Please ensure Javascript is enabled for purposes of website accessibility Skip to content

Today's Daf Yomi

October 25, 2021 | 讬状讟 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 16

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Stacey Goodstein Ashtamker in memory of her beloved mother Arlene Goodstein whose 6th yahrzeit is today. “My mother was a very special woman who loved to learn and who was especially committed to Judaism and built a strong Jewish home. She would be amazed that I began this daf yomi journey and that I have been studying the daf every day for close to 2 years. She is especially missed today, as tomorrow her oldest granddaughter Chana will marry Iddo in the holy city of Jerusalem. We are sure she is with us at this moment and will be dancing with us tomorrow night.”

There are four times a year the world is judged 鈥 on Pesach for grain, on Shavuot for fruits, on Rosh Hashanah people appear before God like the benei maron (sheep) and on Sukkot for water. How exactly are we judged for grain on Pesach?聽 Does this relate to the wheat that is already growing or for the new crop that will be planted later in the year? In the end, it is understood that each crop gets judged twice 鈥 each Pesach for the crop that is already growing as well as the crop that will be planted. The Gemara brings a braita with four different opinions about when the world is judged and none of these opinions matches the Mishna. To resolve this a braita is recorded in the name of Rabbi Yishmael that matches the opinion in the Mishna. Why does Rabbi Yosi (quoted in the braita) hold that people are judged every day and why did he not hold like Rabbi Natan who held that they are judged every hour? The same verse used to answer that question is used to teach that if a king and the community are going in front of the judge, the king goes first either because it鈥檚 not appropriate to make the king wait outside or better to let him go before the judge gets angry from dealing with all the sins of the others. If, according to most of the opinions, people are judged once a year, then why do we pray daily?聽 Perhaps our prayers for the sick are only meaningful according to Rabbi Yosi who holds that we are judged on a daily basis? Our prayers also could also be understood according to others, as Rabbi Yitzchak holds that prayers can be effective even after God has decreed what will be. A braita connects between the offerings brought on the holidays and the item for which we are judged at that time. We use the shofar made from a ram on Rosh Hashanah to remind God of the akeida/binding of Yitzchak 鈥 blowing the shofar is as if we bound ourselves before God. Rabbi Yitzchak explained that some blasts are done sitting (before the silent prayer) and some standing (during the silent prayer) in order to confuse the Satan. A number of other statements of his are brought regarding a number of different issues including, one is judged only based on his deeds now, as learning from Yishmael in the Torah, what can be done to change a heavenly decree, one should visit one鈥檚 Rabbi as well as purify oneself on the holidays. Derivations from the verses are brought for each statement. On Rosh Hashanah three books are opened 鈥 for the righteous, the average and the evil people. Immediate decisions are made for the righteous and the evil, and the average people鈥檚 judgment is detained until Yom Kippur. Two different verses are brought as the source for the concept that there are three books. Beit Shamai discusses the same three categories of people in the context of the resurrection of the dead 鈥 what will happen to each type?

诪转谞讬壮 讘讗专讘注讛 驻专拽讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讘讗讬 注讜诇诐 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬讜爪专 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讛诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐 讜讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐

MISHNA: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover judgment is passed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like sheep [benei maron], as it is stated: 鈥淗e Who fashions their hearts alike, Who considers all their deeds鈥 (Psalms 33:15); and on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water, i.e., the rainfall of the coming year.

讙诪壮 讛讬 转讘讜讗讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讗 转讘讜讗讛 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讛专驻转拽讬 讚注讚讜 注诇讛 讗讬诪转 讗讬转讚讜谉 讗诇讗 转讘讜讗讛 讚诪讝讚专注讗

GEMARA: The mishna taught that on Passover judgment is passed concerning grain. The Gemara asks: Which grain is judged on Passover? If we say it is the grain that is presently standing in the fields ready to be reaped between Passover and Shavuot, when was judgment passed with regard to all those events [harpatkei] that already happened to the grain while it was growing in the winter? Rather, the mishna must be referring to the grain that will be sown over the coming year.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讞讚 讚讬谞讗 诪转讚谞讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬专注 讘讛 拽专讬 讗讜 讗讜谞住 拽讜讚诐 讛驻住讞 谞讬讚讜谞讬转 诇砖注讘专 诇讗讞专 讛驻住讞 谞讬讚讜谞讬转 诇讛讘讗 讗讚诐 砖讗讬专注 讘讜 拽专讬 讗讜 讗讜谞住 拽讜讚诐 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 诇砖注讘专 诇讗讞专 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 诇讛讘讗

The Gemara asks further: Is this to say that only one judgment is passed concerning a particular crop, and no more? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If grain suffers an incident or accident before Passover, it was judged in the past, the previous Passover; if this occurs after Passover, it was judged this Passover for the future. And similarly, if a person suffered an incident or accident before Yom Kippur, he was judged in the past, the previous Rosh HaShana; if this occurred after Yom Kippur, he was judged this Rosh HaShana for the future.

讗诪专 专讘讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转专讬 讚讬谞讬 诪转讚谞讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛诇讻讱 讻讬 讞讝讬 讗讬谞砖 讚诪爪诇讞 讝专注讗 讗驻诇讗 诇讬拽讚讬诐 讜诇讬讝专注 讞专驻讗 讚注讚 讚诪讟讬 诇诪讚讬讬谞讬讛 拽讚讬诐 住诇讬拽

Rava said: Learn from here that two judgments are passed concerning each crop, one covering the period between the time it is sown and Passover and another covering the period between Passover and the time it is harvested. Abaye said: Therefore, if a person sees that his slow-growing crops, those that are sown at the beginning of the winter but ripen only in the spring or summer, are doing well, he should quickly sow fast-growing crops, such as barley, which can be sown at the end of the winter and still ripen before Passover, as before it is brought to judgment on the next Passover it will already have successfully grown, since he knows that this year鈥檚 crops were judged for a favorable yield.

诪谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诇讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诇讗 专讘讬 谞转谉

The Gemara raises a question about the mishna: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan.

讚转谞讬讗 讛讻诇 谞讬讚讜谞讬诐 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讛诐 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讛诐 谞讞转诐 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讘讝诪谞讜 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讜 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed each in its own time: On Passover the sentence is sealed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana, and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜转驻拽讚谞讜 诇讘拽专讬诐 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讻诇 砖注讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇专讙注讬诐 转讘讞谞谞讜

Rabbi Yosei says: A person is judged every day, and not just once a year, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou visit him every morning鈥 (Job 7:18), meaning that every morning an accounting is made and a judgment is passed. Rabbi Natan says: A person is judged every hour, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou try him every moment鈥 (Job 7:18).

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗讬 讛讻讬 拽砖讬讗 讗讚诐

And lest you say that actually, the mishna is taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the sentence, and not the judgments, which are all passed on Rosh HaShana, if so, it is difficult with regard to mankind, as the mishna should have stated that the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讛讬讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讗专讘注讛 驻专拽讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讜 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗转讞诇转 讚讬谉

Rava said: The tanna of the mishna is a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur. And when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the beginning of the judgment process, i.e., the judgment of mankind is initially passed on Rosh HaShana.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讚拽讗诪专 讟注诪讬讛 讜转驻拽讚谞讜 诇讘拽专讬诐 讗谞谉 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 讻专讘讬 谞转谉 讘讞讬谞讛 注讬讜谞讬 讘注诇诪讗 讛讬讗 驻拽讬讚讛 谞诪讬 注讬讜谞讬 讘注诇诪讗 讛讬讗

Rav 岣sda said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yosei? The Gemara is astonished by this question: Why ask about his reason? He stated his reason, the verse that states: 鈥淵ou visit him every morning.鈥 The Gemara explains: This is what we are saying: If Rabbi Yosei relies on this verse, what is the reason that he did not state his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan that a person is judged every hour? And if you say that he holds that the verse 鈥淵ou try him every moment鈥 cannot serve as proof, because trying merely indicates examination and not actual judgment, then in the same way visiting merely indicates examination. If so, there is no clear proof from this verse.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讛讻讗 诇注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讘专 讬讜诐 讘讬讜诪讜

Rather, Rav 岣sda said: Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 reason is from here, another verse, which states: 鈥淭o make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times, as each day may require鈥 (I Kings 8:19), which indicates that the entire world is judged every day.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诇讱 讜爪讘讜专 诪诇讱 谞讻谞住 转讞诇讛 诇讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇诪讬转讘 诪诇讻讗 讗讘专讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬驻讜砖 讞专讜谉 讗祝

搂 About this verse Rav 岣sda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: 鈥淭o make the judgment of His servant,鈥 and afterward: 鈥淎nd the judgment of His people Israel.鈥 What is the reason for this? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God鈥檚 anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and consequently he may be saved from overly harsh judgment.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讻诪讗谉 诪爪诇讬谞谉 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗拽爪讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬注讬 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘谞谉 讜讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬驻讛 爪注拽讛 诇讗讚诐 讘讬谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讘讬谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rav Yosef said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray nowadays on a daily basis for the sick and afflicted? The Gemara repeats the question: In accordance with whose opinion? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds that one is judged every day, and so there is reason to pray every day in order to affect the outcome of his judgment. And if you wish, say that actually, normative practice is even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that one is judged only once a year, but also in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitz岣k. As Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Crying out to God is beneficial for a person both before his sentence has been issued and after his sentence has been issued.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讛讘讬讗讜 注讜诪专 讘驻住讞 诪驻谞讬 砖讛驻住讞 讝诪谉 转讘讜讗讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬 注讜诪专 讘驻住讞 讻讚讬 砖转转讘专讱 诇讻诐 转讘讜讗讛 砖讘砖讚讜转 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讛讘讬讗讜 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 讘注爪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖注爪专转 讝诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 讘注爪专转 讻讚讬 砖讬转讘专讻讜 诇讻诐 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: For what reason did the Torah say: Bring the omer offering on the second day of Passover? It is because Passover is the time of grain, the beginning of the grain harvest season, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the omer offering before Me on Passover so that the grain in the fields will be blessed for you. And for what reason did the Torah say: Bring the offering of the two loaves from the new wheat on Shavuot? It is because Shavuot is the time of the fruits that grow on a tree, when it begins to ripen, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the offering of the two loaves before Me on Shavuot so that the fruits that grow on a tree will be blessed for you.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 谞住讻讜 诪讬诐 讘讞讙 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞住讻讜 诇驻谞讬 诪讬诐 讘讞讙 讻讚讬 砖讬转讘专讻讜 诇讻诐 讙砖诪讬 砖谞讛 讜讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪诇讻讬讜转 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 诪诇讻讬讜转 讻讚讬 砖转诪诇讬讻讜谞讬 注诇讬讻诐 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讻讚讬 砖讬注诇讛 讝讻专讜谞讬讻诐 诇驻谞讬 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讘诪讛 讘砖讜驻专

And for what reason did the Torah say: Pour water onto the altar in the Temple on the festival of Sukkot? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Pour water before Me on the festival of Sukkot so that the rains of the year, which begin to fall after Sukkot, will be blessed for you. And recite before Me on Rosh HaShana verses that mention Kingships, Remembrances, and Shofarot: Kingships so that you will crown Me as King over you; Remembrances so that your remembrance will rise before Me for good; and with what will the remembrance rise? It will rise with the shofar.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖讜驻专 砖诇 讗讬诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 转拽注讜 诇驻谞讬 讘砖讜驻专 砖诇 讗讬诇 讻讚讬 砖讗讝讻讜专 诇讻诐 注拽讬讚转 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 讜诪注诇讛 讗谞讬 注诇讬讻诐 讻讗讬诇讜 注拽讚转诐 注爪诪讻诐 诇驻谞讬

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: Why does one sound a blast with a shofar made from a ram鈥檚 horn on Rosh HaShana? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Sound a blast before Me with a shofar made from a ram鈥檚 horn, so that I will remember for you the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham, in whose stead a ram was sacrificed, and I will ascribe it to you as if you had bound yourselves before Me.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 转拽注讜 讗诇讗 诇诪讛 诪专讬注讬谉 诪专讬注讬谉 专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 讝讻专讜谉 转专讜注讛 讗诇讗 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讜诪专讬注讬谉 讻砖讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Why does one sound [tokin] a blast on Rosh HaShana? The Gemara is astonished by the question: Why do we sound a blast? The Merciful One states in the verse: 鈥淪ound [tiku] a shofar鈥 (Psalms 81:4). Rather, the question is: Why does one sound a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] in addition to a long continuous shofar blast [tekia]? The Gemara is still surprised by the question: Sound a terua? The Merciful One states: 鈥淚n the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns [terua]鈥 (Leviticus 23:24). Rather, Rabbi Yitz岣k asked about the common practice in Jewish communities, which is not explicitly stated in the Torah: Why does one sound a long, continuous shofar blast [tekia] and then a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] while the congregation is still sitting before the silent prayer,

讜转讜拽注讬谉 讜诪专讬注讬谉 讻砖讛谉 注讜诪讚讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注专讘讘 讛砖讟谉

and then sound again a tekia and a terua while they are standing in the Amida prayer? He answers: In order to confuse the Satan, for this double blowing of the shofar demonstrates Israel鈥檚 love for the mitzva, and this will confuse Satan when he brings his accusations against Israel before the heavenly court, and the Jewish people will receive a favorable judgment.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻诇 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 转讜拽注讬谉 诇讛 讘转讞诇转讛 诪专讬注讬谉 诇讛 讘住讜驻讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诇讗 讗讬注专讘讘 砖讟谉

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said, playing on the double meaning of the word meri鈥檌n, which can mean either sound a terua or cause misfortune: Any year during which, due to some mishap, the shofar was not sounded at its beginning will suffer evil and misfortune at its end. What is the reason? Because Satan was not confused, and he was able to put forward his accusations, so that the Jewish people would be punished.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻诇 砖谞讛 砖专砖讛 讘转讞诇转讛 诪转注砖专转 讘住讜驻讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 诪专砖讬转 讻转讬讘 讜注讚 讗讞专讬转 住讜驻讛 砖讬砖 诇讛 讗讞专讬转

搂 The Gemara brings a series of statements in the name of Rabbi Yitz岣k, all of which relate to judgment: And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Any year that is poor [rasha] and troubled at its beginning will be made rich at its end, for it is stated: 鈥淔rom the beginning [mereishit] of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The word meireishit is written defectively, without an alef, so that it may also be understood in the sense of rashut, poverty. The verse continues: 鈥淎nd until the end [a岣rit] of the year,鈥 which means that the end of the year will have expectations of good things in the end [a岣rit].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讗诇讗 诇驻讬 诪注砖讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 砖诪注 讗诇讛讬诐 讗诇 拽讜诇 讛谞注专 讘讗砖专 讛讜讗 砖诐

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A man is judged only according to his deeds at the time of his judgment, and not according to his future deeds, as it is stated with regard to Ishmael: 鈥淔or God has heard the voice of the lad where he is鈥 (Genesis 21:17). Although Ishmael and his descendants would act wickedly in the future, his prayer was heard and answered because he was innocent at the time.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 注讜谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 拽讬专 谞讟讜讬 讜注讬讜谉 转驻诇讛 讜诪讜住专 讚讬谉 注诇 讞讘讬专讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讻诇 讛诪讜住专 讚讬谉 注诇 讞讘讬专讜 讛讜讗 谞注谞砖 转讞诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讗诪专 砖专讬 讗诇 讗讘专诐 讞诪住讬 注诇讬讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讗讘专讛诐 诇住驻讜讚 诇砖专讛 讜诇讘讻讜转讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Three matters evoke a person鈥檚 sins, and they are: Endangering oneself by sitting next to an inclined wall that is about to collapse; expecting prayer to be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of one鈥檚 status and merit; and passing a case against another to Heaven, for Rabbi Avin said: Anyone who passes a case against another to God is punished first. Praying for God to pass judgment on another causes one鈥檚 own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of the other, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Sarai said to Abram: My anger be upon you; I have given my maid into your bosom, and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes; let the Lord judge between me and you鈥 (Genesis 16:5), and it is written afterward: 鈥淎nd Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her鈥 (Genesis 23:2). Sarah called upon Heaven to pass judgment between her and her husband, and therefore she was punished and died first.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪拽专注讬谉 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 爪讚拽讛 爪注拽讛 砖讬谞讜讬 讛砖诐 讜砖讬谞讜讬 诪注砖讛 爪讚拽讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜爪讚拽讛 转爪讬诇 诪诪讜转 爪注拽讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬爪注拽讜 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专 诇讛诐 讜诪诪爪讜拽讜转讬讛诐 讬讜爪讬讗诐 砖讬谞讜讬 讛砖诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬 讗砖转讱 诇讗 转拽专讗 讗转 砖诪讛 砖专讬 讻讬 砖专讛 砖诪讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讘专讻转讬 讗讜转讛 讜讙诐 谞转转讬 诪诪谞讛 诇讱 讘谉 砖讬谞讜讬 诪注砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬专讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 诪注砖讬讛诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬谞讞诐 讛讗诇讛讬诐 注诇 讛专注讛 讗砖专 讚讘专 诇注砖讜转 诇讛诐 讜诇讗 注砖讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person鈥檚 sentence is torn up on account of four types of actions. These are: Giving charity, crying out in prayer, a change of one鈥檚 name, and a change of one鈥檚 deeds for the better. An allusion may be found in Scripture for all of them: Giving charity, as it is written: 鈥淎nd charity delivers from death鈥 (Proverbs 10:2); crying out in prayer, as it is written: 鈥淭hen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distresses鈥 (Psalms 107:28); a change of one鈥檚 name, as it is written: 鈥淎s for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be鈥 (Genesis 17:15), and it is written there: 鈥淎nd I will bless her, and I will also give you a son from her鈥 (Genesis 17:16); a change of one鈥檚 deeds for the better, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God saw their deeds鈥 (Jonah 3:10), and it is written there: 鈥淎nd God repented of the evil, which He had said He would do to them, and He did not do it鈥 (Jonah 3:10).

讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 砖讬谞讜讬 诪拽讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讗讘专诐 诇讱 诇讱 诪讗专爪讱 讜讛讚专 讜讗注砖讱 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讜讗讬讚讱 讛讛讜讗 讝讻讜转讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讚讗讛谞讬讗 诇讬讛

And some say: Also, a change of one鈥檚 place of residence cancels an evil judgment, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to Abram: Go you out of your county鈥 (Genesis 12:1), and afterward it is written: 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation鈥 (Genesis 12: 2). The Gemara explains: And the other one, i.e., Rabbi Yitz岣k, who does not include a change of residence in his list, holds that in the case of Abram, it was the merit and sanctity of Eretz Yisrael that helped him become the father of a great nation.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪讚讜注 讗转 讛讜诇讻转 讗诇讬讜 讛讬讜诐 诇讗 讞讚砖 讜诇讗 砖讘转 诪讻诇诇 讚讘讞讚砖 讜砖讘转 讗讬讘注讬 诇讛 诇诪讬讝诇

The Gemara cites two more statements in the name of Rabbi Yitz岣k, relating to the Festivals: And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person is obligated to go out and greet his teacher on a Festival, as it is stated that the husband of the Shunamite woman asked, when she was readying herself to go to the prophet: 鈥淲hy will you go to him today; it is neither the New Moon nor Shabbat鈥 (II Kings 4:23). By inference, we learn that on the New Moon and on Shabbat, which in this context means a Festival that is a day of rest, she was required to go.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讟讛专 讗转 注爪诪讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person is obligated to purify himself on a Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd their carcasses you shall not touch; they are impure to you鈥 (Leviticus 11:8). This verse is referring to the Festivals, as taught in the following baraita.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 注诇 诪讙注 谞讘讬诇讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉

This is also taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd their carcass you shall not touch.鈥 One might have thought that ordinary Jews are prohibited from touching an animal carcass. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淪peak to the priests, the sons of Aaron, and say to them: There shall none be defiled for the dead among his people鈥 (Leviticus 21:1). It is derived from here that the sons of Aaron are prohibited from defiling themselves, but the children of Israel, i.e., non-priests, are not prohibited from doing so.

讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讟讜诪讗讛 讞诪讜专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讟讜诪讗讛 拽诇讛 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 讗诇讗 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜 讘专讙诇

But are these matters not an a fortiori inference? If, with regard to of severe impurity, i.e., contact with a human corpse, priests are prohibited from defiling themselves, while ordinary Israelites are not prohibited from doing so, in the case of light impurity, e.g., touching an animal carcass, is it not all the more so that Israelites be permitted to defile themselves? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd their carcass you shall not touch?鈥 It means that on a Festival all are obligated to purify themselves.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讻专讜住驻讚讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇砖讛 住驻专讬诐 谞驻转讞讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讞讚 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讞讬讬诐 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇诪讬转讛 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 转诇讜讬讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜注讚 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讝讻讜 谞讻转讘讬谉 诇讞讬讬诐 诇讗 讝讻讜 谞讻转讘讬谉 诇诪讬转讛

搂 The Gemara goes back to discuss the Day of Judgment. Rabbi Kruspedai said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Three books are opened on Rosh HaShana before the Holy One, Blessed be He: One of wholly wicked people, and one of wholly righteous people, and one of middling people whose good and bad deeds are equally balanced. Wholly righteous people are immediately written and sealed for life; wholly wicked people are immediately written and sealed for death; and middling people are left with their judgment suspended from Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur, their fate remaining undecided. If they merit, through the good deeds and mitzvot that they perform during this period, they are written for life; if they do not so merit, they are written for death.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讬诪讞讜 诪住驻专 讞讬讬诐 讜注诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗诇 讬讻转讘讜 讬诪讞讜 诪住驻专 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讞讬讬诐 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜注诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗诇 讬讻转讘讜 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐

Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淟et them be blotted out of the book of the living, but not be written with the righteous鈥 (Psalms 69:29). 鈥淟et them be blotted out of the book鈥; this is the book of wholly wicked people, who are blotted out from the world. 鈥淥f the living鈥; this is the book of wholly righteous people. 鈥淏ut not be written with the righteous鈥; this is the book of middling people, who are written in a separate book, not with the righteous.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诪讞谞讬 谞讗 诪住驻专讱 讗砖专 讻转讘转 诪讞谞讬 谞讗 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 诪住驻专讱 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗砖专 讻转讘转 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: This matter is derived from here: 鈥淎nd if not, blot me, I pray You, out of Your book which you have written鈥 (Exodus 32:32). 鈥淏lot me, I pray You鈥; this is the book of wholly wicked people, who are blotted out from the world. 鈥淥ut of Your book鈥; this is the book of wholly righteous people, which is special and attributed to God Himself. 鈥淲hich You have written鈥; this is the book of middling people.

转谞讬讗 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讻转讜转 讛谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讚讬谉 讗讞转 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜专讘讬诐 诪讬砖谞讬 讗讚诪转 注驻专 讬拽讬爪讜 讗诇讛 诇讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜讗诇讛 诇讞专驻讜转 诇讚专讗讜谉 注讜诇诐 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐

It is taught in a baraita: Beit Shammai say: There will be three groups of people on the great Day of Judgment at the end of days: One of wholly righteous people, one of wholly wicked people, and one of middling people. Wholly righteous people will immediately be written and sealed for eternal life. Wholly wicked people will immediately be written and sealed for Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall wake, some to eternal life and some to shame and everlasting contempt鈥 (Daniel 12:2). Middling people will descend to Gehenna to be cleansed and to achieve atonement for their sins,

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

And in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Want to explore more about the Daf?

See insights from our partners, contributors and community of women learners

learn daf yomi one week at a time with tamara spitz

Rosh Hashanah: 11-17 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn when the world was created, when our Forefathers were born. and what month the Redemption...
alon shvut women

Four Times of Judgement

Rosh Hashanah, Daf 16, Teacher: Susan Suna New mishna about 4 times when the world is judged. Rosh Hashana for...

Rosh Hashanah 16

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 16

诪转谞讬壮 讘讗专讘注讛 驻专拽讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讘讗讬 注讜诇诐 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬讜爪专 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讛诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐 讜讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐

MISHNA: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover judgment is passed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like sheep [benei maron], as it is stated: 鈥淗e Who fashions their hearts alike, Who considers all their deeds鈥 (Psalms 33:15); and on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water, i.e., the rainfall of the coming year.

讙诪壮 讛讬 转讘讜讗讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讗 转讘讜讗讛 讚拽讬讬诪讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讛专驻转拽讬 讚注讚讜 注诇讛 讗讬诪转 讗讬转讚讜谉 讗诇讗 转讘讜讗讛 讚诪讝讚专注讗

GEMARA: The mishna taught that on Passover judgment is passed concerning grain. The Gemara asks: Which grain is judged on Passover? If we say it is the grain that is presently standing in the fields ready to be reaped between Passover and Shavuot, when was judgment passed with regard to all those events [harpatkei] that already happened to the grain while it was growing in the winter? Rather, the mishna must be referring to the grain that will be sown over the coming year.

诇诪讬诪专讗 讚讞讚 讚讬谞讗 诪转讚谞讗 讜讛转谞讬讗 转讘讜讗讛 砖讗讬专注 讘讛 拽专讬 讗讜 讗讜谞住 拽讜讚诐 讛驻住讞 谞讬讚讜谞讬转 诇砖注讘专 诇讗讞专 讛驻住讞 谞讬讚讜谞讬转 诇讛讘讗 讗讚诐 砖讗讬专注 讘讜 拽专讬 讗讜 讗讜谞住 拽讜讚诐 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 诇砖注讘专 诇讗讞专 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 谞讬讚讜谉 诇讛讘讗

The Gemara asks further: Is this to say that only one judgment is passed concerning a particular crop, and no more? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: If grain suffers an incident or accident before Passover, it was judged in the past, the previous Passover; if this occurs after Passover, it was judged this Passover for the future. And similarly, if a person suffered an incident or accident before Yom Kippur, he was judged in the past, the previous Rosh HaShana; if this occurred after Yom Kippur, he was judged this Rosh HaShana for the future.

讗诪专 专讘讗 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 转专讬 讚讬谞讬 诪转讚谞讗 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讛诇讻讱 讻讬 讞讝讬 讗讬谞砖 讚诪爪诇讞 讝专注讗 讗驻诇讗 诇讬拽讚讬诐 讜诇讬讝专注 讞专驻讗 讚注讚 讚诪讟讬 诇诪讚讬讬谞讬讛 拽讚讬诐 住诇讬拽

Rava said: Learn from here that two judgments are passed concerning each crop, one covering the period between the time it is sown and Passover and another covering the period between Passover and the time it is harvested. Abaye said: Therefore, if a person sees that his slow-growing crops, those that are sown at the beginning of the winter but ripen only in the spring or summer, are doing well, he should quickly sow fast-growing crops, such as barley, which can be sown at the end of the winter and still ripen before Passover, as before it is brought to judgment on the next Passover it will already have successfully grown, since he knows that this year鈥檚 crops were judged for a favorable yield.

诪谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 诇讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜诇讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜诇讗 专讘讬 谞转谉

The Gemara raises a question about the mishna: Whose opinion is expressed in the mishna? It is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, and not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan.

讚转谞讬讗 讛讻诇 谞讬讚讜谞讬诐 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讛诐 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讛讻诇 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讛诐 谞讞转诐 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讘讝诪谞讜 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讜 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

The Gemara explains: As it is taught in a baraita: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: All are judged on Rosh HaShana, and their sentence is sealed each in its own time: On Passover the sentence is sealed concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana, and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜转驻拽讚谞讜 诇讘拽专讬诐 专讘讬 谞转谉 讗讜诪专 讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讻诇 砖注讛 砖谞讗诪专 诇专讙注讬诐 转讘讞谞谞讜

Rabbi Yosei says: A person is judged every day, and not just once a year, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou visit him every morning鈥 (Job 7:18), meaning that every morning an accounting is made and a judgment is passed. Rabbi Natan says: A person is judged every hour, as it is stated: 鈥淵ou try him every moment鈥 (Job 7:18).

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 讜讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗讙讝专 讚讬谉 讗讬 讛讻讬 拽砖讬讗 讗讚诐

And lest you say that actually, the mishna is taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, and when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the sentence, and not the judgments, which are all passed on Rosh HaShana, if so, it is difficult with regard to mankind, as the mishna should have stated that the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讛讬讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讗专讘注讛 驻专拽讬诐 讛注讜诇诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘驻住讞 注诇 讛转讘讜讗讛 讘注爪专转 注诇 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讘讞讙 谞讬讚讜谞讬谉 注诇 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讚诐 谞讬讚讜谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇讜 谞讞转诐 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讻讬 拽转谞讬 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗转讞诇转 讚讬谉

Rava said: The tanna of the mishna is a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael, as a tanna from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: At four times of the year the world is judged: On Passover concerning grain; on Shavuot concerning fruits that grow on a tree; on the festival of Sukkot they are judged concerning water; and mankind is judged on Rosh HaShana and the sentence is sealed on Yom Kippur. And when the mishna is taught, it is taught with regard to the beginning of the judgment process, i.e., the judgment of mankind is initially passed on Rosh HaShana.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讚拽讗诪专 讟注诪讬讛 讜转驻拽讚谞讜 诇讘拽专讬诐 讗谞谉 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专讬谞谉 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专 讻专讘讬 谞转谉 讘讞讬谞讛 注讬讜谞讬 讘注诇诪讗 讛讬讗 驻拽讬讚讛 谞诪讬 注讬讜谞讬 讘注诇诪讗 讛讬讗

Rav 岣sda said: What is the reason for the opinion of Rabbi Yosei? The Gemara is astonished by this question: Why ask about his reason? He stated his reason, the verse that states: 鈥淵ou visit him every morning.鈥 The Gemara explains: This is what we are saying: If Rabbi Yosei relies on this verse, what is the reason that he did not state his opinion in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Natan that a person is judged every hour? And if you say that he holds that the verse 鈥淵ou try him every moment鈥 cannot serve as proof, because trying merely indicates examination and not actual judgment, then in the same way visiting merely indicates examination. If so, there is no clear proof from this verse.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讟注诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜住讬 诪讛讻讗 诇注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 讚讘专 讬讜诐 讘讬讜诪讜

Rather, Rav 岣sda said: Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 reason is from here, another verse, which states: 鈥淭o make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times, as each day may require鈥 (I Kings 8:19), which indicates that the entire world is judged every day.

讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诇讱 讜爪讘讜专 诪诇讱 谞讻谞住 转讞诇讛 诇讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诇注砖讜转 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇诪讬转讘 诪诇讻讗 讗讘专讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬驻讜砖 讞专讜谉 讗祝

搂 About this verse Rav 岣sda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: 鈥淭o make the judgment of His servant,鈥 and afterward: 鈥淎nd the judgment of His people Israel.鈥 What is the reason for this? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God鈥檚 anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and consequently he may be saved from overly harsh judgment.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 讻诪讗谉 诪爪诇讬谞谉 讛讗讬讚谞讗 讗拽爪讬专讬 讜讗诪专讬注讬 讻诪讗谉 讻专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇注讜诇诐 讻专讘谞谉 讜讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬驻讛 爪注拽讛 诇讗讚诐 讘讬谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讘讬谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rav Yosef said: In accordance with whose opinion do we pray nowadays on a daily basis for the sick and afflicted? The Gemara repeats the question: In accordance with whose opinion? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who holds that one is judged every day, and so there is reason to pray every day in order to affect the outcome of his judgment. And if you wish, say that actually, normative practice is even in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, who hold that one is judged only once a year, but also in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yitz岣k. As Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Crying out to God is beneficial for a person both before his sentence has been issued and after his sentence has been issued.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讛讘讬讗讜 注讜诪专 讘驻住讞 诪驻谞讬 砖讛驻住讞 讝诪谉 转讘讜讗讛 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬 注讜诪专 讘驻住讞 讻讚讬 砖转转讘专讱 诇讻诐 转讘讜讗讛 砖讘砖讚讜转 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讛讘讬讗讜 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 讘注爪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖注爪专转 讝诪谉 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉 讛讜讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬 砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 讘注爪专转 讻讚讬 砖讬转讘专讻讜 诇讻诐 驻讬专讜转 讛讗讬诇谉

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: For what reason did the Torah say: Bring the omer offering on the second day of Passover? It is because Passover is the time of grain, the beginning of the grain harvest season, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the omer offering before Me on Passover so that the grain in the fields will be blessed for you. And for what reason did the Torah say: Bring the offering of the two loaves from the new wheat on Shavuot? It is because Shavuot is the time of the fruits that grow on a tree, when it begins to ripen, and therefore the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Bring the offering of the two loaves before Me on Shavuot so that the fruits that grow on a tree will be blessed for you.

讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 谞住讻讜 诪讬诐 讘讞讙 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 谞住讻讜 诇驻谞讬 诪讬诐 讘讞讙 讻讚讬 砖讬转讘专讻讜 诇讻诐 讙砖诪讬 砖谞讛 讜讗诪专讜 诇驻谞讬 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪诇讻讬讜转 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讜砖讜驻专讜转 诪诇讻讬讜转 讻讚讬 砖转诪诇讬讻讜谞讬 注诇讬讻诐 讝讻专讜谞讜转 讻讚讬 砖讬注诇讛 讝讻专讜谞讬讻诐 诇驻谞讬 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讘诪讛 讘砖讜驻专

And for what reason did the Torah say: Pour water onto the altar in the Temple on the festival of Sukkot? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Pour water before Me on the festival of Sukkot so that the rains of the year, which begin to fall after Sukkot, will be blessed for you. And recite before Me on Rosh HaShana verses that mention Kingships, Remembrances, and Shofarot: Kingships so that you will crown Me as King over you; Remembrances so that your remembrance will rise before Me for good; and with what will the remembrance rise? It will rise with the shofar.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖讜驻专 砖诇 讗讬诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 转拽注讜 诇驻谞讬 讘砖讜驻专 砖诇 讗讬诇 讻讚讬 砖讗讝讻讜专 诇讻诐 注拽讬讚转 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐 讜诪注诇讛 讗谞讬 注诇讬讻诐 讻讗讬诇讜 注拽讚转诐 注爪诪讻诐 诇驻谞讬

Similarly, Rabbi Abbahu said: Why does one sound a blast with a shofar made from a ram鈥檚 horn on Rosh HaShana? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Sound a blast before Me with a shofar made from a ram鈥檚 horn, so that I will remember for you the binding of Isaac, son of Abraham, in whose stead a ram was sacrificed, and I will ascribe it to you as if you had bound yourselves before Me.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 转拽注讜 讗诇讗 诇诪讛 诪专讬注讬谉 诪专讬注讬谉 专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 讝讻专讜谉 转专讜注讛 讗诇讗 诇诪讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讜诪专讬注讬谉 讻砖讛谉 讬讜砖讘讬谉

Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Why does one sound [tokin] a blast on Rosh HaShana? The Gemara is astonished by the question: Why do we sound a blast? The Merciful One states in the verse: 鈥淪ound [tiku] a shofar鈥 (Psalms 81:4). Rather, the question is: Why does one sound a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] in addition to a long continuous shofar blast [tekia]? The Gemara is still surprised by the question: Sound a terua? The Merciful One states: 鈥淚n the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall be a solemn rest unto you, a memorial proclaimed with the blast of horns [terua]鈥 (Leviticus 23:24). Rather, Rabbi Yitz岣k asked about the common practice in Jewish communities, which is not explicitly stated in the Torah: Why does one sound a long, continuous shofar blast [tekia] and then a staccato series of shofar blasts [terua] while the congregation is still sitting before the silent prayer,

讜转讜拽注讬谉 讜诪专讬注讬谉 讻砖讛谉 注讜诪讚讬谉 讻讚讬 诇注专讘讘 讛砖讟谉

and then sound again a tekia and a terua while they are standing in the Amida prayer? He answers: In order to confuse the Satan, for this double blowing of the shofar demonstrates Israel鈥檚 love for the mitzva, and this will confuse Satan when he brings his accusations against Israel before the heavenly court, and the Jewish people will receive a favorable judgment.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻诇 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 转讜拽注讬谉 诇讛 讘转讞诇转讛 诪专讬注讬谉 诇讛 讘住讜驻讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诇讗 讗讬注专讘讘 砖讟谉

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said, playing on the double meaning of the word meri鈥檌n, which can mean either sound a terua or cause misfortune: Any year during which, due to some mishap, the shofar was not sounded at its beginning will suffer evil and misfortune at its end. What is the reason? Because Satan was not confused, and he was able to put forward his accusations, so that the Jewish people would be punished.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讻诇 砖谞讛 砖专砖讛 讘转讞诇转讛 诪转注砖专转 讘住讜驻讛 砖谞讗诪专 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 诪专砖讬转 讻转讬讘 讜注讚 讗讞专讬转 住讜驻讛 砖讬砖 诇讛 讗讞专讬转

搂 The Gemara brings a series of statements in the name of Rabbi Yitz岣k, all of which relate to judgment: And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Any year that is poor [rasha] and troubled at its beginning will be made rich at its end, for it is stated: 鈥淔rom the beginning [mereishit] of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The word meireishit is written defectively, without an alef, so that it may also be understood in the sense of rashut, poverty. The verse continues: 鈥淎nd until the end [a岣rit] of the year,鈥 which means that the end of the year will have expectations of good things in the end [a岣rit].

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讗转 讛讗讚诐 讗诇讗 诇驻讬 诪注砖讬讜 砖诇 讗讜转讛 砖注讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 砖诪注 讗诇讛讬诐 讗诇 拽讜诇 讛谞注专 讘讗砖专 讛讜讗 砖诐

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A man is judged only according to his deeds at the time of his judgment, and not according to his future deeds, as it is stated with regard to Ishmael: 鈥淔or God has heard the voice of the lad where he is鈥 (Genesis 21:17). Although Ishmael and his descendants would act wickedly in the future, his prayer was heard and answered because he was innocent at the time.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 砖诇砖讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 注讜谞讜转讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 拽讬专 谞讟讜讬 讜注讬讜谉 转驻诇讛 讜诪讜住专 讚讬谉 注诇 讞讘讬专讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 讻诇 讛诪讜住专 讚讬谉 注诇 讞讘讬专讜 讛讜讗 谞注谞砖 转讞诇讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜转讗诪专 砖专讬 讗诇 讗讘专诐 讞诪住讬 注诇讬讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讘讗 讗讘专讛诐 诇住驻讜讚 诇砖专讛 讜诇讘讻讜转讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Three matters evoke a person鈥檚 sins, and they are: Endangering oneself by sitting next to an inclined wall that is about to collapse; expecting prayer to be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of one鈥檚 status and merit; and passing a case against another to Heaven, for Rabbi Avin said: Anyone who passes a case against another to God is punished first. Praying for God to pass judgment on another causes one鈥檚 own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of the other, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Sarai said to Abram: My anger be upon you; I have given my maid into your bosom, and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes; let the Lord judge between me and you鈥 (Genesis 16:5), and it is written afterward: 鈥淎nd Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her鈥 (Genesis 23:2). Sarah called upon Heaven to pass judgment between her and her husband, and therefore she was punished and died first.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 诪拽专注讬谉 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讗诇讜 讛谉 爪讚拽讛 爪注拽讛 砖讬谞讜讬 讛砖诐 讜砖讬谞讜讬 诪注砖讛 爪讚拽讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜爪讚拽讛 转爪讬诇 诪诪讜转 爪注拽讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬爪注拽讜 讗诇 讛壮 讘爪专 诇讛诐 讜诪诪爪讜拽讜转讬讛诐 讬讜爪讬讗诐 砖讬谞讜讬 讛砖诐 讚讻转讬讘 砖专讬 讗砖转讱 诇讗 转拽专讗 讗转 砖诪讛 砖专讬 讻讬 砖专讛 砖诪讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜讘专讻转讬 讗讜转讛 讜讙诐 谞转转讬 诪诪谞讛 诇讱 讘谉 砖讬谞讜讬 诪注砖讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬专讗 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讗转 诪注砖讬讛诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬谞讞诐 讛讗诇讛讬诐 注诇 讛专注讛 讗砖专 讚讘专 诇注砖讜转 诇讛诐 讜诇讗 注砖讛

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person鈥檚 sentence is torn up on account of four types of actions. These are: Giving charity, crying out in prayer, a change of one鈥檚 name, and a change of one鈥檚 deeds for the better. An allusion may be found in Scripture for all of them: Giving charity, as it is written: 鈥淎nd charity delivers from death鈥 (Proverbs 10:2); crying out in prayer, as it is written: 鈥淭hen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distresses鈥 (Psalms 107:28); a change of one鈥檚 name, as it is written: 鈥淎s for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be鈥 (Genesis 17:15), and it is written there: 鈥淎nd I will bless her, and I will also give you a son from her鈥 (Genesis 17:16); a change of one鈥檚 deeds for the better, as it is written: 鈥淎nd God saw their deeds鈥 (Jonah 3:10), and it is written there: 鈥淎nd God repented of the evil, which He had said He would do to them, and He did not do it鈥 (Jonah 3:10).

讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 砖讬谞讜讬 诪拽讜诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇 讗讘专诐 诇讱 诇讱 诪讗专爪讱 讜讛讚专 讜讗注砖讱 诇讙讜讬 讙讚讜诇 讜讗讬讚讱 讛讛讜讗 讝讻讜转讗 讚讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讚讗讛谞讬讗 诇讬讛

And some say: Also, a change of one鈥檚 place of residence cancels an evil judgment, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord said to Abram: Go you out of your county鈥 (Genesis 12:1), and afterward it is written: 鈥淎nd I will make of you a great nation鈥 (Genesis 12: 2). The Gemara explains: And the other one, i.e., Rabbi Yitz岣k, who does not include a change of residence in his list, holds that in the case of Abram, it was the merit and sanctity of Eretz Yisrael that helped him become the father of a great nation.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讛拽讘讬诇 驻谞讬 专讘讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 诪讚讜注 讗转 讛讜诇讻转 讗诇讬讜 讛讬讜诐 诇讗 讞讚砖 讜诇讗 砖讘转 诪讻诇诇 讚讘讞讚砖 讜砖讘转 讗讬讘注讬 诇讛 诇诪讬讝诇

The Gemara cites two more statements in the name of Rabbi Yitz岣k, relating to the Festivals: And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person is obligated to go out and greet his teacher on a Festival, as it is stated that the husband of the Shunamite woman asked, when she was readying herself to go to the prophet: 鈥淲hy will you go to him today; it is neither the New Moon nor Shabbat鈥 (II Kings 4:23). By inference, we learn that on the New Moon and on Shabbat, which in this context means a Festival that is a day of rest, she was required to go.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讞讬讬讘 讗讚诐 诇讟讛专 讗转 注爪诪讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜

And Rabbi Yitz岣k said: A person is obligated to purify himself on a Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd their carcasses you shall not touch; they are impure to you鈥 (Leviticus 11:8). This verse is referring to the Festivals, as taught in the following baraita.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜 讬讻讜诇 讬讛讜 讬砖专讗诇 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 注诇 诪讙注 谞讘讬诇讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讗诪讜专 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 讘谞讬 讗讛专谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉

This is also taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd their carcass you shall not touch.鈥 One might have thought that ordinary Jews are prohibited from touching an animal carcass. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淪peak to the priests, the sons of Aaron, and say to them: There shall none be defiled for the dead among his people鈥 (Leviticus 21:1). It is derived from here that the sons of Aaron are prohibited from defiling themselves, but the children of Israel, i.e., non-priests, are not prohibited from doing so.

讜讛诇讗 讚讘专讬诐 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讟讜诪讗讛 讞诪讜专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讬砖专讗诇讬诐 讗讬谞谉 诪讜讝讛专讬谉 讟讜诪讗讛 拽诇讛 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 讗诇讗 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜讘谞讘诇转诐 诇讗 转讙注讜 讘专讙诇

But are these matters not an a fortiori inference? If, with regard to of severe impurity, i.e., contact with a human corpse, priests are prohibited from defiling themselves, while ordinary Israelites are not prohibited from doing so, in the case of light impurity, e.g., touching an animal carcass, is it not all the more so that Israelites be permitted to defile themselves? Rather, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd their carcass you shall not touch?鈥 It means that on a Festival all are obligated to purify themselves.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讻专讜住驻讚讗讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 砖诇砖讛 住驻专讬诐 谞驻转讞讬谉 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讗讞讚 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞讚 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讞讬讬诐 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇诪讬转讛 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 转诇讜讬讬谉 讜注讜诪讚讬谉 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜注讚 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讝讻讜 谞讻转讘讬谉 诇讞讬讬诐 诇讗 讝讻讜 谞讻转讘讬谉 诇诪讬转讛

搂 The Gemara goes back to discuss the Day of Judgment. Rabbi Kruspedai said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Three books are opened on Rosh HaShana before the Holy One, Blessed be He: One of wholly wicked people, and one of wholly righteous people, and one of middling people whose good and bad deeds are equally balanced. Wholly righteous people are immediately written and sealed for life; wholly wicked people are immediately written and sealed for death; and middling people are left with their judgment suspended from Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur, their fate remaining undecided. If they merit, through the good deeds and mitzvot that they perform during this period, they are written for life; if they do not so merit, they are written for death.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讬谉 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讬诪讞讜 诪住驻专 讞讬讬诐 讜注诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗诇 讬讻转讘讜 讬诪讞讜 诪住驻专 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讞讬讬诐 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讜注诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗诇 讬讻转讘讜 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐

Rabbi Avin said: What is the verse that alludes to this? 鈥淟et them be blotted out of the book of the living, but not be written with the righteous鈥 (Psalms 69:29). 鈥淟et them be blotted out of the book鈥; this is the book of wholly wicked people, who are blotted out from the world. 鈥淥f the living鈥; this is the book of wholly righteous people. 鈥淏ut not be written with the righteous鈥; this is the book of middling people, who are written in a separate book, not with the righteous.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讗诐 讗讬谉 诪讞谞讬 谞讗 诪住驻专讱 讗砖专 讻转讘转 诪讞谞讬 谞讗 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 诪住驻专讱 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗砖专 讻转讘转 讝讛 住驻专谉 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: This matter is derived from here: 鈥淎nd if not, blot me, I pray You, out of Your book which you have written鈥 (Exodus 32:32). 鈥淏lot me, I pray You鈥; this is the book of wholly wicked people, who are blotted out from the world. 鈥淥ut of Your book鈥; this is the book of wholly righteous people, which is special and attributed to God Himself. 鈥淲hich You have written鈥; this is the book of middling people.

转谞讬讗 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖 讻转讜转 讛谉 诇讬讜诐 讛讚讬谉 讗讞转 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 讜讗讞转 砖诇 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 专砖注讬诐 讙诪讜专讬谉 谞讻转讘讬谉 讜谞讞转诪讬谉 诇讗诇转专 诇讙讬讛谞诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜专讘讬诐 诪讬砖谞讬 讗讚诪转 注驻专 讬拽讬爪讜 讗诇讛 诇讞讬讬 注讜诇诐 讜讗诇讛 诇讞专驻讜转 诇讚专讗讜谉 注讜诇诐 讘讬谞讜谞讬讬诐 讬讜专讚讬谉 诇讙讬讛谞诐

It is taught in a baraita: Beit Shammai say: There will be three groups of people on the great Day of Judgment at the end of days: One of wholly righteous people, one of wholly wicked people, and one of middling people. Wholly righteous people will immediately be written and sealed for eternal life. Wholly wicked people will immediately be written and sealed for Gehenna, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall wake, some to eternal life and some to shame and everlasting contempt鈥 (Daniel 12:2). Middling people will descend to Gehenna to be cleansed and to achieve atonement for their sins,

Scroll To Top