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Daf Yomi

January 15, 2021 | 讘壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 55

In what way is Tisha B’av similar or different from Yom Kippur and from fasts that are instituted when there is a drought? How do the opinions regarding the debate in the mishna whether or not one can/should try to be like a Torah scholar and not work on Tisha B’av fit with their opinions on a groom on his wedding night saying shema? The mishna describes that in Judea and the Galilee there were different opinions regarding whether one could work on erev Pesach before midday. Beit Shamai and Beit Hillel argue about whether they also forbade at night. How does this mishna fit with the first mishna of the chapter that explained that it was only a custom? The mishna discusses according to those who permit working, is it only to continue work that was begun before erev Pesach? Is it only work needed for the holiday? There are certain professionals that can work – which ones? Why? The mishna adds other things that one can or can’t do on erev Pesach relating to brooding hens, cleaning up animal dung, and bringing vessels to be repaired or bringing them back from being repaired.

转谞讗 拽讜诇讬 拽讜诇讬 拽转谞讬:


The tanna is teaching a series of leniencies. He taught only those aspects in which the Ninth of Av is more lenient than a communal fast. He did not teach those aspects in which it is more stringent. There was no attempt made to enumerate all the differences.


讜讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讜讛专讗 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讜讛专讗 讜讛讗 讗讬驻讻讗 砖诪注讬谞谉 诇讛讜 讚转谞谉 讞转谉 讗诐 讬专爪讛 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬转 砖诪注 诇讬诇讛 讛专讗砖讜谉 拽讜专讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讬讟讜诇 讗转 讛砖诐 讬讟讜诇


It was stated in the mishna: And in all places Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av, and according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel one should always conduct himself like a Torah scholar in this regard and refrain from performing labor. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that we are not concerned about presumptuousness when a person conducts himself like a Torah scholar? And conversely, do the Rabbis hold that we are concerned about presumptuousness? Didn鈥檛 we hear them say the opposite? As we learned in a mishna: With regard to the recitation of Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, the Rabbis said that if a groom wishes to recite Shema on the first night despite his exemption, he may do so. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputation of a God-fearing person may assume it, and consequently not everyone who wishes to recite Shema on his wedding night may do so. Their opinions in that mishna appear contrary to their opinions in the current mishna.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讜讞诇驻转 讛砖讬讟讛 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讗 转讬驻讜讱 讚专讘谞谉 讗讚专讘谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讻讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讘讚讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讗讬讛讜 诇讗 注讘讬讚 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 拽专讬 讜讗讬讛讜 谞诪讬 拽专讬 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The attribution of the opinions is reversed in one of the sources. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Do not reverse either text, as it is possible to resolve the difficulty in another manner. The contradiction between the statement of the Rabbis here and the statement of the Rabbis there is not difficult. Here, on the Ninth of Av, since everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor, his idleness is conspicuous and appears like presumptuousness. However, there, in the case of reciting Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, it does not appear like presumptuousness, as everyone is reciting Shema and he is also reciting it with them.


讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讗谞谉 住讛讚讬 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 讻讜讜谞讬 讚注转讬讛 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗诪专讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讛讬讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻讜拽 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讘讟诇谞讬 讗讬讻讗 讘砖讜拽讗:


Similarly, the contradiction between the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel here and the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel there is not difficult. There, in the case of reciting Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, it is that we require concentration, and it is clear to all that he is unable to concentrate because of his preoccupation with the mitzva that he must perform. Therefore, if he recites Shema it appears like presumptuousness. It is as though he is announcing: I am able to concentrate although others in my situation are not. However, here, by not performing labor on the Ninth of Av it does not appear like presumptuousness, as people say: It is because he has no labor to perform. Go out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace, even on days when it is permitted to perform labor.


诪转谞讬壮 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讘讙诇讬诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 讻诇 注讬拽专 讛诇讬诇讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜住专讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪转讬专讬谉 注讚 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛:


MISHNA: Apropos the discussion of performing labor on Passover eve, differences in other customs were cited. And the Rabbis say: In Judea, people would perform labor on Passover eves until midday, and in the Galilee people would not perform labor on Passover eve at all. With regard to performing labor on the night before Passover eve, the night between the thirteenth and fourteenth of Nisan, Beit Shammai prohibit performing labor, and Beit Hillel permit doing so until sunrise.


讙诪壮 诪注讬拽专讗 转谞讗 诪谞讛讙讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 转谞讗 讗讬住讜专讗


GEMARA: The Gemara asks with regard to the mishna: Initially, at the beginning of the chapter, the tanna taught that in certain places there is merely a custom not to perform labor, and yet ultimately, in this latest mishna, he taught that according to the opinion of Beit Shammai, it is prohibited to perform labor. Apparently, performance of labor is not dependent on custom but is actually prohibited.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讘讙诇讬诇 讗讬谞谉 注讜砖讬谉 讻诇 注讬拽专 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪讛 专讗讬讬讛 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讙诇讬诇 诇讻讗谉 讗诇讗 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 注讜砖讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪谞讛讙讗 诪讻诇诇 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 拽讗诪专


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is not difficult, since that first mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and this current mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: In Judea they would perform labor on Passover eves until midday, and in the Galilee they would not perform labor at all. Rabbi Meir said to him: What proof do you cite from Judea and the Galilee to the discussion here? Rather, in a place where people were accustomed to perform labor, one performs labor, and in a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. The Gemara analyzes this baraita: From the fact that Rabbi Meir is speaking about custom, by inference, Rabbi Yehuda is speaking about a prohibition against performing labor in the Galilee.


讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛诪谞讻砖 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讜谞注拽专讛 讘讬讚讜 砖讜转诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讟讬讟 讜讗讬谉 砖讜转诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讙专讬讚


The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda hold that performance of labor on the fourteenth is permitted everywhere other than the Galilee? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to one who is weeding a field on the thirteenth of Nisan and a stalk of grain was uprooted in his hand, he plants it in a muddy place so that it will take root before the omer offering is brought on the sixteenth of Nisan? It will then be permitted to eat the grain after the omer offering is brought. However, one should not plant it in a dry place, as it will not take root there immediately. If it begins to sprout only after the omer offering is brought, that grain will remain prohibited until after the following year鈥檚 omer offering is brought.


讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讗讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讗 诪讻讚讬 砖诪注讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 讻诇 讛专讻讘讛 砖讗讬谞讛 拽讜诇讟转 诇砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 拽讜诇讟转 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讜讛讗讬讻讗 讗专讘讬住专 讜讞诪讬住专 讜诪拽爪转 砖讬转住专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讙诇讬诇 砖谞讜


From Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 statement it can be inferred that if a person was weeding on the thirteenth of Nisan, yes, this is the halakha; however, on the fourteenth of Nisan, no, one may not replant the stalk of grain. Now, we learned that Rabbi Yehuda said: Any graft that does not take hold within three days will no longer take hold. If it could enter your mind that performing labor on the fourteenth is permitted, why do I need this halakha to be taught specifically with regard to the thirteenth? It would have been a greater novelty had he taught the halakha with regard to a case that occurs on the fourteenth. Aren鈥檛 there three days remaining for grain planted on the fourteenth to take root before the omer offering, i.e., the fourteenth of Nisan, the fifteenth of Nisan, and part of the sixteenth of Nisan? Rava said: They taught this halakha of replanting a stalk of wheat with regard to the Galilee; as mentioned in the baraita, Rabbi Yehuda says that in the Galilee they do not perform labor at all.


讜讛讗讬讻讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讻讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讻讘讬转 讛诇诇 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 砖诇 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇谞讻砖 讘诇讬诇讛


The Gemara further asks: Isn鈥檛 there the night between the thirteenth and the fourteenth of Nisan, during which according to the opinion of Beit Hillel, labor is permitted even in the Galilee, which is the halakha? Rabbi Yehuda could have taught the halakha with regard to weeding on the night before the fourteenth. Rav Sheshet said: Rabbi Yehuda said this in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, who prohibit performing labor that night. Rav Ashi said: There is no reason to suggest implausibly that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, contrary to the accepted halakha. Actually, Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. However, he did not teach the case about the night before the fourteenth of Nisan because it is not the typical manner of people to weed at night. It is virtually impossible to identify weeds in the dark.


专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讜讘讛砖专砖讛 讞讚 诪拽爪转 讛讬讜诐 讻讻讜诇讜 讗诪专讬谞谉 转专讬 诪拽爪转 讛讬讜诐 讻讻讜诇讜 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉:


Ravina said: Actually, it can be explained that Rabbi Yehuda is referring to Judea. With regard to a plant taking root, we state only once the principle: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day, but we do not state twice the principle: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day. When discussing a plant that was replanted on the fourteenth, in the tally of three days, the legal status of part of both the fourteenth and the sixteenth cannot be like that of entire days. A plant takes root after a fixed amount of time, and this is not affected by formalistic halakhic principles like: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day.


诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讘诇 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘讛 讘转讞诇讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讙讜诪专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讗讜诪谞讬讜转 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讛讞讬讬讟讬谉 讜讛住驻专讬诐 讜讛讻讜讘住讬谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 专爪注谞讬谉:


MISHNA: Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that one began before the fourteenth of Nisan, he may complete it on the fourteenth before midday. However, one may not begin to perform that labor from the outset on the fourteenth, even if he is able to complete it before midday. And the Rabbis say: The practitioners of only three crafts are permitted to perform labor until midday on Passover eve, and they are: Tailors, barbers, and launderers, whose work is needed for the Festival. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Even shoemakers are permitted to work on the fourteenth.


讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 转谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 转谞谉 讗讘诇 诇爪讜专讱 讗转讞讜诇讬 诪转讞诇讬谞谉 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬谉 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗


GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Was it with regard to labor for the purpose of the Festival that we learned in the mishna that Rabbi Meir permits completing labor on the fourteenth, but labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival may not even be completed? Or perhaps it was with regard to labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival that we learned that Rabbi Meir permits completing labor on the fourteenth, but with regard to labor that is for the purpose of the Festival, we may even initiate it. Or perhaps, with regard to both labor that is for the purpose of the Festival and labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival, completing, yes, it is permitted, but initiating, no, it is prohibited.


转讗 砖诪注 讗讘诇 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪诇爪讜诇 拽讟谉 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讘讻讛 拽讟谞讛 诪讗讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讛谞讬 讚诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗 诪讻诇诇 讚砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 诇讗 讙诪专讬谞谉


Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which we learned: However, one may not begin work from the outset on the fourteenth, even if it is a small belt, or even a small hairnet. What is the meaning of the term even in this context? Isn鈥檛 it that even with regard to those items that are for the purpose of the Festival, completing, yes, it is permitted, but initiating, no, it is prohibited? And by inference, with regard to labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival, we may not even complete labor that was begun previously. This supports the first possibility cited above.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讚砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 讙诪专讬谞谉 讜诪讗讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讚讝讜讟专讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛转讞诇转谉 讝讜 讛讬讗 讙诪专 诪诇讗讻转谉 谞转讞讬诇 讘讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara rejects this answer: No; actually this means that even labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival we may also complete, in accordance with the third possibility above. And what is the meaning of the term even? It is that this halakha applies even to these items, a belt and a hairnet, which are small; as it could enter your mind to say: Since they are small and their initiation is their completion, let us even initiate their manufacture on the fourteenth ab initio. Therefore, it teaches us that even with regard to this type of labor, initiating is prohibited. This baraita does not provide an unequivocal resolution to the dilemma.


转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛讬讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚


Come and hear the resolution to the dilemma from another source from another source. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that is for the purpose of the Festival,


讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讬诇爪讜诇 拽讟谉 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讘讻讛 拽讟谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诇讗 讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 谞诪讬 讙诪专讬谞谉 讜讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗


one completes it on the fourteenth. When is that the case? It is when he initiated the labor prior to the fourteenth. However, if he did not initiate the labor prior to the fourteenth, he should not initiate it on the fourteenth, even if it is only manufacturing a small belt or even a small hairnet. The Gemara analyzes this: When it is for the purpose of the Festival, yes, one may complete this labor. However, when it is not for the purpose of the Festival, no, one may not complete it, in accordance with the third possibility above. The Gemara rejects this analysis: Actually, the same is true; we may also complete the task even when it is not for the purpose of the Festival. And this comes to teach us that even when it is for the purpose of the Festival, completing a labor, yes, one may do so, but initiating a labor, no, one may not, in accordance with the third aforementioned possibility.


转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛讬讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜砖讗讬谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗住讜专 讜注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 讗讬谉 诇讗 谞讛讙讜 诇讗 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:


Come and hear yet another resolution to the dilemma. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that is for the purpose of the Festival, one may complete it on the fourteenth, and if it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited to complete it. And one may perform labor on Passover eves until midday in a place where people were accustomed to do so. The Gemara infers: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor, yes, one may do so. However, in a place where people were not accustomed to perform labor, no, one may not do so. And learn from it that for the purpose of the Festival, yes, one may perform labor. However, if it is not for the purpose of the Festival, no, one may not do so, in accordance with the first aforementioned possibility. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is so.


讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讗讜诪谞讬讜转: 转谞讗 讛讞讬讬讟讬谉 砖讻谉 讛讚讬讜讟 转讜驻专 讻讚专讻讜 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讛住驻专讬谉 讜讛讻讜讘住讬谉 砖讻谉 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讜讛讬讜爪讗 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 诪住驻专讬谉 讜诪讻讘住讬谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛专爪注谞讬谉 砖讻谉 注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 诪转拽谞讬谉 诪谞注诇讬讛谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚


It was stated in the mishna that the Rabbis say: The practitioners of only three crafts are permitted to perform labor until midday on Passover eve. It was taught in explanation of their opinion: The tailors may perform labor on Passover eve, as a layperson is permitted to sew in his usual manner during the intermediate days of the Festival. Since this type of labor is permitted during the intermediate days, when the prohibition against labor is more stringent than on Passover eve, one may be lenient on Passover eve as well. Barbers and launderers, may perform labor on Passover eve, as one who arrives from a country overseas or one who leaves prison who did not have time to cut their hair or launder their clothing before the Festival may cut their hair and wash their clothing on the intermediate days of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Shoemakers may also perform their labor, because Festival pilgrims may repair their shoes during the intermediate days of the Festival.


讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诇诪讬讚讬谉 转讞讬诇转 诪诇讗讻讛 诪住讜祝 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讗讬谉 诇诪讬讚讬谉 转讞讬诇转 诪诇讗讻讛 诪住讜祝 诪诇讗讻讛:


The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do the Rabbis and Rabbi Yosei disagree? The Gemara answers: One Sage, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, holds: We learn the halakha with regard to the initiation of labor from the halakha with regard to the conclusion of labor; if it is permitted to repair shoes, it is also permitted to initiate their production. And one Sage, the Rabbis, holds: We cannot learn the halakha with regard to the initiation of labor from the halakha with regard to the conclusion of labor; therefore, although it is permitted to repair shoes, it is prohibited to produce new ones.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 砖讜讘讻讬谉 诇转专谞讙讜诇讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜转专谞讙讜诇转 砖讘专讞讛 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇诪拽讜诪讛 讜讗诐 诪转讛 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 讗讞专转 转讞转讬讛 讙讜专驻讬谉 诪转讞转 专讙诇讬 讘讛诪讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讘诪讜注讚 诪住诇拽讬谉 诇爪讚讚讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讻诇讬诐 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞诐 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚:


MISHNA: This mishna continues the discussion of the halakhot of Passover eve. One may place eggs under hens on the fourteenth of Nisan so that the birds will brood until the eggs hatch. And if a hen fled from brooding, one may restore it to its place. And if a brooding hen died, one may place another in its stead. Similarly, one may sweep dung from beneath the legs of an animal on the fourteenth of Nisan. And during the intermediate days of the Festival one may clear it to the sides. Similarly, one may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there even though they are not for the purpose of the Festival.


讙诪壮 讛砖转讗 讗讜转讜讘讬 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讬讘注讬讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 住讬驻讗 讗转讗谉 诇讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚


GEMARA: Now, the mishna stated that placing a brooding hen to sit on eggs is permitted; is it necessary to mention that restoring a hen to its brooding place is permitted? Abaye said: In the last clause of the mishna we have arrived at the halakhot of the intermediate days of the Festival, when placing a hen to sit on eggs is prohibited, yet one may nevertheless restore a hen that fled, as failure to do so will cause him to incur a loss. On the fourteenth of Nisan, one may even place a hen to brood ab initio.


讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇诪专讚讛 讚讗讻转讬 诇讗 驻专讞 爪讬诪专讗 诪讬谞讛 讜讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 讚驻住讚讗 诇讛 讘讬注讬 诇讙诪专讬 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 诇诪专讚讛 讚驻专讞 诇讛 爪讬诪专讗 诪讬谞讛 讜转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 讚讗讻转讬 诇讗 驻住讬讚讬 讘讬注讬 诇讙诪专讬 诇讗 诪讛讚专讬谞谉 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 诪讛讚专讬谞谉


Rav Huna said: They taught this halakha that one may restore the hen to the eggs only when it is within three days of its rebellion, when the hen fled from its place, as the heat has not yet completely dissipated from the hen, so that restoring the hen to its place to resume its brooding will be effective; furthermore, this halakha applies only if it is also at least three days after the hen began sitting, when failure to restore the hen to sit on the eggs will cause the eggs to be totally ruined, as on the one hand they are no longer edible, and on the other hand the chick in the egg is only partially formed. However, if it is more than three days after its rebellion, when its heat has completely dissipated, or within three days from when it began sitting, when failure to restore the hen to sit on the eggs will not yet cause the eggs to be totally ruined, one may not restore the hen to sit on the eggs. Rabbi Ami said: Even within three days from when it began sitting, one may restore the hen to sit on the eggs.


讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诇讛驻住讚 诪专讜讘讛 讞砖砖讜 诇讛驻住讚 诪讜注讟 诇讗 讞砖砖讜 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讛驻住讚 诪讜注讟 谞诪讬 讞砖砖讜:


The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do Rav Huna and Rabbi Ami disagree? The Gemara explains: One Sage, Rav Huna, holds that with regard to a major loss, the Sages were concerned about the eggs being completely ruined, and therefore one may restore the hen to its place only if it had already sat on the eggs for three or more days. With regard to a minor loss of being forced to sell at a discount the unhatched eggs that were incubated for less than three days, they were not concerned. And one Sage, Rabbi Ami, holds that with regard to a minor loss, they were also concerned, and therefore the Sages permitted one to restore the hen to its place during the intermediate days of the Festival.


讙讜专驻讬谉 诪转讞转: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讝讘诇 砖讘讞爪专 诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇爪讚讚讬谉 砖讘专驻转 讜砖讘讞爪专 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛


It was stated in the mishna: One may sweep the dung from beneath the legs of an animal on the fourteenth of Nisan. The Sages taught in greater detail in the Tosefta: With regard to the dung in a courtyard, one may clear it to the sides, and with regard to the dung that is in the barn and in a courtyard, one may take it out to the garbage dump.


讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 讝讘诇 砖讘讞爪专 诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇爪讚讚讬谉 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 砖讘专驻转 讜砖讘讞爪专 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讻讗谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诐 谞注砖讛 讞爪专 讻专驻转 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛:


The Gemara asks: This matter itself is difficult. On the one hand, you said: With regard to the dung in a courtyard, one may clear it to the sides, from which it may be inferred that one may not take it out to the garbage dump. And then it was taught in the Tosefta: With regard to the dung that is in the barn and in a courtyard, one may take it out to the garbage dump. Abaye said: This is not difficult. Here, where the Sages permitted taking out the dung to the garbage dump, it refers to the fourteenth of Nisan. There, where they permitted only moving it to the sides, it refers to the intermediate days of the Festival. Rava said: Both this case and that case refer to the intermediate days, and this is what it is saying: In an ordinary courtyard one may only move the dung to the sides; however, if the courtyard becomes as filthy as a barn, one may take out the dung to the garbage dump.


诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讻诇讬诐 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉: 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讘讚讬拽 诇谉 专讘讗 转谞谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞谉 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讜讗诐 讞讜砖砖 诇讛谉 砖诪讗 讬讙谞讘讜 诪驻谞谉 诇讞爪专 讗讞专转


It was stated in the mishna: One may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there. Rav Pappa said: Rava tested us. We learned in the mishna: One may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there even if they are not for the purpose of the Festival. He raised a contradiction from that which we learned: One may not bring vessels from a craftsman鈥檚 house, and if he is concerned lest they be stolen, he may move them to another courtyard belonging to the craftsman, but not to his own house.


讜诪砖谞讬谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讻讗谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讗诪讬谞讜 讻讗谉 讘砖讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜


And we answered: This is not difficult. Here, where one may bring vessels from the craftsman鈥檚 house, it is referring to the fourteenth of Nisan. There, where one may not bring them, it is referring to the intermediate days of the Festival. And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to the intermediate days, and nevertheless, this is not difficult. Here, where one may not bring them home, it is referring to a case where he trusts that the craftsman will return the items; there, where it is permitted to take the vessels home, it is referring to a case where he does not trust him.


讜讛转谞讬讗 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讻讙讜谉 讛讻讚 诪讘讬转 讛讻讚专 讜讛讻讜住 诪讘讬转 讛讝讙讙 讗讘诇 诇讗 爪诪专 诪讘讬转 讛爪讘注 讜诇讗 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 诪讛 讬讗讻诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 砖讻专讜 讜诪谞讬讞讜 讗爪诇讜 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞谉 讘讘讬转 讛住诪讜讱 诇讜 讜讗诐 讞讜砖砖 砖诪讗 讬讙谞讘讜 诪讘讬讗谉 讘爪讬谞注讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜


As it was taught in the following baraita: One may bring vessels from the house of a craftsman, such as a jug from the house of a potter, or a cup from the house of a glassmaker, but one may bring neither wool from the house of a dyer nor other vessels from the house of a craftsman that are not for the purpose of the Festival. And if the craftsman has nothing to eat, one gives the craftsman his payment on the intermediate days of the Festival and leaves the item with him. And if he does not trust that the craftsman will deliver the items, he leaves them in the adjacent house. And if he is concerned lest the item be stolen, he may bring them to his house surreptitiously.


转专爪转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 拽砖讬讗 讚拽转谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讞讜讜专转讗 讻讚砖谞讬谞谉 诪注讬拽专讗:


The Gemara asks: You have resolved the issue of bringing items from a craftsman鈥檚 house, but taking items to his house is difficult, as it was taught: One may not bring, and all the more so one may not take items to be repaired. Therefore, the Gemara rejects the second answer and concludes: Rather, it is clear as we answered initially, i.e., the baraita refers to the intermediate days and the mishna refers to Passover eve.


诪转谞讬壮 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖


MISHNA: The mishna continues the discussion of the halakhot of Passover eve, along with other local customs. Six actions were performed by the Jewish residents of Jericho, contrary to common practice. With regard to three, the Sages reprimanded them, and with regard to three, the Sages did not reprimand them. And these are the ones with regard to which they did not reprimand them: The residents of Jericho would graft palm trees the entire day on the fourteenth of Nisan; and they would bundle Shema, as explained in the Gemara; and they would harvest and pile grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are the ones with regard to which the Sages reprimanded them: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob or sycamore trees. This refers to trees whose branches were cut and consecrated for Temple upkeep, which subsequently sprouted new branches;


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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Pesachim 55

转谞讗 拽讜诇讬 拽讜诇讬 拽转谞讬:


The tanna is teaching a series of leniencies. He taught only those aspects in which the Ninth of Av is more lenient than a communal fast. He did not teach those aspects in which it is more stringent. There was no attempt made to enumerate all the differences.


讜讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讻讜壮: 诇诪讬诪专讗 讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 住讘专 诇讗 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讜讛专讗 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讞讬讬砖讬谞谉 诇讬讜讛专讗 讜讛讗 讗讬驻讻讗 砖诪注讬谞谉 诇讛讜 讚转谞谉 讞转谉 讗诐 讬专爪讛 诇拽专讜转 拽专讬转 砖诪注 诇讬诇讛 讛专讗砖讜谉 拽讜专讗 专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗 讻诇 讛专讜爪讛 诇讬讟讜诇 讗转 讛砖诐 讬讟讜诇


It was stated in the mishna: And in all places Torah scholars are idle and do not perform labor on the Ninth of Av, and according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel one should always conduct himself like a Torah scholar in this regard and refrain from performing labor. The Gemara asks: Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that we are not concerned about presumptuousness when a person conducts himself like a Torah scholar? And conversely, do the Rabbis hold that we are concerned about presumptuousness? Didn鈥檛 we hear them say the opposite? As we learned in a mishna: With regard to the recitation of Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, the Rabbis said that if a groom wishes to recite Shema on the first night despite his exemption, he may do so. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Not everyone who wishes to assume the reputation of a God-fearing person may assume it, and consequently not everyone who wishes to recite Shema on his wedding night may do so. Their opinions in that mishna appear contrary to their opinions in the current mishna.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讜讞诇驻转 讛砖讬讟讛 专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 诇讗 转讬驻讜讱 讚专讘谞谉 讗讚专讘谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讻讗 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 注讘讚讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讗讬讛讜 诇讗 注讘讬讚 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 讛转诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 拽专讬 讜讗讬讛讜 谞诪讬 拽专讬 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: The attribution of the opinions is reversed in one of the sources. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Do not reverse either text, as it is possible to resolve the difficulty in another manner. The contradiction between the statement of the Rabbis here and the statement of the Rabbis there is not difficult. Here, on the Ninth of Av, since everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor, his idleness is conspicuous and appears like presumptuousness. However, there, in the case of reciting Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, it does not appear like presumptuousness, as everyone is reciting Shema and he is also reciting it with them.


讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讗讚专讘谉 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛转诐 讛讜讗 讚讘注讬谞谉 讻讜讜谞讛 讜讗谞谉 住讛讚讬 讚诇讗 诪爪讬 讻讜讜谞讬 讚注转讬讛 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 诇讗 诪讬讞讝讬 讻讬讜讛专讗 讗诪专讬 诪诇讗讻讛 讛讬讗 讚诇讬转 诇讬讛 驻讜拽 讞讝讬 讻诪讛 讘讟诇谞讬 讗讬讻讗 讘砖讜拽讗:


Similarly, the contradiction between the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel here and the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel there is not difficult. There, in the case of reciting Shema on one鈥檚 wedding night, it is that we require concentration, and it is clear to all that he is unable to concentrate because of his preoccupation with the mitzva that he must perform. Therefore, if he recites Shema it appears like presumptuousness. It is as though he is announcing: I am able to concentrate although others in my situation are not. However, here, by not performing labor on the Ninth of Av it does not appear like presumptuousness, as people say: It is because he has no labor to perform. Go out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace, even on days when it is permitted to perform labor.


诪转谞讬壮 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讘讙诇讬诇 诇讗 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 讻诇 注讬拽专 讛诇讬诇讛 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜住专讬诐 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇 诪转讬专讬谉 注讚 讛谞抓 讛讞诪讛:


MISHNA: Apropos the discussion of performing labor on Passover eve, differences in other customs were cited. And the Rabbis say: In Judea, people would perform labor on Passover eves until midday, and in the Galilee people would not perform labor on Passover eve at all. With regard to performing labor on the night before Passover eve, the night between the thirteenth and fourteenth of Nisan, Beit Shammai prohibit performing labor, and Beit Hillel permit doing so until sunrise.


讙诪壮 诪注讬拽专讗 转谞讗 诪谞讛讙讗 讜诇讘住讜祝 转谞讗 讗讬住讜专讗


GEMARA: The Gemara asks with regard to the mishna: Initially, at the beginning of the chapter, the tanna taught that in certain places there is merely a custom not to perform labor, and yet ultimately, in this latest mishna, he taught that according to the opinion of Beit Shammai, it is prohibited to perform labor. Apparently, performance of labor is not dependent on custom but is actually prohibited.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讘讙诇讬诇 讗讬谞谉 注讜砖讬谉 讻诇 注讬拽专 讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪讛 专讗讬讬讛 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讙诇讬诇 诇讻讗谉 讗诇讗 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诇注砖讜转 诪诇讗讻讛 注讜砖讬谉 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 砖诇讗 诇注砖讜转 讗讬谉 注讜砖讬谉 诪讚拽讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪谞讛讙讗 诪讻诇诇 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬住讜专讗 拽讗诪专


Rabbi Yo岣nan said: This is not difficult, since that first mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and this current mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said: In Judea they would perform labor on Passover eves until midday, and in the Galilee they would not perform labor at all. Rabbi Meir said to him: What proof do you cite from Judea and the Galilee to the discussion here? Rather, in a place where people were accustomed to perform labor, one performs labor, and in a place where people were accustomed not to perform labor, one does not perform labor. The Gemara analyzes this baraita: From the fact that Rabbi Meir is speaking about custom, by inference, Rabbi Yehuda is speaking about a prohibition against performing labor in the Galilee.


讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 讜讛转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛诪谞讻砖 讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讜谞注拽专讛 讘讬讚讜 砖讜转诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讟讬讟 讜讗讬谉 砖讜转诇讛 讘诪拽讜诐 讛讙专讬讚


The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda hold that performance of labor on the fourteenth is permitted everywhere other than the Galilee? Wasn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to one who is weeding a field on the thirteenth of Nisan and a stalk of grain was uprooted in his hand, he plants it in a muddy place so that it will take root before the omer offering is brought on the sixteenth of Nisan? It will then be permitted to eat the grain after the omer offering is brought. However, one should not plant it in a dry place, as it will not take root there immediately. If it begins to sprout only after the omer offering is brought, that grain will remain prohibited until after the following year鈥檚 omer offering is brought.


讘砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讗讬谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讗 诪讻讚讬 砖诪注讬谞谉 诇讬讛 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 讻诇 讛专讻讘讛 砖讗讬谞讛 拽讜诇讟转 诇砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讜讘 讗讬谞讛 拽讜诇讟转 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诪讜转专 讘注砖讬讬转 诪诇讗讻讛 诇诪讛 诇讬 砖诇砖讛 注砖专 讜讛讗讬讻讗 讗专讘讬住专 讜讞诪讬住专 讜诪拽爪转 砖讬转住专 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讙诇讬诇 砖谞讜


From Rabbi Yehuda鈥檚 statement it can be inferred that if a person was weeding on the thirteenth of Nisan, yes, this is the halakha; however, on the fourteenth of Nisan, no, one may not replant the stalk of grain. Now, we learned that Rabbi Yehuda said: Any graft that does not take hold within three days will no longer take hold. If it could enter your mind that performing labor on the fourteenth is permitted, why do I need this halakha to be taught specifically with regard to the thirteenth? It would have been a greater novelty had he taught the halakha with regard to a case that occurs on the fourteenth. Aren鈥檛 there three days remaining for grain planted on the fourteenth to take root before the omer offering, i.e., the fourteenth of Nisan, the fifteenth of Nisan, and part of the sixteenth of Nisan? Rava said: They taught this halakha of replanting a stalk of wheat with regard to the Galilee; as mentioned in the baraita, Rabbi Yehuda says that in the Galilee they do not perform labor at all.


讜讛讗讬讻讗 诇讬诇讬讗 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讻讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讻讘讬转 讛诇诇 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 讚专讻谉 砖诇 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇谞讻砖 讘诇讬诇讛


The Gemara further asks: Isn鈥檛 there the night between the thirteenth and the fourteenth of Nisan, during which according to the opinion of Beit Hillel, labor is permitted even in the Galilee, which is the halakha? Rabbi Yehuda could have taught the halakha with regard to weeding on the night before the fourteenth. Rav Sheshet said: Rabbi Yehuda said this in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, who prohibit performing labor that night. Rav Ashi said: There is no reason to suggest implausibly that Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai, contrary to the accepted halakha. Actually, Rabbi Yehuda holds in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel. However, he did not teach the case about the night before the fourteenth of Nisan because it is not the typical manner of people to weed at night. It is virtually impossible to identify weeds in the dark.


专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讘讬讛讜讚讛 讜讘讛砖专砖讛 讞讚 诪拽爪转 讛讬讜诐 讻讻讜诇讜 讗诪专讬谞谉 转专讬 诪拽爪转 讛讬讜诐 讻讻讜诇讜 诇讗 讗诪专讬谞谉:


Ravina said: Actually, it can be explained that Rabbi Yehuda is referring to Judea. With regard to a plant taking root, we state only once the principle: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day, but we do not state twice the principle: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day. When discussing a plant that was replanted on the fourteenth, in the tally of three days, the legal status of part of both the fourteenth and the sixteenth cannot be like that of entire days. A plant takes root after a fixed amount of time, and this is not affected by formalistic halakhic principles like: The legal status of part of the day is like that of the entire day.


诪转谞讬壮 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 诇讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讘诇 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘讛 讘转讞诇讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讬讻讜诇 诇讙讜诪专讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讗讜诪谞讬讜转 注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 讛讞讬讬讟讬谉 讜讛住驻专讬诐 讜讛讻讜讘住讬谉 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 专爪注谞讬谉:


MISHNA: Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that one began before the fourteenth of Nisan, he may complete it on the fourteenth before midday. However, one may not begin to perform that labor from the outset on the fourteenth, even if he is able to complete it before midday. And the Rabbis say: The practitioners of only three crafts are permitted to perform labor until midday on Passover eve, and they are: Tailors, barbers, and launderers, whose work is needed for the Festival. Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Even shoemakers are permitted to work on the fourteenth.


讙诪壮 讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 转谞谉 讗讘诇 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗驻讬诇讜 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 诇讗 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 转谞谉 讗讘诇 诇爪讜专讱 讗转讞讜诇讬 诪转讞诇讬谞谉 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘讬谉 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讘讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗


GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Was it with regard to labor for the purpose of the Festival that we learned in the mishna that Rabbi Meir permits completing labor on the fourteenth, but labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival may not even be completed? Or perhaps it was with regard to labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival that we learned that Rabbi Meir permits completing labor on the fourteenth, but with regard to labor that is for the purpose of the Festival, we may even initiate it. Or perhaps, with regard to both labor that is for the purpose of the Festival and labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival, completing, yes, it is permitted, but initiating, no, it is prohibited.


转讗 砖诪注 讗讘诇 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘转讞讬诇讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪诇爪讜诇 拽讟谉 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讘讻讛 拽讟谞讛 诪讗讬 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讛谞讬 讚诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗 诪讻诇诇 讚砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 诇讗 讙诪专讬谞谉


Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from that which we learned: However, one may not begin work from the outset on the fourteenth, even if it is a small belt, or even a small hairnet. What is the meaning of the term even in this context? Isn鈥檛 it that even with regard to those items that are for the purpose of the Festival, completing, yes, it is permitted, but initiating, no, it is prohibited? And by inference, with regard to labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival, we may not even complete labor that was begun previously. This supports the first possibility cited above.


诇讗 诇注讜诇诐 讚砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 诪讬讙诪专 谞诪讬 讙诪专讬谞谉 讜诪讗讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讗驻讬诇讜 讛谞讬 谞诪讬 讚讝讜讟专讬 谞讬谞讛讜 讚住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讗诪讬谞讗 讛转讞诇转谉 讝讜 讛讬讗 讙诪专 诪诇讗讻转谉 谞转讞讬诇 讘讛讜 谞诪讬 诇讻转讞讬诇讛 拽诪砖诪注 诇谉:


The Gemara rejects this answer: No; actually this means that even labor that is not for the purpose of the Festival we may also complete, in accordance with the third possibility above. And what is the meaning of the term even? It is that this halakha applies even to these items, a belt and a hairnet, which are small; as it could enter your mind to say: Since they are small and their initiation is their completion, let us even initiate their manufacture on the fourteenth ab initio. Therefore, it teaches us that even with regard to this type of labor, initiating is prohibited. This baraita does not provide an unequivocal resolution to the dilemma.


转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛讬讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚


Come and hear the resolution to the dilemma from another source from another source. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that is for the purpose of the Festival,


讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讬诪转讬 讘讝诪谉 砖讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗讘诇 诇讗 讛转讞讬诇 讘讛 拽讜讚诐 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 诇讗 讬转讞讬诇 讘讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讬诇爪讜诇 拽讟谉 讗驻讬诇讜 砖讘讻讛 拽讟谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诇讗 讛讜讗 讛讚讬谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 谞诪讬 讙诪专讬谞谉 讜讛讗 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚讗驻讬诇讜 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诪讬讙诪专 讗讬谉 讗转讞讜诇讬 诇讗


one completes it on the fourteenth. When is that the case? It is when he initiated the labor prior to the fourteenth. However, if he did not initiate the labor prior to the fourteenth, he should not initiate it on the fourteenth, even if it is only manufacturing a small belt or even a small hairnet. The Gemara analyzes this: When it is for the purpose of the Festival, yes, one may complete this labor. However, when it is not for the purpose of the Festival, no, one may not complete it, in accordance with the third possibility above. The Gemara rejects this analysis: Actually, the same is true; we may also complete the task even when it is not for the purpose of the Festival. And this comes to teach us that even when it is for the purpose of the Festival, completing a labor, yes, one may do so, but initiating a labor, no, one may not, in accordance with the third aforementioned possibility.


转讗 砖诪注 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讻诇 诪诇讗讻讛 砖讛讬讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讙讜诪专讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜砖讗讬谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗住讜专 讜注讜砖讬谉 诪诇讗讻讛 讘注专讘讬 驻住讞讬诐 注讚 讞爪讜转 讘诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 诪拽讜诐 砖谞讛讙讜 讗讬谉 诇讗 谞讛讙讜 诇讗 讜砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讗讬谉 砖诇讗 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 诇讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛:


Come and hear yet another resolution to the dilemma. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to any labor that is for the purpose of the Festival, one may complete it on the fourteenth, and if it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited to complete it. And one may perform labor on Passover eves until midday in a place where people were accustomed to do so. The Gemara infers: In a place where people were accustomed to perform labor, yes, one may do so. However, in a place where people were not accustomed to perform labor, no, one may not do so. And learn from it that for the purpose of the Festival, yes, one may perform labor. However, if it is not for the purpose of the Festival, no, one may not do so, in accordance with the first aforementioned possibility. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from it that this is so.


讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讗讜诪谞讬讜转: 转谞讗 讛讞讬讬讟讬谉 砖讻谉 讛讚讬讜讟 转讜驻专 讻讚专讻讜 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讛住驻专讬谉 讜讛讻讜讘住讬谉 砖讻谉 讛讘讗 诪诪讚讬谞转 讛讬诐 讜讛讬讜爪讗 诪讘讬转 讛讗住讜专讬谉 诪住驻专讬谉 讜诪讻讘住讬谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗祝 讛专爪注谞讬谉 砖讻谉 注讜诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 诪转拽谞讬谉 诪谞注诇讬讛谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚


It was stated in the mishna that the Rabbis say: The practitioners of only three crafts are permitted to perform labor until midday on Passover eve. It was taught in explanation of their opinion: The tailors may perform labor on Passover eve, as a layperson is permitted to sew in his usual manner during the intermediate days of the Festival. Since this type of labor is permitted during the intermediate days, when the prohibition against labor is more stringent than on Passover eve, one may be lenient on Passover eve as well. Barbers and launderers, may perform labor on Passover eve, as one who arrives from a country overseas or one who leaves prison who did not have time to cut their hair or launder their clothing before the Festival may cut their hair and wash their clothing on the intermediate days of the Festival. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Shoemakers may also perform their labor, because Festival pilgrims may repair their shoes during the intermediate days of the Festival.


讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诇诪讬讚讬谉 转讞讬诇转 诪诇讗讻讛 诪住讜祝 诪诇讗讻讛 讜诪专 住讘专 讗讬谉 诇诪讬讚讬谉 转讞讬诇转 诪诇讗讻讛 诪住讜祝 诪诇讗讻讛:


The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do the Rabbis and Rabbi Yosei disagree? The Gemara answers: One Sage, Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, holds: We learn the halakha with regard to the initiation of labor from the halakha with regard to the conclusion of labor; if it is permitted to repair shoes, it is also permitted to initiate their production. And one Sage, the Rabbis, holds: We cannot learn the halakha with regard to the initiation of labor from the halakha with regard to the conclusion of labor; therefore, although it is permitted to repair shoes, it is prohibited to produce new ones.


诪转谞讬壮 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 砖讜讘讻讬谉 诇转专谞讙讜诇讬诐 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜转专谞讙讜诇转 砖讘专讞讛 诪讞讝讬专讬谉 讗讜转讛 诇诪拽讜诪讛 讜讗诐 诪转讛 诪讜砖讬讘讬谉 讗讞专转 转讞转讬讛 讙讜专驻讬谉 诪转讞转 专讙诇讬 讘讛诪讛 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讜讘诪讜注讚 诪住诇拽讬谉 诇爪讚讚讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讻诇讬诐 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞诐 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚:


MISHNA: This mishna continues the discussion of the halakhot of Passover eve. One may place eggs under hens on the fourteenth of Nisan so that the birds will brood until the eggs hatch. And if a hen fled from brooding, one may restore it to its place. And if a brooding hen died, one may place another in its stead. Similarly, one may sweep dung from beneath the legs of an animal on the fourteenth of Nisan. And during the intermediate days of the Festival one may clear it to the sides. Similarly, one may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there even though they are not for the purpose of the Festival.


讙诪壮 讛砖转讗 讗讜转讜讘讬 诪讜转讘讬谞谉 讗讛讚讜专讬 诪讬讘注讬讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 住讬驻讗 讗转讗谉 诇讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚


GEMARA: Now, the mishna stated that placing a brooding hen to sit on eggs is permitted; is it necessary to mention that restoring a hen to its brooding place is permitted? Abaye said: In the last clause of the mishna we have arrived at the halakhot of the intermediate days of the Festival, when placing a hen to sit on eggs is prohibited, yet one may nevertheless restore a hen that fled, as failure to do so will cause him to incur a loss. On the fourteenth of Nisan, one may even place a hen to brood ab initio.


讗诪专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇诪专讚讛 讚讗讻转讬 诇讗 驻专讞 爪讬诪专讗 诪讬谞讛 讜讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 讚驻住讚讗 诇讛 讘讬注讬 诇讙诪专讬 讗讘诇 诇讗讞专 砖诇砖讛 诇诪专讚讛 讚驻专讞 诇讛 爪讬诪专讗 诪讬谞讛 讜转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 讚讗讻转讬 诇讗 驻住讬讚讬 讘讬注讬 诇讙诪专讬 诇讗 诪讛讚专讬谞谉 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讜讱 砖诇砖讛 诇讬砖讬讘转讛 诪讛讚专讬谞谉


Rav Huna said: They taught this halakha that one may restore the hen to the eggs only when it is within three days of its rebellion, when the hen fled from its place, as the heat has not yet completely dissipated from the hen, so that restoring the hen to its place to resume its brooding will be effective; furthermore, this halakha applies only if it is also at least three days after the hen began sitting, when failure to restore the hen to sit on the eggs will cause the eggs to be totally ruined, as on the one hand they are no longer edible, and on the other hand the chick in the egg is only partially formed. However, if it is more than three days after its rebellion, when its heat has completely dissipated, or within three days from when it began sitting, when failure to restore the hen to sit on the eggs will not yet cause the eggs to be totally ruined, one may not restore the hen to sit on the eggs. Rabbi Ami said: Even within three days from when it began sitting, one may restore the hen to sit on the eggs.


讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诇讛驻住讚 诪专讜讘讛 讞砖砖讜 诇讛驻住讚 诪讜注讟 诇讗 讞砖砖讜 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讛驻住讚 诪讜注讟 谞诪讬 讞砖砖讜:


The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do Rav Huna and Rabbi Ami disagree? The Gemara explains: One Sage, Rav Huna, holds that with regard to a major loss, the Sages were concerned about the eggs being completely ruined, and therefore one may restore the hen to its place only if it had already sat on the eggs for three or more days. With regard to a minor loss of being forced to sell at a discount the unhatched eggs that were incubated for less than three days, they were not concerned. And one Sage, Rabbi Ami, holds that with regard to a minor loss, they were also concerned, and therefore the Sages permitted one to restore the hen to its place during the intermediate days of the Festival.


讙讜专驻讬谉 诪转讞转: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛讝讘诇 砖讘讞爪专 诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇爪讚讚讬谉 砖讘专驻转 讜砖讘讞爪专 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛


It was stated in the mishna: One may sweep the dung from beneath the legs of an animal on the fourteenth of Nisan. The Sages taught in greater detail in the Tosefta: With regard to the dung in a courtyard, one may clear it to the sides, and with regard to the dung that is in the barn and in a courtyard, one may take it out to the garbage dump.


讛讗 讙讜驻讗 拽砖讬讗 讗诪专转 讝讘诇 砖讘讞爪专 诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇爪讚讚讬谉 讜讛讚专 转谞讬 砖讘专驻转 讜砖讘讞爪专 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讻讗谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 专讘讗 讗诪专 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讗诐 谞注砖讛 讞爪专 讻专驻转 诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗砖驻讛:


The Gemara asks: This matter itself is difficult. On the one hand, you said: With regard to the dung in a courtyard, one may clear it to the sides, from which it may be inferred that one may not take it out to the garbage dump. And then it was taught in the Tosefta: With regard to the dung that is in the barn and in a courtyard, one may take it out to the garbage dump. Abaye said: This is not difficult. Here, where the Sages permitted taking out the dung to the garbage dump, it refers to the fourteenth of Nisan. There, where they permitted only moving it to the sides, it refers to the intermediate days of the Festival. Rava said: Both this case and that case refer to the intermediate days, and this is what it is saying: In an ordinary courtyard one may only move the dung to the sides; however, if the courtyard becomes as filthy as a barn, one may take out the dung to the garbage dump.


诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讻诇讬诐 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉: 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讘讚讬拽 诇谉 专讘讗 转谞谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讜诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞谉 诇爪讜专讱 讛诪讜注讚 讜专诪讬谞讛讜 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讜讗诐 讞讜砖砖 诇讛谉 砖诪讗 讬讙谞讘讜 诪驻谞谉 诇讞爪专 讗讞专转


It was stated in the mishna: One may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there. Rav Pappa said: Rava tested us. We learned in the mishna: One may take vessels to the craftsman鈥檚 house for repair and bring others from there even if they are not for the purpose of the Festival. He raised a contradiction from that which we learned: One may not bring vessels from a craftsman鈥檚 house, and if he is concerned lest they be stolen, he may move them to another courtyard belonging to the craftsman, but not to his own house.


讜诪砖谞讬谞谉 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讻讗谉 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘讞讜诇讜 砖诇 诪讜注讚 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讗诪讬谞讜 讻讗谉 讘砖讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜


And we answered: This is not difficult. Here, where one may bring vessels from the craftsman鈥檚 house, it is referring to the fourteenth of Nisan. There, where one may not bring them, it is referring to the intermediate days of the Festival. And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to the intermediate days, and nevertheless, this is not difficult. Here, where one may not bring them home, it is referring to a case where he trusts that the craftsman will return the items; there, where it is permitted to take the vessels home, it is referring to a case where he does not trust him.


讜讛转谞讬讗 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讻讙讜谉 讛讻讚 诪讘讬转 讛讻讚专 讜讛讻讜住 诪讘讬转 讛讝讙讙 讗讘诇 诇讗 爪诪专 诪讘讬转 讛爪讘注 讜诇讗 讻诇讬诐 诪讘讬转 讛讗讜诪谉 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 诪讛 讬讗讻诇 谞讜转谉 诇讜 砖讻专讜 讜诪谞讬讞讜 讗爪诇讜 讜讗诐 讗讬谞讜 诪讗诪讬谞讜 诪谞讬讞谉 讘讘讬转 讛住诪讜讱 诇讜 讜讗诐 讞讜砖砖 砖诪讗 讬讙谞讘讜 诪讘讬讗谉 讘爪讬谞注讛 讘转讜讱 讘讬转讜


As it was taught in the following baraita: One may bring vessels from the house of a craftsman, such as a jug from the house of a potter, or a cup from the house of a glassmaker, but one may bring neither wool from the house of a dyer nor other vessels from the house of a craftsman that are not for the purpose of the Festival. And if the craftsman has nothing to eat, one gives the craftsman his payment on the intermediate days of the Festival and leaves the item with him. And if he does not trust that the craftsman will deliver the items, he leaves them in the adjacent house. And if he is concerned lest the item be stolen, he may bring them to his house surreptitiously.


转专爪转 诪讘讬讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 拽砖讬讗 讚拽转谞讬 讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 讜讻诇 砖讻谉 讚讗讬谉 诪讜诇讬讻讬谉 讗诇讗 诪讞讜讜专转讗 讻讚砖谞讬谞谉 诪注讬拽专讗:


The Gemara asks: You have resolved the issue of bringing items from a craftsman鈥檚 house, but taking items to his house is difficult, as it was taught: One may not bring, and all the more so one may not take items to be repaired. Therefore, the Gemara rejects the second answer and concludes: Rather, it is clear as we answered initially, i.e., the baraita refers to the intermediate days and the mishna refers to Passover eve.


诪转谞讬壮 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖


MISHNA: The mishna continues the discussion of the halakhot of Passover eve, along with other local customs. Six actions were performed by the Jewish residents of Jericho, contrary to common practice. With regard to three, the Sages reprimanded them, and with regard to three, the Sages did not reprimand them. And these are the ones with regard to which they did not reprimand them: The residents of Jericho would graft palm trees the entire day on the fourteenth of Nisan; and they would bundle Shema, as explained in the Gemara; and they would harvest and pile grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are the ones with regard to which the Sages reprimanded them: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob or sycamore trees. This refers to trees whose branches were cut and consecrated for Temple upkeep, which subsequently sprouted new branches;


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