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Today's Daf Yomi

October 27, 2021 | 讻状讗 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 18

Today’s Daf is sponsored by Rina Goldberg in memory of her aunt, Valley Densa, z”l, “who lived to the age of 100 plus. She, like her siblings, was educated in the Hildesheimer Yeshiva in Berlin and lived a life replete with Chesed.” And by the Fortinskys “Mazal tov to Goody and Eric Weil, on Netanel and Adina’s wedding.”聽

Is repentance strong enough to repeal a divine decree that has been sealed, even for an individual? There is a tannaitic debate on this issue. Can one definitely repeal a divine decree for the community? There are verses that seem to suggest otherwise. How can this be understood? When they would sanctify the new moon and determine the first day of the month, they would send messengers to let people know of the date of the new moon so that they would know when to celebrate holidays and fast days. Since not all the months have holidays and fast days, they would only send out messengers six months of the year. Why not for Tevet and Tamuz that also have fast days? The nature of those fasts is different as derived from a verse in Zecharia as the nature of the day and the nature of the obligation changes in a time of peace, when the enemy rules, and when it is neither. There is a debate between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Shimon regarding the dates of some of the fasts and what is the event for which we are fasting. Megillat Taanit was a book listing days on which miracles happened so that people would know that it is forbidden to fast and eulogize on those days. Was that book canceled after the Temple was destroyed, just as the fast were reinstituted or not? It is a subject of debate. The Gemara raises questions against those who say that it was canceled.

讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬讞讬讚

Here the verse is referring to the time before one鈥檚 sentence is issued, when God shows favor and forgives; and there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence has been issued, when He no longer forgives. This implies that after a sentence has been issued, there is no possibility of repentance, which seems to contradict the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara answers: Here too it is referring to an individual, but a community is granted forgiveness even after its sentence has been issued.

讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 讚讬讞讬讚 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬诐 砖注诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讜讞讜诇讬讬谉 砖讜讛 讜讻谉 砖谞讬诐 砖注诇讜 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 讜讚讬谞谉 砖讜讛 讝讛 讬专讚 讜讝讛 诇讗 讬专讚 讝讛 谞讬爪诇 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞讬爪诇

搂 The question of whether or not an individual鈥檚 sentence can be rescinded is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: Two people take to their beds, and their illness is the same, or two people ascend to the tribunal [gardom] for judgment, and their potential sentence is the same; but this one comes down from his bed, while that one does not come down from his bed, and this one is saved from death, while that one is not saved.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讝讛 讬专讚 讜讝讛 诇讗 讬专讚 讝讛 谞讬爪诇 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞讬爪诇 讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 讜谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讝讛 谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞注谞讛 讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇讬诪讛 谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇讬诪讛 诇讗 谞注谞讛

For what reason did this one recover and come down from his bed, while that one did not recover and come down from his bed; and why was this one saved from death, while that one was not saved? The difference between them is that this one prayed and was answered, while that one prayed, but was not answered. And for what reason was this one answered and that one not answered? This one prayed a prayer with his whole heart and consequently was answered, while that one did not pray a prayer with his whole heart and therefore was not answered.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讬驻讛 爪注拽讛 诇讗讚诐 讘讬谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讘讬谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rabbi Elazar said: Not so; rather, here he prayed before his heavenly sentence was issued, and so he was answered, whereas there the other one prayed after his heavenly sentence was issued, and therefore he was not answered. Rabbi Yitz岣k disagreed and said: Crying out to God is effective for a person, both before his sentence has been issued and also after his sentence has been issued, as even after his sentence has been issued, it can still be rescinded if he repents.

讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 讚爪讘讜专 诪讬 诪讬拽专注 讜讛讗 讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讻讘住讬 诪专注讛 诇讘讱 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗诐 转讻讘住讬 讘谞转专 讜转专讘讬 诇讱 讘讜专讬转 谞讻转诐 注讜谞讱 诇驻谞讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

The Gemara asks: Can a sentence of a community really be torn up because they have repented? But one verse says: 鈥淥 Jerusalem, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved鈥 (Jeremiah 4:14), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淔or though you wash yourself with lye, and use much soap, yet the stain of your iniquity is before Me, says the Lord God鈥 (Jeremiah 2:22). What, is it not that here the verse is referring to the time before the sentence, when the heart can still be washed with repentance, whereas there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence, when washing no longer helps, as the sentence cannot be canceled?

诇讗 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讬砖 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛 讻讗谉 讘讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讗讬谉 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛

The Gemara answers: No, both this verse and that verse refer to the time after the sentence has been decreed, and still it is not difficult: Here the verse is referring to a sentence accompanied by an oath taken by God not to cancel the sentence, whereas there the verse is referring to a sentence that is not accompanied by God鈥檚 oath not to cancel the sentence, and so the sentence can in fact be canceled through repentance.

讻讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗诪讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗诪讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬谉 诇讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讬砖 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛 砖讗讬谞讜 谞拽专注 砖谞讗诪专 [讜]诇讻谉 谞砖讘注转讬 诇讘讬转 注诇讬 讗诐 讬转讻驻专 注讜谉 讘讬转 注诇讬 讘讝讘讞 讜讘诪谞讞讛

This is like what Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, and some say that it was Rav Shmuel bar Na岣ani who said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a sentence accompanied by God鈥檚 oath not to cancel it cannot be torn up or canceled? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli鈥檚 house will not be purged with sacrifice nor offering forever鈥 (I Samuel 3:14).

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讝讘讞 讜讘诪谞讞讛 讗讬谞讜 诪转讻驻专 讗讘诇 诪转讻驻专 讘转讜专讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讘讝讘讞 讜诪谞讞讛 讗讬谞讜 诪转讻驻专 讗讘诇 诪转讻驻专 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 专讘讛 讜讗讘讬讬 诪讚讘讬转 注诇讬 拽讗转讜 专讘讛 讚注住拽 讘转讜专讛 讞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讗讘讬讬 讚注住拽 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讞讬讛 砖讬转讬谉 砖谞讬谉

With regard to this verse Rava said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli鈥檚 house is not atoned, but it can be atoned through Torah study. Abaye said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli鈥檚 house is not atoned, but it is atoned through Torah study and the performance of acts of kindness. It is related that Rabba and Abaye came from the house of Eli, which was subject to the curse that most of its members would die young. Rabba, who engaged almost exclusively in Torah study, lived for forty years, whereas Abaye, who engaged in both Torah study and in the performance of acts of kindness lived for sixty years.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖驻讞讛 讗讞转 讛讬转讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖讛讬讜 诪转讬讛 诪转讬谉 讘谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讘讗讜 讜讛讜讚讬注讜 讗转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 砖诪讗 诪诪砖驻讞转 注诇讬 讗转诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讜讻诇 诪专讘讬转 讘讬转讱 讬诪讜转讜 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讻讜 讜注住拽讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讞讬讜 讛诇讻讜 讜注住拽讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讞讬讜 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 诪砖驻讞转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 注诇 砖诪讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose members used to die at the age of eighteen, and they did not know why. They came and told Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai about their situation. He said to them: Perhaps you are descended from the family of Eli, as it is written about them: 鈥淎nd all the increase of your house shall die young men鈥 (I Samuel 2:33). If indeed this is so, the remedy is as follows: Go and engage in Torah study, in the merit of which you will live. They went and engaged in Torah study and lived. And people would call that family afterward by the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan in his honor.

讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗讬谞讬讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬讬谉 诇讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇 爪讘讜专 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讞转诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讞转诐 讜讛讻转讬讘 谞讻转诐 注讜谞讱 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 砖谞讞转诐 谞拽专注 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讘讻诇 拽专讗谞讜 讗诇讬讜

Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: From where is it derived that the sentence of a community is never sealed [ne岣am]? The Gemara immediately asks: Is never sealed? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵et the stain [nikhtam] of your iniquity is before Me鈥 (Jeremiah 2:22), which implies that the sentence of a community is indeed sealed. Rather, one must say that the question was as follows: From where is it known with regard to the sentence of a community that although it is sealed, it can still be torn up? As it is stated: 鈥淎s is the Lord our God whenever we call out to Him鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:7). This implies that there is always a way to draw close to God.

讜讛讻转讬讘 讚专砖讜 讛壮 讘讛诪爪讗讜 讛转诐 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讻讗 讘爪讘讜专

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淪eek the Lord while He may be found; call upon Him when He is near鈥 (Isaiah 55:6), which implies that there are times when He is not near and does not answer. The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to an individual, to whom God is near only at certain times; here the verse is referring to a community, to which God is close whenever the people call out to Him.

讘讬讞讬讚 讗讬诪转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诇讜 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讬讛讬 讻注砖专转 讛讬诪讬诐 讜讬讙祝 讛壮 讗转 谞讘诇 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻谞讙讚 注砖专 诇讙讬诪讜转 砖谞转谉 谞讘诇 诇注讘讚讬 讚讜讚 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诇讜 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

搂 The Gemara asks: With regard to an individual, when is God near to him? Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks further: The verse states: 鈥淎nd it came to pass about ten days after that the Lord smote Nabal, and he died鈥 (I Samuel 25:38). These ten days, what are they doing here, i.e., why was there a delay of ten days before Nabal died? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They correspond to the ten meals that Nabal gave the servants of David who came to visit him, as out of politeness he allowed David鈥檚 ten servants to eat, and therefore his punishment was delayed for ten days. Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, during which everyone is given one last opportunity to repent for the sins he committed over the course of the previous year.

讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讘讗讬 讛注讜诇诐 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 诪讗讬 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 讻讘谞讬 讗诪专谞讗 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讻诪注诇讜转 讘讬转 诪专讜谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讞讬讬诇讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 讚讜讚

搂 The mishna teaches: On Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like benei maron. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase benei maron? The Gemara answers: Here in Babylonia they interpreted it to mean: Like a flock of sheep [kivnei imarna]. Reish Lakish disagreed and said: Like the ascent of Beit Maron, which was very steep; one standing at the summit could discern all those climbing the mountain with a single look. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said another opinion: Like the soldiers of the house of King David, who could be surveyed with a single glance.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讜诇谉 谞住拽专讬谉 讘住拽讬专讛 讗讞转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 讛讬讜爪专 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讛诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讚讘专谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讜诪讬讬讞讚 诇讘讬讬讛讜 讻讛讚讚讬 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛讬讜爪专 专讜讗讛 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讜诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐

Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And they are all scanned in a single scan. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: We, too, learn this in the baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗e who fashions their hearts alike, who considers all their deeds鈥 (Psalms 33:15). What is this verse saying? If we say this is what it is saying: That He created everyone and unites all their hearts together, there is a difficulty, since don鈥檛 we see that it is not so, as the hearts of people are not united and are not similar to one another? Rather, is this not what it is saying: The Creator sees their hearts together and considers all their deeds with a single scan?

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 注诇 谞讬住谉 诪驻谞讬 讛驻住讞 注诇 讗讘 诪驻谞讬 讛转注谞讬转 注诇 讗诇讜诇 诪驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注诇 转砖专讬 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛诪讜注讚讜转 注诇 讻住诇讬讜 诪驻谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讜注诇 讗讚专 诪驻谞讬 讛驻讜专讬诐

MISHNA: In six months of the year the messengers go out from the court in Jerusalem to report throughout Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was established as the New Moon, the thirtieth or the thirty-first day since the previous New Moon. They go out in the month of Nisan, due to Passover, so that people will know on which day to celebrate it; in the month of Av, due to the fast of the Ninth of Av; in Elul, due to Rosh HaShana, which begins thirty days after the New Moon of Elul; in Tishrei, due to the need to establish the correct dates on which to celebrate the Festivals of Tishrei, i.e., Yom Kippur and Sukkot; in Kislev, due to Hanukkah; and in Adar, due to Purim.

讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讗讬讬专 诪驻谞讬 驻住讞 拽讟谉

And when the Temple was standing, messengers would also go out in the month of Iyyar due to small Passover, i.e., second Pesa岣, which occurs on the fourteenth of Iyyar. This holiday allowed those who were ritually impure or on a distant journey on the fourteenth of Nisan, and therefore incapable of bringing the Paschal lamb at that time, to bring their Paschal lamb a month later.

讙诪壮 讜诇讬驻拽讜 谞诪讬 讗转诪讜讝 讜讟讘转

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And if they go out for the month of Av due to the fast, let them go out also in the months of Tammuz and Tevet, as they too contain public fast days.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 爪讜诐 讛专讘讬注讬 讜爪讜诐 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讜爪讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讜爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讬讛讬讛 诇讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 拽专讬 诇讛讜 爪讜诐 讜拽专讬 诇讛讜 砖砖讜谉 讜砖诪讞讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 爪讜诐

As Rav 岣na bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hus said the Lord of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall become times of joy and gladness, and cheerful seasons, to the house of Judah鈥 (Zechariah 8:19). It calls them days of 鈥渇ast鈥 and it calls them 鈥渢imes of joy and gladness.鈥 How so? When there is peace in the world, they will be times of joy and gladness, on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when there is no peace, they are days of fasting. In a time when there is no peace, why are messengers not sent out also for the fourth and tenth months, so that people can know when to observe the fasts?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讬砖 砖诪讚 爪讜诐 讗讬谉 砖诪讚 讜讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 专爪讜 诪转注谞讬谉 专爪讜 讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉

Rav Pappa said that this is what it is saying: When there is peace in the world and the Temple is standing, these days will be times of joy and gladness; when there is persecution and troubles for the Jewish people, they are days of fasting; and when there is no persecution but still no peace, neither particular troubles nor consolation for Israel, the halakha is as follows: If people wish, they fast, and if they wish, they do not fast. Since there is no absolute obligation to fast, messengers are not sent out for these months.

讗讬 讛讻讬 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗谞讬 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讜讻驻诇讜 讘讜 爪专讜转 讚讗诪专 诪专 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讘砖谞讬讛 讜谞诇讻讚讛 讘讬转专 讜谞讞专砖讛 讛注讬专

The Gemara asks: If so, the Ninth of Av should also be like the other fast days, that sometimes it is observed and sometimes not, depending upon the wishes of the community at the time. Why does the mishna state that messengers go out for the month of Av? Rav Pappa said: The Ninth of Av is different, since the calamities that occurred on that day were multiplied. As the Master said: On the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed, both the first one and the second one; on this day the city of Beitar was captured; and on this day the city of Jerusalem was plowed over by the enemies of the Jewish people, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt. Consequently, the fast of the Ninth of Av is obligatory, and not optional like the other fasts. Messengers are consequently sent out so that people will know when to fast.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讛讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚讜专砖 讜讗谞讬 讗讬谉 讚讜专砖 讻诪讜转讜 爪讜诐 讛专讘讬注讬 讝讛 转砖注讛 讘转诪讜讝 砖讘讜 讛讜讘拽注讛 讛注讬专 砖谞讗诪专 讘专讘讬注讬 讘转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讜讬讞讝拽 讛专注讘 讘注讬专 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讞诐 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜转讘拽注 讛注讬专 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讘讬注讬 专讘讬注讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐

搂 The Sages disagreed about the fasts alluded to in the words of the prophet, as it is taught in a baraita. Rabbi Shimon said: Rabbi Akiva would expound four verses, but I would not expound the texts as he did. One of the disputes relates to the fasts mentioned by Zechariah. Rabbi Akiva would expound the verse as follows: 鈥淭he fast of the fourth,鈥 this is the ninth of Tammuz, on which the city of Jerusalem was breached, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd in the fourth month, on the ninth day of the month, the famine was severe in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Then the city was breached鈥 (Jeremiah 52:6鈥7). And why does the prophet call it the fast of the fourth? Because it is in Tammuz, the fourth of the months when counting from Nisan.

爪讜诐 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讝讛 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 砖讘讜 谞砖专祝 讘讬转 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 讞诪讬砖讬 讞诪讬砖讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐 爪讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讝讛 砖诇砖讛 讘转砖专讬 砖讘讜 谞讛专讙 讙讚诇讬讛 讘谉 讗讞讬拽诐 讜诪讬 讛专讙讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 谞转谞讬讛 讛专讙讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖砖拽讜诇讛 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻砖专讬驻转 讘讬转 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐

鈥淭he fast of the fifth,鈥 this is the Ninth of Av, on which the Temple of our Lord was burnt. And why does he call it the fast of the fifth? Because it falls in the fifth of the months. 鈥淭he fast of the seventh,鈥 this is the third of Tishrei, on which Gedaliah, son of Ahikam, was killed. And who killed him? Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, killed him (see II Kings 25:25; Jeremiah, chapter 41). The Sages established a fast to commemorate Gedaliah鈥檚 death to teach you that the death of the righteous is equivalent to the burning of the Temple of our Lord. And why did the prophet call it the fast of the seventh? Because Tishrei is the seventh of the months.

爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讝讛 注砖专讛 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 住诪讱 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇讬 讘砖谞讛 讛转砖讬注讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛注砖讬专讬 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 诇讗诪专 讘谉 讗讚诐 讻转讘 诇讱 讗转 砖诐 讛讬讜诐 讗转 注爪诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 住诪讱 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 讗诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 注砖讬专讬 注砖讬专讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐 讜讛诇讗 讛讬讛 专讗讜讬 讝讛 诇讻转讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞讻转讘 讻讗谉 讻讚讬 诇讛住讚讬专 讞讚砖讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉

鈥淭he fast of the tenth,鈥 This is the tenth of Tevet, on which the king of Babylonia laid siege to Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Son of man, write the name of the day, of this same day: The king of Babylonia has laid siege to Jerusalem on this very day鈥 (Ezekiel 24:1鈥2). And why did he call it the fast of the tenth? Because it is in Tevet, which is the tenth of the months. Wouldn鈥檛 it have been fitting to write this fast first, as the series of events began with the laying of the siege. Why was it written here at the end of the list? This was done in order to list the months in their proper order, as the prophet began with the fourth month and ended with the tenth month. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讜讗谞讬 讗讬谞讬 讗讜诪专 讻谉 讗诇讗 爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讝讛 讞诪砖讛 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 讘讗转 砖诪讜注讛 诇讙讜诇讛 砖讛讜讻转讛 讛注讬专 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖转讬 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讘注砖讬专讬 讘讞诪砖讛 诇讞讚砖 诇讙诇讜转谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讬 讛驻诇讬讟 诪讬专讜砖诇诐 诇讗诪专 讛讜讻转讛 讛注讬专 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 砖诪讜注讛 讻讬讜诐 砖专讬驻讛

Rabbi Shimon disagreed and said: I do not say this, but rather I expound the verse as follows: 鈥淭he fast of the tenth,鈥 this is the fifth of Tevet, on which the report reached the Diaspora that the city had been smitten, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth day of the month, that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came to me, saying: The city is smitten鈥 (Ezekiel 33:21); and they made the day of the report of the destruction like the day of the actual burning and decreed a fast on that day.

讜谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 诪讚讘专讬讜 砖讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讜注诇 讗讞专讜谉 讗讞专讜谉 讜讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 专讗砖讜谉 讗讞专讜谉 讜注诇 讗讞专讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讗诇讗 砖讛讜讗 诪讜谞讛 诇住讚专 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗谞讬 诪讜谞讛 诇住讚专 驻讜专注谞讬讜转

And Rabbi Shimon added: And my statement seems more convincing than his statement, as I say about the first fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place first, and about the last fast that it marks the event that took place last. According to Rabbi Shimon, the fasts are listed in accordance with the chronological order of the events. But he, Rabbi Akiva, says about the first fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place last, and about the last fast mentioned that it marks the event that took place first, only that he lists the fasts in the order of the months, whereas I list them also in the order of the calamities that they mark.

讗讬转诪专 专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专讬 诇讗 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转

It was stated that the Sages disagreed about the following matter: Rav and Rabbi 岣nina both say: Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, a listing of days on which fasting and eulogizing are forbidden, has been nullified, as in the present period of exile there is no reason to celebrate the joyous events that these days commemorate. Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 爪讜诐 讜讛谞讱 谞诪讬 讻讬 讛谞讬

The Gemara explains: Rav and Rabbi 岣nina say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has been nullified. This is what the prophet is saying: At a time when there is peace in the world, the dates listed will be times of joy and gladness, on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when there is no peace, they are days of fasting. And those days mentioned in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit are also like these days of fasting, that is to say, the days of joy listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit are also nullified when there is no peace.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专讬 诇讗 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讛谞讬 讛讜讗 讚转诇讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 讘讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讘诇 讛谞讱 讻讚拽讬讬诪讬 拽讬讬诪讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified, and they reason as follows: It was those fast days mentioned in the Bible that the Merciful One makes contingent on the building of the Temple, but these festive days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit remain as they were and have not been nullified.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诪注砖讛 讜讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讘诇讜讚 讜讬专讚 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜专讞抓 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜住讬驻专 讜讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜讛转注谞讜 注诇 诪讛 砖讛转注谞讬转诐

Rav Kahana raised an objection against Rav and Rabbi 岣nina from a baraita: There was an incident and the Sages decreed a fast on Hanukkah in Lod, and Rabbi Eliezer went down on that day and bathed in the bathhouse and Rabbi Yehoshua went down and cut his hair to show that they did not accept the fast. Furthermore, these two Sages said to the others: Go out and fast another fast as an act of penitence for what you have already fasted, as the days of Hanukkah are days of joy, on which fasting is forbidden. Hanukkah is one of the Festivals listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit. Even after the destruction of the Temple Hanukkah is celebrated, demonstrating that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖讗谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讚讗讬讻讗 诪爪讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜转讬讘讟讬诇 讗讬讛讬 讜转讬讘讟诇 诪爪讜转讛

Rav Yosef said: Hanukkah is different, as there is the mitzva of lighting candles, and so, unlike the other days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, the festival of Hanukkah was not nullified. Abaye said to him: What is this argument? Let Hanukkah itself be nullified, and let its mitzva of lighting candles be nullified with it.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖讗谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讚诪讬驻专住诐 谞讬住讗

Rather, Rav Yosef retracted his previous explanation and said: Hanukkah is different, as its miracle is well known, and it has become so widely accepted by all the Jewish people that it would be inappropriate to nullify it.

诪讜转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讛讜谞讗 讘转诇转讗 讘转砖专讬 讘讟讬诇转 讗讚讻专转讗 诪谉 砖讟专讬讬讗 砖讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讬讜谉 讙讝专讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讝讻讬专 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 注诇 驻讬讛诐 讜讻砖讙讘专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讜谞爪讞讜诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讟专讜转 讜讻讱 讛讬讜 讻讜转讘讬诐 讘砖谞转 讻讱 讜讻讱 诇讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诇讗诇 注诇讬讜谉

Rav A岣 bar Huna raised an objection: It is stated in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: On the third of Tishrei the ordinance requiring the mention of God鈥檚 name in legal documents was abolished, and on that day fasting is forbidden. For the kingdom of Greece had issued a decree against the Jews forbidding them to mention the name of Heaven on their lips. When the Hasmonean kingdom became strong and defeated the Greeks, they instituted that people should mention the name of Heaven even in their legal documents. And therefore they would write: In year such and such of Yo岣nan the High Priest of the God Most High.

讜讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 诇诪讞专 讝讛 驻讜专注 讗转 讞讜讘讜 讜谞诪爪讗 砖讟专 诪讜讟诇 讘讗砖驻讛 讜讘讬讟诇讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注砖讗讜讛讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 拽诪讬讬转讗 讘讟讜诇 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 诪讜住讬驻讬谉

And when the Sages heard about this they said: Tomorrow this one, the borrower, will repay his debt, the lender will no longer need to save the loan document, the document will be cast on a dunghill, and the name of Heaven written there will come to disgrace. And so they annulled the ordinance to mention God鈥檚 name in documents, and they made that day into a Festival. And if it enters your mind to say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has been nullified, can you say that the first prohibitions against fasting they annulled, and then later ones were added?

讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐

The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? This is referring to a time when the Temple was standing and all the days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit were in force. From time to time new days of commemoration were added. When the amora鈥檌m stated that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit was nullified they were referring to the time after the destruction of the Temple.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah: 18-24 – Daf Yomi One Week at a Time

This week we will learn how they sanctified each month during the Temple period. Witnesses came to testify in Jerusalem,...

Rosh Hashanah 18

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 18

讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 讘讬讞讬讚

Here the verse is referring to the time before one鈥檚 sentence is issued, when God shows favor and forgives; and there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence has been issued, when He no longer forgives. This implies that after a sentence has been issued, there is no possibility of repentance, which seems to contradict the statement of Rabbi Yo岣nan. The Gemara answers: Here too it is referring to an individual, but a community is granted forgiveness even after its sentence has been issued.

讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 讚讬讞讬讚 转谞讗讬 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讛讬讛 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬诐 砖注诇讜 诇诪讟讛 讜讞讜诇讬讬谉 砖讜讛 讜讻谉 砖谞讬诐 砖注诇讜 诇讙专讚讜诐 诇讬讚讜谉 讜讚讬谞谉 砖讜讛 讝讛 讬专讚 讜讝讛 诇讗 讬专讚 讝讛 谞讬爪诇 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞讬爪诇

搂 The question of whether or not an individual鈥檚 sentence can be rescinded is a dispute between tanna鈥檌m, as it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: Two people take to their beds, and their illness is the same, or two people ascend to the tribunal [gardom] for judgment, and their potential sentence is the same; but this one comes down from his bed, while that one does not come down from his bed, and this one is saved from death, while that one is not saved.

诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讝讛 讬专讚 讜讝讛 诇讗 讬专讚 讝讛 谞讬爪诇 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞讬爪诇 讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 讜谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讝讛 谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 谞注谞讛 讝讛 讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇讬诪讛 谞注谞讛 讜讝讛 诇讗 讛转驻诇诇 转驻诇讛 砖诇讬诪讛 诇讗 谞注谞讛

For what reason did this one recover and come down from his bed, while that one did not recover and come down from his bed; and why was this one saved from death, while that one was not saved? The difference between them is that this one prayed and was answered, while that one prayed, but was not answered. And for what reason was this one answered and that one not answered? This one prayed a prayer with his whole heart and consequently was answered, while that one did not pray a prayer with his whole heart and therefore was not answered.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗诪专 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讬驻讛 爪注拽讛 诇讗讚诐 讘讬谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讘讬谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

Rabbi Elazar said: Not so; rather, here he prayed before his heavenly sentence was issued, and so he was answered, whereas there the other one prayed after his heavenly sentence was issued, and therefore he was not answered. Rabbi Yitz岣k disagreed and said: Crying out to God is effective for a person, both before his sentence has been issued and also after his sentence has been issued, as even after his sentence has been issued, it can still be rescinded if he repents.

讜讙讝专 讚讬谉 讚爪讘讜专 诪讬 诪讬拽专注 讜讛讗 讻转讜讘 讗讞讚 讗讜诪专 讻讘住讬 诪专注讛 诇讘讱 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讗诐 转讻讘住讬 讘谞转专 讜转专讘讬 诇讱 讘讜专讬转 谞讻转诐 注讜谞讱 诇驻谞讬 诪讗讬 诇讗讜 讻讗谉 拽讜讚诐 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讻讗谉 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉

The Gemara asks: Can a sentence of a community really be torn up because they have repented? But one verse says: 鈥淥 Jerusalem, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved鈥 (Jeremiah 4:14), and elsewhere it is written: 鈥淔or though you wash yourself with lye, and use much soap, yet the stain of your iniquity is before Me, says the Lord God鈥 (Jeremiah 2:22). What, is it not that here the verse is referring to the time before the sentence, when the heart can still be washed with repentance, whereas there the verse is referring to the time after the sentence, when washing no longer helps, as the sentence cannot be canceled?

诇讗 讗讬讚讬 讜讗讬讚讬 诇讗讞专 讙讝专 讚讬谉 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讬砖 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛 讻讗谉 讘讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讗讬谉 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛

The Gemara answers: No, both this verse and that verse refer to the time after the sentence has been decreed, and still it is not difficult: Here the verse is referring to a sentence accompanied by an oath taken by God not to cancel the sentence, whereas there the verse is referring to a sentence that is not accompanied by God鈥檚 oath not to cancel the sentence, and so the sentence can in fact be canceled through repentance.

讻讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗诪讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗诪讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谞讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬谉 诇讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖讬砖 注诪讜 砖讘讜注讛 砖讗讬谞讜 谞拽专注 砖谞讗诪专 [讜]诇讻谉 谞砖讘注转讬 诇讘讬转 注诇讬 讗诐 讬转讻驻专 注讜谉 讘讬转 注诇讬 讘讝讘讞 讜讘诪谞讞讛

This is like what Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, as Rav Shmuel bar Ami said, and some say that it was Rav Shmuel bar Na岣ani who said that Rabbi Yonatan said: From where is it derived that a sentence accompanied by God鈥檚 oath not to cancel it cannot be torn up or canceled? As it is stated: 鈥淎nd therefore I have sworn to the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli鈥檚 house will not be purged with sacrifice nor offering forever鈥 (I Samuel 3:14).

讗诪专 专讘讗 讘讝讘讞 讜讘诪谞讞讛 讗讬谞讜 诪转讻驻专 讗讘诇 诪转讻驻专 讘转讜专讛 讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讘讝讘讞 讜诪谞讞讛 讗讬谞讜 诪转讻驻专 讗讘诇 诪转讻驻专 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 专讘讛 讜讗讘讬讬 诪讚讘讬转 注诇讬 拽讗转讜 专讘讛 讚注住拽 讘转讜专讛 讞讬讛 讗专讘注讬谉 砖谞讬谉 讗讘讬讬 讚注住拽 讘转讜专讛 讜讘讙诪讬诇讜转 讞住讚讬诐 讞讬讛 砖讬转讬谉 砖谞讬谉

With regard to this verse Rava said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli鈥檚 house is not atoned, but it can be atoned through Torah study. Abaye said: With sacrifice or offering the sin of Eli鈥檚 house is not atoned, but it is atoned through Torah study and the performance of acts of kindness. It is related that Rabba and Abaye came from the house of Eli, which was subject to the curse that most of its members would die young. Rabba, who engaged almost exclusively in Torah study, lived for forty years, whereas Abaye, who engaged in both Torah study and in the performance of acts of kindness lived for sixty years.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪砖驻讞讛 讗讞转 讛讬转讛 讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖讛讬讜 诪转讬讛 诪转讬谉 讘谞讬 砖诪讜谞讛 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讘讗讜 讜讛讜讚讬注讜 讗转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讝讻讗讬 讗诪专 诇讛诐 砖诪讗 诪诪砖驻讞转 注诇讬 讗转诐 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讛 讜讻诇 诪专讘讬转 讘讬转讱 讬诪讜转讜 讗谞砖讬诐 诇讻讜 讜注住拽讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讞讬讜 讛诇讻讜 讜注住拽讜 讘转讜专讛 讜讞讬讜 讜讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 讗讜转讛 诪砖驻讞转 专讘谉 讬讜讞谞谉 注诇 砖诪讜

The Sages taught in a baraita: There was a certain family in Jerusalem whose members used to die at the age of eighteen, and they did not know why. They came and told Rabban Yo岣nan ben Zakkai about their situation. He said to them: Perhaps you are descended from the family of Eli, as it is written about them: 鈥淎nd all the increase of your house shall die young men鈥 (I Samuel 2:33). If indeed this is so, the remedy is as follows: Go and engage in Torah study, in the merit of which you will live. They went and engaged in Torah study and lived. And people would call that family afterward by the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan in his honor.

讗诪专 专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 讗讬谞讬讗 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 诪谞讬讬谉 诇讙讝专 讚讬谉 砖诇 爪讘讜专 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讞转诐 讗讬谞讜 谞讞转诐 讜讛讻转讬讘 谞讻转诐 注讜谞讱 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讗 讗祝 注诇 讙讘 砖谞讞转诐 谞拽专注 砖谞讗诪专 讻讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讘讻诇 拽专讗谞讜 讗诇讬讜

Rav Shmuel bar Inya said in the name of Rav: From where is it derived that the sentence of a community is never sealed [ne岣am]? The Gemara immediately asks: Is never sealed? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵et the stain [nikhtam] of your iniquity is before Me鈥 (Jeremiah 2:22), which implies that the sentence of a community is indeed sealed. Rather, one must say that the question was as follows: From where is it known with regard to the sentence of a community that although it is sealed, it can still be torn up? As it is stated: 鈥淎s is the Lord our God whenever we call out to Him鈥 (Deuteronomy 4:7). This implies that there is always a way to draw close to God.

讜讛讻转讬讘 讚专砖讜 讛壮 讘讛诪爪讗讜 讛转诐 讘讬讞讬讚 讛讻讗 讘爪讘讜专

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淪eek the Lord while He may be found; call upon Him when He is near鈥 (Isaiah 55:6), which implies that there are times when He is not near and does not answer. The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to an individual, to whom God is near only at certain times; here the verse is referring to a community, to which God is close whenever the people call out to Him.

讘讬讞讬讚 讗讬诪转 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诇讜 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讬讛讬 讻注砖专转 讛讬诪讬诐 讜讬讙祝 讛壮 讗转 谞讘诇 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚转讬讬讛讜 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻谞讙讚 注砖专 诇讙讬诪讜转 砖谞转谉 谞讘诇 诇注讘讚讬 讚讜讚 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讗讘讜讛 讗诇讜 注砖专讛 讬诪讬诐 砖讘讬谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

搂 The Gemara asks: With regard to an individual, when is God near to him? Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. The Gemara asks further: The verse states: 鈥淎nd it came to pass about ten days after that the Lord smote Nabal, and he died鈥 (I Samuel 25:38). These ten days, what are they doing here, i.e., why was there a delay of ten days before Nabal died? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: They correspond to the ten meals that Nabal gave the servants of David who came to visit him, as out of politeness he allowed David鈥檚 ten servants to eat, and therefore his punishment was delayed for ten days. Rav Na岣an said that Rabba bar Avuh said: These are the ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur, during which everyone is given one last opportunity to repent for the sins he committed over the course of the previous year.

讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讘讗讬 讛注讜诇诐 注讜讘专讬谉 诇驻谞讬讜 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 诪讗讬 讻讘谞讬 诪专讜谉 讛讻讗 转专讙讬诪讜 讻讘谞讬 讗诪专谞讗 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讗诪专 讻诪注诇讜转 讘讬转 诪专讜谉 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讻讞讬讬诇讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 讚讜讚

搂 The mishna teaches: On Rosh HaShana all creatures pass before Him like benei maron. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase benei maron? The Gemara answers: Here in Babylonia they interpreted it to mean: Like a flock of sheep [kivnei imarna]. Reish Lakish disagreed and said: Like the ascent of Beit Maron, which was very steep; one standing at the summit could discern all those climbing the mountain with a single look. Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said another opinion: Like the soldiers of the house of King David, who could be surveyed with a single glance.

讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜讻讜诇谉 谞住拽专讬谉 讘住拽讬专讛 讗讞转 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗祝 讗谞谉 谞诪讬 转谞讬谞讗 讛讬讜爪专 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讛诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讚讘专谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讜诪讬讬讞讚 诇讘讬讬讛讜 讻讛讚讚讬 讜讛讗 拽讗 讞讝讬谞谉 讚诇讗讜 讛讻讬 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 诇讗讜 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讛讬讜爪专 专讜讗讛 讬讞讚 诇讘诐 讜诪讘讬谉 讗诇 讻诇 诪注砖讬讛诐

Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And they are all scanned in a single scan. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: We, too, learn this in the baraita: The verse states: 鈥淗e who fashions their hearts alike, who considers all their deeds鈥 (Psalms 33:15). What is this verse saying? If we say this is what it is saying: That He created everyone and unites all their hearts together, there is a difficulty, since don鈥檛 we see that it is not so, as the hearts of people are not united and are not similar to one another? Rather, is this not what it is saying: The Creator sees their hearts together and considers all their deeds with a single scan?

诪转谞讬壮 注诇 砖砖讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讛砖诇讜讞讬谉 讬讜爪讗讬谉 注诇 谞讬住谉 诪驻谞讬 讛驻住讞 注诇 讗讘 诪驻谞讬 讛转注谞讬转 注诇 讗诇讜诇 诪驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注诇 转砖专讬 诪驻谞讬 转拽谞转 讛诪讜注讚讜转 注诇 讻住诇讬讜 诪驻谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讜注诇 讗讚专 诪驻谞讬 讛驻讜专讬诐

MISHNA: In six months of the year the messengers go out from the court in Jerusalem to report throughout Eretz Yisrael and the Diaspora which day was established as the New Moon, the thirtieth or the thirty-first day since the previous New Moon. They go out in the month of Nisan, due to Passover, so that people will know on which day to celebrate it; in the month of Av, due to the fast of the Ninth of Av; in Elul, due to Rosh HaShana, which begins thirty days after the New Moon of Elul; in Tishrei, due to the need to establish the correct dates on which to celebrate the Festivals of Tishrei, i.e., Yom Kippur and Sukkot; in Kislev, due to Hanukkah; and in Adar, due to Purim.

讜讻砖讛讬讛 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐 讬讜爪讗讬谉 讗祝 注诇 讗讬讬专 诪驻谞讬 驻住讞 拽讟谉

And when the Temple was standing, messengers would also go out in the month of Iyyar due to small Passover, i.e., second Pesa岣, which occurs on the fourteenth of Iyyar. This holiday allowed those who were ritually impure or on a distant journey on the fourteenth of Nisan, and therefore incapable of bringing the Paschal lamb at that time, to bring their Paschal lamb a month later.

讙诪壮 讜诇讬驻拽讜 谞诪讬 讗转诪讜讝 讜讟讘转

GEMARA: The Gemara asks: And if they go out for the month of Av due to the fast, let them go out also in the months of Tammuz and Tevet, as they too contain public fast days.

讚讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 爪讜诐 讛专讘讬注讬 讜爪讜诐 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讜爪讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讜爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讬讛讬讛 诇讘讬转 讬讛讜讚讛 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 拽专讬 诇讛讜 爪讜诐 讜拽专讬 诇讛讜 砖砖讜谉 讜砖诪讞讛 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 爪讜诐

As Rav 岣na bar Bizna said that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淭hus said the Lord of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall become times of joy and gladness, and cheerful seasons, to the house of Judah鈥 (Zechariah 8:19). It calls them days of 鈥渇ast鈥 and it calls them 鈥渢imes of joy and gladness.鈥 How so? When there is peace in the world, they will be times of joy and gladness, on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when there is no peace, they are days of fasting. In a time when there is no peace, why are messengers not sent out also for the fourth and tenth months, so that people can know when to observe the fasts?

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讬砖 砖诪讚 爪讜诐 讗讬谉 砖诪讚 讜讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 专爪讜 诪转注谞讬谉 专爪讜 讗讬谉 诪转注谞讬谉

Rav Pappa said that this is what it is saying: When there is peace in the world and the Temple is standing, these days will be times of joy and gladness; when there is persecution and troubles for the Jewish people, they are days of fasting; and when there is no persecution but still no peace, neither particular troubles nor consolation for Israel, the halakha is as follows: If people wish, they fast, and if they wish, they do not fast. Since there is no absolute obligation to fast, messengers are not sent out for these months.

讗讬 讛讻讬 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 谞诪讬 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 砖讗谞讬 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讛讜讻驻诇讜 讘讜 爪专讜转 讚讗诪专 诪专 讘转砖注讛 讘讗讘 讞专讘 讛讘讬转 讘专讗砖讜谞讛 讜讘砖谞讬讛 讜谞诇讻讚讛 讘讬转专 讜谞讞专砖讛 讛注讬专

The Gemara asks: If so, the Ninth of Av should also be like the other fast days, that sometimes it is observed and sometimes not, depending upon the wishes of the community at the time. Why does the mishna state that messengers go out for the month of Av? Rav Pappa said: The Ninth of Av is different, since the calamities that occurred on that day were multiplied. As the Master said: On the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed, both the first one and the second one; on this day the city of Beitar was captured; and on this day the city of Jerusalem was plowed over by the enemies of the Jewish people, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt. Consequently, the fast of the Ninth of Av is obligatory, and not optional like the other fasts. Messengers are consequently sent out so that people will know when to fast.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讚讘专讬诐 讛讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讚讜专砖 讜讗谞讬 讗讬谉 讚讜专砖 讻诪讜转讜 爪讜诐 讛专讘讬注讬 讝讛 转砖注讛 讘转诪讜讝 砖讘讜 讛讜讘拽注讛 讛注讬专 砖谞讗诪专 讘专讘讬注讬 讘转砖注讛 诇讞讚砖 讜讬讞讝拽 讛专注讘 讘注讬专 讜诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讞诐 诇注诐 讛讗专抓 讜转讘拽注 讛注讬专 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讘讬注讬 专讘讬注讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐

搂 The Sages disagreed about the fasts alluded to in the words of the prophet, as it is taught in a baraita. Rabbi Shimon said: Rabbi Akiva would expound four verses, but I would not expound the texts as he did. One of the disputes relates to the fasts mentioned by Zechariah. Rabbi Akiva would expound the verse as follows: 鈥淭he fast of the fourth,鈥 this is the ninth of Tammuz, on which the city of Jerusalem was breached, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd in the fourth month, on the ninth day of the month, the famine was severe in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Then the city was breached鈥 (Jeremiah 52:6鈥7). And why does the prophet call it the fast of the fourth? Because it is in Tammuz, the fourth of the months when counting from Nisan.

爪讜诐 讛讞诪讬砖讬 讝讛 转砖注讛 讘讗讘 砖讘讜 谞砖专祝 讘讬转 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 讞诪讬砖讬 讞诪讬砖讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐 爪讜诐 讛砖讘讬注讬 讝讛 砖诇砖讛 讘转砖专讬 砖讘讜 谞讛专讙 讙讚诇讬讛 讘谉 讗讞讬拽诐 讜诪讬 讛专讙讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 谞转谞讬讛 讛专讙讜 诇诇诪讚讱 砖砖拽讜诇讛 诪讬转转谉 砖诇 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻砖专讬驻转 讘讬转 讗诇讛讬谞讜 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐

鈥淭he fast of the fifth,鈥 this is the Ninth of Av, on which the Temple of our Lord was burnt. And why does he call it the fast of the fifth? Because it falls in the fifth of the months. 鈥淭he fast of the seventh,鈥 this is the third of Tishrei, on which Gedaliah, son of Ahikam, was killed. And who killed him? Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, killed him (see II Kings 25:25; Jeremiah, chapter 41). The Sages established a fast to commemorate Gedaliah鈥檚 death to teach you that the death of the righteous is equivalent to the burning of the Temple of our Lord. And why did the prophet call it the fast of the seventh? Because Tishrei is the seventh of the months.

爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讝讛 注砖专讛 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 住诪讱 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 注诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讚讘专 讛壮 讗诇讬 讘砖谞讛 讛转砖讬注讬转 讘讞讚砖 讛注砖讬专讬 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 诇讗诪专 讘谉 讗讚诐 讻转讘 诇讱 讗转 砖诐 讛讬讜诐 讗转 注爪诐 讛讬讜诐 讛讝讛 住诪讱 诪诇讱 讘讘诇 讗诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜讗诪讗讬 拽专讬 诇讬讛 注砖讬专讬 注砖讬专讬 诇讞讚砖讬诐 讜讛诇讗 讛讬讛 专讗讜讬 讝讛 诇讻转讜讘 专讗砖讜谉 讜诇诪讛 谞讻转讘 讻讗谉 讻讚讬 诇讛住讚讬专 讞讚砖讬诐 讻转讬拽谞谉

鈥淭he fast of the tenth,鈥 This is the tenth of Tevet, on which the king of Babylonia laid siege to Jerusalem, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Son of man, write the name of the day, of this same day: The king of Babylonia has laid siege to Jerusalem on this very day鈥 (Ezekiel 24:1鈥2). And why did he call it the fast of the tenth? Because it is in Tevet, which is the tenth of the months. Wouldn鈥檛 it have been fitting to write this fast first, as the series of events began with the laying of the siege. Why was it written here at the end of the list? This was done in order to list the months in their proper order, as the prophet began with the fourth month and ended with the tenth month. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讜讗谞讬 讗讬谞讬 讗讜诪专 讻谉 讗诇讗 爪讜诐 讛注砖讬专讬 讝讛 讞诪砖讛 讘讟讘转 砖讘讜 讘讗转 砖诪讜注讛 诇讙讜诇讛 砖讛讜讻转讛 讛注讬专 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬 讘砖转讬 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讘注砖讬专讬 讘讞诪砖讛 诇讞讚砖 诇讙诇讜转谞讜 讘讗 讗诇讬 讛驻诇讬讟 诪讬专讜砖诇诐 诇讗诪专 讛讜讻转讛 讛注讬专 讜注砖讜 讬讜诐 砖诪讜注讛 讻讬讜诐 砖专讬驻讛

Rabbi Shimon disagreed and said: I do not say this, but rather I expound the verse as follows: 鈥淭he fast of the tenth,鈥 this is the fifth of Tevet, on which the report reached the Diaspora that the city had been smitten, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it came to pass in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth day of the month, that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came to me, saying: The city is smitten鈥 (Ezekiel 33:21); and they made the day of the report of the destruction like the day of the actual burning and decreed a fast on that day.

讜谞专讗讬谉 讚讘专讬 诪讚讘专讬讜 砖讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 注诇 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讜注诇 讗讞专讜谉 讗讞专讜谉 讜讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 注诇 专讗砖讜谉 讗讞专讜谉 讜注诇 讗讞专讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 讗诇讗 砖讛讜讗 诪讜谞讛 诇住讚专 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗谞讬 诪讜谞讛 诇住讚专 驻讜专注谞讬讜转

And Rabbi Shimon added: And my statement seems more convincing than his statement, as I say about the first fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place first, and about the last fast that it marks the event that took place last. According to Rabbi Shimon, the fasts are listed in accordance with the chronological order of the events. But he, Rabbi Akiva, says about the first fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place last, and about the last fast mentioned that it marks the event that took place first, only that he lists the fasts in the order of the months, whereas I list them also in the order of the calamities that they mark.

讗讬转诪专 专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专讬 诇讗 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转

It was stated that the Sages disagreed about the following matter: Rav and Rabbi 岣nina both say: Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, a listing of days on which fasting and eulogizing are forbidden, has been nullified, as in the present period of exile there is no reason to celebrate the joyous events that these days commemorate. Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified.

专讘 讜专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诪专讬 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 讘讝诪谉 砖讬砖 砖诇讜诐 讬讛讬讜 诇砖砖讜谉 讜诇砖诪讞讛 讗讬谉 砖诇讜诐 爪讜诐 讜讛谞讱 谞诪讬 讻讬 讛谞讬

The Gemara explains: Rav and Rabbi 岣nina say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has been nullified. This is what the prophet is saying: At a time when there is peace in the world, the dates listed will be times of joy and gladness, on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when there is no peace, they are days of fasting. And those days mentioned in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit are also like these days of fasting, that is to say, the days of joy listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit are also nullified when there is no peace.

专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗诪专讬 诇讗 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 讛谞讬 讛讜讗 讚转诇讬谞讛讜 专讞诪谞讗 讘讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讗讘诇 讛谞讱 讻讚拽讬讬诪讬 拽讬讬诪讬

Rabbi Yo岣nan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified, and they reason as follows: It was those fast days mentioned in the Bible that the Merciful One makes contingent on the building of the Temple, but these festive days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit remain as they were and have not been nullified.

诪转讬讘 专讘 讻讛谞讗 诪注砖讛 讜讙讝专讜 转注谞讬转 讘讞谞讜讻讛 讘诇讜讚 讜讬专讚 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讜专讞抓 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讜住讬驻专 讜讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 爪讗讜 讜讛转注谞讜 注诇 诪讛 砖讛转注谞讬转诐

Rav Kahana raised an objection against Rav and Rabbi 岣nina from a baraita: There was an incident and the Sages decreed a fast on Hanukkah in Lod, and Rabbi Eliezer went down on that day and bathed in the bathhouse and Rabbi Yehoshua went down and cut his hair to show that they did not accept the fast. Furthermore, these two Sages said to the others: Go out and fast another fast as an act of penitence for what you have already fasted, as the days of Hanukkah are days of joy, on which fasting is forbidden. Hanukkah is one of the Festivals listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit. Even after the destruction of the Temple Hanukkah is celebrated, demonstrating that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has not been nullified.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖讗谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讚讗讬讻讗 诪爪讜讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 讜转讬讘讟讬诇 讗讬讛讬 讜转讬讘讟诇 诪爪讜转讛

Rav Yosef said: Hanukkah is different, as there is the mitzva of lighting candles, and so, unlike the other days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit, the festival of Hanukkah was not nullified. Abaye said to him: What is this argument? Let Hanukkah itself be nullified, and let its mitzva of lighting candles be nullified with it.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 砖讗谞讬 讞谞讜讻讛 讚诪讬驻专住诐 谞讬住讗

Rather, Rav Yosef retracted his previous explanation and said: Hanukkah is different, as its miracle is well known, and it has become so widely accepted by all the Jewish people that it would be inappropriate to nullify it.

诪讜转讬讘 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讛讜谞讗 讘转诇转讗 讘转砖专讬 讘讟讬诇转 讗讚讻专转讗 诪谉 砖讟专讬讬讗 砖讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讬讜谉 讙讝专讛 砖诇讗 诇讛讝讻讬专 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 注诇 驻讬讛诐 讜讻砖讙讘专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讞砖诪讜谞讗讬 讜谞爪讞讜诐 讛转拽讬谞讜 砖讬讛讜 诪讝讻讬专讬谉 砖诐 砖诪讬诐 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖讟专讜转 讜讻讱 讛讬讜 讻讜转讘讬诐 讘砖谞转 讻讱 讜讻讱 诇讬讜讞谞谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诇讗诇 注诇讬讜谉

Rav A岣 bar Huna raised an objection: It is stated in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: On the third of Tishrei the ordinance requiring the mention of God鈥檚 name in legal documents was abolished, and on that day fasting is forbidden. For the kingdom of Greece had issued a decree against the Jews forbidding them to mention the name of Heaven on their lips. When the Hasmonean kingdom became strong and defeated the Greeks, they instituted that people should mention the name of Heaven even in their legal documents. And therefore they would write: In year such and such of Yo岣nan the High Priest of the God Most High.

讜讻砖砖诪注讜 讞讻诪讬诐 讘讚讘专 讗诪专讜 诇诪讞专 讝讛 驻讜专注 讗转 讞讜讘讜 讜谞诪爪讗 砖讟专 诪讜讟诇 讘讗砖驻讛 讜讘讬讟诇讜诐 讜讗讜转讜 讛讬讜诐 注砖讗讜讛讜 讬讜诐 讟讜讘 讜讗讬 住诇拽讗 讚注转讱 讘讟诇讛 诪讙讬诇转 转注谞讬转 拽诪讬讬转讗 讘讟讜诇 讗讞专谞讬讬转讗 诪讜住讬驻讬谉

And when the Sages heard about this they said: Tomorrow this one, the borrower, will repay his debt, the lender will no longer need to save the loan document, the document will be cast on a dunghill, and the name of Heaven written there will come to disgrace. And so they annulled the ordinance to mention God鈥檚 name in documents, and they made that day into a Festival. And if it enters your mind to say that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit has been nullified, can you say that the first prohibitions against fasting they annulled, and then later ones were added?

讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 拽讬讬诐

The Gemara answers: With what are we dealing here? This is referring to a time when the Temple was standing and all the days listed in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit were in force. From time to time new days of commemoration were added. When the amora鈥檌m stated that Megillat Ta鈥檃nit was nullified they were referring to the time after the destruction of the Temple.

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