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Daf Yomi

February 23, 2021 | ื™ืดื ื‘ืื“ืจ ืชืฉืคืดื

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 94

Today’s Daf is sponsored by by Mona Fishbane in memory of her beloved daughter-in-law, Leah Levitz Fishbane, zโ€l on her 14th yahrzeit. “The light of her soul still shines. Leah’s spirit lives in those blessed to have loved her.” And by Sara Berelowitz in memory of her mother in law (Sara Tiva bat David Shlomo a”h) Berelowitz. “At the beginning of the daf yomi cycle, my husband and I started learning the daf in order to do a siyum of Masechet Brachot on her yahrzeit. Neither of us thought that we would be still learning the daf a year later.”And in memory of Shachne ben Yehuda v’Sara for his shloshim. And by Betsy Mehlman in memory of Harold Mondshein (Zvi Menachem Mendel ben Shlomo v Charna Bayla z”l) on the 37th anniversary of his yahrzeit. “My father was an outstanding baal koreh with a melodious voice and a kind and patient teacher to countless bar mitzvah students. He exemplified Pirkei Avot’s saying to “meet everyone with a pleasing countenance.” His love of family, jovial disposition and the respectful and welcoming manner in which he greeted people of all ages and from all walks of life inspire me to this day.” And by Tina Lamm for a refuah shleima of Rivka Chana bat Sara Leah.ย 

How do Ulla’s and Rav Yehuda’s approaches by one who is far from the Temple fit with their approaches about one who is impure from a sheretz on erev Pesach? How large is the world and how large is the firmament that separates between the world and the heavens? Rava explains his answer and the gemara brings 5 questions against him. The gemara compares some of the beliefs they have of how the sun/constellations work with the beliefs of other nations during their generation. The gemara grapples with Rabbi Eliezer’s approach as mentioned in the mishna that one who is “far away” is one who is not inside the azara. Can this really be?

ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื˜ืžื ืฉืจืฅ ืจื—ืžื ื ื“ื—ื™ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ืฉ ืื™ืฉ ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื˜ืžื ืœื ืคืฉ ืžื™ ืœื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื™ื“ื—ื™


According to Rav Yehudaโ€™s opinion it is also not difficult, because in his opinion the Torah itself deferred the obligation of one who is ritually impure through contact with a dead creeping animal to the second Pesaแธฅ, as it is written: โ€œIf any man of you or of your generations shall be ritually impure due to a dead bodyโ€ (Numbers 9:10). Are we not dealing even with a situation in which his seventh day of purification occurs on Passover eve, such that he can be ritually pure by nightfall and therefore he has the same status on that seventh day as one who became impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal? And nonetheless the Torah stated that his obligation shall be deferred. This teaches that anyone who is ritually impure at the time of the slaughtering has his obligation deferred to the second Pesaแธฅ, even if he would be able to immerse and become pure in time to eat the offering on the first Pesaแธฅ with the rest of the Jewish people.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ื ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ื‘ืกื•ืกื™ื ื•ื‘ืคืจื“ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืœื” ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš


The Sages taught: If one was standing outside the city of Modiโ€™im and was able to enter Jerusalem on horses or mules but not by walking, I might have thought he would be liable to receive karet for failing to come to Jerusalem and offer the Paschal lamb; therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd is not on a journeyโ€ (Numbers 9:13). This person was on a distant journey and is therefore exempt.


ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืžืคื ื™ ื’ืžืœื™ื ื•ืงืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ืื•ืชื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืจื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš:


On the other hand, if one was standing closer to Jerusalem than Modiโ€™im but was not able to enter due to the camels and carriages that are carrying his family and delaying him, I might have thought he would not be liable for failing to offer the Paschal lamb because he is trying to enter; therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd was not on a journey,โ€ and this person was not on a distant journey and is therefore liable. This person could have dismounted and come to Jerusalem on foot, but he wanted to bring his family with him in a carriage and was consequently delayed. Oneโ€™s liability is determined based on his distance from Jerusalem.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉื™ืชื ืืœืคื™ ืคืจืกื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœืžื ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื ื“ืจืงื™ืขื ืืœืคื ืคืจืกื™ ื—ื“ื ื’ืžืจื ื•ื—ื“ื ืกื‘ืจื


The discussion above pertaining to the distance that an average person can walk in a day is based on the assumption that he walks five mil between dawn and sunrise. The Gemara brings support for this assumption. Rava said: The size of the world is six thousand parasangs, and the thickness of the firmament is one thousand parasangs. One of these measurements with regard to the size of the world is a tradition, and one of the measurements is based upon Ravaโ€™s own reasoning.


ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืœืš ืื“ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขืฉืจ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื—ืžืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืขืช ื”ื—ืžื” ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ื


The Gemara explains: Rava holds like that statement which Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: How far can an average person walk in a day? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil. This is explained: From dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil; from sunset until the emergence of the stars one can walk another five mil. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is one-sixth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Between sunrise and sunset, the sun travels a distance of six thousand parasangs during the amount of time an average person can walk thirty mil. During the dawn and twilight periods in the morning and evening, when the sun passes through the thickness of the firmament, an average person can walk five mil, which is one-sixth of the distance he can walk between sunrise and sunset. Consequently, during dawn and twilight the sun must also travel one-sixth of the distance it travels between sunrise and sunset, i.e., one thousand parasangs, which is the thickness of the firmament.


ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืขืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชื“ืข ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืœืš ืื“ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขืฉืจ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ื•ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืขื“ ื”ื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ืืจื‘ืขืช ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืขืช ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืืจื‘ืขืช ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆืืช ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืขืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืขื•ืœื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: The thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Know that this is true because how far can an average person walk in a day between dawn and the emergence of the stars? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil, and from dawn until sunrise one can walk only four mil, which are one parasang. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. This is a refutation of the opinion of Rava. Similarly, it is a refutation of the opinion of Ulla, who holds that an average person can walk fifteen mil in half a day, whereas Rabbi Yehuda holds that the average person can walk sixteen mil in half a day. The Gemara concludes: It is indeed a conclusive refutation.


ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืื ื ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ื˜ืขื• ื“ืงื ื—ืฉื‘ืŸ ื“ืงื“ืžื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื›ื


The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabba bar bar แธคana, citing Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, with regard to how far an average person can walk in a day. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan could have said to you: I am speaking about the total distance that an average person can walk in an entire day, but I never specified the distance one can walk during different parts of the day. And it was the Sages Ulla and Rava who erred in interpreting my opinion by saying that one can walk five mil and not four during each intermediate period, because when they calculated five mil before sunrise and after sunset they included the distance walked by people who set out earlier in the morning, before dawn, and by those who continued walking after nightfall.


ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืœื ื•ื™ืื™ืฆื• ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi แธคanina, who proved from biblical verses that the distance from Sodom to Zoar is five mil. The angels and Lot walked that distance between dawn and sunrise, which implies that it is only four mil. The Gemara responds: No, that verse states: โ€œThe angels hastened Lot,โ€ which indicates that they traveled very quickly. Therefore, hastened is different; because they hurried, they traveled five mil in the time one would normally walk four mil.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืฆืจื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืคืจืกื” ืขืœ ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ืžืฆืจื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ืฉ ื•ื›ื•ืฉ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื•ืขื•ืœื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื’ืŸ ื•ื’ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื“ืŸ ื•ืขื“ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ื›ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ืงื“ื™ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Come and hear a challenge from a baraita to the previous opinion with regard to the size of the world: The size of Egypt was four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs, and Egypt is one-sixtieth of the size of Cush, and Cush is one-sixtieth of the world, and the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden is one sixtieth of the size of Gehenna. Therefore, it is found that the entire world is like a pot cover, which is a small part of the total size of the pot, compared to Gehenna. In any event, based upon the sizes of Egypt and Cush, it is apparent that the entire world is larger than six thousand parasangs. This is indeed a conclusive refutation.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืชื—ืช ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื“ืข ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื“ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื• ื‘ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืžื–ืจื— ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ืœืืจื‘ืข ืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืชื—ืช ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Come and hear another challenge: One of the Sages of the school of Eliyahu taught that Rabbi Natan says: The entire settlement, the area of the world that is inhabited, sits under one star. Know that this is correct because when a person focuses his eye on one star, he can travel east as far as he wishes within the settled part of the world and the star remains opposite him in the same place, and he can travel in the four directions of the world and the star remains in place opposite him. By inference, the entire settlement of the world rests under one star; and since so many stars are visible and each one covers an area of the world comparable in size to the entire settled portion of the world, it must be that the world is larger than six thousand parasangs. The Gemara comments that this is indeed a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืงืจื‘ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืืœื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื’ืœื” ืœืขืงืจื‘ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื—ืžื” ื ื›ื ืกืช ืœื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืืœื ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื


Come and hear another challenge from another baraita, which teaches that the constellation Ursa Major is in the north and the constellation Scorpio is in the south, and the entire settlement sits between Ursa Major and Scorpio, as the relative positions of these two constellations appear to be the same from any location in the settled areas of the world. The ratio of the entire settlement to the world as a whole is comparable to only one hour in a day, as the sun enters the sky above the settlement for only one hour a day while the rest of the day it is outside the settlement.


ืชื“ืข ืฉื‘ื—ืžืฉ ื—ืžื” ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ืข ื—ืžื” ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืฉ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืฉื‘ืข ื—ืžื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Know that this is correct because at five hours into the day the sun is still in the east, and at seven hours the sun is in the west. During the second half of the sixth hour and the first half of the seventh hour the sun is positioned on top of everyone, as it is in the middle of the sky in every inhabited area during this time. Apparently, the sun travels over the inhabited parts of the world in a single hour while the rest of the day it travels over the uninhabited parts. Therefore, the entire settled portion of the world is equal to one-twelfth of the world. It was established that the settled part of the world itself is several parasangs, so the entire world must be larger than six thousand parasangs. This also serves as a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ืžื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื”ืฉื™ื‘ืชื• ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ืœืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืืขืœื” ืขืœ ื‘ืžืชื™ ืขื‘ ืื“ืžื” ืœืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืœื• ืจืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืจืฉืข


Come and hear another challenge, as Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice answer to that wicked man, Nebuchadnezzar, when he said: โ€œI will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most Highโ€ (Isaiah 14:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man,


ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ื ืžืจื•ื“ ื”ืจืฉืข ืฉื”ืžืจื™ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืขืœื™ ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื• ื›ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉื ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืžื™ ืฉื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉื ื”


the disciple in corruption of Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Me during his reign by advising the generation of the dispersion to build a tower in order to fight the Hosts of Heaven, how many are the years of a person altogether? Seventy years, and if he is with strength, eighty years, as it is stated: โ€œThe days of our years are seventy years and with strength eighty yearsโ€ (Psalms 90:10).


ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื“ ืœืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ (ื›ืœ) ืจืงื™ืข ืœืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืจืงื™ืข ื•ืจืงื™ืข ืืš ืืœ ืฉืื•ืœ ืชื•ืจื“ ืืœ ื™ืจื›ืชื™ ื‘ื•ืจ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


In contrast, from the earth to the first firmament of seven (see แธคagiga 12b) is a walking distance of five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmament is a walking distance of five hundred years, which is equal to approximately 1.8 million parasangs, and between each firmament is another walking distance of five hundred years, and so too between each and every firmament. Therefore, how can you, Nebuchadnezzar, hope to reach the heavens in your lifetime, such that you say: โ€œI will be like the Most Highโ€? Rather, as the verse continues: โ€œYet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pitโ€ (Isaiah 14:15). In any event, this is a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion that the thickness of the firmament is only one thousand parasangs.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ืงื‘ื•ืข ื•ืžื–ืœื•ืช ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ


In a discussion related to the structure of the natural world, the Sages taught: The Jewish Sages say the celestial sphere of the zodiac is stationary, and the constellations revolve in their place within the sphere; and the sages of the nations of the world say the entire celestial sphere revolves, and the constellations are stationary within the sphere. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: A refutation of their words that the entire sphere moves can be derived from the fact that we have never found the constellation of Ursa Major in the South or Scorpio in the North. This indicates that it is the stars themselves that revolve in place and not the celestial sphere as a whole, because otherwise it would be impossible for Ursa Major to remain in the North and Scorpio to remain in the South.


ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ื›ื‘ื•ืฆื™ื ื ื“ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ืฆื™ื ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื


Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov strongly objects to this proof: And perhaps the stars are stationary within the sphere like the steel socket of a mill, which remains stationary while the stones of the mill revolve around it. Alternatively, perhaps they are stationary like the pivot of a door, which remains stationary while the door makes wide turns around it; similarly, perhaps the constellations are stationary within a sphere, and there is an outer sphere within which the sun revolves around all the constellations. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s statement is not necessarily true.


ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื ืจืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื™ื•ื ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื•ื ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืจื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ


The Gemara presents a similar dispute: The Jewish Sages say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament and is therefore visible, and at night it travels above the firmament. And the sages of the nations of the world say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament, and at night it travels beneath the earth and around to the other side of the world. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And the statement of the sages of the nations of the world appears to be more accurate than our statement. A proof to this is that during the day, springs that originate deep in the ground are cold, and during the night they are hot compared to the air temperature, which supports the theory that these springs are warmed by the sun as it travels beneath the earth.


ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื—ืžื” ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืจื•ืชื— ื•ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื•ื ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืจืงื™ืข ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฆื•ื ืŸ ื•ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืจื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ


It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: During the summer the sun travels high in the sky, above the earth, and therefore the entire world is hot, and springs that originate deep in the ground are cold. On the other hand, during the winter the sun travels low in the sky, over the edges of the earth. Therefore, the entire world is cold, but springs are hot relative to the air temperature.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืืจื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื ื™ืกืŸ ืื™ื™ืจ ื•ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื”ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคืฉืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื’ื™ืŸ ืชืžื•ื– ืื‘ ื•ืืœื•ืœ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื‘ืฉืœ ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืชืฉืจื™ ืžืจื—ืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืกืœื™ื• ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืื“ืจ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ืœื™ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื:


The Sages taught: The sun travels in four paths during the four seasons of the year, and each causes a unique weather pattern: During the months of Nisan, Iyyar, and Sivan, the sun travels over the mountains in order to melt the snows that collected during the winter. During Tammuz, Av, and Elul, it travels over the areas of the settlement in order to ripen the produce. During Tishrei, Marแธฅeshvan, and Kislev, it travels over the seas in order to dry the rivers, as the rivers flow more gently during that time of year and the water turns into rain clouds. During Tevet, Shevat, and Adar, it travels over the desert in order to not dry the seeds that were planted in the inhabited areas of settlement, which begin to sprout during this time.


ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืืกืงื•ืคืช ื›ื•ืณ: ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืžืฆื™ ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืงื•ื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืขืจืœ ืฉืœื ืžืœ ืขื ื•ืฉ ื›ืจืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ


It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone located from the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond is considered to be on a distant journey. The Gemara objects: And even though he is able to enter the courtyard, we do not say to him: Get up and enter; rather, we rely on the fact that at the critical moment he is outside the courtyard. But wasnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: An adult uncircumcised Jew who did not circumcise himself will be punished with karet for being unable to eat the Paschal lamb on Passover; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer himself requires one to take action and circumcise himself so that the obligation to bring the Paschal lamb will apply to him. If one does not do so, he is considered to have intentionally refrained from eating the Paschal lamb and will receive karet. This baraita in which Rabbi Eliezer requires a person to be proactive seems to contradict the mishna in which Rabbi Eliezer permits a person to remain passive.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืจืš ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืœื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ืจืš ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืœื˜ืžื


Abaye said: The exemption from observing the first Pesaแธฅ granted to one on a distant journey was stated only for one who is ritually pure, and there is no exemption of a distant journey for one who is ritually impure or is unfit to offer the Paschal lamb for any other reason. One who is unfit to offer the sacrifice must take action to enable him to fulfill his obligation, and he is not included in the exemption of being on a distant journey. Conversely, the exemption does apply to people who are inherently fit to offer the sacrifice, and who are therefore not liable to karet if they do not enter the courtyard. There is no need to warn them to offer the Paschal lamb.


ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื•ืง ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื•ืง ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืžืขืฉืจ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื›ื™ืœืชื• ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื›ื™ืœืชื•


Rava said: It is a dispute between tannaโ€™im as to Rabbi Eliezerโ€™s true opinion, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb, and the exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the second tithe, as the verse states: โ€œAnd if the way be too long for you, so that you are not able to carry it because the place is too far from you, which the Lord your God shall choose to set His name thereโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:24). Just as later in the Torah, with regard to the second tithe, the exemption applies only to someone located outside the area where it may be eaten, as the second tithe may be eaten only in Jerusalem, so too here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the exemption of a distant journey applies only to one located outside the place in which it may be eaten, which is the entire city of Jerusalem. According to this opinion, anyone located in Jerusalem is included in the obligation to offer the Paschal lamb.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชื•


However, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda says, citing Rabbi Eliezer: The exemption of a distant journey applies to anyone located outside the area where the offering of the Paschal lamb may be performed, which is the Temple courtyard.


ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื˜ืžืื™ื ื”ืœืš ืื—ืจ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ:


The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Rav Yosef said: In determining whether the majority of the community is ritually pure or ritually impure, follow the majority of those standing in the courtyard, and do not take into consideration people who are in Jerusalem but have not come to the courtyard. In accordance with whose opinion is it? It is in accordance with the opinion that Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda said, citing Rabbi Eliezer, which is as follows: Circumstances that can change the details of oneโ€™s obligation to offer the Paschal lamb, such as whether one is in a state of ritual impurity or whether he is on a distant journey, are determined based on whether or not one is within the Temple courtyard at the time of the slaughter.


ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ืฉื•ืžืข ืื ื™ ืžื”ืœืš ืฉื ื™ื ืื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื’ื™ื“ ืฉืžืืกืงื•ืคืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ื•ืœื—ื•ืฅ ืงืจื•ื™ ื“ืจืš:


It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, there is a dot over the letter heh. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: If the verse had said simply: โ€œA distant journey,โ€ One would conclude from it that it means the distance of at least a two- or three-day walk. However, when it says later: โ€œBut the man who is ritually pure and is not on a journeyโ€ (Numbers 9:13) and does not specify a distant journey, it teaches that from the threshold of the courtyard and beyond is called a journey, and the exemption is not limited to one on a distant journey as the first verse seemed to imply.


Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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Pesachim 94

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Pesachim 94

ืœืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื˜ืžื ืฉืจืฅ ืจื—ืžื ื ื“ื—ื™ื™ื” ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ืฉ ืื™ืฉ ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื” ื˜ืžื ืœื ืคืฉ ืžื™ ืœื ืขืกืงื™ื ืŸ ืฉื—ืœ ืฉื‘ื™ืขื™ ืฉืœื• ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขืจื‘ ื”ืคืกื— ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื›ื™ ืืžืจ ืจื—ืžื ื ืœื™ื“ื—ื™


According to Rav Yehudaโ€™s opinion it is also not difficult, because in his opinion the Torah itself deferred the obligation of one who is ritually impure through contact with a dead creeping animal to the second Pesaแธฅ, as it is written: โ€œIf any man of you or of your generations shall be ritually impure due to a dead bodyโ€ (Numbers 9:10). Are we not dealing even with a situation in which his seventh day of purification occurs on Passover eve, such that he can be ritually pure by nightfall and therefore he has the same status on that seventh day as one who became impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal? And nonetheless the Torah stated that his obligation shall be deferred. This teaches that anyone who is ritually impure at the time of the slaughtering has his obligation deferred to the second Pesaแธฅ, even if he would be able to immerse and become pure in time to eat the offering on the first Pesaแธฅ with the rest of the Jewish people.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ื ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ื‘ืกื•ืกื™ื ื•ื‘ืคืจื“ื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ื™ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืœื” ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš


The Sages taught: If one was standing outside the city of Modiโ€™im and was able to enter Jerusalem on horses or mules but not by walking, I might have thought he would be liable to receive karet for failing to come to Jerusalem and offer the Paschal lamb; therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd is not on a journeyโ€ (Numbers 9:13). This person was on a distant journey and is therefore exempt.


ื”ื™ื” ืขื•ืžื“ ืœืคื ื™ื ืžืŸ ื”ืžื•ื“ื™ืขื™ื ื•ืื™ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื™ื›ื ืก ืžืคื ื™ ื’ืžืœื™ื ื•ืงืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืขื›ื‘ื•ืช ืื•ืชื• ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื ื™ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ ืชืœืžื•ื“ ืœื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื•ื”ืจื™ ืœื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ื“ืจืš:


On the other hand, if one was standing closer to Jerusalem than Modiโ€™im but was not able to enter due to the camels and carriages that are carrying his family and delaying him, I might have thought he would not be liable for failing to offer the Paschal lamb because he is trying to enter; therefore, the verse states: โ€œAnd was not on a journey,โ€ and this person was not on a distant journey and is therefore liable. This person could have dismounted and come to Jerusalem on foot, but he wanted to bring his family with him in a carriage and was consequently delayed. Oneโ€™s liability is determined based on his distance from Jerusalem.


ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ืฉื™ืชื ืืœืคื™ ืคืจืกื™ ื”ื•ื™ ืขืœืžื ื•ืกื•ืžื›ื ื“ืจืงื™ืขื ืืœืคื ืคืจืกื™ ื—ื“ื ื’ืžืจื ื•ื—ื“ื ืกื‘ืจื


The discussion above pertaining to the distance that an average person can walk in a day is based on the assumption that he walks five mil between dawn and sunrise. The Gemara brings support for this assumption. Rava said: The size of the world is six thousand parasangs, and the thickness of the firmament is one thousand parasangs. One of these measurements with regard to the size of the world is a tradition, and one of the measurements is based upon Ravaโ€™s own reasoning.


ืกื‘ืจ ืœื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื” ื‘ืจ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืœืš ืื“ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขืฉืจ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ื•ืขื“ ื”ื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ื—ืžืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืขืช ื”ื—ืžื” ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ื—ืžืฉื” ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆื ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ื


The Gemara explains: Rava holds like that statement which Rabba bar bar แธคana said that Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: How far can an average person walk in a day? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil. This is explained: From dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil; from sunset until the emergence of the stars one can walk another five mil. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is one-sixth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Between sunrise and sunset, the sun travels a distance of six thousand parasangs during the amount of time an average person can walk thirty mil. During the dawn and twilight periods in the morning and evening, when the sun passes through the thickness of the firmament, an average person can walk five mil, which is one-sixth of the distance he can walk between sunrise and sunset. Consequently, during dawn and twilight the sun must also travel one-sixth of the distance it travels between sunrise and sunset, i.e., one thousand parasangs, which is the thickness of the firmament.


ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืขืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชื“ืข ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืœืš ืื“ื ื‘ื™ื ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขืฉืจ ืคืจืกืื•ืช ื•ืžืขืœื•ืช ื”ืฉื—ืจ ืขื“ ื”ื ืฅ ื”ื—ืžื” ืืจื‘ืขืช ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ืžืฉืงื™ืขืช ื”ื—ืžื” ื•ืขื“ ืฆืืช ื”ื›ื•ื›ื‘ื™ื ืืจื‘ืขืช ืžื™ืœื™ืŸ ื ืžืฆืืช ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืื—ื“ ืžืขืฉืจื” ื‘ื™ื•ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืขื•ืœื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: The thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Know that this is true because how far can an average person walk in a day between dawn and the emergence of the stars? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil, and from dawn until sunrise one can walk only four mil, which are one parasang. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. This is a refutation of the opinion of Rava. Similarly, it is a refutation of the opinion of Ulla, who holds that an average person can walk fifteen mil in half a day, whereas Rabbi Yehuda holds that the average person can walk sixteen mil in half a day. The Gemara concludes: It is indeed a conclusive refutation.


ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœืš ืื ื ื‘ื™ืžืžื ื”ื•ื ื“ืืžืจื™ ื•ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื“ืงื ื˜ืขื• ื“ืงื ื—ืฉื‘ืŸ ื“ืงื“ืžื ื•ื—ืฉื•ื›ื


The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabba bar bar แธคana, citing Rabbi Yoแธฅanan, with regard to how far an average person can walk in a day. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoแธฅanan could have said to you: I am speaking about the total distance that an average person can walk in an entire day, but I never specified the distance one can walk during different parts of the day. And it was the Sages Ulla and Rava who erred in interpreting my opinion by saying that one can walk five mil and not four during each intermediate period, because when they calculated five mil before sunrise and after sunset they included the distance walked by people who set out earlier in the morning, before dawn, and by those who continued walking after nightfall.


ืœื™ืžื ืชื™ื”ื•ื™ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื ื“ืจื‘ื™ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืœื ื•ื™ืื™ืฆื• ืฉืื ื™


The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi แธคanina, who proved from biblical verses that the distance from Sodom to Zoar is five mil. The angels and Lot walked that distance between dawn and sunrise, which implies that it is only four mil. The Gemara responds: No, that verse states: โ€œThe angels hastened Lot,โ€ which indicates that they traveled very quickly. Therefore, hastened is different; because they hurried, they traveled five mil in the time one would normally walk four mil.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ืžืฆืจื™ื ื”ื™ื” ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืคืจืกื” ืขืœ ืืจื‘ืข ืžืื•ืช ืคืจืกื” ื•ืžืฆืจื™ื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื›ื•ืฉ ื•ื›ื•ืฉ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื ื•ืขื•ืœื ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื’ืŸ ื•ื’ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื“ืŸ ื•ืขื“ืŸ ืื—ื“ ืžืฉืฉื™ื ื‘ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื ืžืฆื ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ื›ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ืงื“ื™ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Come and hear a challenge from a baraita to the previous opinion with regard to the size of the world: The size of Egypt was four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs, and Egypt is one-sixtieth of the size of Cush, and Cush is one-sixtieth of the world, and the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden is one sixtieth of the size of Gehenna. Therefore, it is found that the entire world is like a pot cover, which is a small part of the total size of the pot, compared to Gehenna. In any event, based upon the sizes of Egypt and Cush, it is apparent that the entire world is larger than six thousand parasangs. This is indeed a conclusive refutation.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืืœื™ื”ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืชื—ืช ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื“ืข ืฉื”ืจื™ ืื“ื ื ื•ืชืŸ ืขื™ื ื• ื‘ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื”ื•ืœืš ืœืžื–ืจื— ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ืœืืจื‘ืข ืจื•ื—ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืขื•ืžื“ ื›ื ื’ื“ื• ืžื›ืœืœ ื“ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืชื—ืช ื›ื•ื›ื‘ ืื—ื“ ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Come and hear another challenge: One of the Sages of the school of Eliyahu taught that Rabbi Natan says: The entire settlement, the area of the world that is inhabited, sits under one star. Know that this is correct because when a person focuses his eye on one star, he can travel east as far as he wishes within the settled part of the world and the star remains opposite him in the same place, and he can travel in the four directions of the world and the star remains in place opposite him. By inference, the entire settlement of the world rests under one star; and since so many stars are visible and each one covers an area of the world comparable in size to the entire settled portion of the world, it must be that the world is larger than six thousand parasangs. The Gemara comments that this is indeed a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ ื•ืขืงืจื‘ ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื™ื•ืฉื‘ ืืœื ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื’ืœื” ืœืขืงืจื‘ ื•ื›ืœ ื”ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื•ืœื• ืื™ื ื• ื”ื•ื” ืืœื ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ื—ืžื” ื ื›ื ืกืช ืœื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืืœื ืฉืขื” ืื—ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื


Come and hear another challenge from another baraita, which teaches that the constellation Ursa Major is in the north and the constellation Scorpio is in the south, and the entire settlement sits between Ursa Major and Scorpio, as the relative positions of these two constellations appear to be the same from any location in the settled areas of the world. The ratio of the entire settlement to the world as a whole is comparable to only one hour in a day, as the sun enters the sky above the settlement for only one hour a day while the rest of the day it is outside the settlement.


ืชื“ืข ืฉื‘ื—ืžืฉ ื—ืžื” ื‘ืžื–ืจื— ื•ื‘ืฉื‘ืข ื—ืžื” ื‘ืžืขืจื‘ ื—ืฆื™ ืฉืฉ ื•ื—ืฆื™ ืฉื‘ืข ื—ืžื” ืขื•ืžื“ืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ื›ืœ ืื“ื ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


Know that this is correct because at five hours into the day the sun is still in the east, and at seven hours the sun is in the west. During the second half of the sixth hour and the first half of the seventh hour the sun is positioned on top of everyone, as it is in the middle of the sky in every inhabited area during this time. Apparently, the sun travels over the inhabited parts of the world in a single hour while the rest of the day it travels over the uninhabited parts. Therefore, the entire settled portion of the world is equal to one-twelfth of the world. It was established that the settled part of the world itself is several parasangs, so the entire world must be larger than six thousand parasangs. This also serves as a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion.


ืชื ืฉืžืข ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ืŸ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื‘ืŸ ื–ื›ืื™ ืžื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ื”ืฉื™ื‘ืชื• ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ืœืื•ืชื• ืจืฉืข ื‘ืฉืขื” ืฉืืžืจ ืืขืœื” ืขืœ ื‘ืžืชื™ ืขื‘ ืื“ืžื” ืœืขืœื™ื•ืŸ ื™ืฆืชื” ื‘ืช ืงื•ืœ ื•ืืžืจื” ืœื• ืจืฉืข ื‘ืŸ ืจืฉืข


Come and hear another challenge, as Rabban Yoแธฅanan ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice answer to that wicked man, Nebuchadnezzar, when he said: โ€œI will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most Highโ€ (Isaiah 14:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man,


ื‘ืŸ ื‘ื ื• ืฉืœ ื ืžืจื•ื“ ื”ืจืฉืข ืฉื”ืžืจื™ื“ ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืขืœื™ ื‘ืžืœื›ื•ืชื• ื›ืžื” ืฉื ื•ืชื™ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉื ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืžื™ ืฉื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ื ืฉื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ื” ื•ืื ื‘ื’ื‘ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืžื•ื ื™ื ืฉื ื”


the disciple in corruption of Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Me during his reign by advising the generation of the dispersion to build a tower in order to fight the Hosts of Heaven, how many are the years of a person altogether? Seventy years, and if he is with strength, eighty years, as it is stated: โ€œThe days of our years are seventy years and with strength eighty yearsโ€ (Psalms 90:10).


ืžืŸ ื”ืืจืฅ ืขื“ ืœืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ืขื•ื‘ื™ื• ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ื‘ื™ืŸ (ื›ืœ) ืจืงื™ืข ืœืจืงื™ืข ืžื”ืœืš ื—ืžืฉ ืžืื•ืช ืฉื ื” ื•ื›ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ืจืงื™ืข ื•ืจืงื™ืข ืืš ืืœ ืฉืื•ืœ ืชื•ืจื“ ืืœ ื™ืจื›ืชื™ ื‘ื•ืจ ืชื™ื•ื‘ืชื


In contrast, from the earth to the first firmament of seven (see แธคagiga 12b) is a walking distance of five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmament is a walking distance of five hundred years, which is equal to approximately 1.8 million parasangs, and between each firmament is another walking distance of five hundred years, and so too between each and every firmament. Therefore, how can you, Nebuchadnezzar, hope to reach the heavens in your lifetime, such that you say: โ€œI will be like the Most Highโ€? Rather, as the verse continues: โ€œYet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pitโ€ (Isaiah 14:15). In any event, this is a conclusive refutation of Ravaโ€™s opinion that the thickness of the firmament is only one thousand parasangs.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ืงื‘ื•ืข ื•ืžื–ืœื•ืช ื—ื•ื–ืจื™ืŸ ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื’ืœื’ืœ ื—ื•ื–ืจ ื•ืžื–ืœื•ืช ืงื‘ื•ืขื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ื ืžืขื•ืœื ืœื ืžืฆื™ื ื• ืขื’ืœื” ื‘ื“ืจื•ื ื•ืขืงืจื‘ ื‘ืฆืคื•ืŸ


In a discussion related to the structure of the natural world, the Sages taught: The Jewish Sages say the celestial sphere of the zodiac is stationary, and the constellations revolve in their place within the sphere; and the sages of the nations of the world say the entire celestial sphere revolves, and the constellations are stationary within the sphere. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: A refutation of their words that the entire sphere moves can be derived from the fact that we have never found the constellation of Ursa Major in the South or Scorpio in the North. This indicates that it is the stars themselves that revolve in place and not the celestial sphere as a whole, because otherwise it would be impossible for Ursa Major to remain in the North and Scorpio to remain in the South.


ืžืชืงื™ืฃ ืœื” ืจื‘ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื™ืขืงื‘ ื•ื“ื™ืœืžื ื›ื‘ื•ืฆื™ื ื ื“ืจื™ื—ื™ื ืื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ืฆื™ื ื•ืจื ื“ื“ืฉื


Rav Aแธฅa bar Yaโ€™akov strongly objects to this proof: And perhaps the stars are stationary within the sphere like the steel socket of a mill, which remains stationary while the stones of the mill revolve around it. Alternatively, perhaps they are stationary like the pivot of a door, which remains stationary while the door makes wide turns around it; similarly, perhaps the constellations are stationary within a sphere, and there is an outer sphere within which the sun revolves around all the constellations. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasiโ€™s statement is not necessarily true.


ื—ื›ืžื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœืžืขืœื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื—ื›ืžื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืจืงื™ืข ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืœืžื˜ื” ืžืŸ ื”ืงืจืงืข ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื•ื ืจืื™ืŸ ื“ื‘ืจื™ื”ืŸ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื• ืฉื‘ื™ื•ื ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื•ื ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืœื™ืœื” ืจื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ


The Gemara presents a similar dispute: The Jewish Sages say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament and is therefore visible, and at night it travels above the firmament. And the sages of the nations of the world say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament, and at night it travels beneath the earth and around to the other side of the world. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And the statement of the sages of the nations of the world appears to be more accurate than our statement. A proof to this is that during the day, springs that originate deep in the ground are cold, and during the night they are hot compared to the air temperature, which supports the theory that these springs are warmed by the sun as it travels beneath the earth.


ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื ืชืŸ ืื•ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื—ืžื” ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืฉืœ ืจืงื™ืข ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืจื•ืชื— ื•ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืฆื•ื ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ื’ืฉืžื™ื ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืคื•ืœื™ ืจืงื™ืข ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื ื›ื•ืœื• ืฆื•ื ืŸ ื•ืžืขื™ื ื•ืช ืจื•ืชื—ื™ืŸ


It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: During the summer the sun travels high in the sky, above the earth, and therefore the entire world is hot, and springs that originate deep in the ground are cold. On the other hand, during the winter the sun travels low in the sky, over the edges of the earth. Therefore, the entire world is cold, but springs are hot relative to the air temperature.


ืชื ื• ืจื‘ื ืŸ ื‘ืืจื‘ืขื” ืฉื‘ื™ืœื™ืŸ ื—ืžื” ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื ื™ืกืŸ ืื™ื™ืจ ื•ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื”ืจื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœืคืฉืจ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื’ื™ืŸ ืชืžื•ื– ืื‘ ื•ืืœื•ืœ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื›ื“ื™ ืœื‘ืฉืœ ืืช ื”ืคื™ืจื•ืช ืชืฉืจื™ ืžืจื—ืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืกืœื™ื• ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ื™ืžื™ื ื›ื“ื™ ืœื™ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื ื”ืจื•ืช ื˜ื‘ืช ืฉื‘ื˜ ื•ืื“ืจ ืžื”ืœื›ืช ื‘ืžื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืœื ืœื™ื‘ืฉ ืืช ื”ื–ืจืขื™ื:


The Sages taught: The sun travels in four paths during the four seasons of the year, and each causes a unique weather pattern: During the months of Nisan, Iyyar, and Sivan, the sun travels over the mountains in order to melt the snows that collected during the winter. During Tammuz, Av, and Elul, it travels over the areas of the settlement in order to ripen the produce. During Tishrei, Marแธฅeshvan, and Kislev, it travels over the seas in order to dry the rivers, as the rivers flow more gently during that time of year and the water turns into rain clouds. During Tevet, Shevat, and Adar, it travels over the desert in order to not dry the seeds that were planted in the inhabited areas of settlement, which begin to sprout during this time.


ื•ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ืžืืกืงื•ืคืช ื›ื•ืณ: ื•ืืฃ ืขืœ ื’ื‘ ื“ืžืฆื™ ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ืœื ืืžืจื™ื ืŸ ืœื™ื” ืงื•ื ืขื™ื™ืœ ื•ื”ืชื ื™ื ื™ื”ื•ื“ื™ ืขืจืœ ืฉืœื ืžืœ ืขื ื•ืฉ ื›ืจืช ื“ื‘ืจื™ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ


It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone located from the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond is considered to be on a distant journey. The Gemara objects: And even though he is able to enter the courtyard, we do not say to him: Get up and enter; rather, we rely on the fact that at the critical moment he is outside the courtyard. But wasnโ€™t it taught in a baraita: An adult uncircumcised Jew who did not circumcise himself will be punished with karet for being unable to eat the Paschal lamb on Passover; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer himself requires one to take action and circumcise himself so that the obligation to bring the Paschal lamb will apply to him. If one does not do so, he is considered to have intentionally refrained from eating the Paschal lamb and will receive karet. This baraita in which Rabbi Eliezer requires a person to be proactive seems to contradict the mishna in which Rabbi Eliezer permits a person to remain passive.


ืืžืจ ืื‘ื™ื™ ื“ืจืš ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืœื˜ื”ื•ืจ ื•ืื™ืŸ ื“ืจืš ืจื—ื•ืงื” ืœื˜ืžื


Abaye said: The exemption from observing the first Pesaแธฅ granted to one on a distant journey was stated only for one who is ritually pure, and there is no exemption of a distant journey for one who is ritually impure or is unfit to offer the Paschal lamb for any other reason. One who is unfit to offer the sacrifice must take action to enable him to fulfill his obligation, and he is not included in the exemption of being on a distant journey. Conversely, the exemption does apply to people who are inherently fit to offer the sacrifice, and who are therefore not liable to karet if they do not enter the courtyard. There is no need to warn them to offer the Paschal lamb.


ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ืชื ืื™ ื”ื™ื ื“ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื•ืง ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืคืกื— ื•ื ืืžืจ ืจื™ื—ื•ืง ืžืงื•ื ื‘ืžืขืฉืจ ืžื” ืœื”ืœืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื›ื™ืœืชื• ืืฃ ื›ืืŸ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืื›ื™ืœืชื•


Rava said: It is a dispute between tannaโ€™im as to Rabbi Eliezerโ€™s true opinion, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb, and the exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the second tithe, as the verse states: โ€œAnd if the way be too long for you, so that you are not able to carry it because the place is too far from you, which the Lord your God shall choose to set His name thereโ€ (Deuteronomy 14:24). Just as later in the Torah, with regard to the second tithe, the exemption applies only to someone located outside the area where it may be eaten, as the second tithe may be eaten only in Jerusalem, so too here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the exemption of a distant journey applies only to one located outside the place in which it may be eaten, which is the entire city of Jerusalem. According to this opinion, anyone located in Jerusalem is included in the obligation to offer the Paschal lamb.


ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืื•ืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ื—ื•ืฅ ืœืขืฉื™ื™ืชื•


However, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda says, citing Rabbi Eliezer: The exemption of a distant journey applies to anyone located outside the area where the offering of the Paschal lamb may be performed, which is the Temple courtyard.


ื›ืžืืŸ ืื–ืœื ื”ื ื“ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืกืฃ ื‘ื˜ืžืื™ื ื”ืœืš ืื—ืจ ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืขื•ืžื“ื™ืŸ ื‘ืขื–ืจื” ื›ืžืืŸ ื›ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืฉืืžืจ ืžืฉื•ื ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ:


The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Rav Yosef said: In determining whether the majority of the community is ritually pure or ritually impure, follow the majority of those standing in the courtyard, and do not take into consideration people who are in Jerusalem but have not come to the courtyard. In accordance with whose opinion is it? It is in accordance with the opinion that Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda said, citing Rabbi Eliezer, which is as follows: Circumstances that can change the details of oneโ€™s obligation to offer the Paschal lamb, such as whether one is in a state of ritual impurity or whether he is on a distant journey, are determined based on whether or not one is within the Temple courtyard at the time of the slaughter.


ืืžืจ ืœื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ืœืคื™ื›ืš ื•ื›ื•ืณ: ืชื ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื’ืœื™ืœื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื“ืจืš ืฉื•ืžืข ืื ื™ ืžื”ืœืš ืฉื ื™ื ืื• ืฉืœืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ื›ืฉื”ื•ื ืื•ืžืจ ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื’ื™ื“ ืฉืžืืกืงื•ืคืช ื”ืขื–ืจื” ื•ืœื—ื•ืฅ ืงืจื•ื™ ื“ืจืš:


It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, there is a dot over the letter heh. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: If the verse had said simply: โ€œA distant journey,โ€ One would conclude from it that it means the distance of at least a two- or three-day walk. However, when it says later: โ€œBut the man who is ritually pure and is not on a journeyโ€ (Numbers 9:13) and does not specify a distant journey, it teaches that from the threshold of the courtyard and beyond is called a journey, and the exemption is not limited to one on a distant journey as the first verse seemed to imply.


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