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Today's Daf Yomi

October 26, 2021 | ื›ืณ ื‘ืžืจื—ืฉื•ื•ืŸ ืชืฉืคืดื‘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 17

Today’s daf is dedicated in memory of Rabbi Jonathan Sacks on his first yahrzeit. And for a refuah shleima to Hannah bat Hessa.ย 

There is a Beit Shamai/Beit Hillel debate regarding what will happen to the middle person (beinoni) during the resurrection of the dead. Will they descend to Hell to achieve atonement and then after suffering there, will be raised up, based on the prayer of Chana, “God will bring down to sheol (the depths) and raise up”? Or will they not have to go through that suffering at all, and will be saved because of the compassion of God. Who falls into the category of the evil people who will remain in Hell forever? According to Beit Shamai who holds that the middle people will go to Hell first, they will forever have an imprint of that on their faces. According to Beit Hillel’s approach, it is explained that the middle people split into three categories – one whose sins are greater than one’s merits, one whose sins and merits are equal but have sinned with their bodies, and ones who are equal and have not sinned with their bodies. The destiny of each group is different. Beit Hillel’s explanation was based on his understanding of one of the 13 divine attributes of God, rav chesed, full of compassion. How exactly does God employ this attribute to have the merits outweigh the sins? A few possibilities are suggested. A verse was quoted from Micha, referring to the divine attributes of God and this is used to also teach that one who overlooks one who did something bad to him/her, God will forgive their sins. A story of Rav Huna son of Rav Yehoshua is brought to prove this. Another explanation of the latter part of that verse is brought to teach the importance of humility. It is further taught that God first rules with justice and later with compassion and that is proven from several verses. God taught Moshe the thirteen attributes to be used anytime the people sinned and were in need of forgiveness. Rabbi Yochanan explains how great repentance is that it can overturn a divine decree. Several questions are raised against Rabbi Yochanan’s statement and are resolved.

 

ื•ืžืฆืคืฆืคื™ืŸ ื•ืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื•ืฆืจืคืชื™ื ื›ืฆืจื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื—ื ืชื™ื ื›ื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื‘ืฉืžื™ ื•ืื ื™ ืืขื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจื” ื—ื ื” ื”ืณ ืžืžื™ืช ื•ืžื—ื™ื” ืžื•ืจื™ื“ ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ื™ืขืœ

and they will cry out in their pain and eventually ascend from there, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on My name, and I will answer themโ€ (Zechariah 13:9). This is referring to the members of the third group, who require refinement and cleansing. And about them, Hannah said: โ€œThe Lord kills, and gives life; he brings down to the grave, and brings upโ€ (I Samuel 2:6).

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืืช ืงื•ืœื™ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจืฉื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื“ืœื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉื™ืข

Beit Hillel say: He Who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people should not have to pass through Gehenna. And about them, David said: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€ (Psalms 116:1). And about them, David said the entire passage: โ€œI was brought low [daloti] and He saved meโ€ (Psalms 116:6). Although they are poor [dalim] in mitzvot, God saves them.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื•ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื›ืœื” ื•ื ืฉืžืชืŸ ื ืฉืจืคืช ื•ืจื•ื— ืžืคื–ืจืชืŸ ืชื—ืช ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืกื•ืชื ืจืฉืขื™ื ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืืคืจ ืชื—ืช ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ื›ื

The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies and also the rebellious people of the nations of the world who have sinned with their bodies descend to Gehenna and are judged there for twelve months. After twelve months, their bodies are consumed, their souls are burned, and a wind scatters them under the soles of the feet of the righteous, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feetโ€ (Malachi 3:21).

ืื‘ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืืคื™ืงื•ืจืกื™ื ืฉื›ืคืจื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉื›ืคืจื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ื™ืช ื”ืžืชื™ื ื•ืฉืคื™ืจืฉื• ืžื“ืจื›ื™ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืฉื ืชื ื• ื—ื™ืชื™ืชื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืฉื—ื˜ืื• ื•ื”ื—ื˜ื™ืื• ืืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื ื‘ื˜ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ื• ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื™ ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืื• ื•ืจืื• ื‘ืคื’ืจื™ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืคื•ืฉืขื™ื ื‘ื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

But the heretics; and the informers; and the apostates [apikorsim]; and those who denied the Torah; and those who denied the resurrection of the dead; and those who separated from the ways of the Jewish community and refused to share the suffering; and those who cast their fear over the land of the living; and those who sinned and caused the masses to sin, for example, Jeroboam, son of Nebat, and his company; all of these people descend to Gehenna and are judged there for generations and generations, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die; neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all fleshโ€ (Isaiah 66:24).

ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื›ืœื” ื•ื”ืŸ ืื™ื ืŸ ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฆื•ืจื ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืื•ืœ ืžื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื• ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืคืฉื˜ื• ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืืœื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืš ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจื” ื—ื ื”ื”ืณ ื™ื—ืชื• ืžืจื™ื‘ื™ื•

Gehenna will terminate, but they still will not terminate, as it is stated: โ€œAnd their form shall wear away the netherworld, so that there be no dwelling for Himโ€ (Psalms 49:15); that is to say, Gehenna itself will be worn away before their punishment has come to an end. And why are they punished so severely? Because they stretched out their hands against Godโ€™s dwelling, the Temple, and everything else that is sanctified, as it is stated: โ€œSo that there be no dwelling [zevul] for Him.โ€ Dwelling [zevul] is referring here only to the Temple, as it is stated: โ€œI have built You a house for dwelling [zevul] inโ€ (I Kings 8:13). And about them Hannah said: โ€œThe adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in piecesโ€ (I Samuel 2:10).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉื•ืœื™ ืงื“ื™ืจื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ืžืฉืคื™ืจื™ ืฉืคื™ืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืžื—ื•ื–ื ื•ืžืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื’ื™ื”ื ื

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Avin said: And their faces on the Day of Judgment will be black and sooty like the bottom of a pot. And Rava said: And they shall include the most handsome, i.e., upstanding, of the people of Meแธฅoza, as Rava thought that even the most upstanding people of the city of Meแธฅoza were wicked, and they shall be called the people of Gehenna.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื”ืชื ื‘ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ

The Master said in the baraita above: It stated that Beit Hillel say: He Who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fireโ€ (Zechariah 13:9), implying that there is a third group, which is sent to Gehenna temporarily? The Gemara answers: There, the verse is referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืชืงื ืชื ื›ื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืชืงื ื” ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืžื—ืฆื” ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื–ื›ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืช ื‘ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืขื•ืŸ ื“ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืœื ืกื’ื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืื• ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื•ืื ืœืื• ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ

The Gemara asks: Can the verse be referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies? But didnโ€™t you say that they have no rectification? The Gemara responds: When do they have no rectification? When in addition to their having sinned with their bodies, the majority of their actions are sins. But here, the verse is referring to people for whom half of their actions are sins and half are meritorious deeds, and those sins include the sin of the rebellious Jews who sin with their bodies. It is not sufficient that they not be subject to the verse: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fire.โ€ However, if their sins and meritorious deeds are equally balanced, and they did not sin with their bodies, He Who is โ€œabundant in kindnessโ€ tilts the scales in favor of kindness. And about them, David said: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€ (Psalms 116:1).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืืžืจื” ื›ื ืกืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืžืชื™ ืื ื™ ืื”ื•ื‘ื” ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืฉื•ืžืข ืงื•ืœ ืชื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื“ืœื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉื™ืข ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื“ืœื” ืื ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืœื™ ื ืื” ืœื”ื•ืฉื™ืข

Rava interpreted the verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, when do I know that I am loved by You? When You hear the voice of my supplications, as the verse states: โ€œI was brought low [daloti], and He saved meโ€ (Psalms 116:6). Although I am poor [dala] in mitzvot, nevertheless it is fitting to save me.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงืจืงืคืชื ื“ืœื ืžื ื— ืชืคืœื™ืŸ ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื”

The Gemara asks: The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: This is referring to the skull that did not ever don phylacteries. The Gemara asks further: The rebellious ones of the nations of the world who sin with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: They are those who engage in the sin, i.e., forbidden sexual relations.

ื•ืฉื ืชื ื• ื—ื™ืชื™ืชื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื–ื” ืคืจื ืก ื”ืžื˜ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืœืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ืคืจื ืก ื”ืžื˜ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืœืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืจืื•ื”ื• ืื ืฉื™ื ืœื ื™ืจืื” ื›ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืœื‘

And those who cast their fear over the land of the living, who are they? Rav แธคisda said: This is referring to a communal leader [parnas] who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Any community leader who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven will be punished and not see any Torah scholar among his sons, as it is stated: โ€œMen do therefore fear him; he sees not any who are wise of heartโ€ (Job 37:24). One who brings others to fear him will not merit having wise-hearted people in his family.

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ื‘ืฉื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื™ืจื—ืžื ื• ื™ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืขื•ื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

ยง It was taught in the baraita: Beit Hillel say: He who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: How does He do this? Rabbi Eliezer says: He pushes down on the side of the merits, tipping the scale in their favor, as it is stated: โ€œHe will again have compassion upon us; He will push down our iniquitiesโ€ (Micah 7:19). Rabbi Yosei bar แธคanina said: He bears, i.e., raises, the side of the sins, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18).

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืขื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื• ืื™ื ื• ื ืžื—ืง ื“ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืจื•ื‘ื ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื™ื”ื•

A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: He overlooks each and every first transgression, and that is the attribute of mercy, that God forgives oneโ€™s first sin, and therefore He tips the scale in favor of the merits. Rava said: But that sin itself, which God overlooks, is not completely erased; if the individualโ€™s actions are still mostly sins, God counts the overlooked sin with them and metes out punishment accordingly.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืœื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืคืฉืขื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

Rava understood this verse differently and said: With regard to whoever forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices done to him, the heavenly court in turn forgoes punishment for all his sins, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears sin and forgives transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18). Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืœื™ื” ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฆื‘ื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ื–ื•ื•ื“ืชื ืœืกื•ืฃ ืื™ืชืคื— ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื›ืกื™ืฃ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืžื™ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืงื™ื ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชืงื•ืžื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ื‘ืจ ืคืฉืข

It is related that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, became sick, and Rav Pappa went into his home to inquire about his well-being. He saw that the world was growing weak for Rav Huna, i.e., he was dying. Rav Pappa said to his attendants: Prepare his provisions [zavdata], i.e., his shrouds. In the end, Rav Huna recovered. Rav Pappa was embarrassed to go and see him, as it seemed as if he had decreed Rav Hunaโ€™s death. Rav Hunaโ€™s friends said to him: What did you see when you were lying there suspended between life and death? He said to them: Yes, it was so, I was truly close to dying, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the heavenly court: Since he does not stand on his rights, i.e., he is ready to waive what is due him, you too should not be exacting with him in his judgment, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression.โ€ Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

ืœืฉืืจื™ืช ื ื—ืœืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืœื™ื” ื•ืงื•ืฅ ื‘ื” ืœืฉืืจื™ืช ื ื—ืœืชื• ื•ืœื ืœื›ืœ ื ื—ืœืชื•

That same verse continues: โ€œHe bears sins and forgives transgression for the remnant of His inheritanceโ€ (Micah 7:18). Rav Aแธฅa bar แธคanina said: This is like the fat tail that has a thorn in it, i.e., something good that contains something bad. God forgives and pardons only โ€œfor the remnant of His inheritance,โ€ but not for all His inheritance.

ืœืžื™ ืฉืžืฉื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื

That is to say, God forgives sins only for one who regards himself as a remainder, i.e., of only secondary importance.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฆื“ื™ืง ื”ืณ ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื—ืกื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื• ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื—ืกื™ื“

ยง Rav Huna raised a contradiction between the two halves of a verse. It is written: โ€œThe Lord is righteous [tzaddik] in all His waysโ€ (Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [tzedek], and then it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd kind [แธฅasid] in all His works,โ€ implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [แธฅesed], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: Initially, at the time of judgment, He is righteous, but in the end, at the time of punishment, He is gracious.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืืชื” ืชืฉืœื ืœืื™ืฉ ื›ืžืขืฉื”ื• ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื›ื™ ืืชื” ืชืฉืœื ื›ืžืขืฉื”ื• ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ื—ืกื“

Rabbi Elazar raised a similar contradiction: It is written: โ€œBut to you, O Lord, belongs kindnessโ€ (Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, and then it is written in the same verse: โ€œFor You render to a man according to his deeds,โ€ implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: โ€œFor You render to a man according to his deedsโ€; but in the end, at the time of punishment: โ€œBut to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.โ€

ืื™ืœืคื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืื™ืœืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืžืช ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื•ืืžืช ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“

Ilfai, and some say it was the Sage Ilfa, also raised a contradiction: It is written in the list of Godโ€™s attributes: โ€œAnd abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6), and it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd truth,โ€ which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: โ€œAnd truth,โ€ i.e., God employs strict justice, but in the end, when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: โ€œAnd abundant in kindness,โ€ i.e., He is merciful.

ื•ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื• ื•ื™ืงืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื ืžืงืจื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืื•ืžืจื• ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ืชืขื˜ืฃ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื”ืจืื” ืœื• ืœืžืฉื” ืกื“ืจ ืชืคืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ื—ื•ื˜ืื™ืŸ ื™ืขืฉื• ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืกื“ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืื ื™ ืžื•ื—ืœ ืœื”ื

ยง The verse states: โ€œAnd the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimedโ€ (Exodus 34:6). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to Godโ€™s honor. The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himself in a prayer shawl like a prayer leader and showed Moses the structure of the order of the prayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order. Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, and I will forgive them.

ื”ืณ ื”ืณ ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ื—ื˜ื ื”ืื“ื ื•ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ื—ื˜ื ื”ืื“ื ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืืœ ืจื—ื•ื ื•ื—ื ื•ืŸ

The verse continues: โ€œThe Lord, the Lord,โ€ and it should be understood as follows: I am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance, as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always โ€œGod, merciful and graciousโ€ (Exodus 34:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ืช ื›ืจื•ืชื” ืœืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจื•ืช ืจื™ืงื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื ื” ืื ื›ื™ ื›ื•ืจืช ื‘ืจื™ืช

Rav Yehuda said: A covenant was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed, meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, as it is stated in this regard: โ€œBehold, I make a covenantโ€ (Exodus 34:10).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉืžืงืจืขืช ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ืœื‘ ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืื–ื ื™ื• ื”ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื”ืฉืข ืคืŸ ื™ืจืื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื• ื™ืฉืžืข ื•ืœื‘ื‘ื• ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืจืคื ืœื•

ยง Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentence issued against a person, as it is stated: โ€œMake the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healedโ€ (Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืœืคื ื™ ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืจืคื ืœื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืจืคื•ืื” ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhaps this was said before the sentence was issued, but after oneโ€™s sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye said to him: It is written here: โ€œAnd they will return and be healedโ€ (Isaiah 6:10). What requires healing? An illness does. Consequently, you must say that the reference here is to a sentence that has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื ืžื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื™ ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื”ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If one repents in the meantime, between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, he is forgiven; if he does not repent in the meantime, then even if he later brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth in the world, which are of the best quality, they do not forgive him in the Heavenly court. This implies that once oneโ€™s sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: Here, where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the baraita is referring to repentance of an individual; there, where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to communal repentance.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ื‘ื” ืขืชื™ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืขืชื™ื ืœืจืขื” ืขืชื™ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืฉืขื™ื ื’ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืคืกืงื• ืœื”ื ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ื ืœืกื•ืฃ ื—ื–ืจื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื™ื“ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžื ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ืœืคื™ ื”ืืจืฅ

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita: The verse states: โ€œA land which the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon itโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:12). Godโ€™s constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is sometimes for the good and sometimes for the bad. Sometimes for the good; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so that only a meager amount of rain was decreed for them for the year, but in the end they repented, what can be done? To add rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes those sparse rains to fall at the appropriate times on land that needs it, e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, all according to requirements of the land, and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain.

ืขืชื™ื ืœืจืขื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื’ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืคืกืงื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืกื•ืฃ ื—ื–ืจื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื™ื“ืŸ ืฉืœื ื‘ื–ืžื ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ืŸ

Sometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for them for that year, but in the end they regressed and sinned, what can be done? To reduce the amount of rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes the rain to fall not at the appropriate time, and on land that does not need it, e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.

ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืžื™ื”ื ืœื™ืงืจืขื™ื” ืœื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืœื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื”ื• ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื”ื›ื™

The Gemara asks: When it is for good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and add to the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the baraita explains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: It is different there, because it is possible to achieve the same result in this manner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืื ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืฉื™ ืžืœืื›ื” ื‘ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ืžื” ืจืื• ืžืขืฉื™ ื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืขืžื“ ืจื•ื— ืกืขืจื” ื•ืชืจื•ืžื ื’ืœื™ื• ื™ื—ื•ื’ื• ื•ื™ื ื•ืขื• ื›ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื™ืฆืขืงื• ืืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ืฆืจ ืœื”ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื™ื•ื“ื• ืœื”ืณ ื—ืกื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Come and hear a proof from a different baraita: The psalm states: โ€œThey that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord, and His wonders in the deepโ€ (Psalms 107:23โ€“24). The psalm continues: โ€œFor He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereofโ€ฆThey reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their witsโ€™ endโ€ (Psalms 107:25โ€“27). It continues further: โ€œThen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distressesโ€ (Psalms 107:28). And finally, โ€œLet them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy, and for His wonderful works to the children of menโ€ (Psalms 107:31).

ืขืฉื” ืœื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ื•ืช ื›ืื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืจืงื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืฆืขืงื• ืงื•ื“ื ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ื ืขื ื™ืŸ ืฆืขืงื• ืœืื—ืจ ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ืื™ื ืŸ ื ืขื ื™ืŸ

Markers were inserted here before each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter nun inverted, are similar in meaning to the words but and only in the Torah, to tell us that just as the Torahโ€™s words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This tells you that if they cried out before the sentence was issued, they are answered, but if they cried out only after the sentence was issued, they are not answered.

ื”ื ื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for those who go down to the sea in ships are also considered like individuals. Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืฉืืœื” ื‘ืœื•ืจื™ื ื”ื’ื™ื•ืจืช ืืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื›ื ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืคื ื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉื ื”ืณ ืคื ื™ื• ืืœื™ืš

The Gemara continues: Come and hear: Beloreya the convert once asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah: โ€œThe great, mighty, and awesome God who favors no oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:17), and elsewhere it is written: โ€œThe Lord shall show favor to you and give you peaceโ€ (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?

ื ื˜ืคืœ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื ื” ื•ืงื‘ืข ืœื• ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ื•ืœื ืคืจืขื• ื‘ื ืœืคื™ื™ืก ืืช ื”ืžืœืš ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืขืœื‘ื•ื ื™ ืžื—ื•ืœ ืœืš ืœืš ื•ืคื™ื™ืก ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื•

Rabbi Yosei the priest joined the conversation with her and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundred dinars and fixed a time for repayment of the loan before the king, and the borrower took an oath by the life of the king that he would repay the money. The time arrived, and he did not repay the loan. The delinquent borrower came to appease the king for not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, and the king said to him: For my insult I forgive you, but you must still go and appease your friend. Here also the same is true: Here, the verse that states: โ€œThe Lord shall show favor to you,โ€ is referring to sins committed between man and God, which God will forgive; there, the verse that states: โ€œGod favors no one,โ€ is referring to sins committed between a person and another, which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.

ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื•ืœื™ืžื“

This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught as follows:

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The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 17

ื•ืžืฆืคืฆืคื™ืŸ ื•ืขื•ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื•ืฆืจืคืชื™ื ื›ืฆืจื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื•ื‘ื—ื ืชื™ื ื›ื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ื–ื”ื‘ ื”ื•ื ื™ืงืจื ื‘ืฉืžื™ ื•ืื ื™ ืืขื ื” ืื•ืชื• ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจื” ื—ื ื” ื”ืณ ืžืžื™ืช ื•ืžื—ื™ื” ืžื•ืจื™ื“ ืฉืื•ืœ ื•ื™ืขืœ

and they will cry out in their pain and eventually ascend from there, as it is stated: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try them as gold is tried; they shall call on My name, and I will answer themโ€ (Zechariah 13:9). This is referring to the members of the third group, who require refinement and cleansing. And about them, Hannah said: โ€œThe Lord kills, and gives life; he brings down to the grave, and brings upโ€ (I Samuel 2:6).

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืืช ืงื•ืœื™ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ื›ืœ ื”ืคืจืฉื” ื›ื•ืœื” ื“ืœื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉื™ืข

Beit Hillel say: He Who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people should not have to pass through Gehenna. And about them, David said: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€ (Psalms 116:1). And about them, David said the entire passage: โ€œI was brought low [daloti] and He saved meโ€ (Psalms 116:6). Although they are poor [dalim] in mitzvot, God saves them.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื•ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื ื™ื ืขืฉืจ ื—ื“ืฉ ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื›ืœื” ื•ื ืฉืžืชืŸ ื ืฉืจืคืช ื•ืจื•ื— ืžืคื–ืจืชืŸ ืชื—ืช ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืขืกื•ืชื ืจืฉืขื™ื ื›ื™ ื™ื”ื™ื• ืืคืจ ืชื—ืช ื›ืคื•ืช ืจื’ืœื™ื›ื

The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies and also the rebellious people of the nations of the world who have sinned with their bodies descend to Gehenna and are judged there for twelve months. After twelve months, their bodies are consumed, their souls are burned, and a wind scatters them under the soles of the feet of the righteous, as it is stated: โ€œAnd you shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feetโ€ (Malachi 3:21).

ืื‘ืœ ื”ืžื™ื ื™ืŸ ื•ื”ืžืกื•ืจื•ืช ื•ื”ืืคื™ืงื•ืจืกื™ื ืฉื›ืคืจื• ื‘ืชื•ืจื” ื•ืฉื›ืคืจื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ื™ืช ื”ืžืชื™ื ื•ืฉืคื™ืจืฉื• ืžื“ืจื›ื™ ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ืฉื ืชื ื• ื—ื™ืชื™ืชื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืฉื—ื˜ืื• ื•ื”ื—ื˜ื™ืื• ืืช ื”ืจื‘ื™ื ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื™ืจื‘ืขื ื‘ืŸ ื ื‘ื˜ ื•ื—ื‘ื™ืจื™ื• ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ืŸ ืœื’ื™ื”ื ื ื•ื ื™ื“ื•ื ื™ืŸ ื‘ื” ืœื“ื•ืจื™ ื“ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืฆืื• ื•ืจืื• ื‘ืคื’ืจื™ ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ืคื•ืฉืขื™ื ื‘ื™ ื•ื’ื•ืณ

But the heretics; and the informers; and the apostates [apikorsim]; and those who denied the Torah; and those who denied the resurrection of the dead; and those who separated from the ways of the Jewish community and refused to share the suffering; and those who cast their fear over the land of the living; and those who sinned and caused the masses to sin, for example, Jeroboam, son of Nebat, and his company; all of these people descend to Gehenna and are judged there for generations and generations, as it is stated: โ€œAnd they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die; neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all fleshโ€ (Isaiah 66:24).

ื’ื™ื”ื ื ื›ืœื” ื•ื”ืŸ ืื™ื ืŸ ื›ืœื™ืŸ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื•ืฆื•ืจื ืœื‘ืœื•ืช ืฉืื•ืœ ืžื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื• ื•ื›ืœ ื›ืš ืœืžื” ืžืคื ื™ ืฉืคืฉื˜ื• ื™ื“ื™ื”ื ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืฉื ืืžืจ ืžื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœื• ื•ืื™ืŸ ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืืœื ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืžืงื“ืฉ ืฉื ืืžืจ ื‘ื ื” ื‘ื ื™ืชื™ ื‘ื™ืช ื–ื‘ื•ืœ ืœืš ื•ืขืœื™ื”ื ืืžืจื” ื—ื ื”ื”ืณ ื™ื—ืชื• ืžืจื™ื‘ื™ื•

Gehenna will terminate, but they still will not terminate, as it is stated: โ€œAnd their form shall wear away the netherworld, so that there be no dwelling for Himโ€ (Psalms 49:15); that is to say, Gehenna itself will be worn away before their punishment has come to an end. And why are they punished so severely? Because they stretched out their hands against Godโ€™s dwelling, the Temple, and everything else that is sanctified, as it is stated: โ€œSo that there be no dwelling [zevul] for Him.โ€ Dwelling [zevul] is referring here only to the Temple, as it is stated: โ€œI have built You a house for dwelling [zevul] inโ€ (I Kings 8:13). And about them Hannah said: โ€œThe adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in piecesโ€ (I Samuel 2:10).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฆื—ืง ื‘ืจ ืื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืคื ื™ื”ื ื“ื•ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฉื•ืœื™ ืงื“ื™ืจื” ื•ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืื™ื ื”ื• ืžืฉืคื™ืจื™ ืฉืคื™ืจื™ ื‘ื ื™ ืžื—ื•ื–ื ื•ืžืงืจื™ื™ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ื’ื™ื”ื ื

Rabbi Yitzแธฅak bar Avin said: And their faces on the Day of Judgment will be black and sooty like the bottom of a pot. And Rava said: And they shall include the most handsome, i.e., upstanding, of the people of Meแธฅoza, as Rava thought that even the most upstanding people of the city of Meแธฅoza were wicked, and they shall be called the people of Gehenna.

ืืžืจ ืžืจ ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื”ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื”ืชื ื‘ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ

The Master said in the baraita above: It stated that Beit Hillel say: He Who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: But isnโ€™t it written: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fireโ€ (Zechariah 13:9), implying that there is a third group, which is sent to Gehenna temporarily? The Gemara answers: There, the verse is referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ื•ื”ื ืืžืจืช ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืชืงื ืชื ื›ื™ ืœื™ืช ืœื”ื• ืชืงื ื” ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืžื—ืฆื” ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื•ืžื—ืฆื” ื–ื›ื™ื•ืช ื•ืื™ืช ื‘ื”ื• ื ืžื™ ืขื•ืŸ ื“ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืœื ืกื’ื™ื ืœื™ื” ื“ืœืื• ื•ื”ื‘ืืชื™ ืืช ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืืฉ ื•ืื ืœืื• ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื•ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ื“ื•ื“ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ

The Gemara asks: Can the verse be referring to the rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies? But didnโ€™t you say that they have no rectification? The Gemara responds: When do they have no rectification? When in addition to their having sinned with their bodies, the majority of their actions are sins. But here, the verse is referring to people for whom half of their actions are sins and half are meritorious deeds, and those sins include the sin of the rebellious Jews who sin with their bodies. It is not sufficient that they not be subject to the verse: โ€œAnd I will bring the third part through the fire.โ€ However, if their sins and meritorious deeds are equally balanced, and they did not sin with their bodies, He Who is โ€œabundant in kindnessโ€ tilts the scales in favor of kindness. And about them, David said: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€ (Psalms 116:1).

ื“ืจืฉ ืจื‘ื ืžืื™ ื“ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื”ื‘ืชื™ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉืžืข ื”ืณ ืืžืจื” ื›ื ืกืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืจื‘ื•ื ื• ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืžืชื™ ืื ื™ ืื”ื•ื‘ื” ืœืคื ื™ืš ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืฉืืชื” ืฉื•ืžืข ืงื•ืœ ืชื—ื ื•ื ื™ ื“ืœื•ืชื™ ื•ืœื™ ื™ื”ื•ืฉื™ืข ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ืฉื“ืœื” ืื ื™ ืžืŸ ื”ืžืฆื•ืช ืœื™ ื ืื” ืœื”ื•ืฉื™ืข

Rava interpreted the verse homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: โ€œI love the Lord, Who hears my voice and my supplicationsโ€? The Congregation of Israel said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, when do I know that I am loved by You? When You hear the voice of my supplications, as the verse states: โ€œI was brought low [daloti], and He saved meโ€ (Psalms 116:6). Although I am poor [dala] in mitzvot, nevertheless it is fitting to save me.

ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืžืื™ ื ื™ื”ื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ืงืจืงืคืชื ื“ืœื ืžื ื— ืชืคืœื™ืŸ ืคื•ืฉืขื™ ืื•ืžื•ืช ื”ืขื•ืœื ื‘ื’ื•ืคืŸ ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื”

The Gemara asks: The rebellious Jews who have sinned with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: This is referring to the skull that did not ever don phylacteries. The Gemara asks further: The rebellious ones of the nations of the world who sin with their bodies, who are they? Rav said: They are those who engage in the sin, i.e., forbidden sexual relations.

ื•ืฉื ืชื ื• ื—ื™ืชื™ืชื ื‘ืืจืฅ ื—ื™ื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ื ื–ื” ืคืจื ืก ื”ืžื˜ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืœืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื›ืœ ืคืจื ืก ื”ืžื˜ื™ืœ ืื™ืžื” ื™ืชื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื”ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœื ืœืฉื ืฉืžื™ื ืื™ื ื• ืจื•ืื” ื‘ืŸ ืชืœืžื™ื“ ื—ื›ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ืœื›ืŸ ื™ืจืื•ื”ื• ืื ืฉื™ื ืœื ื™ืจืื” ื›ืœ ื—ื›ืžื™ ืœื‘

And those who cast their fear over the land of the living, who are they? Rav แธคisda said: This is referring to a communal leader [parnas] who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven. Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: Any community leader who casts excessive fear on the community not for the sake of Heaven will be punished and not see any Torah scholar among his sons, as it is stated: โ€œMen do therefore fear him; he sees not any who are wise of heartโ€ (Job 37:24). One who brings others to fear him will not merit having wise-hearted people in his family.

ื‘ื™ืช ื”ืœืœ ืื•ืžืจื™ื ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ืžื˜ื” ื›ืœืคื™ ื—ืกื“ ื”ื™ื›ื™ ืขื‘ื™ื“ ืจื‘ื™ ืืœื™ืขื–ืจ ืื•ืžืจ ื›ื•ื‘ืฉื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื™ืจื—ืžื ื• ื™ื›ื‘ื•ืฉ ืขื•ื ื•ืชื™ื ื• ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

ยง It was taught in the baraita: Beit Hillel say: He who is โ€œand abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6) tilts the scales in favor of kindness, so that middling people will not have to pass through Gehenna. The Gemara asks: How does He do this? Rabbi Eliezer says: He pushes down on the side of the merits, tipping the scale in their favor, as it is stated: โ€œHe will again have compassion upon us; He will push down our iniquitiesโ€ (Micah 7:19). Rabbi Yosei bar แธคanina said: He bears, i.e., raises, the side of the sins, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18).

ืชื ื ื“ื‘ื™ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ืฉืžืขืืœ ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ื•ื›ืŸ ื”ื™ื ื”ืžื“ื” ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื ื•ืขื•ืŸ ืขืฆืžื• ืื™ื ื• ื ืžื—ืง ื“ืื™ ืื™ื›ื ืจื•ื‘ื ืขื•ื ื•ืช ืžื—ืฉื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื™ื”ื•

A Sage from the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught in a baraita: He overlooks each and every first transgression, and that is the attribute of mercy, that God forgives oneโ€™s first sin, and therefore He tips the scale in favor of the merits. Rava said: But that sin itself, which God overlooks, is not completely erased; if the individualโ€™s actions are still mostly sins, God counts the overlooked sin with them and metes out punishment accordingly.

ืจื‘ื ืืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ืžืขื‘ื™ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ื•ืชื™ื• ืžืขื‘ื™ืจื™ืŸ ืœื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืคืฉืขื™ื• ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืžื™ ืฉืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข

Rava understood this verse differently and said: With regard to whoever forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices done to him, the heavenly court in turn forgoes punishment for all his sins, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears sin and forgives transgressionโ€ (Micah 7:18). Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ื‘ืจื™ื” ื“ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ืฉืข ื—ืœืฉ ืขืœ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืฉื™ื•ืœื™ ื‘ื™ื” ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ื“ื—ืœื™ืฉ ืœื™ื” ืขืœืžื ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืฆื‘ื™ืชื• ืœื™ื” ื–ื•ื•ื“ืชื ืœืกื•ืฃ ืื™ืชืคื— ื”ื•ื” ืžื™ื›ืกื™ืฃ ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืžื™ื—ื–ื™ื™ื” ืืžืจื• ืœื™ื” ืžืื™ ื—ื–ื™ืช ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ืื™ืŸ ื”ื›ื™ ื”ื•ื” ื•ืืžืจ ืœื”ื• ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื”ื•ืื™ืœ ื•ืœื ืžื•ืงื™ื ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื” ืœื ืชืงื•ืžื• ื‘ื”ื“ื™ื” ืฉื ืืžืจ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ื•ืขื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืคืฉืข ืœืžื™ ื ื•ืฉื ืขื•ืŸ ืœืขื•ื‘ืจ ืคืฉืข

It is related that Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, became sick, and Rav Pappa went into his home to inquire about his well-being. He saw that the world was growing weak for Rav Huna, i.e., he was dying. Rav Pappa said to his attendants: Prepare his provisions [zavdata], i.e., his shrouds. In the end, Rav Huna recovered. Rav Pappa was embarrassed to go and see him, as it seemed as if he had decreed Rav Hunaโ€™s death. Rav Hunaโ€™s friends said to him: What did you see when you were lying there suspended between life and death? He said to them: Yes, it was so, I was truly close to dying, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the heavenly court: Since he does not stand on his rights, i.e., he is ready to waive what is due him, you too should not be exacting with him in his judgment, as it is stated: โ€œHe bears [noseh] sin and forgives transgression.โ€ Whose sins does He bear? The sins of one who forgoes his reckonings with others for injustices committed against him.

ืœืฉืืจื™ืช ื ื—ืœืชื• ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ืื—ื ื‘ืจ ื—ื ื™ื ื ืืœื™ื” ื•ืงื•ืฅ ื‘ื” ืœืฉืืจื™ืช ื ื—ืœืชื• ื•ืœื ืœื›ืœ ื ื—ืœืชื•

That same verse continues: โ€œHe bears sins and forgives transgression for the remnant of His inheritanceโ€ (Micah 7:18). Rav Aแธฅa bar แธคanina said: This is like the fat tail that has a thorn in it, i.e., something good that contains something bad. God forgives and pardons only โ€œfor the remnant of His inheritance,โ€ but not for all His inheritance.

ืœืžื™ ืฉืžืฉื™ื ืขืฆืžื• ื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื

That is to say, God forgives sins only for one who regards himself as a remainder, i.e., of only secondary importance.

ืจื‘ ื”ื•ื ื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืฆื“ื™ืง ื”ืณ ื‘ื›ืœ ื“ืจื›ื™ื• ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ื—ืกื™ื“ ื‘ื›ืœ ืžืขืฉื™ื• ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ืฆื“ื™ืง ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื—ืกื™ื“

ยง Rav Huna raised a contradiction between the two halves of a verse. It is written: โ€œThe Lord is righteous [tzaddik] in all His waysโ€ (Psalms 145:17), indicating that God acts in accordance with the attribute of strict justice [tzedek], and then it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd kind [แธฅasid] in all His works,โ€ implying that He acts with grace and loving-kindness [แธฅesed], going beyond the letter of the law. Rav Huna explained: Initially, at the time of judgment, He is righteous, but in the end, at the time of punishment, He is gracious.

ืจื‘ื™ ืืœืขื–ืจ ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื›ื™ ืืชื” ืชืฉืœื ืœืื™ืฉ ื›ืžืขืฉื”ื• ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื›ื™ ืืชื” ืชืฉืœื ื›ืžืขืฉื”ื• ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืœืš ื”ืณ ื—ืกื“

Rabbi Elazar raised a similar contradiction: It is written: โ€œBut to you, O Lord, belongs kindnessโ€ (Psalms 62:13), implying that God acts beyond the letter of the law, and then it is written in the same verse: โ€œFor You render to a man according to his deeds,โ€ implying that He rewards and punishes measure for measure. Rabbi Elazar answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: โ€œFor You render to a man according to his deedsโ€; but in the end, at the time of punishment: โ€œBut to You, O Lord, belongs kindness.โ€

ืื™ืœืคื™ ื•ืืžืจื™ ืœื” ืื™ืœืคื ืจืžื™ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“ ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื•ืืžืช ื‘ืชื—ืœื” ื•ืืžืช ื•ืœื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื•ืจื‘ ื—ืกื“

Ilfai, and some say it was the Sage Ilfa, also raised a contradiction: It is written in the list of Godโ€™s attributes: โ€œAnd abundant in kindnessโ€ (Exodus 34:6), and it is written in the same verse: โ€œAnd truth,โ€ which implies the attribute of justice. He answered: Initially, at the time of judgment: โ€œAnd truth,โ€ i.e., God employs strict justice, but in the end, when He sees that the world cannot survive on judgment based only on truth and justice: โ€œAnd abundant in kindness,โ€ i.e., He is merciful.

ื•ื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืณ ืขืœ ืคื ื™ื• ื•ื™ืงืจื ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ืืœืžืœื ืžืงืจื ื›ืชื•ื‘ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืœืื•ืžืจื• ืžืœืžื“ ืฉื ืชืขื˜ืฃ ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ื›ืฉืœื™ื— ืฆื‘ื•ืจ ื•ื”ืจืื” ืœื• ืœืžืฉื” ืกื“ืจ ืชืคืœื” ืืžืจ ืœื• ื›ืœ ื–ืžืŸ ืฉื™ืฉืจืืœ ื—ื•ื˜ืื™ืŸ ื™ืขืฉื• ืœืคื ื™ ื›ืกื“ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื•ืื ื™ ืžื•ื—ืœ ืœื”ื

ยง The verse states: โ€œAnd the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimedโ€ (Exodus 34:6). Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Were it not explicitly written in the verse, it would be impossible to say this, as it would be insulting to Godโ€™s honor. The verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, wrapped Himself in a prayer shawl like a prayer leader and showed Moses the structure of the order of the prayer. He said to him: Whenever the Jewish people sin, let them act before Me in accordance with this order. Let the prayer leader wrap himself in a prayer shawl and publicly recite the thirteen attributes of mercy, and I will forgive them.

ื”ืณ ื”ืณ ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ืฉื™ื—ื˜ื ื”ืื“ื ื•ืื ื™ ื”ื•ื ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื™ื—ื˜ื ื”ืื“ื ื•ื™ืขืฉื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืืœ ืจื—ื•ื ื•ื—ื ื•ืŸ

The verse continues: โ€œThe Lord, the Lord,โ€ and it should be understood as follows: I am He before a person sins, and I am He after a person sins and performs repentance, as God does not recall for him his first sins, since He is always โ€œGod, merciful and graciousโ€ (Exodus 34:6).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ ื™ื”ื•ื“ื” ื‘ืจื™ืช ื›ืจื•ืชื” ืœืฉืœืฉ ืขืฉืจื” ืžื“ื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ืŸ ื—ื•ื–ืจื•ืช ืจื™ืงื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ื ื” ืื ื›ื™ ื›ื•ืจืช ื‘ืจื™ืช

Rav Yehuda said: A covenant was made with the thirteen attributes that they will not return empty-handed, meaning that if one mentions them, he will certainly be answered, as it is stated in this regard: โ€œBehold, I make a covenantโ€ (Exodus 34:10).

ืืžืจ ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ื—ื ืŸ ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืชืฉื•ื‘ื” ืฉืžืงืจืขืช ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื• ืฉืœ ืื“ื ืฉื ืืžืจ ื”ืฉืžืŸ ืœื‘ ื”ืขื ื”ื–ื” ื•ืื–ื ื™ื• ื”ื›ื‘ื“ ื•ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื”ืฉืข ืคืŸ ื™ืจืื” ื‘ืขื™ื ื™ื• ื•ื‘ืื–ื ื™ื• ื™ืฉืžืข ื•ืœื‘ื‘ื• ื™ื‘ื™ืŸ ื•ืฉื‘ ื•ืจืคื ืœื•

ยง Rabbi Yoแธฅanan said: Great is repentance, for it tears up the sentence issued against a person, as it is stated: โ€œMake the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear over their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and they will return, and be healedโ€ (Isaiah 6:10), implying that if indeed they return and repent, they will be healed from all their sins.

ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ืจื‘ ืคืคื ืœืื‘ื™ื™ ื•ื“ืœืžื ืœืคื ื™ ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื™ื” ื•ืจืคื ืœื• ื›ืชื™ื‘ ืื™ื–ื”ื• ื“ื‘ืจ ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืจืคื•ืื” ื”ื•ื™ ืื•ืžืจ ื–ื” ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But perhaps this was said before the sentence was issued, but after oneโ€™s sentence has been decreed repentance no longer helps. Abaye said to him: It is written here: โ€œAnd they will return and be healedโ€ (Isaiah 6:10). What requires healing? An illness does. Consequently, you must say that the reference here is to a sentence that has already been issued, and even so, after repentance, they will be healed.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ื”ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื ืžื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืฉื‘ ื‘ื™ื ืชื™ื ืืคื™ืœื• ื”ื‘ื™ื ื›ืœ ืื™ืœื™ ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืฉื‘ืขื•ืœื ืื™ืŸ ืžื•ื—ืœื™ืŸ ืœื• ืœื ืงืฉื™ื ื”ื ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ ื”ื ื‘ืฆื‘ื•ืจ

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: If one repents in the meantime, between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, he is forgiven; if he does not repent in the meantime, then even if he later brings as offerings all the rams of Nebaioth in the world, which are of the best quality, they do not forgive him in the Heavenly court. This implies that once oneโ€™s sentence has been decreed, even repentance cannot alter it. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult: Here, where repentance is effective only before the sentence on Yom Kippur, the baraita is referring to repentance of an individual; there, where forgiveness is granted even after a sentence is issued, it is referring to communal repentance.

ืžื™ืชื™ื‘ื™ ืขื™ื ื™ ื”ืณ ืืœื”ื™ืš ื‘ื” ืขืชื™ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืขืชื™ื ืœืจืขื” ืขืชื™ื ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืจืฉืขื™ื ื’ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืคืกืงื• ืœื”ื ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžื•ืขื˜ื™ื ืœืกื•ืฃ ื—ื–ืจื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื™ื“ืŸ ื‘ื–ืžื ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ื”ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ืŸ ื”ื›ืœ ืœืคื™ ื”ืืจืฅ

The Gemara raises an objection from another baraita: The verse states: โ€œA land which the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon itโ€ (Deuteronomy 11:12). Godโ€™s constant providence over Eretz Yisrael is sometimes for the good and sometimes for the bad. Sometimes for the good; how so? If the Jews were wholly wicked on Rosh HaShana, so that only a meager amount of rain was decreed for them for the year, but in the end they repented, what can be done? To add rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes those sparse rains to fall at the appropriate times on land that needs it, e.g., fields, vineyards, and gardens, all according to requirements of the land, and those rains are just as effective as a lot of rain.

ืขืชื™ื ืœืจืขื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื”ืจื™ ืฉื”ื™ื• ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฆื“ื™ืงื™ื ื’ืžื•ืจื™ืŸ ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืฉื ื” ื•ืคืกืงื• ืขืœื™ื”ืŸ ื’ืฉืžื™ื ืžืจื•ื‘ื™ืŸ ืœืกื•ืฃ ื—ื–ืจื• ื‘ื”ืŸ ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืžื”ืŸ ืื™ ืืคืฉืจ ืฉื›ื‘ืจ ื ื’ื–ืจื” ื’ื–ืจื” ืืœื ื”ืงื“ื•ืฉ ื‘ืจื•ืš ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืจื™ื“ืŸ ืฉืœื ื‘ื–ืžื ืŸ ืขืœ ื”ืืจืฅ ืฉืื™ื ื” ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืœื”ืŸ

Sometimes for bad; how so? If the Jewish people were wholly righteous on Rosh HaShana, so that much rain was decreed for them for that year, but in the end they regressed and sinned, what can be done? To reduce the amount of rain is impossible, as the decree was already issued. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes the rain to fall not at the appropriate time, and on land that does not need it, e.g., forests and deserts, and the ample rain is no more beneficial than meager rain.

ืœื˜ื•ื‘ื” ืžื™ื”ื ืœื™ืงืจืขื™ื” ืœื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ื ื™ื™ื”ื• ื•ืœื•ืกื™ืฃ ืœื”ื• ืฉืื ื™ ื”ืชื ื“ืืคืฉืจ ื‘ื”ื›ื™

The Gemara asks: When it is for good, however, let Him tear up their sentence and add to the rain that had originally been decreed for them. Since the baraita explains that God does not do so, it implies that an evil sentence cannot be rescinded, even if the entire community fully repents. The Gemara answers: It is different there, because it is possible to achieve the same result in this manner, by causing the rain to fall at the proper time and in the proper place, without rescinding the original sentence.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ื™ื•ืจื“ื™ ื”ื™ื ื‘ืื ื™ื•ืช ืขื•ืฉื™ ืžืœืื›ื” ื‘ืžื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื”ืžื” ืจืื• ืžืขืฉื™ ื”ืณ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื™ืืžืจ ื•ื™ืขืžื“ ืจื•ื— ืกืขืจื” ื•ืชืจื•ืžื ื’ืœื™ื• ื™ื—ื•ื’ื• ื•ื™ื ื•ืขื• ื›ืฉื›ื•ืจ ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื•ื™ืฆืขืงื• ืืœ ื”ืณ ื‘ืฆืจ ืœื”ื ื•ื’ื•ืณ ื™ื•ื“ื• ืœื”ืณ ื—ืกื“ื• ื•ื’ื•ืณ

Come and hear a proof from a different baraita: The psalm states: โ€œThey that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; these saw the works of the Lord, and His wonders in the deepโ€ (Psalms 107:23โ€“24). The psalm continues: โ€œFor He commanded, and raised the stormy wind, which lifted up the waves thereofโ€ฆThey reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their witsโ€™ endโ€ (Psalms 107:25โ€“27). It continues further: โ€œThen they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and He brings them out of their distressesโ€ (Psalms 107:28). And finally, โ€œLet them give thanks to the Lord for His mercy, and for His wonderful works to the children of menโ€ (Psalms 107:31).

ืขืฉื” ืœื”ืŸ ืกื™ืžื ื™ื•ืช ื›ืื›ื™ืŸ ื•ืจืงื™ืŸ ืฉื‘ืชื•ืจื” ืœื•ืžืจ ืœืš ืฆืขืงื• ืงื•ื“ื ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ื ืขื ื™ืŸ ืฆืขืงื• ืœืื—ืจ ื’ื–ืจ ื“ื™ืŸ ืื™ื ืŸ ื ืขื ื™ืŸ

Markers were inserted here before each one of verses 23 through 28. These markers, which are the letter nun inverted, are similar in meaning to the words but and only in the Torah, to tell us that just as the Torahโ€™s words are precise and cannot be changed, so too, these people cannot have their sentence changed. This tells you that if they cried out before the sentence was issued, they are answered, but if they cried out only after the sentence was issued, they are not answered.

ื”ื ื™ ื ืžื™ ื›ื™ื—ื™ื“ื™ืŸ ื“ืžื•

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, for those who go down to the sea in ships are also considered like individuals. Even if there are many such people, they do not constitute an entire community but only a small defined group within it.

ืชื ืฉืžืข ืฉืืœื” ื‘ืœื•ืจื™ื ื”ื’ื™ื•ืจืช ืืช ืจื‘ืŸ ื’ืžืœื™ืืœ ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื‘ืชื•ืจืชื›ื ืืฉืจ ืœื ื™ืฉื ืคื ื™ื ื•ื›ืชื™ื‘ ื™ืฉื ื”ืณ ืคื ื™ื• ืืœื™ืš

The Gemara continues: Come and hear: Beloreya the convert once asked Rabban Gamliel: It is written in your Torah: โ€œThe great, mighty, and awesome God who favors no oneโ€ (Deuteronomy 10:17), and elsewhere it is written: โ€œThe Lord shall show favor to you and give you peaceโ€ (Numbers 6: 26). How can this contradiction be resolved?

ื ื˜ืคืœ ืœื” ืจื‘ื™ ื™ื•ืกื™ ื”ื›ื”ืŸ ืืžืจ ืœื” ืืžืฉื•ืœ ืœืš ืžืฉืœ ืœืžื” ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœืื“ื ืฉื ื•ืฉื” ื‘ื—ื‘ื™ืจื• ืžื ื” ื•ืงื‘ืข ืœื• ื–ืžืŸ ื‘ืคื ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื•ื ืฉื‘ืข ืœื• ื‘ื—ื™ื™ ื”ืžืœืš ื”ื’ื™ืข ื–ืžืŸ ื•ืœื ืคืจืขื• ื‘ื ืœืคื™ื™ืก ืืช ื”ืžืœืš ื•ืืžืจ ืœื• ืขืœื‘ื•ื ื™ ืžื—ื•ืœ ืœืš ืœืš ื•ืคื™ื™ืก ืืช ื—ื‘ื™ืจืš ื”ื›ื ื ืžื™ ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืœืžืงื•ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ืขื‘ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉื‘ื™ืŸ ืื“ื ืœื—ื‘ื™ืจื•

Rabbi Yosei the priest joined the conversation with her and said: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? To a person who lent his friend one hundred dinars and fixed a time for repayment of the loan before the king, and the borrower took an oath by the life of the king that he would repay the money. The time arrived, and he did not repay the loan. The delinquent borrower came to appease the king for not fulfilling the oath that he had sworn by the life of the king, and the king said to him: For my insult I forgive you, but you must still go and appease your friend. Here also the same is true: Here, the verse that states: โ€œThe Lord shall show favor to you,โ€ is referring to sins committed between man and God, which God will forgive; there, the verse that states: โ€œGod favors no one,โ€ is referring to sins committed between a person and another, which God will not forgive until the offender appeases the one he hurt.

ืขื“ ืฉื‘ื ืจื‘ื™ ืขืงื™ื‘ื ื•ืœื™ืžื“

This is how the contradiction had at first been resolved, until Rabbi Akiva came and taught as follows:

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