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Today's Daf Yomi

February 23, 2021 | י״א באדר תשפ״א

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

Pesachim 94

Today’s Daf is sponsored by by Mona Fishbane in memory of her beloved daughter-in-law, Leah Levitz Fishbane, z”l on her 14th yahrzeit. “The light of her soul still shines. Leah’s spirit lives in those blessed to have loved her.” And by Sara Berelowitz in memory of her mother in law (Sara Tiva bat David Shlomo a”h) Berelowitz. “At the beginning of the daf yomi cycle, my husband and I started learning the daf in order to do a siyum of Masechet Brachot on her yahrzeit. Neither of us thought that we would be still learning the daf a year later.”And in memory of Shachne ben Yehuda v’Sara for his shloshim. And by Betsy Mehlman in memory of Harold Mondshein (Zvi Menachem Mendel ben Shlomo v Charna Bayla z”l) on the 37th anniversary of his yahrzeit. “My father was an outstanding baal koreh with a melodious voice and a kind and patient teacher to countless bar mitzvah students. He exemplified Pirkei Avot’s saying to “meet everyone with a pleasing countenance.” His love of family, jovial disposition and the respectful and welcoming manner in which he greeted people of all ages and from all walks of life inspire me to this day.” And by Tina Lamm for a refuah shleima of Rivka Chana bat Sara Leah. 

How do Ulla’s and Rav Yehuda’s approaches by one who is far from the Temple fit with their approaches about one who is impure from a sheretz on erev Pesach? How large is the world and how large is the firmament that separates between the world and the heavens? Rava explains his answer and the gemara brings 5 questions against him. The gemara compares some of the beliefs they have of how the sun/constellations work with the beliefs of other nations during their generation. The gemara grapples with Rabbi Eliezer’s approach as mentioned in the mishna that one who is “far away” is one who is not inside the azara. Can this really be?

לרב יהודה לא קשיא טמא שרץ רחמנא דחייה דכתיב איש איש כי יהיה טמא לנפש מי לא עסקינן שחל שביעי שלו להיות בערב הפסח ואפילו הכי אמר רחמנא לידחי

According to Rav Yehuda’s opinion it is also not difficult, because in his opinion the Torah itself deferred the obligation of one who is ritually impure through contact with a dead creeping animal to the second Pesaḥ, as it is written: “If any man of you or of your generations shall be ritually impure due to a dead body” (Numbers 9:10). Are we not dealing even with a situation in which his seventh day of purification occurs on Passover eve, such that he can be ritually pure by nightfall and therefore he has the same status on that seventh day as one who became impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal? And nonetheless the Torah stated that his obligation shall be deferred. This teaches that anyone who is ritually impure at the time of the slaughtering has his obligation deferred to the second Pesaḥ, even if he would be able to immerse and become pure in time to eat the offering on the first Pesaḥ with the rest of the Jewish people.

תנו רבנן היה עומד חוץ למודיעים ויכול ליכנס בסוסים ובפרדים יכול יהא חייב תלמוד לומר ובדרך לא היה והלה היה בדרך

The Sages taught: If one was standing outside the city of Modi’im and was able to enter Jerusalem on horses or mules but not by walking, I might have thought he would be liable to receive karet for failing to come to Jerusalem and offer the Paschal lamb; therefore, the verse states: “And is not on a journey” (Numbers 9:13). This person was on a distant journey and is therefore exempt.

היה עומד לפנים מן המודיעים ואין יכול ליכנס מפני גמלים וקרונות המעכבות אותו יכול לא יהא חייב תלמוד לומר ובדרך לא היה והרי לא היה בדרך:

On the other hand, if one was standing closer to Jerusalem than Modi’im but was not able to enter due to the camels and carriages that are carrying his family and delaying him, I might have thought he would not be liable for failing to offer the Paschal lamb because he is trying to enter; therefore, the verse states: “And was not on a journey,” and this person was not on a distant journey and is therefore liable. This person could have dismounted and come to Jerusalem on foot, but he wanted to bring his family with him in a carriage and was consequently delayed. One’s liability is determined based on his distance from Jerusalem.

אמר רבא שיתא אלפי פרסי הוי עלמא וסומכא דרקיעא אלפא פרסי חדא גמרא וחדא סברא

The discussion above pertaining to the distance that an average person can walk in a day is based on the assumption that he walks five mil between dawn and sunrise. The Gemara brings support for this assumption. Rava said: The size of the world is six thousand parasangs, and the thickness of the firmament is one thousand parasangs. One of these measurements with regard to the size of the world is a tradition, and one of the measurements is based upon Rava’s own reasoning.

סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כמה מהלך אדם בינוני ביום עשר פרסאות מעלות השחר ועד הנץ החמה חמשה מילין משקיעת החמה עד צאת הכוכבים חמשה מילין נמצא עוביו של רקיע אחד מששה ביום

The Gemara explains: Rava holds like that statement which Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: How far can an average person walk in a day? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil. This is explained: From dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil; from sunset until the emergence of the stars one can walk another five mil. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is one-sixth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Between sunrise and sunset, the sun travels a distance of six thousand parasangs during the amount of time an average person can walk thirty mil. During the dawn and twilight periods in the morning and evening, when the sun passes through the thickness of the firmament, an average person can walk five mil, which is one-sixth of the distance he can walk between sunrise and sunset. Consequently, during dawn and twilight the sun must also travel one-sixth of the distance it travels between sunrise and sunset, i.e., one thousand parasangs, which is the thickness of the firmament.

מיתיבי רבי יהודה אומר עוביו של רקיע אחד מעשרה ביום תדע כמה מהלך אדם בינוני ביום עשר פרסאות ומעלות השחר עד הנץ החמה ארבעת מילין משקיעת החמה ועד צאת הכוכבים ארבעת מילין נמצאת עוביו של רקיע אחד מעשרה ביום תיובתא דרבא תיובתא דעולא תיובתא

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: The thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Know that this is true because how far can an average person walk in a day between dawn and the emergence of the stars? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil, and from dawn until sunrise one can walk only four mil, which are one parasang. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. This is a refutation of the opinion of Rava. Similarly, it is a refutation of the opinion of Ulla, who holds that an average person can walk fifteen mil in half a day, whereas Rabbi Yehuda holds that the average person can walk sixteen mil in half a day. The Gemara concludes: It is indeed a conclusive refutation.

לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרבי יוחנן אמר לך אנא ביממא הוא דאמרי ורבנן הוא דקא טעו דקא חשבן דקדמא וחשוכא

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabba bar bar Ḥana, citing Rabbi Yoḥanan, with regard to how far an average person can walk in a day. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan could have said to you: I am speaking about the total distance that an average person can walk in an entire day, but I never specified the distance one can walk during different parts of the day. And it was the Sages Ulla and Rava who erred in interpreting my opinion by saying that one can walk five mil and not four during each intermediate period, because when they calculated five mil before sunrise and after sunset they included the distance walked by people who set out earlier in the morning, before dawn, and by those who continued walking after nightfall.

לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרבי חנינא לא ויאיצו שאני

The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Ḥanina, who proved from biblical verses that the distance from Sodom to Zoar is five mil. The angels and Lot walked that distance between dawn and sunrise, which implies that it is only four mil. The Gemara responds: No, that verse states: “The angels hastened Lot,” which indicates that they traveled very quickly. Therefore, hastened is different; because they hurried, they traveled five mil in the time one would normally walk four mil.

תא שמע מצרים היה ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה ומצרים אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם אחד מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים בעדן ועדן אחד מששים בגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדירה לגיהנם תיובתא

Come and hear a challenge from a baraita to the previous opinion with regard to the size of the world: The size of Egypt was four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs, and Egypt is one-sixtieth of the size of Cush, and Cush is one-sixtieth of the world, and the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden is one sixtieth of the size of Gehenna. Therefore, it is found that the entire world is like a pot cover, which is a small part of the total size of the pot, compared to Gehenna. In any event, based upon the sizes of Egypt and Cush, it is apparent that the entire world is larger than six thousand parasangs. This is indeed a conclusive refutation.

תא שמע דתנא דבי אליהו רבי נתן אומר כל הישוב כולו תחת כוכב אחד יושב תדע שהרי אדם נותן עינו בכוכב אחד הולך למזרח עומד כנגדו לארבע רוחות העולם עומד כנגדו מכלל דכל הישוב כולו תחת כוכב אחד יושב תיובתא

Come and hear another challenge: One of the Sages of the school of Eliyahu taught that Rabbi Natan says: The entire settlement, the area of the world that is inhabited, sits under one star. Know that this is correct because when a person focuses his eye on one star, he can travel east as far as he wishes within the settled part of the world and the star remains opposite him in the same place, and he can travel in the four directions of the world and the star remains in place opposite him. By inference, the entire settlement of the world rests under one star; and since so many stars are visible and each one covers an area of the world comparable in size to the entire settled portion of the world, it must be that the world is larger than six thousand parasangs. The Gemara comments that this is indeed a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion.

תא שמע עגלה בצפון ועקרב בדרום וכל הישוב כולו אינו יושב אלא בין עגלה לעקרב וכל הישוב כולו אינו הוה אלא שעה אחת ביום שאין חמה נכנסת לישוב אלא שעה אחת ביום

Come and hear another challenge from another baraita, which teaches that the constellation Ursa Major is in the north and the constellation Scorpio is in the south, and the entire settlement sits between Ursa Major and Scorpio, as the relative positions of these two constellations appear to be the same from any location in the settled areas of the world. The ratio of the entire settlement to the world as a whole is comparable to only one hour in a day, as the sun enters the sky above the settlement for only one hour a day while the rest of the day it is outside the settlement.

תדע שבחמש חמה במזרח ובשבע חמה במערב חצי שש וחצי שבע חמה עומדת בראש כל אדם תיובתא

Know that this is correct because at five hours into the day the sun is still in the east, and at seven hours the sun is in the west. During the second half of the sixth hour and the first half of the seventh hour the sun is positioned on top of everyone, as it is in the middle of the sky in every inhabited area during this time.Apparently, the sun travels over the inhabited parts of the world in a single hour while the rest of the day it travels over the uninhabited parts. Therefore, the entire settled portion of the world is equal to one-twelfth of the world. It was established that the settled part of the world itself is several parasangs, so the entire world must be larger than six thousand parasangs. This also serves as a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion.

תא שמע דאמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מה תשובה השיבתו בת קול לאותו רשע בשעה שאמר אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע

Come and hear another challenge, as Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice answer to that wicked man, Nebuchadnezzar, when he said: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High” (Isaiah 14:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man,

בן בנו של נמרוד הרשע שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עלי במלכותו כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה שנאמר ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה

the disciple in corruption of Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Me during his reign by advising the generation of the dispersion to build a tower in order to fight the Hosts of Heaven, how many are the years of a person altogether? Seventy years, and if he is with strength, eighty years, as it is stated: “The days of our years are seventy years and with strength eighty years” (Psalms 90:10).

מן הארץ עד לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועוביו של רקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ובין (כל) רקיע לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה וכן בין כל רקיע ורקיע אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור תיובתא

In contrast, from the earth to the first firmament of seven (see Ḥagiga 12b) is a walking distance of five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmament is a walking distance of five hundred years, which is equal to approximately 1.8 million parasangs, and between each firmament is another walking distance of five hundred years, and so too between each and every firmament. Therefore, how can you, Nebuchadnezzar, hope to reach the heavens in your lifetime, such that you say: “I will be like the Most High”? Rather, as the verse continues: “Yet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pit” (Isaiah 14:15). In any event, this is a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion that the thickness of the firmament is only one thousand parasangs.

תנו רבנן חכמי ישראל אומרים גלגל קבוע ומזלות חוזרין וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים גלגל חוזר ומזלות קבועין אמר רבי תשובה לדבריהם מעולם לא מצינו עגלה בדרום ועקרב בצפון

In a discussion related to the structure of the natural world, the Sages taught: The Jewish Sages say the celestial sphere of the zodiac is stationary, and the constellations revolve in their place within the sphere; and the sages of the nations of the world say the entire celestial sphere revolves, and the constellations are stationary within the sphere. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: A refutation of their words that the entire sphere moves can be derived from the fact that we have never found the constellation of Ursa Major in the South or Scorpio in the North. This indicates that it is the stars themselves that revolve in place and not the celestial sphere as a whole, because otherwise it would be impossible for Ursa Major to remain in the North and Scorpio to remain in the South.

מתקיף לה רב אחא בר יעקב ודילמא כבוצינא דריחיא אי נמי כצינורא דדשא

Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov strongly objects to this proof: And perhaps the stars are stationary within the sphere like the steel socket of a mill, which remains stationary while the stones of the mill revolve around it. Alternatively, perhaps they are stationary like the pivot of a door, which remains stationary while the door makes wide turns around it; similarly, perhaps the constellations are stationary within a sphere, and there is an outer sphere within which the sun revolves around all the constellations. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s statement is not necessarily true.

חכמי ישראל אומרים ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע ובלילה למעלה מן הרקיע וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע ובלילה למטה מן הקרקע אמר רבי ונראין דבריהן מדברינו שביום מעינות צוננין ובלילה רותחין

The Gemara presents a similar dispute: The Jewish Sages say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament and is therefore visible, and at night it travels above the firmament. And the sages of the nations of the world say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament, and at night it travels beneath the earth and around to the other side of the world. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And the statement of the sages of the nations of the world appears to be more accurate than our statement. A proof to this is that during the day, springs that originate deep in the ground are cold, and during the night they are hot compared to the air temperature, which supports the theory that these springs are warmed by the sun as it travels beneath the earth.

תניא רבי נתן אומר בימות החמה חמה מהלכת בגובה של רקיע לפיכך כל העולם כולו רותח ומעינות צוננין בימות הגשמים חמה מהלכת בשיפולי רקיע לפיכך כל העולם כולו צונן ומעינות רותחין

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: During the summer the sun travels high in the sky, above the earth, and therefore the entire world is hot, and springs that originate deep in the ground are cold. On the other hand, during the winter the sun travels low in the sky, over the edges of the earth. Therefore, the entire world is cold, but springs are hot relative to the air temperature.

תנו רבנן בארבעה שבילין חמה מהלכת ניסן אייר וסיון מהלכת בהרים כדי לפשר את השלגין תמוז אב ואלול מהלכת בישוב כדי לבשל את הפירות תשרי מרחשון וכסליו מהלכת בימים כדי ליבש את הנהרות טבת שבט ואדר מהלכת במדבר שלא ליבש את הזרעים:

The Sages taught: The sun travels in four paths during the four seasons of the year, and each causes a unique weather pattern: During the months of Nisan, Iyyar, and Sivan, the sun travels over the mountains in order to melt the snows that collected during the winter. During Tammuz, Av, and Elul, it travels over the areas of the settlement in order to ripen the produce. During Tishrei, Marḥeshvan, and Kislev, it travels over the seas in order to dry the rivers, as the rivers flow more gently during that time of year and the water turns into rain clouds. During Tevet, Shevat, and Adar, it travels over the desert in order to not dry the seeds that were planted in the inhabited areas of settlement, which begin to sprout during this time.

ורבי אליעזר אומר מאסקופת כו׳: ואף על גב דמצי עייל ולא אמרינן ליה קום עייל והתניא יהודי ערל שלא מל ענוש כרת דברי רבי אליעזר

It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone located from the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond is considered to be on a distant journey. The Gemara objects: And even though he is able to enter the courtyard, we do not say to him: Get up and enter; rather, we rely on the fact that at the critical moment he is outside the courtyard. But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: An adult uncircumcised Jew who did not circumcise himself will be punished with karet for being unable to eat the Paschal lamb on Passover;this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer himself requires one to take action and circumcise himself so that the obligation to bring the Paschal lamb will apply to him. If one does not do so, he is considered to have intentionally refrained from eating the Paschal lamb and will receive karet. This baraita in which Rabbi Eliezer requires a person to be proactive seems to contradict the mishna in which Rabbi Eliezer permits a person to remain passive.

אמר אביי דרך רחוקה לטהור ואין דרך רחוקה לטמא

Abaye said: The exemption from the observing the first Pesaḥ granted to one on a distant journey was stated only for one who is ritually pure, and there is no exemption of a distant journey for one who is ritually impure or is unfit to offer the Paschal lamb for any other reason. One who is unfit to offer the sacrifice must take action to enable him to fulfill his obligation, and he is not included in the exemption of being on a distant journey. Conversely, the exemption does apply to people who are inherently fit to offer the sacrifice, and who are therefore not liable to karet if they do not enter the courtyard. There is no need to warn them to offer the Paschal lamb.

רבא אמר תנאי היא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר נאמר ריחוק מקום בפסח ונאמר ריחוק מקום במעשר מה להלן חוץ לאכילתו אף כאן חוץ לאכילתו

Rava said: It is a dispute between tanna’im as to Rabbi Eliezer’s true opinion, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb, and the exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the second tithe, as the verse states: “And if the way be too long for you, so that you are not able to carry it because the place is too far from you, which the Lord your God shall choose to set His name there” (Deuteronomy 14:24). Just as later in the Torah, with regard to the second tithe, the exemption applies only to someone located outside the area where it may be eaten, as the second tithe may be eaten only in Jerusalem, so too here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the exemption of a distant journey applies only to one located outside the place in which it may be eaten, which is the entire city of Jerusalem. According to this opinion, anyone located in Jerusalem is included in the obligation to offer the Paschal lamb.

רבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי אליעזר חוץ לעשייתו

However, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda says, citing Rabbi Eliezer: The exemption of a distant journey applies to anyone located outside the area where the offering of the Paschal lamb may be performed, which is the Temple courtyard.

כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי יצחק בר רב יוסף בטמאים הלך אחר רוב העומדין בעזרה כמאן כרבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה שאמר משום רבי אליעזר:

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Rav Yosef said: In determining whether the majority of the community is ritually pure or ritually impure, follow the majority of those standing in the courtyard, and do not take into consideration people who are in Jerusalem but have not come to the courtyard. In accordance with whose opinion is it? It is in accordance with the opinion that Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda said, citing Rabbi Eliezer, which is as follows: Circumstances that can change the details of one’s obligation to offer the Paschal lamb, such as whether one is in a state of ritual impurity or whether he is on a distant journey, are determined based on whether or not one is within the Temple courtyard at the time of the slaughter.

אמר לו רבי יוסי לפיכך וכו׳: תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר דרך שומע אני מהלך שנים או שלשה ימים כשהוא אומר ובדרך לא היה מגיד שמאסקופת העזרה ולחוץ קרוי דרך:

It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, there is a dot over the letter heh. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: If the verse had said simply: “A distant journey,” One would conclude from it that it means the distance of at least a two- or three-day walk. However, when it says later: “But the man who is ritually pure and is not on a journey” (Numbers 9:13) and does not specify a distant journey, it teaches that from the threshold of the courtyard and beyond is called a journey, and the exemption is not limited to one on a distant journey as the first verse seemed to imply.

Masechet Pesachim is sponsored by Sivya Twersky in honor of her daughter, Shoshana Baker, her grandson's upcoming Bar Mitzvah ,and in memory of her father, Harav Pesach Zachariah Halevi ben Reuven and Leah Z'late Z'L. He lived Torah and emunah by example to congregational and biological families. His yahrzeit falls within this masechet.

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Pesachim 94

לרב יהודה לא קשיא טמא שרץ רחמנא דחייה דכתיב איש איש כי יהיה טמא לנפש מי לא עסקינן שחל שביעי שלו להיות בערב הפסח ואפילו הכי אמר רחמנא לידחי

According to Rav Yehuda’s opinion it is also not difficult, because in his opinion the Torah itself deferred the obligation of one who is ritually impure through contact with a dead creeping animal to the second Pesaḥ, as it is written: “If any man of you or of your generations shall be ritually impure due to a dead body” (Numbers 9:10). Are we not dealing even with a situation in which his seventh day of purification occurs on Passover eve, such that he can be ritually pure by nightfall and therefore he has the same status on that seventh day as one who became impure due to contact with a dead creeping animal? And nonetheless the Torah stated that his obligation shall be deferred. This teaches that anyone who is ritually impure at the time of the slaughtering has his obligation deferred to the second Pesaḥ, even if he would be able to immerse and become pure in time to eat the offering on the first Pesaḥ with the rest of the Jewish people.

תנו רבנן היה עומד חוץ למודיעים ויכול ליכנס בסוסים ובפרדים יכול יהא חייב תלמוד לומר ובדרך לא היה והלה היה בדרך

The Sages taught: If one was standing outside the city of Modi’im and was able to enter Jerusalem on horses or mules but not by walking, I might have thought he would be liable to receive karet for failing to come to Jerusalem and offer the Paschal lamb; therefore, the verse states: “And is not on a journey” (Numbers 9:13). This person was on a distant journey and is therefore exempt.

היה עומד לפנים מן המודיעים ואין יכול ליכנס מפני גמלים וקרונות המעכבות אותו יכול לא יהא חייב תלמוד לומר ובדרך לא היה והרי לא היה בדרך:

On the other hand, if one was standing closer to Jerusalem than Modi’im but was not able to enter due to the camels and carriages that are carrying his family and delaying him, I might have thought he would not be liable for failing to offer the Paschal lamb because he is trying to enter; therefore, the verse states: “And was not on a journey,” and this person was not on a distant journey and is therefore liable. This person could have dismounted and come to Jerusalem on foot, but he wanted to bring his family with him in a carriage and was consequently delayed. One’s liability is determined based on his distance from Jerusalem.

אמר רבא שיתא אלפי פרסי הוי עלמא וסומכא דרקיעא אלפא פרסי חדא גמרא וחדא סברא

The discussion above pertaining to the distance that an average person can walk in a day is based on the assumption that he walks five mil between dawn and sunrise. The Gemara brings support for this assumption. Rava said: The size of the world is six thousand parasangs, and the thickness of the firmament is one thousand parasangs. One of these measurements with regard to the size of the world is a tradition, and one of the measurements is based upon Rava’s own reasoning.

סבר לה כי הא דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כמה מהלך אדם בינוני ביום עשר פרסאות מעלות השחר ועד הנץ החמה חמשה מילין משקיעת החמה עד צאת הכוכבים חמשה מילין נמצא עוביו של רקיע אחד מששה ביום

The Gemara explains: Rava holds like that statement which Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: How far can an average person walk in a day? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil. This is explained: From dawn until sunrise one can walk a distance of five mil; from sunset until the emergence of the stars one can walk another five mil. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is one-sixth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Between sunrise and sunset, the sun travels a distance of six thousand parasangs during the amount of time an average person can walk thirty mil. During the dawn and twilight periods in the morning and evening, when the sun passes through the thickness of the firmament, an average person can walk five mil, which is one-sixth of the distance he can walk between sunrise and sunset. Consequently, during dawn and twilight the sun must also travel one-sixth of the distance it travels between sunrise and sunset, i.e., one thousand parasangs, which is the thickness of the firmament.

מיתיבי רבי יהודה אומר עוביו של רקיע אחד מעשרה ביום תדע כמה מהלך אדם בינוני ביום עשר פרסאות ומעלות השחר עד הנץ החמה ארבעת מילין משקיעת החמה ועד צאת הכוכבים ארבעת מילין נמצאת עוביו של רקיע אחד מעשרה ביום תיובתא דרבא תיובתא דעולא תיובתא

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: The thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. Know that this is true because how far can an average person walk in a day between dawn and the emergence of the stars? One can walk ten parasangs, which are forty mil, and from dawn until sunrise one can walk only four mil, which are one parasang. Therefore, it is found that the thickness of the firmament is only one-tenth of the distance that the sun travels during the day. This is a refutation of the opinion of Rava. Similarly, it is a refutation of the opinion of Ulla, who holds that an average person can walk fifteen mil in half a day, whereas Rabbi Yehuda holds that the average person can walk sixteen mil in half a day. The Gemara concludes: It is indeed a conclusive refutation.

לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרבי יוחנן אמר לך אנא ביממא הוא דאמרי ורבנן הוא דקא טעו דקא חשבן דקדמא וחשוכא

The Gemara suggests: Let us say that this will be a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabba bar bar Ḥana, citing Rabbi Yoḥanan, with regard to how far an average person can walk in a day. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥanan could have said to you: I am speaking about the total distance that an average person can walk in an entire day, but I never specified the distance one can walk during different parts of the day. And it was the Sages Ulla and Rava who erred in interpreting my opinion by saying that one can walk five mil and not four during each intermediate period, because when they calculated five mil before sunrise and after sunset they included the distance walked by people who set out earlier in the morning, before dawn, and by those who continued walking after nightfall.

לימא תיהוי תיובתא דרבי חנינא לא ויאיצו שאני

The Gemara suggests: Let us say it is a conclusive refutation of the opinion of Rabbi Ḥanina, who proved from biblical verses that the distance from Sodom to Zoar is five mil. The angels and Lot walked that distance between dawn and sunrise, which implies that it is only four mil. The Gemara responds: No, that verse states: “The angels hastened Lot,” which indicates that they traveled very quickly. Therefore, hastened is different; because they hurried, they traveled five mil in the time one would normally walk four mil.

תא שמע מצרים היה ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה ומצרים אחד מששים בכוש וכוש אחד מששים בעולם ועולם אחד מששים בגן וגן אחד מששים בעדן ועדן אחד מששים בגיהנם נמצא כל העולם כולו ככיסוי קדירה לגיהנם תיובתא

Come and hear a challenge from a baraita to the previous opinion with regard to the size of the world: The size of Egypt was four hundred parasangs by four hundred parasangs, and Egypt is one-sixtieth of the size of Cush, and Cush is one-sixtieth of the world, and the world is one-sixtieth the size of the Garden of Eden, and the Garden of Eden is one-sixtieth of Eden, and Eden is one sixtieth of the size of Gehenna. Therefore, it is found that the entire world is like a pot cover, which is a small part of the total size of the pot, compared to Gehenna. In any event, based upon the sizes of Egypt and Cush, it is apparent that the entire world is larger than six thousand parasangs. This is indeed a conclusive refutation.

תא שמע דתנא דבי אליהו רבי נתן אומר כל הישוב כולו תחת כוכב אחד יושב תדע שהרי אדם נותן עינו בכוכב אחד הולך למזרח עומד כנגדו לארבע רוחות העולם עומד כנגדו מכלל דכל הישוב כולו תחת כוכב אחד יושב תיובתא

Come and hear another challenge: One of the Sages of the school of Eliyahu taught that Rabbi Natan says: The entire settlement, the area of the world that is inhabited, sits under one star. Know that this is correct because when a person focuses his eye on one star, he can travel east as far as he wishes within the settled part of the world and the star remains opposite him in the same place, and he can travel in the four directions of the world and the star remains in place opposite him. By inference, the entire settlement of the world rests under one star; and since so many stars are visible and each one covers an area of the world comparable in size to the entire settled portion of the world, it must be that the world is larger than six thousand parasangs. The Gemara comments that this is indeed a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion.

תא שמע עגלה בצפון ועקרב בדרום וכל הישוב כולו אינו יושב אלא בין עגלה לעקרב וכל הישוב כולו אינו הוה אלא שעה אחת ביום שאין חמה נכנסת לישוב אלא שעה אחת ביום

Come and hear another challenge from another baraita, which teaches that the constellation Ursa Major is in the north and the constellation Scorpio is in the south, and the entire settlement sits between Ursa Major and Scorpio, as the relative positions of these two constellations appear to be the same from any location in the settled areas of the world. The ratio of the entire settlement to the world as a whole is comparable to only one hour in a day, as the sun enters the sky above the settlement for only one hour a day while the rest of the day it is outside the settlement.

תדע שבחמש חמה במזרח ובשבע חמה במערב חצי שש וחצי שבע חמה עומדת בראש כל אדם תיובתא

Know that this is correct because at five hours into the day the sun is still in the east, and at seven hours the sun is in the west. During the second half of the sixth hour and the first half of the seventh hour the sun is positioned on top of everyone, as it is in the middle of the sky in every inhabited area during this time.Apparently, the sun travels over the inhabited parts of the world in a single hour while the rest of the day it travels over the uninhabited parts. Therefore, the entire settled portion of the world is equal to one-twelfth of the world. It was established that the settled part of the world itself is several parasangs, so the entire world must be larger than six thousand parasangs. This also serves as a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion.

תא שמע דאמר רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מה תשובה השיבתו בת קול לאותו רשע בשעה שאמר אעלה על במתי עב אדמה לעליון יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע

Come and hear another challenge, as Rabban Yoḥanan ben Zakkai said: What response did the Divine Voice answer to that wicked man, Nebuchadnezzar, when he said: “I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High” (Isaiah 14:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: Wicked man, son of a wicked man,

בן בנו של נמרוד הרשע שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עלי במלכותו כמה שנותיו של אדם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה שנאמר ימי שנותינו בהם שבעים שנה ואם בגבורות שמונים שנה

the disciple in corruption of Nimrod the wicked, who caused the entire world to rebel against Me during his reign by advising the generation of the dispersion to build a tower in order to fight the Hosts of Heaven, how many are the years of a person altogether? Seventy years, and if he is with strength, eighty years, as it is stated: “The days of our years are seventy years and with strength eighty years” (Psalms 90:10).

מן הארץ עד לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ועוביו של רקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה ובין (כל) רקיע לרקיע מהלך חמש מאות שנה וכן בין כל רקיע ורקיע אך אל שאול תורד אל ירכתי בור תיובתא

In contrast, from the earth to the first firmament of seven (see Ḥagiga 12b) is a walking distance of five hundred years, and the thickness of the firmament is a walking distance of five hundred years, which is equal to approximately 1.8 million parasangs, and between each firmament is another walking distance of five hundred years, and so too between each and every firmament. Therefore, how can you, Nebuchadnezzar, hope to reach the heavens in your lifetime, such that you say: “I will be like the Most High”? Rather, as the verse continues: “Yet you shall be brought down to the netherworld, to the uttermost parts of the pit” (Isaiah 14:15). In any event, this is a conclusive refutation of Rava’s opinion that the thickness of the firmament is only one thousand parasangs.

תנו רבנן חכמי ישראל אומרים גלגל קבוע ומזלות חוזרין וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים גלגל חוזר ומזלות קבועין אמר רבי תשובה לדבריהם מעולם לא מצינו עגלה בדרום ועקרב בצפון

In a discussion related to the structure of the natural world, the Sages taught: The Jewish Sages say the celestial sphere of the zodiac is stationary, and the constellations revolve in their place within the sphere; and the sages of the nations of the world say the entire celestial sphere revolves, and the constellations are stationary within the sphere. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: A refutation of their words that the entire sphere moves can be derived from the fact that we have never found the constellation of Ursa Major in the South or Scorpio in the North. This indicates that it is the stars themselves that revolve in place and not the celestial sphere as a whole, because otherwise it would be impossible for Ursa Major to remain in the North and Scorpio to remain in the South.

מתקיף לה רב אחא בר יעקב ודילמא כבוצינא דריחיא אי נמי כצינורא דדשא

Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov strongly objects to this proof: And perhaps the stars are stationary within the sphere like the steel socket of a mill, which remains stationary while the stones of the mill revolve around it. Alternatively, perhaps they are stationary like the pivot of a door, which remains stationary while the door makes wide turns around it; similarly, perhaps the constellations are stationary within a sphere, and there is an outer sphere within which the sun revolves around all the constellations. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s statement is not necessarily true.

חכמי ישראל אומרים ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע ובלילה למעלה מן הרקיע וחכמי אומות העולם אומרים ביום חמה מהלכת למטה מן הרקיע ובלילה למטה מן הקרקע אמר רבי ונראין דבריהן מדברינו שביום מעינות צוננין ובלילה רותחין

The Gemara presents a similar dispute: The Jewish Sages say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament and is therefore visible, and at night it travels above the firmament. And the sages of the nations of the world say that during the day the sun travels beneath the firmament, and at night it travels beneath the earth and around to the other side of the world. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: And the statement of the sages of the nations of the world appears to be more accurate than our statement. A proof to this is that during the day, springs that originate deep in the ground are cold, and during the night they are hot compared to the air temperature, which supports the theory that these springs are warmed by the sun as it travels beneath the earth.

תניא רבי נתן אומר בימות החמה חמה מהלכת בגובה של רקיע לפיכך כל העולם כולו רותח ומעינות צוננין בימות הגשמים חמה מהלכת בשיפולי רקיע לפיכך כל העולם כולו צונן ומעינות רותחין

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: During the summer the sun travels high in the sky, above the earth, and therefore the entire world is hot, and springs that originate deep in the ground are cold. On the other hand, during the winter the sun travels low in the sky, over the edges of the earth. Therefore, the entire world is cold, but springs are hot relative to the air temperature.

תנו רבנן בארבעה שבילין חמה מהלכת ניסן אייר וסיון מהלכת בהרים כדי לפשר את השלגין תמוז אב ואלול מהלכת בישוב כדי לבשל את הפירות תשרי מרחשון וכסליו מהלכת בימים כדי ליבש את הנהרות טבת שבט ואדר מהלכת במדבר שלא ליבש את הזרעים:

The Sages taught: The sun travels in four paths during the four seasons of the year, and each causes a unique weather pattern: During the months of Nisan, Iyyar, and Sivan, the sun travels over the mountains in order to melt the snows that collected during the winter. During Tammuz, Av, and Elul, it travels over the areas of the settlement in order to ripen the produce. During Tishrei, Marḥeshvan, and Kislev, it travels over the seas in order to dry the rivers, as the rivers flow more gently during that time of year and the water turns into rain clouds. During Tevet, Shevat, and Adar, it travels over the desert in order to not dry the seeds that were planted in the inhabited areas of settlement, which begin to sprout during this time.

ורבי אליעזר אומר מאסקופת כו׳: ואף על גב דמצי עייל ולא אמרינן ליה קום עייל והתניא יהודי ערל שלא מל ענוש כרת דברי רבי אליעזר

It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone located from the threshold of the Temple courtyard and beyond is considered to be on a distant journey. The Gemara objects: And even though he is able to enter the courtyard, we do not say to him: Get up and enter; rather, we rely on the fact that at the critical moment he is outside the courtyard. But wasn’t it taught in a baraita: An adult uncircumcised Jew who did not circumcise himself will be punished with karet for being unable to eat the Paschal lamb on Passover;this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Apparently, Rabbi Eliezer himself requires one to take action and circumcise himself so that the obligation to bring the Paschal lamb will apply to him. If one does not do so, he is considered to have intentionally refrained from eating the Paschal lamb and will receive karet. This baraita in which Rabbi Eliezer requires a person to be proactive seems to contradict the mishna in which Rabbi Eliezer permits a person to remain passive.

אמר אביי דרך רחוקה לטהור ואין דרך רחוקה לטמא

Abaye said: The exemption from the observing the first Pesaḥ granted to one on a distant journey was stated only for one who is ritually pure, and there is no exemption of a distant journey for one who is ritually impure or is unfit to offer the Paschal lamb for any other reason. One who is unfit to offer the sacrifice must take action to enable him to fulfill his obligation, and he is not included in the exemption of being on a distant journey. Conversely, the exemption does apply to people who are inherently fit to offer the sacrifice, and who are therefore not liable to karet if they do not enter the courtyard. There is no need to warn them to offer the Paschal lamb.

רבא אמר תנאי היא דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר נאמר ריחוק מקום בפסח ונאמר ריחוק מקום במעשר מה להלן חוץ לאכילתו אף כאן חוץ לאכילתו

Rava said: It is a dispute between tanna’im as to Rabbi Eliezer’s true opinion, as it was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: The exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the Paschal lamb, and the exemption of a distant journey is stated with regard to the second tithe, as the verse states: “And if the way be too long for you, so that you are not able to carry it because the place is too far from you, which the Lord your God shall choose to set His name there” (Deuteronomy 14:24). Just as later in the Torah, with regard to the second tithe, the exemption applies only to someone located outside the area where it may be eaten, as the second tithe may be eaten only in Jerusalem, so too here, with regard to the Paschal lamb, the exemption of a distant journey applies only to one located outside the place in which it may be eaten, which is the entire city of Jerusalem. According to this opinion, anyone located in Jerusalem is included in the obligation to offer the Paschal lamb.

רבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי אליעזר חוץ לעשייתו

However, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda says, citing Rabbi Eliezer: The exemption of a distant journey applies to anyone located outside the area where the offering of the Paschal lamb may be performed, which is the Temple courtyard.

כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי יצחק בר רב יוסף בטמאים הלך אחר רוב העומדין בעזרה כמאן כרבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה שאמר משום רבי אליעזר:

The Gemara asks: In accordance with whose opinion is that which Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Rav Yosef said: In determining whether the majority of the community is ritually pure or ritually impure, follow the majority of those standing in the courtyard, and do not take into consideration people who are in Jerusalem but have not come to the courtyard. In accordance with whose opinion is it? It is in accordance with the opinion that Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda said, citing Rabbi Eliezer, which is as follows: Circumstances that can change the details of one’s obligation to offer the Paschal lamb, such as whether one is in a state of ritual impurity or whether he is on a distant journey, are determined based on whether or not one is within the Temple courtyard at the time of the slaughter.

אמר לו רבי יוסי לפיכך וכו׳: תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר דרך שומע אני מהלך שנים או שלשה ימים כשהוא אומר ובדרך לא היה מגיד שמאסקופת העזרה ולחוץ קרוי דרך:

It was taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei said to him: Therefore, there is a dot over the letter heh. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei HaGelili says: If the verse had said simply: “A distant journey,” One would conclude from it that it means the distance of at least a two- or three-day walk. However, when it says later: “But the man who is ritually pure and is not on a journey” (Numbers 9:13) and does not specify a distant journey, it teaches that from the threshold of the courtyard and beyond is called a journey, and the exemption is not limited to one on a distant journey as the first verse seemed to imply.

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