסור באכילת חמץ

Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yehuda: And where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? If, as you claim, the prohibition against performing labor takes effect only from sunrise, whereas the fourteenth of Nisan begins with the emergence of stars the previous evening, it is permitted to perform labor during the first part of the fourteenth, while during the second part of the same day labor is prohibited. He said to him: The fourteenth day itself can prove to be a precedent, as in part of it, from the beginning until the sixth hour of the day, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during another part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited.

מדקאמר רבי יהודה משעת הנץ החמה אלמא אור דקאמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אורתא הוא לא מאי אור עמוד השחר

With regard to the matter under discussion, the Gemara infers: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that it is prohibited to perform labor from sunrise, apparently the word or that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov is saying, is referring to the evening. This is an additional proof that or means night. The Gemara rejects this contention: No, this is not a proof. What is meant by or? It means dawn. The dispute of the tanna’im is not whether the prohibition of labor begins at night or in the morning. Rather, they disagree as to whether labor is prohibited from dawn or only from sunrise.

אי הכי דקאמר ליה היכן מצינו יום שמקצתו מותר בעשיית מלאכה ומקצתו אסור בעשיית מלאכה נימא איהו לנפשיה הא איכא לילה דקא שרי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב

The Gemara challenges this assumption: If so, consider that which Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yehuda: Where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? Let him say to himself: Isn’t there the night, during which even Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov himself permits performance of labor at night? He certainly would not raise a difficulty against the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, which is equally difficult according to his own opinion.

הכי קאמר בשלמא לדידי אשכחנא דקא פלגי רבנן בין יממא לליליא (דתנן) גבי תענית צבור עד מתי אוכל ושותה עד שיעלה עמוד השחר דברי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב רבי שמעון אומר עד קרות הגבר אלא לדידך היכא אשכחנא יממא גופיה דפלגי ביה רבנן

The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov is saying: Granted, according to my opinion, I find situations in which the Sages distinguished between the day and the preceding night, as we learned in a mishna with regard to a lenient communal fast: Until when may one eat and drink before the fast? It is permitted to eat and drink until dawn; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Rabbi Shimon says: One may eat until the call of the rooster, which precedes dawn. In that case, the Sages distinguished between day and night. However, according to your opinion, where do we find a halakha with regard to which the Sages divided the day itself?

אמר ליה הוא עצמו יוכיח שמקצתו מותר באכילת חמץ ומקצתו אסור באכילת חמץ שפיר קאמר ליה רבי יהודה לרבי אליעזר הכי קאמר ליה רבי אליעזר אמינא לך אנא מלאכה דרבנן ואת אמרת לי חמץ דאורייתא דעד הכא אסר רחמנא ועד הכא שרא רחמנא

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: The day of the fourteenth itself can prove my opinion, as during part of it, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yehuda has spoken well to Rabbi Eliezer; how can Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov counter this contention? The Gemara answers that this is what Rabbi Eliezer is saying to him in response: I said to you the prohibition of labor, which is by rabbinic law, and you said to me the prohibition of leavened bread, which is by Torah law. With regard to a Torah prohibition, it is possible that until this point, God prohibited doing so, and until that point, God permitted doing so, as the halakha is determined by a Torah decree. On the other hand, rabbinic prohibitions are enacted within clearly defined categories; in this case, an entire day.

ואידך שעות דרבנן

The Gemara asks: And what is the response of the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, to this contention? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda notes that the hours when the prohibition of leaven is in effect on the morning of the fourteenth are determined by rabbinic law. Despite the fact it is prohibited by Torah law to eat leaven from midday, the distinction within the morning hours between the time when one may consume leaven and the time when one may derive benefit from leaven but not consume it is determined by the Sages. Apparently, the Sages institute ordinances that apply to part of a day.

ואידך הרחקה הוא דעבוד רבנן לדאורייתא

The Gemara asks: And how can the other Sage, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov would say that in this case the Sages established a preventive measure for a Torah law, and decrees of this type are at times in effect for only part of the day. By contrast, when the Sages instituted independent ordinances, they invariably did so for the entire day. In any case, this source does not conclusively prove that or means evening.

מיתיבי אין משיאין משואות אלא על החדש שנראה בזמנו לקדשו ואימתי משיאין משואות לאור עבורו אלמא אור אורתא הוא שמע מינה

The Gemara raises an objection: The court messengers kindle torches on the mountaintops as a signal that the court has sanctified and established a new month only for a month that appeared at its proper time, on the thirtieth day of the previous month, to sanctify it on that day. And when do the messengers kindle these torches? They light them on or of its additional day, at the end of the thirtieth day from the beginning of the previous month, leading into the evening of the thirty-first day. The thirtieth day is called the additional day because it is sometimes appended to the previous month, which would otherwise consist of twenty-nine days. Apparently, or is the evening, as the court messengers would certainly not light the bonfires by day. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

מיתיבי היה עומד כל הלילה ומקריב על המזבח לאורה טעון קידוש ידים ורגלים דברי רבי אורה שאני:

The Gemara raises an objection: If a priest was standing all night and sacrificing the limbs of offerings on the altar, in the ora he is required to sanctify his hands and feet again, by washing them in water from the basin; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Since a new day has begun, the priest must wash his hands and feet from the basin, a prerequisite for each day’s service. With regard to the issue under discussion, apparently or means day. The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not a conclusive proof, as ora is different, and indeed it is referring to the day. However, the word or may yet refer to the evening.

מיתיבי מר זוטרא

Mar Zutra raises an objection

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

This month of learning is dedicated by Pam and Yoav Schwartz to honor the 5th yahrtzeit of their nephew Ezra Schwartz. Ezra's life was full of love, curiosity, laughter, and friendship. May this learning replace some of the light that was lost from this world.

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מתני׳ אור לארבעה עשר בודקין את החמץ לאור הנר כל מקום שאין מכניסין בו חמץ אין צריך בדיקה ובמה אמרו שתי שורות במרתף מקום שמכניסין בו חמץ בית שמאי אומרים שתי שורות על פני כל המרתף ובית הלל אומרים שתי שורות החיצונות שהן העליונות:

MISHNA: On the evening [or] of the fourteenth of the month of Nisan, one searches for leavened bread in his home by candlelight. Any place into which one does not typically take leavened bread does not require a search, as it is unlikely that there is any leavened bread there. And with regard to what the Sages of previous generations meant when they said that one must search two rows of wine barrels in a cellar, i.e., a place into which one typically takes some leavened bread, the early tanna’im are in dispute. Beit Shammai say that this is referring to searching the first two rows across the entire cellar, and Beit Hillel say: There is no need to search that extensively, as it is sufficient to search the two external rows, which are the upper ones. This dispute will be explained and illustrated in the Gemara.

גמ׳ מאי אור רב הונא אמר נגהי ורב יהודה אמר לילי קא סלקא דעתך דמאן דאמר נגהי נגהי ממש ומאן דאמר לילי לילי ממש

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the term or, translated as: The evening of? The Gemara provides two answers. Rav Huna said: It means light, and Rav Yehuda said: In this context, it means evening. At first glance, it could enter your mind to suggest that the one who said light means that one searches for leaven by the actual light of day, on the morning of the fourteenth of Nisan, and the one who said evening is referring to the actual evening of the fourteenth.

מיתיבי הבקר אור והאנשים שלחו אלמא אור יממא הוא מי כתיב האור בקר הבקר אור כתיב כמאן דאמר צפרא נהר וכדרב יהודה אמר רב דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יכנס אדם בכי טוב ויצא בכי טוב

To clarify the meaning of the word or, the Gemara analyzes biblical verses and rabbinic statements. The Gemara raises an objection from a verse: “As soon as the morning was or, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys” (Genesis 44:3). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Is it written: The light was morning? “The morning was light” is written. In this context, or is a verb not a noun, as the one who said: The morning lightened. And this is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said, as Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: A person should always enter an unfamiliar city with “it is good” (Genesis 1:4), i.e., before sunset, while it is light, as the Torah uses the expression “it is good” with regard to light upon its creation. This goodness is manifest in the sense of security one feels when it is light. And likewise, when one leaves a city he should leave with “it is good,” meaning after sunrise the next morning.

מיתיבי וכאור בקר יזרח שמש אלמא אור יממא הוא מי כתיב אור בקר וכאור בקר כתיב והכי קאמר וכאור בקר בעולם הזה כעין זריחת שמש לצדיקים לעולם הבא

The Gemara raises an objection from another verse: “And as the light [or] of the morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds; when through clear shining after rain the tender grass springs out of the earth” (II Samuel 23:4). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well: Is it written that the light was morning? “As the light of the morning” is written, and this is what the verse is saying: And as brightly as the morning light of this world shines at its peak, so will be the rising of the sun for the righteous in the World-to-Come, as in those days the light of the sun will be seven times stronger than at present (see Isaiah 30:26).

מיתיבי ויקרא אלהים לאור יום אלמא אור יממא הוא הכי קאמר למאיר ובא קראו יום אלא מעתה ולחשך קרא לילה למחשיך ובא קרא לילה והא קיימא לן דעד צאת הכוכבים יממא הוא

The Gemara raises an objection: “And God called the or Day, and the darkness He called Night” (Genesis 1:5). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof as well. This is what the verse is saying: God called the advancing light Day. As stated previously, the word or can also be a verb; in this context, God called the beginning of that which eventually brightens, Day. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, the continuation of the verse, “and the darkness He called Night,” should be understood to mean: He called the advancing darkness Night, even before it is actually dark. However, this cannot be the correct interpretation of the verse, as we maintain it is day until the emergence of the stars. Since the stars emerge only after the sky begins to darken, the advancing evening cannot be defined as part of the night.

אלא הכי קאמר קרייה רחמנא לנהורא ופקדיה אמצותא דיממא וקרייה רחמנא לחשוכא ופקדיה אמצותא דלילה

The Gemara rejects the previous explanation. Rather, this is what the verse is saying: God called the light to come and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the day, and God called the darkness and commanded it to perform the mitzva of the night. Called, in this context, does not connote the giving of a name. It means that He instructed the day and night to carry out their characteristic functions.

מיתיבי הללוהו כל כוכבי אור אלמא אור אורתא הוא הכי קאמר הללוהו כל כוכבים המאירים אלא מעתה כוכבים המאירים הוא דבעו שבוחי שאינן מאירין לא בעו שבוחי והא כתיב הללוהו כל צבאיו

The Gemara raises an objection: “Praise Him, sun and moon; praise Him, all the stars of or (Psalms 148:3). Apparently, or is the evening, as the stars of light appear at night. The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what the verse is saying: Praise Him, all the stars that radiate, as in this context or is not a noun but rather a verb that describes the activity of the stars. The Gemara challenges this explanation: However, if that is so, does the verse mean that it is the stars that radiate that are required to praise God, whereas those that do not radiate light are not required to praise Him? But isn’t it written in the previous verse: “Praise Him, all His legions,” indicating that all stars should praise God?

אלא הא קא משמע לן דאור דכוכבים נמי אור הוא למאי נפקא מינה לנודר מן האור (דתנן) הנודר מן האור אסור באורן של כוכבים

Rather, this phrase, the stars of light, comes to teach us that the light of stars is also considered light. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference that emerges from the fact that the light of the stars is classified as light? The Gemara answers: It is significant with regard to one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light. It is necessary to define precisely what is included in the term light. As we learned in a mishna: For one who vows that he will derive no benefit from light, it is prohibited to benefit even from the light of the stars.

מיתיבי לאור יקום רוצח יקטל עני ואביון ובלילה יהי כגנב

The Gemara raises an objection: “A murderer rises with the or to kill the poor and needy; and in the night he is as a thief” (Job 24:14).

הא מדקאמר ובלילה יהי כגנב אלמא אור יממא הוא התם הכי קאמר אי פשיטא לך מילתא כנהורא דאנפשות קאתי רוצח הוא וניתן להצילו בנפשו ואי מספקא לך מילתא כליליא יהי בעיניך כגנב ולא ניתן להצילו בנפשו

From the fact that the end of the verse states: “And in the night he is as a thief,” apparently the word or at the beginning of the verse is a reference to day, as the verse contrasts between night and or. The Gemara rejects this contention. There, this is what the verse is saying: If the matter is as clear to you as light, that the thief has come into the house prepared to take a life, he is a murderer; and the owner of the house may save himself by taking the life of the intruder. In that case, one may protect himself from a thief who breaks into his house, even by killing the intruder if necessary. And if the matter is as unclear to you as the night, he should be nothing more than a thief in your eyes and not a murderer; and therefore one may not save himself by taking the life of the thief. This verse is not referring to actual day and night; rather, it uses these terms as metaphors for certainty and uncertainty.

מיתיבי יחשכו כוכבי נשפו יקו לאור ואין ואל יראה בעפעפי שחר מדקאמר יקו לאור ואין אלמא אור יממא הוא התם מילט הוא דקא לייט ליה איוב למזליה אמר יהא רעוא דליצפיה הך גברא לנהורא ולא לישכחיה

The Gemara raises an objection to the opinion that or means evening: “Let the stars of the twilight be dark; let it look for or but have none; neither let it see the eyelids of the morning” (Job 3:9). From the fact that the verse states: “Let it look for or but have none,” apparently or is day. The Gemara rejects this contention. Actually, it is possible that or, in this context, means light in general, not specifically day. There, Job is cursing his fortune. He said: Let it be His will that this man, referring to himself, will seek light and not find it.

מיתיבי ואומר אך חשך ישופני ולילה אור בעדני אלמא אור יממא הוא התם הכי קאמר דוד אני אמרתי אך חשך ישופני לעולם הבא שהוא דומה ליום עכשיו העולם הזה שהוא דומה ללילה אור בעדני

The Gemara raises an objection: “And I say, yet the darkness shall envelop me, and the or about me shall be night” (Psalms 139:11). Apparently, or is day. The Gemara rejects this proof. This is what David is saying there: I said after I sinned that darkness shall envelop me in the World-to-Come, which is like day. Now that I know that I have been forgiven, even this world, which is like darkness, is light for me. That being the case, it cannot be derived from here that the word or describes the day.

מיתיבי רבי יהודה אומר בודקין אור (לארבעה) עשר ובארבעה עשר שחרית ובשעת הביעור מדקאמר רבי יהודה בודקין אור ארבעה עשר ובארבעה עשר שחרית אלמא אור אורתא הוא שמע מינה

The Gemara raises an objection from a mishna. Rabbi Yehuda says: One searches on or of the fourteenth of Nisan, on the fourteenth in the morning, and at the time of the removal of leavened bread. The Gemara infers from Rabbi Yehuda’s teaching: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that one searches on or of the fourteenth and on the fourteenth in the morning, apparently or is the evening. In the order of Rabbi Yehuda’s list, or of the fourteenth precedes the morning of the fourteenth. Therefore, or must be referring to the evening. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

מיתיבי מאימתי ארבעה עשר אסור בעשיית מלאכה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר משעת האור רבי יהודה אומר משעת הנץ החמה

The Gemara raises an objection from a different source: From when on the fourteenth of Nisan is it prohibited to perform labor, for those who are accustomed not to work on Passover eve? Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: From the time of or. Rabbi Yehuda says: From sunrise.

אמר ליה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב לרבי יהודה וכי היכן מצינו יום שמקצתו אסור בעשיית מלאכה ומקצתו מותר בעשיית מלאכה אמר ליה הוא עצמו יוכיח שמקצתו מותר באכילת חמץ ומקצתו אסור באכילת חמץ

Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yehuda: And where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? If, as you claim, the prohibition against performing labor takes effect only from sunrise, whereas the fourteenth of Nisan begins with the emergence of stars the previous evening, it is permitted to perform labor during the first part of the fourteenth, while during the second part of the same day labor is prohibited. He said to him: The fourteenth day itself can prove to be a precedent, as in part of it, from the beginning until the sixth hour of the day, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during another part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited.

מדקאמר רבי יהודה משעת הנץ החמה אלמא אור דקאמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אורתא הוא לא מאי אור עמוד השחר

With regard to the matter under discussion, the Gemara infers: From the fact that Rabbi Yehuda says that it is prohibited to perform labor from sunrise, apparently the word or that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov is saying, is referring to the evening. This is an additional proof that or means night. The Gemara rejects this contention: No, this is not a proof. What is meant by or? It means dawn. The dispute of the tanna’im is not whether the prohibition of labor begins at night or in the morning. Rather, they disagree as to whether labor is prohibited from dawn or only from sunrise.

אי הכי דקאמר ליה היכן מצינו יום שמקצתו מותר בעשיית מלאכה ומקצתו אסור בעשיית מלאכה נימא איהו לנפשיה הא איכא לילה דקא שרי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב

The Gemara challenges this assumption: If so, consider that which Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said to Rabbi Yehuda: Where have we found precedent for a day, in part of which the performance of labor is prohibited, and in another part of which the performance of labor is permitted? Let him say to himself: Isn’t there the night, during which even Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov himself permits performance of labor at night? He certainly would not raise a difficulty against the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, which is equally difficult according to his own opinion.

הכי קאמר בשלמא לדידי אשכחנא דקא פלגי רבנן בין יממא לליליא (דתנן) גבי תענית צבור עד מתי אוכל ושותה עד שיעלה עמוד השחר דברי רבי אליעזר בן יעקב רבי שמעון אומר עד קרות הגבר אלא לדידך היכא אשכחנא יממא גופיה דפלגי ביה רבנן

The Gemara rejects this contention. This is what Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov is saying: Granted, according to my opinion, I find situations in which the Sages distinguished between the day and the preceding night, as we learned in a mishna with regard to a lenient communal fast: Until when may one eat and drink before the fast? It is permitted to eat and drink until dawn; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov. Rabbi Shimon says: One may eat until the call of the rooster, which precedes dawn. In that case, the Sages distinguished between day and night. However, according to your opinion, where do we find a halakha with regard to which the Sages divided the day itself?

אמר ליה הוא עצמו יוכיח שמקצתו מותר באכילת חמץ ומקצתו אסור באכילת חמץ שפיר קאמר ליה רבי יהודה לרבי אליעזר הכי קאמר ליה רבי אליעזר אמינא לך אנא מלאכה דרבנן ואת אמרת לי חמץ דאורייתא דעד הכא אסר רחמנא ועד הכא שרא רחמנא

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov: The day of the fourteenth itself can prove my opinion, as during part of it, the eating of leavened bread is permitted, and during part of it the eating of leavened bread is prohibited. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yehuda has spoken well to Rabbi Eliezer; how can Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov counter this contention? The Gemara answers that this is what Rabbi Eliezer is saying to him in response: I said to you the prohibition of labor, which is by rabbinic law, and you said to me the prohibition of leavened bread, which is by Torah law. With regard to a Torah prohibition, it is possible that until this point, God prohibited doing so, and until that point, God permitted doing so, as the halakha is determined by a Torah decree. On the other hand, rabbinic prohibitions are enacted within clearly defined categories; in this case, an entire day.

ואידך שעות דרבנן

The Gemara asks: And what is the response of the other Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, to this contention? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yehuda notes that the hours when the prohibition of leaven is in effect on the morning of the fourteenth are determined by rabbinic law. Despite the fact it is prohibited by Torah law to eat leaven from midday, the distinction within the morning hours between the time when one may consume leaven and the time when one may derive benefit from leaven but not consume it is determined by the Sages. Apparently, the Sages institute ordinances that apply to part of a day.

ואידך הרחקה הוא דעבוד רבנן לדאורייתא

The Gemara asks: And how can the other Sage, Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, respond to this claim? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov would say that in this case the Sages established a preventive measure for a Torah law, and decrees of this type are at times in effect for only part of the day. By contrast, when the Sages instituted independent ordinances, they invariably did so for the entire day. In any case, this source does not conclusively prove that or means evening.

מיתיבי אין משיאין משואות אלא על החדש שנראה בזמנו לקדשו ואימתי משיאין משואות לאור עבורו אלמא אור אורתא הוא שמע מינה

The Gemara raises an objection: The court messengers kindle torches on the mountaintops as a signal that the court has sanctified and established a new month only for a month that appeared at its proper time, on the thirtieth day of the previous month, to sanctify it on that day. And when do the messengers kindle these torches? They light them on or of its additional day, at the end of the thirtieth day from the beginning of the previous month, leading into the evening of the thirty-first day. The thirtieth day is called the additional day because it is sometimes appended to the previous month, which would otherwise consist of twenty-nine days. Apparently, or is the evening, as the court messengers would certainly not light the bonfires by day. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is the case.

מיתיבי היה עומד כל הלילה ומקריב על המזבח לאורה טעון קידוש ידים ורגלים דברי רבי אורה שאני:

The Gemara raises an objection: If a priest was standing all night and sacrificing the limbs of offerings on the altar, in the ora he is required to sanctify his hands and feet again, by washing them in water from the basin; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Since a new day has begun, the priest must wash his hands and feet from the basin, a prerequisite for each day’s service. With regard to the issue under discussion, apparently or means day. The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not a conclusive proof, as ora is different, and indeed it is referring to the day. However, the word or may yet refer to the evening.

מיתיבי מר זוטרא

Mar Zutra raises an objection

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