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January 16, 2021 | 讙壮 讘砖讘讟 转砖驻状讗

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 56

The people in Jericho did six things – three of them the rabbis did not protest against and three of them they did protest. What did they do and what was the issue with what they did? Also the king Chizkiyahu did six things – three was approved by the rabbis and three were not. There are different traditions about what were the six things that the people of Jericho did. There is also disagreement about the cases that the rabbis did not protest, was it because they approved or did they not approve but also did not make an issue out of those things? The gemara goes through each act that they did and explains why they did it and why did the rabbis react?

讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪转讞转 讛谞砖专讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讗讛 诇讬专拽 讜诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐:


and they would eat fallen fruit from beneath palm trees that shed fruit that had fallen on Shabbat; and they would designate the produce in the corner for the poor in a field of vegetables, which is exempt from this obligation even by rabbinic law. And the Sages reprimanded the people of Jericho for doing these three things.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讛 讞讝拽讬讛 讛诪诇讱 注诇 砖诇砖讛 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讙讬专专 注爪诪讜转 讗讘讬讜 注诇 诪讟讛 砖诇 讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讻讬转转 谞讞砖 讛谞讞砖转 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讙谞讝 住驻专 专驻讜讗讜转 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜


GEMARA: Apropos the people of Jericho, who were reprimanded for some of their actions and not reprimanded for others, the Gemara cites a similar baraita. The Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed six actions. With regard to three of them, the Sages of his generation conceded to him; and with regard to three of them, the Sages did not concede to him. Due to King Hezekiah鈥檚 father鈥檚 wickedness, he dragged the bones of his father Ahaz on a bier of ropes and did not afford him the respect due to a king, and the Sages conceded to him. He ground the copper snake that Moses fashioned in the desert because Israel worshipped it, and the Sages conceded to him. He suppressed the Book of Cures, and they conceded to him.


讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 拽讬爪抓 讚诇转讜转 砖诇 讛讬讻诇 讜砖讬讙专谉 诇诪诇讱 讗砖讜专 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 住转诐 诪讬 讙讬讞讜谉 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 注讬讘专 谞讬住谉 讘谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜:


And with regard to three actions, the Sages did not concede to him. He cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the King of Assyria, and they did not concede to him because he thereby demeaned the Temple. He sealed the waters of the upper Gihon stream, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel, and they did not concede to him, because he harmed the local populace in the process and should have relied upon God (Me鈥檌ri). He intercalated the year, delaying the advent of the month of Nisan during Nisan, and they did not concede to him. The Gemara explains that he declared the first of Nisan to be the thirtieth of Adar and only then intercalated the year (see II Chronicles 30:2).


诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讬讬转讬 讗住讗 讚专讗 讜砖讬讻专讗 讚讚驻谞讗 讜拽讬诪讞讗 讚砖注专讬 讚专诪讬 讘诪谞讗 讚诇讗 讞诇驻讬 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜诪专转讞讬 诇讛讜 讜砖讚讜 诇讛讜 诇讚讬拽诇讗 讘诇讬讘讬讛 讜讻诇 讚拽讗讬 讘讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讚讬讚讬讛 讗讬 诇讗 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 爪讗讜讬 诇讗诇转专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诪谞讞讬 讻讜驻专讗 讚讬讻专讗 诇谞讜拽讘转讗:


We learned in the mishna: They would graft palm trees the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan. The Gemara asks: How did they perform this grafting? Rabbi Yehuda said: They brought fresh myrtle, strong beer made from the fruit of the laurel tree, and barley flour that was cast into a vessel, and forty days has not passed since it was ground. They boiled them together and poured the mixture into the core of the palm tree. And for any tree standing within four cubits of that tree, if they did not perform this treatment with it, it would immediately wither because the tree that received the treatment would grow faster at the expense of the surrounding trees. Rav A岣, son of Rava, said: They placed a branch of a male palm tree on the female, and by doing so the female tree would yield fruit.


讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注: 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讚诪砖诪注 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜诇讗 诪讞专 注诇 诇讘讘讱: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚 诪诇讻讜转讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚


We learned in the mishna that the residents of Jericho would bundle Shema. The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they bundled Shema? How did they do so? Rabbi Yehuda said that they recited: 鈥淗ear Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), and they would not pause between words. Rava said: They would pause between words, but instead of reciting this verse in the proper manner: 鈥淭hat which I command you today, shall be on your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:5), pausing after the word today; they would say: Today shall be on your heart, inferring: Today it will be on your heart, and tomorrow it will not be on your heart. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: How would they bundle Shema? They recited: 鈥淗ear Israel, the Lord is our God the Lord is One,鈥 without pausing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: They paused, but they would not recite: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever.


讜讗谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讻讚讚专讬砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖


The Gemara asks: What is the reason that we recite that passage: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, even though it does not appear in the Torah? The Gemara answers: We recite it in accordance with that which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish interpreted homiletically.


讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讜讬拽专讗 讬注拽讘 讗诇 讘谞讬讜 讜讬讗诪专 讛讗住驻讜 讜讗讙讬讚讛 诇讻诐 讘讬拽砖 讬注拽讘 诇讙诇讜转 诇讘谞讬讜 拽抓 讛讬诪讬谉 讜谞住转诇拽讛 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诪专 砖诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讬砖 讘诪讟转讬 驻住讜诇 讻讗讘专讛诐 砖讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 注砖讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 讻砖诐 砖讗讬谉 讘诇讘讱 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讻讱 讗讬谉 讘诇讘谞讜 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 驻转讞 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讜讗诪专 讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚 诪诇讻讜转讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚


As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said that it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob called his sons and said, Gather around and I will tell you what will occur to you in the end of days鈥 (Genesis 49:1). Jacob wanted to reveal to his sons when the complete redemption would arrive at the end of days (see Daniel 12:13), but the Divine Presence abandoned him, rendering him unable to prophesy. He said: Perhaps the Divine Presence has abandoned me because, Heaven forfend, one of my descendants is unfit, as was the case with my grandfather Abraham, from whom Ishmael emerged, and like my father Isaac, from whom Esau emerged. His sons said to him: Hear Israel, our father, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One. They said: Just as there is only one God in your heart, so too, there is only one in our hearts. At that moment Jacob our father said in praise: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, as all his children were righteous.


讗诪专讬 专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞讗诪专讜讛讜 诇讗 讗诪专讜 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专讜讛讜 讗诪专讜 讬注拽讘 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 讘讞砖讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪砖诇 诇讘转 诪诇讱 砖讛专讬讞讛 爪讬拽讬 拽讚讬专讛 讗诐 转讗诪专 讬砖 诇讛 讙谞讗讬 诇讗 转讗诪专 讬砖 诇讛 爪注专 讛转讞讬诇讜 注讘讚讬讛 诇讛讘讬讗 讘讞砖讗讬


The Rabbis said: What should we do? Shall we recite this verse? But Moses our teacher did not say it in the Torah as part of Shema. Shall we not recite it? But Jacob said it. In order to resolve this dilemma they established that this passage should be recited surreptitiously. Rabbi Yitz岣k said that the school of Rabbi Ami said: This is analogous to the daughter of a king who smelled the fragrance of the dried spices stuck to the bottom of the pot and craved to eat them. What can she do? If she tells her servants to give it to her, she will be disgraced, as the dried spices are a contemptible food. However, if she does not say she wants to eat them, she will endure suffering. Her servants began to bring them to her surreptitiously. One should conduct himself in that manner in similar cases of uncertainty.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 诪驻谞讬 转专注讜诪转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讜讘谞讛专讚注讗 讚诇讬讻讗 诪讬谞讬谉 注讚 讛砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讞砖讗讬:


Rabbi Abbahu said: The Sages instituted that the people should recite it aloud due to the grievance of the heretics. It was instituted to prevent the heretics from claiming that the Jews are surreptitiously reciting inappropriate statements. The Gemara adds: In Neharde鈥檃, where there are no heretics, they recite it surreptitiously even now.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 砖诇砖讛 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转 讘讙谞讜转讬讛谉 讜讘驻专讚住讜转讬讛谉 诇讛讗讻讬诇 谞砖专 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讘砖讘转讜转 讜讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讜诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专


The Sages taught a related matter in the Tosefta: The people of Jericho performed six actions, three in keeping with the will of the Sages and three against the will of the Sages. And these are what they did in keeping with the will of the Sages: They would graft palm trees the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan; and they would bundle Shema; and they would harvest grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are what they did against the will of the Sages: They would pile the harvest before the omer; and they would make breaches in the walls of their gardens and their orchards to feed fallen fruit to the poor during drought years, so that the poor could take the fruit that had fallen on Shabbat and Festivals; and they would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.


讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诐 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 讬讛讜 讻诇 讗讚诐 注讜砖讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐


Rabbi Yehuda said to him: It is inaccurate to formulate it in that manner, as if they acted in keeping with the will of the Sages, all people would do so, not only the residents of Jericho. Rather, formulate it in this manner: Both these three acts and those three were performed against the will of the Sages. With regard to three the Sages reprimanded them; and with regard to three the Sages did not reprimand them. Since one could contend that the latter are permitted and the people of Jericho had already performed them, the Sages chose not to reprimand them.


讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转 讘讙谞讜转讬讛谉 讜驻专讚住讬讛谉 诇讛讗讻讬诇 谞砖专 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘转讜转 讜讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇讬专拽 讜诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐


And these are what they did for which the Sages did not reprimand them: They would graft palm trees the entire day; and they would bundle Shema; and they would harvest and pile grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are what they did for which the Sages reprimanded them: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees; they would make breaches in the walls of their gardens and orchards on Shabbat and Festivals, in order to feed the poor fallen fruit during drought years; and they would designate for the poor the produce in the corner in a field of vegetables. And the Sages reprimanded them for those actions.


讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽爪讬专讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讜讛转谞谉 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 拽讜爪专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐


The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda maintain that this harvest performed by the residents of Jericho was against the will of the Sages? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: The people of Jericho would harvest before the omer, in keeping with the will of the Sages, and they would pile the grain before the omer, against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not reprimand them?


诪讗谉 砖诪注转 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 诪讬讞讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜拽转谞讬 拽讜爪专讬谉 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讬讟注诪讬讱 讛谞讬 讗专讘注讛 讛讜讛 讗诇讗 住诪讬 诪讬讻谉 拽爪讬专讛:


Whom did you hear that said: Reprimanded and did not reprimand? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as Rabbi Meir uses the terminology: In keeping with the will and against the will. And yet, Rabbi Yehuda is teaching in the baraita that they would harvest in keeping with the will of the Sages. The Gemara answers with a question: And according to your reasoning, these three activities listed in the mishna, for which the Sages did not reprimand them, are actually four: Grafting palms, bundling Shema, harvesting, and piling. They are not three activities, as stated. Rather, delete harvest from the mishna here. Harvesting should not be listed with the activities for which the Sages did not reprimand them.


讜诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讗诪专讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 诇讗 讛拽讚讬砖讜 讗诇讗 拽讜专讜转 讜讗谞讜 谞转讬专 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讜讘讙讬讚讜诇讬谉 讛讘讗讬谉 诇讗讞专 诪讻讗谉 注住拽讬谞谉 讜住讘专讬 诇讛 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪注讬诇讛 讘讙讬讚讜诇讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 谞讛讬 讚诪注讬诇讛 诇讬讻讗 讗讬住讜专讗 诪讬讛讗 讗讬讻讗:


It was taught in the baraita: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains the reason: They said: Our fathers consecrated only the tree trunks, and therefore we can permit the consecrated branches that have grown from the branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains that we are dealing with the growth that came afterward, and they hold in accordance with the one who said: There is no misuse of consecrated property with regard to subsequent growth. And the Rabbis hold: Although there is no misuse of consecrated property, in any case, there is a prohibition.


讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转: 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖诇 诪讻讘讚讜转 讚专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖 讜讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 住讘专讬 诇讗 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖 讗讘诇 讘砖诇 讘讬谉 讛讻讬驻讬谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 诪讜转专


It was taught in the baraita that the residents of Jericho created breaches so that during years of famine the poor could take fruit that fell on Shabbat and Festivals. Ulla said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute between the residents of Jericho and the Sages is with regard to dates no longer attached to the tree that fell onto the upper palm branches [makhebedot]. The Sages hold: We issue a decree to prohibit taking these dates, lest one climb the tree and pick dates still attached to the tree. And the people of Jericho hold: We do not issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates. However, with regard to dates that fell onto lower palm branches [keifin], everyone agrees that taking fruit from these branches is permitted.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讜讛讗 诪讜拽爪讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讚讞讝讬 诇注讜专讘讬谉 讛砖转讗 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讻诇讘讬诐 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讛讬转讛 谞讘讬诇讛 诪注专讘 砖讘转 讗住讜专讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谞讛 诪谉 讛诪讜讻谉 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐


Rava said to Ulla: But aren鈥檛 they set-aside, as they are not prepared as food before Shabbat, since they fell from the tree on Shabbat itself? Any item prohibited during twilight on Shabbat eve remains prohibited throughout day, even if circumstances change. And if you say: These dates are not set-aside, since they are fit for consumption by domestic ravens, which can fly and gather the dates still attached to the tree, now, an item that is prepared for use for a person is not considered prepared for use for dogs, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: If the animal was alive and not a carcass on Shabbat eve, it may not be fed to dogs on Shabbat because it was not expressly prepared for that purpose. Is food prepared for ravens considered prepared for a person? While it was alive, the animal was prepared for human consumption during twilight; nevertheless, it is prohibited to feed its carcass to the dogs.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讻诇讘讬诐 讚讻诇 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讝讬 诇讗讬谞讬砖 诇讗 诪拽爪讛 诇讬讛 诪讚注转讬讛 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讻诇 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讝讬 诇讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 注诇讜讬讛


Ulla said to Rava: Yes, an item that is prepared for consumption for a person is not prepared for dogs, as any item that is fit for a person, one does not remove it from his thoughts; it remains exclusively for the use of a person. However, an item that is prepared for ravens is also prepared for the use of a person. Any item that is fit for the use of a person, his thoughts are upon it. Although initially it is available only to ravens, a person is prepared to eat any food that becomes available to him. That is Ulla鈥檚 version of the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish.


讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖诇 讘讬谉 讻讬驻讬谉 讚专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 住讘专讬 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讗讘诇 讘砖诇 诪讻讘讚讜转 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讗住讜专 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖:


When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said a different version of that which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute is with regard to dates that fell onto the lower palm branches, as the Sages hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is not prepared for a person. And the people of Jericho hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is prepared for a person. However, with regard to the dates on upper branches, everyone agrees that they are prohibited, as we issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates.


讜谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇讬专拽: 讜诇讬转 诇讛讜 诇讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 讛讗 讚转谞谉 讻诇诇 讗诪专讜 讘驻讬讗讛 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 讜谞砖诪专 讜讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讜诇拽讬讟转讜 讻讗讞转 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 讞讬讬讘 讘驻讬讗讛


We learned in the mishna: And the residents of Jericho would designate for the poor the produce in the corner [pe鈥檃] in a field of vegetables. The Gemara asks: And aren鈥檛 the people of Jericho of the opinion of that which we learned in a mishna: A principle was stated with regard to the produce of the corner of the field: Anything that is food, and is protected, and grows from the ground, and is gathered as one, and one brings it in to store for preservation is obligated in the halakhot of the produce in the corner of the field?


讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 驻专讟 诇住驻讬讞讬 住讟讬住 讜拽讜爪讛 讜谞砖诪专 驻专讟 诇讛驻拽专 讜讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 驻专讟 诇讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜诇拽讬讟转谉 讻讗讞转 驻专讟 诇转讗谞讬诐 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 驻专讟 诇讬专拽


The Gemara elaborates on each criterion in the mishna. Anything that is food; this comes to exclude the after-growths of woad and safflower. These plants are used as dyes and not for food. Therefore, one need not designate the produce in the corners from them. And is protected; this comes to exclude ownerless crops. And grows from the ground; this comes to exclude truffles and mushrooms, which, unlike other plants, do not draw sustenance from the ground. And is gathered as one; this comes to exclude the fig tree, whose fruit is gathered throughout an extended period, as the figs do not ripen together. And one brings it in to storage for preservation; this comes to exclude vegetables, which cannot be stored for lengthy periods.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讻讗 讘专讗砖讬 诇驻转讜转 注住拽讬谞谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 注诇 讬讚讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 注诇 讬讚讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 砖诪讬讛 拽讬讜诐 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 拽讬讜诐:


Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Here we are dealing with turnip heads, which can be stored for an extended period of time, and they disagree with regard to bringing it in to storage for preservation by means of another substance. Turnips are not stored alone. In order to store them, one preserves them in vinegar or a similar substance (Rabbeinu 岣nanel). One Sage, the residents of Jericho, holds: Storage by means of another substance such as vinegar is considered storage. And one Sage, i.e., the Sages, holds: It is not considered storage, and therefore one need not designate produce from the corner of the field from turnips.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇诇驻转 讜诇讻专讜讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇拽驻诇讜讟 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讛讬讜 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇诇驻转 讜诇拽驻诇讜讟 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇讻专讜讘


The Sages taught: Initially, they would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and cabbages. Rabbi Yosei says: They would do so even from leeks [kaflot]. And it was taught in another baraita: They would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and leeks. Rabbi Shimon says: They would do so even from cabbages.


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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Pesachim 56

讜讗讜讻诇讬谉 诪转讞转 讛谞砖专讬诐 讘砖讘转 讜谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讗讛 诇讬专拽 讜诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐:


and they would eat fallen fruit from beneath palm trees that shed fruit that had fallen on Shabbat; and they would designate the produce in the corner for the poor in a field of vegetables, which is exempt from this obligation even by rabbinic law. And the Sages reprimanded the people of Jericho for doing these three things.


讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讛 讞讝拽讬讛 讛诪诇讱 注诇 砖诇砖讛 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讙讬专专 注爪诪讜转 讗讘讬讜 注诇 诪讟讛 砖诇 讞讘诇讬诐 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讻讬转转 谞讞砖 讛谞讞砖转 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜 讙谞讝 住驻专 专驻讜讗讜转 讜讛讜讚讜 诇讜


GEMARA: Apropos the people of Jericho, who were reprimanded for some of their actions and not reprimanded for others, the Gemara cites a similar baraita. The Sages taught: King Hezekiah performed six actions. With regard to three of them, the Sages of his generation conceded to him; and with regard to three of them, the Sages did not concede to him. Due to King Hezekiah鈥檚 father鈥檚 wickedness, he dragged the bones of his father Ahaz on a bier of ropes and did not afford him the respect due to a king, and the Sages conceded to him. He ground the copper snake that Moses fashioned in the desert because Israel worshipped it, and the Sages conceded to him. He suppressed the Book of Cures, and they conceded to him.


讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 拽讬爪抓 讚诇转讜转 砖诇 讛讬讻诇 讜砖讬讙专谉 诇诪诇讱 讗砖讜专 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 住转诐 诪讬 讙讬讞讜谉 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜 注讬讘专 谞讬住谉 讘谞讬住谉 讜诇讗 讛讜讚讜 诇讜:


And with regard to three actions, the Sages did not concede to him. He cut off the doors of the Sanctuary and sent them to the King of Assyria, and they did not concede to him because he thereby demeaned the Temple. He sealed the waters of the upper Gihon stream, diverting its water into the city by means of a tunnel, and they did not concede to him, because he harmed the local populace in the process and should have relied upon God (Me鈥檌ri). He intercalated the year, delaying the advent of the month of Nisan during Nisan, and they did not concede to him. The Gemara explains that he declared the first of Nisan to be the thirtieth of Adar and only then intercalated the year (see II Chronicles 30:2).


诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜壮: 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讬讬转讬 讗住讗 讚专讗 讜砖讬讻专讗 讚讚驻谞讗 讜拽讬诪讞讗 讚砖注专讬 讚专诪讬 讘诪谞讗 讚诇讗 讞诇驻讬 注诇讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉 讜诪专转讞讬 诇讛讜 讜砖讚讜 诇讛讜 诇讚讬拽诇讗 讘诇讬讘讬讛 讜讻诇 讚拽讗讬 讘讗专讘注 讗诪讜转 讚讬讚讬讛 讗讬 诇讗 注讘讚讬 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 爪讗讜讬 诇讗诇转专 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讗 讗诪专 诪谞讞讬 讻讜驻专讗 讚讬讻专讗 诇谞讜拽讘转讗:


We learned in the mishna: They would graft palm trees the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan. The Gemara asks: How did they perform this grafting? Rabbi Yehuda said: They brought fresh myrtle, strong beer made from the fruit of the laurel tree, and barley flour that was cast into a vessel, and forty days has not passed since it was ground. They boiled them together and poured the mixture into the core of the palm tree. And for any tree standing within four cubits of that tree, if they did not perform this treatment with it, it would immediately wither because the tree that received the treatment would grow faster at the expense of the surrounding trees. Rav A岣, son of Rava, said: They placed a branch of a male palm tree on the female, and by doing so the female tree would yield fruit.


讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注: 讛讬讻讬 注讘讚讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讚诪砖诪注 讛讬讜诐 注诇 诇讘讘讱 讜诇讗 诪讞专 注诇 诇讘讘讱: 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬爪讚 讛讬讜 讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讜诇讗 讛讬讜 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 诪驻住讬拽讬谉 讛讬讜 讗诇讗 砖诇讗 讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚 诪诇讻讜转讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚


We learned in the mishna that the residents of Jericho would bundle Shema. The Gemara asks: What does it mean that they bundled Shema? How did they do so? Rabbi Yehuda said that they recited: 鈥淗ear Israel: The Lord is our God, the Lord is One鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:4), and they would not pause between words. Rava said: They would pause between words, but instead of reciting this verse in the proper manner: 鈥淭hat which I command you today, shall be on your heart鈥 (Deuteronomy 6:5), pausing after the word today; they would say: Today shall be on your heart, inferring: Today it will be on your heart, and tomorrow it will not be on your heart. The Sages taught in the Tosefta: How would they bundle Shema? They recited: 鈥淗ear Israel, the Lord is our God the Lord is One,鈥 without pausing; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: They paused, but they would not recite: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever.


讜讗谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 诇讬讛 讻讚讚专讬砖 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖


The Gemara asks: What is the reason that we recite that passage: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, even though it does not appear in the Torah? The Gemara answers: We recite it in accordance with that which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish interpreted homiletically.


讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讜讬拽专讗 讬注拽讘 讗诇 讘谞讬讜 讜讬讗诪专 讛讗住驻讜 讜讗讙讬讚讛 诇讻诐 讘讬拽砖 讬注拽讘 诇讙诇讜转 诇讘谞讬讜 拽抓 讛讬诪讬谉 讜谞住转诇拽讛 诪诪谞讜 砖讻讬谞讛 讗诪专 砖诪讗 讞住 讜砖诇讜诐 讬砖 讘诪讟转讬 驻住讜诇 讻讗讘专讛诐 砖讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讗讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖讬爪讗 诪诪谞讜 注砖讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讘谞讬讜 砖诪注 讬砖专讗诇 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讛壮 讗讞讚 讗诪专讜 讻砖诐 砖讗讬谉 讘诇讘讱 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讻讱 讗讬谉 讘诇讘谞讜 讗诇讗 讗讞讚 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 驻转讞 讬注拽讘 讗讘讬谞讜 讜讗诪专 讘专讜讱 砖诐 讻讘讜讚 诪诇讻讜转讜 诇注讜诇诐 讜注讚


As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said that it is written: 鈥淎nd Jacob called his sons and said, Gather around and I will tell you what will occur to you in the end of days鈥 (Genesis 49:1). Jacob wanted to reveal to his sons when the complete redemption would arrive at the end of days (see Daniel 12:13), but the Divine Presence abandoned him, rendering him unable to prophesy. He said: Perhaps the Divine Presence has abandoned me because, Heaven forfend, one of my descendants is unfit, as was the case with my grandfather Abraham, from whom Ishmael emerged, and like my father Isaac, from whom Esau emerged. His sons said to him: Hear Israel, our father, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One. They said: Just as there is only one God in your heart, so too, there is only one in our hearts. At that moment Jacob our father said in praise: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever, as all his children were righteous.


讗诪专讬 专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讬 谞注讘讬讚 谞讗诪专讜讛讜 诇讗 讗诪专讜 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专讜讛讜 讗诪专讜 讬注拽讘 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 讘讞砖讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 诪砖诇 诇讘转 诪诇讱 砖讛专讬讞讛 爪讬拽讬 拽讚讬专讛 讗诐 转讗诪专 讬砖 诇讛 讙谞讗讬 诇讗 转讗诪专 讬砖 诇讛 爪注专 讛转讞讬诇讜 注讘讚讬讛 诇讛讘讬讗 讘讞砖讗讬


The Rabbis said: What should we do? Shall we recite this verse? But Moses our teacher did not say it in the Torah as part of Shema. Shall we not recite it? But Jacob said it. In order to resolve this dilemma they established that this passage should be recited surreptitiously. Rabbi Yitz岣k said that the school of Rabbi Ami said: This is analogous to the daughter of a king who smelled the fragrance of the dried spices stuck to the bottom of the pot and craved to eat them. What can she do? If she tells her servants to give it to her, she will be disgraced, as the dried spices are a contemptible food. However, if she does not say she wants to eat them, she will endure suffering. Her servants began to bring them to her surreptitiously. One should conduct himself in that manner in similar cases of uncertainty.


讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讜转讜 讘拽讜诇 专诐 诪驻谞讬 转专注讜诪转 讛诪讬谞讬谉 讜讘谞讛专讚注讗 讚诇讬讻讗 诪讬谞讬谉 注讚 讛砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛 讘讞砖讗讬:


Rabbi Abbahu said: The Sages instituted that the people should recite it aloud due to the grievance of the heretics. It was instituted to prevent the heretics from claiming that the Jews are surreptitiously reciting inappropriate statements. The Gemara adds: In Neharde鈥檃, where there are no heretics, they recite it surreptitiously even now.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 注砖讜 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 砖诇砖讛 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转 讘讙谞讜转讬讛谉 讜讘驻专讚住讜转讬讛谉 诇讛讗讻讬诇 谞砖专 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 讘砖讘转讜转 讜讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讜诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专


The Sages taught a related matter in the Tosefta: The people of Jericho performed six actions, three in keeping with the will of the Sages and three against the will of the Sages. And these are what they did in keeping with the will of the Sages: They would graft palm trees the entire day of the fourteenth of Nisan; and they would bundle Shema; and they would harvest grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are what they did against the will of the Sages: They would pile the harvest before the omer; and they would make breaches in the walls of their gardens and their orchards to feed fallen fruit to the poor during drought years, so that the poor could take the fruit that had fallen on Shabbat and Festivals; and they would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees. This is the statement of Rabbi Meir.


讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诐 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 讬讛讜 讻诇 讗讚诐 注讜砖讬谉 讻谉 讗诇讗 讗诇讜 讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讜 注讜砖讬谉 注诇 砖诇砖讛 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讜注诇 砖诇砖讛 诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐


Rabbi Yehuda said to him: It is inaccurate to formulate it in that manner, as if they acted in keeping with the will of the Sages, all people would do so, not only the residents of Jericho. Rather, formulate it in this manner: Both these three acts and those three were performed against the will of the Sages. With regard to three the Sages reprimanded them; and with regard to three the Sages did not reprimand them. Since one could contend that the latter are permitted and the people of Jericho had already performed them, the Sages chose not to reprimand them.


讜讗诇讜 砖诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪专讻讬讘讬谉 讚拽诇讬诐 讻诇 讛讬讜诐 讜讻讜专讻讬谉 讗转 砖诪注 讜拽讜爪专讬谉 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讜讗诇讜 砖诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转 讘讙谞讜转讬讛谉 讜驻专讚住讬讛谉 诇讛讗讻讬诇 谞砖专 诇注谞讬讬诐 讘砖讘转讜转 讜讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 讘砖谞讬 讘爪讜专转 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇讬专拽 讜诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐


And these are what they did for which the Sages did not reprimand them: They would graft palm trees the entire day; and they would bundle Shema; and they would harvest and pile grain before the omer offering was brought. And these are what they did for which the Sages reprimanded them: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees; they would make breaches in the walls of their gardens and orchards on Shabbat and Festivals, in order to feed the poor fallen fruit during drought years; and they would designate for the poor the produce in the corner in a field of vegetables. And the Sages reprimanded them for those actions.


讜住讘专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 拽爪讬专讛 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讛讬讗 讜讛转谞谉 讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 拽讜爪专讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜讙讜讚砖讬谉 诇驻谞讬 讛注讜诪专 砖诇讗 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 讘讬讚诐 讞讻诪讬诐


The Gemara asks: And does Rabbi Yehuda maintain that this harvest performed by the residents of Jericho was against the will of the Sages? Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna: The people of Jericho would harvest before the omer, in keeping with the will of the Sages, and they would pile the grain before the omer, against the will of the Sages, but the Sages did not reprimand them?


诪讗谉 砖诪注转 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 诪讬讞讜 讜诇讗 诪讬讞讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜拽转谞讬 拽讜爪专讬谉 讘专爪讜谉 讞讻诪讬诐 讜诇讬讟注诪讬讱 讛谞讬 讗专讘注讛 讛讜讛 讗诇讗 住诪讬 诪讬讻谉 拽爪讬专讛:


Whom did you hear that said: Reprimanded and did not reprimand? It is Rabbi Yehuda, as Rabbi Meir uses the terminology: In keeping with the will and against the will. And yet, Rabbi Yehuda is teaching in the baraita that they would harvest in keeping with the will of the Sages. The Gemara answers with a question: And according to your reasoning, these three activities listed in the mishna, for which the Sages did not reprimand them, are actually four: Grafting palms, bundling Shema, harvesting, and piling. They are not three activities, as stated. Rather, delete harvest from the mishna here. Harvesting should not be listed with the activities for which the Sages did not reprimand them.


讜诪转讬专讬谉 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讗诪专讜 讗讘讜转讬谞讜 诇讗 讛拽讚讬砖讜 讗诇讗 拽讜专讜转 讜讗谞讜 谞转讬专 讙诪讝讬讜转 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 砖诇 讞专讜讘 讜砖诇 砖拽诪讛 讜讘讙讬讚讜诇讬谉 讛讘讗讬谉 诇讗讞专 诪讻讗谉 注住拽讬谞谉 讜住讘专讬 诇讛 讻诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 诪注讬诇讛 讘讙讬讚讜诇讬谉 讜专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 谞讛讬 讚诪注讬诇讛 诇讬讻讗 讗讬住讜专讗 诪讬讛讗 讗讬讻讗:


It was taught in the baraita: They would permit the use of consecrated branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains the reason: They said: Our fathers consecrated only the tree trunks, and therefore we can permit the consecrated branches that have grown from the branches of carob and of sycamore trees. The Gemara explains that we are dealing with the growth that came afterward, and they hold in accordance with the one who said: There is no misuse of consecrated property with regard to subsequent growth. And the Rabbis hold: Although there is no misuse of consecrated property, in any case, there is a prohibition.


讜驻讜专爪讬谉 驻专爪讜转: 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖诇 诪讻讘讚讜转 讚专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖 讜讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 住讘专讬 诇讗 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖 讗讘诇 讘砖诇 讘讬谉 讛讻讬驻讬谉 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 诪讜转专


It was taught in the baraita that the residents of Jericho created breaches so that during years of famine the poor could take fruit that fell on Shabbat and Festivals. Ulla said that Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute between the residents of Jericho and the Sages is with regard to dates no longer attached to the tree that fell onto the upper palm branches [makhebedot]. The Sages hold: We issue a decree to prohibit taking these dates, lest one climb the tree and pick dates still attached to the tree. And the people of Jericho hold: We do not issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates. However, with regard to dates that fell onto lower palm branches [keifin], everyone agrees that taking fruit from these branches is permitted.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 讜讛讗 诪讜拽爪讜转 谞讬谞讛讜 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讜讗讬诇 讚讞讝讬 诇注讜专讘讬谉 讛砖转讗 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讻诇讘讬诐 讚转谞谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗诐 诇讗 讛讬转讛 谞讘讬诇讛 诪注专讘 砖讘转 讗住讜专讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谞讛 诪谉 讛诪讜讻谉 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐


Rava said to Ulla: But aren鈥檛 they set-aside, as they are not prepared as food before Shabbat, since they fell from the tree on Shabbat itself? Any item prohibited during twilight on Shabbat eve remains prohibited throughout day, even if circumstances change. And if you say: These dates are not set-aside, since they are fit for consumption by domestic ravens, which can fly and gather the dates still attached to the tree, now, an item that is prepared for use for a person is not considered prepared for use for dogs, as we learned in a mishna that Rabbi Yehuda says: If the animal was alive and not a carcass on Shabbat eve, it may not be fed to dogs on Shabbat because it was not expressly prepared for that purpose. Is food prepared for ravens considered prepared for a person? While it was alive, the animal was prepared for human consumption during twilight; nevertheless, it is prohibited to feed its carcass to the dogs.


讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谉 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讻诇讘讬诐 讚讻诇 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讝讬 诇讗讬谞讬砖 诇讗 诪拽爪讛 诇讬讛 诪讚注转讬讛 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讻诇 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讝讬 诇讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 注诇讜讬讛


Ulla said to Rava: Yes, an item that is prepared for consumption for a person is not prepared for dogs, as any item that is fit for a person, one does not remove it from his thoughts; it remains exclusively for the use of a person. However, an item that is prepared for ravens is also prepared for the use of a person. Any item that is fit for the use of a person, his thoughts are upon it. Although initially it is available only to ravens, a person is prepared to eat any food that becomes available to him. That is Ulla鈥檚 version of the statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish.


讻讬 讗转讗 专讘讬谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘砖诇 讘讬谉 讻讬驻讬谉 讚专讘谞谉 住讘专讬 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 诇讗 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讜讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 住讘专讬 诪讜讻谉 诇注讜专讘讬诐 讛讜讬 诪讜讻谉 诇讗讚诐 讗讘诇 讘砖诇 诪讻讘讚讜转 讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讗住讜专 讙讝专讬谞谉 砖诪讗 讬注诇讛 讜讬转诇讜砖:


When Ravin came from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said a different version of that which Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: This dispute is with regard to dates that fell onto the lower palm branches, as the Sages hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is not prepared for a person. And the people of Jericho hold: An item that is prepared for ravens is prepared for a person. However, with regard to the dates on upper branches, everyone agrees that they are prohibited, as we issue a decree lest one climb the tree and pick dates.


讜谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇讬专拽: 讜诇讬转 诇讛讜 诇讗谞砖讬 讬专讬讞讜 讛讗 讚转谞谉 讻诇诇 讗诪专讜 讘驻讬讗讛 讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 讜谞砖诪专 讜讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 讜诇拽讬讟转讜 讻讗讞转 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 讞讬讬讘 讘驻讬讗讛


We learned in the mishna: And the residents of Jericho would designate for the poor the produce in the corner [pe鈥檃] in a field of vegetables. The Gemara asks: And aren鈥檛 the people of Jericho of the opinion of that which we learned in a mishna: A principle was stated with regard to the produce of the corner of the field: Anything that is food, and is protected, and grows from the ground, and is gathered as one, and one brings it in to store for preservation is obligated in the halakhot of the produce in the corner of the field?


讻诇 砖讛讜讗 讗讜讻诇 驻专讟 诇住驻讬讞讬 住讟讬住 讜拽讜爪讛 讜谞砖诪专 驻专讟 诇讛驻拽专 讜讙讬讚讜诇讜 诪谉 讛讗专抓 驻专讟 诇讻诪讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜诇拽讬讟转谉 讻讗讞转 驻专讟 诇转讗谞讬诐 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 驻专讟 诇讬专拽


The Gemara elaborates on each criterion in the mishna. Anything that is food; this comes to exclude the after-growths of woad and safflower. These plants are used as dyes and not for food. Therefore, one need not designate the produce in the corners from them. And is protected; this comes to exclude ownerless crops. And grows from the ground; this comes to exclude truffles and mushrooms, which, unlike other plants, do not draw sustenance from the ground. And is gathered as one; this comes to exclude the fig tree, whose fruit is gathered throughout an extended period, as the figs do not ripen together. And one brings it in to storage for preservation; this comes to exclude vegetables, which cannot be stored for lengthy periods.


讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讛讻讗 讘专讗砖讬 诇驻转讜转 注住拽讬谞谉 讜诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 注诇 讬讚讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 诪讻谞讬住讜 诇拽讬讜诐 注诇 讬讚讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 砖诪讬讛 拽讬讜诐 讜诪专 住讘专 诇讗 砖诪讬讛 拽讬讜诐:


Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Here we are dealing with turnip heads, which can be stored for an extended period of time, and they disagree with regard to bringing it in to storage for preservation by means of another substance. Turnips are not stored alone. In order to store them, one preserves them in vinegar or a similar substance (Rabbeinu 岣nanel). One Sage, the residents of Jericho, holds: Storage by means of another substance such as vinegar is considered storage. And one Sage, i.e., the Sages, holds: It is not considered storage, and therefore one need not designate produce from the corner of the field from turnips.


转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讛讬讜 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇诇驻转 讜诇讻专讜讘 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇拽驻诇讜讟 讜转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讛讬讜 谞讜转谞讬谉 驻讬讗讛 诇诇驻转 讜诇拽驻诇讜讟 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讗祝 诇讻专讜讘


The Sages taught: Initially, they would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and cabbages. Rabbi Yosei says: They would do so even from leeks [kaflot]. And it was taught in another baraita: They would designate the produce in the corner of the field from turnips and leeks. Rabbi Shimon says: They would do so even from cabbages.


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