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Today's Daf Yomi

November 4, 2021 | 讻状讟 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

This month's shiurim are also dedicated in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children, and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 26

Today鈥檚 daf is sponsored by Becki Goldstein to celebrate her granddaughter Sarai鈥檚 eight birthday and the anniversary of her parents Kobi and Rotem. 鈥淏orn at week 25 at 890 grams Parshat Chaye Sara, rabbanim suggested to name her Sarai, a stronger name than Sara. So began weeks of tfilot across the globe for a refua shlaima while Sarai tested our emunah and won our hearts. I know that her guardian angel has always been Sara Imenu鈥. Mazal tov!聽

This week’s learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for a refuah shleima for Elisheva bat Ora.聽

If someone was a witness to an event, can he be a judge in that case? It appears from the Mishna that one can. But how does this fit in with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva who holds that one cannot? Perhaps there is a distinction between murder cases (which is where Rabbi Akiva stated his opinion) and the sanctification of the new moon. Tana Kama holds that a horn of a cow cannot be used as a shofar but all other animals鈥 horns can be used. He says it is because a horn of a cow is called a keren and not a shofar Rabbi Yossi disagrees, based on the verse “When the keren of the ram will sound” where shofar is also called a keren. His proof seems strong – if so, how would the sages respond to his claim? The gemara brings a possible explanation. Ulla and Abaye each bring an additional reason to explain the opinion of the Tana Kama, beyond what is already written in the Mishna. Ulla explains it is because of the sin of the golden calf, we do not want to use a shofar from the cow family so as not to have the 鈥減rosecutor become the advocate.鈥 The Gemara brings a series of difficulties on Ulla and answers them. Why did Abaye and Ulla bring an explanation to the sages when their reason was already mentioned in the Gemara? Where does the Gemara explain to us that when it is written in the word hayovel, from the verse mentioned in the Mishna, it means 鈥榓 ram.鈥 From there, they digress from the subject and talk about many words that they did not know what they meant and they explained from where they learned the definition. The Mishnah brings two different opinions regarding the type of shofar (from an ibex and straight or from a ram and bent) that should be used for Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur of the Jubilee year and for fast days. In the Temple on those days they also blew from trumpets. What was more central 鈥 shofar or trumpets? Levy brings an opinion that is slightly different from the two opinions in the Mishna.

 

诪拽爪转谉 谞注砖讜 注讚讬诐 讜诪拽爪转谉 谞注砖讜 讚讬讬谞讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讻讜诇谉 谞注砖讬谉 注讚讬诐 讜讗讬谉 注讚 谞注砖讛 讚讬讬谉

some of them are rendered witnesses and testify before the others and some of them become judges in the case; this is the statement of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: They are all rendered witnesses, and a witness cannot become a judge. It seems therefore that the mishna contradicts Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 opinion.

讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛转诐 讗诇讗 讘讚讬谞讬 谞驻砖讜转 讚专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 讜砖驻讟讜 讛注讚讛 讜讛爪讬诇讜 讛注讚讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讬讜讛讜 讚拽讟诇 谞驻砖讗 诇讗 诪爪讜 讞讝讜 诇讬讛 讝讻讜转讗 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讜讚讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: You can even say that the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, but we must distinguish between the cases. Rabbi Akiva states his position there only with regard to cases of capital law, for the Merciful One says: 鈥淎nd the congregation shall judge鈥nd the congregation shall save鈥 (Numbers 35:24鈥25), which requires a court to search for grounds to exonerate the defendant, but once they themselves have seen him kill a person, they will be unable to find grounds to exonerate him. But here, with regard to the sighting of the new moon, even Rabbi Akiva concedes that a witness can be rendered a judge.

诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 讻砖专讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖诇 驻专讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛诇讗 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞拽专讗讜 拽专谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪砖讜讱 讘拽专谉 讛讬讜讘诇

MISHNA: The mishna begins to discuss the primary mitzva of Rosh HaShana, sounding the shofar. All shofarot are fit for blowing except for the horn of a cow, because it is a horn [keren] and not a shofar. Rabbi Yosei said: But aren鈥檛 all shofarot called horn, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that when they sound a long blast with the horn [keren] of a ram [yovel]鈥 (Joshua 6:5), and a ram鈥檚 horn is a shofar fit for sounding on Rosh HaShana?

讙诪壮 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 讗拽专讜 砖讜驻专 讜讗拽专讜 拽专谉 讚驻专讛 拽专谉 讗拽专讬 砖讜驻专 诇讗 讗拽专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻讜专 砖讜专讜 讛讚专 诇讜 讜拽专谞讬 专讗诐 拽专谞讬讜

GEMARA: Rabbi Yosei is saying well, i.e., presents a convincing argument. Why do the Rabbis not accept it? The Gemara explains that the Rabbis counter Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 argument as follows: Indeed, all other shofarot are called shofar and they are also called keren, but that of a cow is called keren, but it is not called shofar, as it is written: 鈥淗is firstborn bull, grandeur is his, and his horns [karnav] are the horns of [karnei] a wild ox鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:17). It is therefore clear that the horns of a bull are called keren, and nowhere are they called shofar.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚驻专讛 谞诪讬 讗拽专讬 砖讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 讗诐 砖讜专 诇诪讛 驻专 讜讗诐 驻专 诇诪讛 砖讜专 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 砖讜专 驻专 诪砖讜驻专

And how would Rabbi Yosei counter this argument? He could have said to you: The horns of a cow are also called shofar, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than an ox bull [shor par] that has horns and hoofs鈥 (Psalms 69:32). The wording of the verse is strange: If it is an ox [shor], why is it also called a bull [par], and if it is a bull [par], why is it called an ox [shor]? Rather, what is the meaning of shor par? These two words must be read as if they were one single word: Than a shofar. According to this reading, even the horn of a cow is called a shofar.

讜专讘谞谉 讻讚专讘 诪转谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 诪讗讬 砖讜专 驻专 砖讛讜讗 讙讚讜诇 讻驻专

And how do the Rabbis explain the difficulty in this verse? They explain it as it was explained by Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said: What is the meaning of shor par? An ox [shor] that is as large as a bull [par], as the animal is called a shor from birth, but is called a par only from the age of three.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讻讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 谞讻谞住 讘讘讙讚讬 讝讛讘 诇驻谞讬 讜诇驻谞讬诐 诇注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专

Ulla said: This is the reasoning of the Rabbis, who say that the horn of a cow is unfit for sounding on Rosh HaShana. They say this in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as Rav 岣sda said: For what reason does the High Priest not enter the innermost sanctum, the Holy of Holies, with his golden garments to perform the service there on Yom Kippur? It is because a prosecutor [kateigor] cannot become an advocate [sanneigor]. Since the Jewish people committed the sin of worshipping the Golden Calf, the High Priest may not enter the Holy of Holies to atone for the Jewish people wearing golden garments, as they would bring that sin to mind.

讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讚诐 驻专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗砖转谞讬 讗砖转谞讬

The Gemara asks: But do we not use a cow in the Holy of Holies? But there is the blood of the bull that is brought there to be sprinkled on Yom Kippur, despite the fact that the Jewish people sinned with a calf. The Gemara answers: Since it has changed, i.e., it is not the bull itself, but only its blood, then it has changed, i.e., so it does not bring the sin of the Golden Calf to mind.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讗专讜谉 讜讻驻讜专转 讜讻专讜讘 讞讜讟讗 讘诇 讬拽专讬讘 拽讗诪专讬谞谉

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But there is the Ark, the Ark cover, and the cherub, all of which are plated with gold. If this is problematic, why are they in the Holy of Holies? The Gemara explains: What we are saying is that a sinner seeking atonement should not bring something made of gold into the Holy of Holies, as it would bring the sin of the Golden Calf to mind.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讻祝 讜诪讞转讛 讞讜讟讗 讘诇 讬转谞讗讛 拽讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

The Gemara asks further: But there is the spoon and coal pan that are brought into the Holy of Holies, and they are made of gold. The Gemara answers: What we are saying is that a sinner seeking atonement should not adorn himself with ornaments of gold.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讙讚讬 讝讛讘 诪讘讞讜抓 诪讘驻谞讬诐 拽讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖讜驻专 谞诪讬 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讜讗 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讝讻专讜谉 讛讜讗 讻讘驻谞讬诐 讚诪讬

The Gemara raises yet another question: But there are the golden garments the High Priest wears outside the Holy of Holies. The Gemara answers: What we are saying is that a sinner should not adorn himself with gold inside the Holy of Holies, but outside there is no concern. The Gemara continues this line of questioning: If so, the shofar is also outside, since it is not brought into the Holy of Holies. The Gemara answers: Since the shofar is sounded in order to evoke God鈥檚 remembrance, it is considered as if it were sounded inside the Holy of Holies.

讜讛讗 转谞讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讚讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专 讜注讜讚 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: Is this indeed the reason that the Rabbis disqualify the use of a cow鈥檚 horn? But the tanna taught: The horn of a cow cannot be used because it is a keren. The Gemara answers: The tanna stated one reason and also another reason: One reason is that a prosecutor cannot become an advocate, and another is because it is called a keren and not a shofar.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚拽讗 讗诪专转 讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讛讗讬 砖讜驻专 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讜讗 讜讚拽讗 讗诪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞诪讬 讗拽专讜 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: And how would Rabbi Yosei counter these arguments? The Gemara explains: He could have said to you: That which you said, that a prosecutor cannot become an advocate, is indeed true, but this applies only inside the Holy of Holies, and the shofar is sounded outside. And with regard to that which you said, because it is a keren, all shofarot are also called keren.

讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 砖讜驻专 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讜讛讗 讚驻专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讗讬 讙讬诇讚讬 讙讬诇讚讬 诪讬转讞讝讬 讻砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转

Abaye said: This is the reasoning of the Rabbis: The Merciful One says to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot together, but this horn of a cow, since it is comprised of layers, looks like two or three shofarot.

讜讛讗 转谞讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讚砖讜驻专 讗讞讚 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讜注讜讚 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: But the tanna taught: The horn of a cow cannot be used because it is a keren. Since the Rabbis鈥 reasoning appears clearly in the mishna, how can the reasoning provided by Abaye be correct? The Gemara replies: The tanna stated one reason and also another reason. One reason is that the Merciful One says to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot together, and another is because it is a keren.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚拽讗诪专转 砖讜驻专 讗讞讚 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讻讬讜谉 讚诪讞讘专讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讞讚 讛讜讗 讜讚拽讗诪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞诪讬 讗拽专讜 拽专谉

And Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: That which you said, that the Merciful One says in the Torah to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot, is not a difficulty. Since the layers of the cow鈥檚 horn are connected to each other, it is considered a single shofar. And with regard to that which you said: Because it is a keren, all shofarot are also called keren.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讬讜讘诇讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讚讻专讗 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇注专讘讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇讚讻专讗 讬讜讘诇讗

搂 It is taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei proves from a verse that a the horn of a ram [yovel] is called a keren. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this term yovel denotes the horn of a ram? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Arabia, I heard that they called a ram yovla, and from this we can infer the meaning of the term yovel in the related language of Hebrew.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讙诇讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇谞讚讛 讙诇诪讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讙诇诪讜讚讛 讙诪讜诇讛 讚讗 诪讘注诇讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讗驻专讬拽讬 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇诪注讛 拽砖讬讟讛 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇驻专讜砖讬 诪讗讛 拽砖讬讟讛 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讗讛 讚谞拽讬

The Gemara records a series of similar statements: And Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Galia, I heard that they called a menstruating woman galmuda, and this clarifies the meaning of that word in Scripture. It should be understood as follows: What does galmuda mean? She is separated [gemula da] from her husband, as all physical contact between a menstruating woman and her husband is forbidden. And Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Africa, I heard that they called a ma鈥檃, which is a certain coin, kesita. The Gemara asks: What is the practical significance of this? The Gemara answers: To explain that the words in the Torah relating to Jacob鈥檚 purchase of his field near Shechem: 鈥淎nd he bought the parcel of ground where he had spread his tent, from the sons of Hamor for a hundred kesita (Genesis 33:19), denote a hundred dankei, i.e., a hundred ma鈥檃.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇诪讻讬专讛 讻讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇驻专讜砖讬 讗砖专 讻专讬转讬 诇讬

Similarly, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I went to the sea towns, I heard that they called a sale kira. And the Gemara asks: What is the practical significance of this? The Gemara answers: To explain the verse relating to Jacob鈥檚 burial plot: 鈥淚n my grave which I purchased [kariti] for myself, there shall you bury me鈥 (Genesis 50:5).

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇转讞讜诐 拽谉 谞砖专讬讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇讻诇讛 谞讬谞驻讬 讜诇转专谞讙讜诇 砖讻讜讬 诇讻诇讛 谞讬谞驻讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讬驻讛 谞讜祝 诪砖讜砖 讻诇 讛讗专抓 讜诇转专谞讙讜诇 砖讻讜讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 诪讬 砖转 讘讟讜讞讜转 讞讻诪讛 讗讜 诪讬 谞转谉 诇砖讻讜讬 讘讬谞讛 诪讬 砖转 讘讟讜讞讜转 讞讻诪讛 讗诇讜 讻诇讬讜转 讗讜 诪讬 谞转谉 诇砖讻讜讬 讘讬谞讛 讝讛 转专谞讙讜诇

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: When I went to the district of Kan Nishrayya, I heard that they called a bride ninfi and a rooster sekhvi. The Gemara explains how this information serves to clarify the meanings of biblical verses: A bride is called ninfi; what is the verse that uses a similar term? 鈥淏eautiful view [nof ], the joy of the whole earth, Mount Zion鈥 (Psalms 48:3), which therefore means beautiful like a bride. And a rooster is called sekhvi; Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: And if you wish, you can say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said this: What is the verse that employs this term? 鈥淲ho has put wisdom in the inward parts? Or who has given understanding to the sekhvi (Job 38:36), which should be understood as follows: 鈥淲ho has put wisdom in the inward parts鈥: These are the kidneys that are hidden in the body; 鈥渙r who has given understanding to the sekhvi鈥: This is a rooster, who knows to crow at fixed times during the night.

诇讜讬 讗讬拽诇注 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讗转讗 讙讘专讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛

Incidental to the discussion of the meanings of certain words in foreign countries, it was related that Levi once happened to come to a certain place, where a man came before him to complain about what had been done to him. This man said to him:

拽讘注谉 驻诇谞讬讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转讗 砖讗讬诇 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讙讝诇谉 讗诪专 诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬拽讘注 讗讚诐 讗诇讛讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诪讘专谞讬砖 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬 讛讜讗讬 讛转诐 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讬讛 讛讬讻讬 拽讘注讱 讘诪讗讬 拽讘注讱 讜讗诪讗讬 拽讘注讱 讜诪诪讬诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬谞讗 讜讗讬讛讜 住讘专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗讬住讜专讗 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛

So-and-so keva鈥檃 from me. Levi did not understand what that man was saying to him, as he did not know the meaning of the word kava. So he went and asked in the study hall. They said to him: That man said to you: He robbed me, as it is written: 鈥淲ill a man rob [hayikba] God?鈥 (Malachi 3:8). Rava from a place called Barnish said to Rav Ashi: Had I been there in Levi鈥檚 place I would have tried to uncover the meaning of the word in a different way, for I would have said to him: How did he keva鈥檃 you? With what did he keva鈥檃 you? And why did he keva鈥檃 you? And from his answers I would have understood on my own what was being said. The Gemara comments: And Levi, who did not do this, thought that the man was talking about a matter of prohibition and not a monetary matter, and so asking the man these questions would not have helped, as they are relevant only to monetary matters.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 住讬专讜讙讬谉 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讞讝转谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讚讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 驻住拽讬 驻住拽讬 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 注讚 诪转讬 讗转诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 住讬专讜讙讬谉 住讬专讜讙讬谉

The Gemara continues its discussion of unusual words: The Sages did not know the meaning of the word seirugin, which is found in a mishna. One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to the Sages whom she saw entering the house not all at once, but intermittently: How long shall you enter seirugin seirugin? and from this they understood that the word seirugin means: At intervals.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讞诇讜讙诇讜讙讜转 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讞讝讬转 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 诪讘讚专 驻专驻讞讬谞讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 诪驻讝专 讞诇讜讙诇讜讙讱

It is similarly recounted that the Sages did not know the meaning of the word 岣loglogot, which is mentioned in various mishnayot and baraitot. One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to a certain man whom she saw scattering his purslane plants: How long shall you scatter your 岣loglogot? So they understood that 岣loglogot means purslane.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 住诇住诇讛 讜转专讜诪诪讱 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讛讜讜转 讗诪专讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讛驻讱 讘砖注专讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 诪住诇住诇 讘砖注专讱

The Sages also did not know the meaning of the word salseleha in the verse: Salseleha and it will exalt you鈥 (Proverbs 4:8). One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to a certain man who was curling his hair: How long shall you mesalsel your hair? And from this they understood that the verse means: Turn wisdom about, and it will exalt you.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讜讟讗讟讗转讬讛 讘诪讟讗讟讗 讛砖诪讚 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讛讜讜转 讗诪专讛 诇讞讘讬专转讛 砖拽讜诇讬 讟讗讟讬转讗 讜讟讗讟讬 讘讬转讗

It is further related that the Sages did not know the meaning of the words in the verse: 鈥淎nd sweep it [vetetetiha] with the broom [matatei] of destruction鈥 (Isaiah 14:23). One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house saying to her workmate: Take a broom [tateita] and sweep [ta鈥檃ti] the house,鈥 and they understood the meaning of these words.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讛砖诇讱 注诇 讛壮 讬讛讘讱 讜讛讜讗 讬讻诇讻诇讱 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 讗讝诇讬谞讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讛讜讗 讟讬讬注讗 讛讜讛 讚专讬谞讗 讟讜谞讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬 砖拽讜诇 讬讛讘讬讱 讜砖讚讬 讗讙诪诇讗讬

The Sages also did not know the meaning of the word yehavkha in the verse: 鈥淐ast your load [yehavkha] upon the Lord and He will sustain you鈥 (Psalms 55:23). Rabba bar bar 岣na said: One day I was traveling with a certain Arab [Tayya鈥檃], and I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your yehav and cast it on my camel, and from this I understood that yehav means a load.

诪转谞讬壮 砖讜驻专 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇 讬注诇 驻砖讜讟 讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讝讛讘 讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬谉 砖讜驻专 诪讗专讬讱 讜讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪拽爪专讜转 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘砖讜驻专

MISHNA: The shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana in the Temple was made from the straight horn of an ibex, and its mouth, the mouthpiece into which one blows, was plated with gold. And there were two trumpets, one on each of the two sides of the person sounding the shofar. The shofar would sound a long blast, whereas the trumpets would sound a short blast, because the mitzva of the day is with the shofar.

讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜驻讬讛谉 诪爪讜驻讛 讻住祝 讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜驻专 诪拽爪专 讜讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪讗专讬讻讜转 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘讞爪讜爪专讜转

And in contrast, the shofarot used on public fast days were made from the curved horns of rams, and their mouths were plated with silver. There were two trumpets in the middle between the shofarot, and the shofar would sound a short blast, whereas the trumpets would sound a long blast, for the mitzva of the day is with the trumpets.

砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讘砖诇 讬注诇讬诐

Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. Rabbi Yehuda disagrees and says: There is a difference between the two days: On Rosh HaShana one blows with horns of rams, whereas in Jubilee Years one blows with horns of ibexes.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诪爪讜讛 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讘讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜砖诇 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讘驻砖讜讟讬谉 讜讛转谞谉 砖讜驻专 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇 讬注诇 驻砖讜讟 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讛讬讜 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讘砖诇 讬注诇讬诐

GEMARA: Rabbi Levi said: The mitzva of Rosh HaShana and of Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is to blow with curved shofarot, and that of the rest of the year, on fast days, is to blow with straight shofarot. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But didn鈥檛 we learn differently in the mishna: The shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana was made from the straight horn of an ibex? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Levi said his statement in accordance with the opinion of that tanna, Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: On Rosh HaShana they would blow with the curved horns of rams, and on the Days of Atonement of the Jubilee Years with the horns of ibexes.

讜诇讬诪讗 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讗诪专转 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇 讬讜讘诇 谞诪讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: If so, let it simply say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Why was it necessary to quote the baraita in full, as if it provided new information? The Gemara explains: If you had said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, I would have said that he, Rabbi Levi, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda even with regard to the shofar used in the Jubilee Year, i.e., that one must blow with the horn of ibexes at that time. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that he agrees with Rabbi Yehuda only with regard to Rosh HaShana, and not with regard to any other matter.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诪讛 讚讻讬讬祝 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讻诪讛 讚驻砖讬讟 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜诪专 住讘专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诪讛 讚驻砖讬讟 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讻诪讛 讚讻讬讬祝 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do these tanna鈥檌m disagree? One Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds that on Rosh HaShana the more a person bends his mind and humbles himself by bending in prayer, the better. Therefore, a curved shofar is sounded as an allusion to our bent minds and bodies. But on Yom Kippur, the more a person straightens his mind and prays with simplicity, the better. Therefore, a straight shofar is sounded. The other Sage, the anonymous tanna of the mishna, maintains the opposite: On Rosh HaShana, the more a person straightens his mind and avoids any crookedness, the better. On fasts, on the other hand, the more a person bends his mind and humbles himself, the better.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

And in memory of Dr. Chaya R. Gorsetman, Chaya bat Esriel V鈥橬aomi z鈥檒 during the period of shloshim by her husband, children and grandchildren.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 26

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Rosh Hashanah 26

诪拽爪转谉 谞注砖讜 注讚讬诐 讜诪拽爪转谉 谞注砖讜 讚讬讬谞讬谉 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讟专驻讜谉 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讻讜诇谉 谞注砖讬谉 注讚讬诐 讜讗讬谉 注讚 谞注砖讛 讚讬讬谉

some of them are rendered witnesses and testify before the others and some of them become judges in the case; this is the statement of Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Akiva says: They are all rendered witnesses, and a witness cannot become a judge. It seems therefore that the mishna contradicts Rabbi Akiva鈥檚 opinion.

讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 注讚 讻讗谉 诇讗 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛转诐 讗诇讗 讘讚讬谞讬 谞驻砖讜转 讚专讞诪谞讗 讗诪专 讜砖驻讟讜 讛注讚讛 讜讛爪讬诇讜 讛注讚讛 讜讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讬讜讛讜 讚拽讟诇 谞驻砖讗 诇讗 诪爪讜 讞讝讜 诇讬讛 讝讻讜转讗 讗讘诇 讛讻讗 讗驻讬诇讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 诪讜讚讛

The Gemara rejects this argument: You can even say that the mishna was taught in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva, but we must distinguish between the cases. Rabbi Akiva states his position there only with regard to cases of capital law, for the Merciful One says: 鈥淎nd the congregation shall judge鈥nd the congregation shall save鈥 (Numbers 35:24鈥25), which requires a court to search for grounds to exonerate the defendant, but once they themselves have seen him kill a person, they will be unable to find grounds to exonerate him. But here, with regard to the sighting of the new moon, even Rabbi Akiva concedes that a witness can be rendered a judge.

诪转谞讬壮 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 讻砖专讬诐 讞讜抓 诪砖诇 驻专讛 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜讛诇讗 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞拽专讗讜 拽专谉 砖谞讗诪专 讘诪砖讜讱 讘拽专谉 讛讬讜讘诇

MISHNA: The mishna begins to discuss the primary mitzva of Rosh HaShana, sounding the shofar. All shofarot are fit for blowing except for the horn of a cow, because it is a horn [keren] and not a shofar. Rabbi Yosei said: But aren鈥檛 all shofarot called horn, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that when they sound a long blast with the horn [keren] of a ram [yovel]鈥 (Joshua 6:5), and a ram鈥檚 horn is a shofar fit for sounding on Rosh HaShana?

讙诪壮 砖驻讬专 拽讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘谞谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 讗拽专讜 砖讜驻专 讜讗拽专讜 拽专谉 讚驻专讛 拽专谉 讗拽专讬 砖讜驻专 诇讗 讗拽专讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘讻讜专 砖讜专讜 讛讚专 诇讜 讜拽专谞讬 专讗诐 拽专谞讬讜

GEMARA: Rabbi Yosei is saying well, i.e., presents a convincing argument. Why do the Rabbis not accept it? The Gemara explains that the Rabbis counter Rabbi Yosei鈥檚 argument as follows: Indeed, all other shofarot are called shofar and they are also called keren, but that of a cow is called keren, but it is not called shofar, as it is written: 鈥淗is firstborn bull, grandeur is his, and his horns [karnav] are the horns of [karnei] a wild ox鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:17). It is therefore clear that the horns of a bull are called keren, and nowhere are they called shofar.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚驻专讛 谞诪讬 讗拽专讬 砖讜驻专 讚讻转讬讘 讜转讬讟讘 诇讛壮 诪砖讜专 驻专 讗诐 砖讜专 诇诪讛 驻专 讜讗诐 驻专 诇诪讛 砖讜专 讗诇讗 诪讗讬 砖讜专 驻专 诪砖讜驻专

And how would Rabbi Yosei counter this argument? He could have said to you: The horns of a cow are also called shofar, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall please the Lord better than an ox bull [shor par] that has horns and hoofs鈥 (Psalms 69:32). The wording of the verse is strange: If it is an ox [shor], why is it also called a bull [par], and if it is a bull [par], why is it called an ox [shor]? Rather, what is the meaning of shor par? These two words must be read as if they were one single word: Than a shofar. According to this reading, even the horn of a cow is called a shofar.

讜专讘谞谉 讻讚专讘 诪转谞讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 诪转谞讛 诪讗讬 砖讜专 驻专 砖讛讜讗 讙讚讜诇 讻驻专

And how do the Rabbis explain the difficulty in this verse? They explain it as it was explained by Rav Mattana, as Rav Mattana said: What is the meaning of shor par? An ox [shor] that is as large as a bull [par], as the animal is called a shor from birth, but is called a par only from the age of three.

注讜诇讗 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讻讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗讬谉 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 谞讻谞住 讘讘讙讚讬 讝讛讘 诇驻谞讬 讜诇驻谞讬诐 诇注讘讜讚 注讘讜讚讛 诇驻讬 砖讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专

Ulla said: This is the reasoning of the Rabbis, who say that the horn of a cow is unfit for sounding on Rosh HaShana. They say this in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as Rav 岣sda said: For what reason does the High Priest not enter the innermost sanctum, the Holy of Holies, with his golden garments to perform the service there on Yom Kippur? It is because a prosecutor [kateigor] cannot become an advocate [sanneigor]. Since the Jewish people committed the sin of worshipping the Golden Calf, the High Priest may not enter the Holy of Holies to atone for the Jewish people wearing golden garments, as they would bring that sin to mind.

讜诇讗 讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讚诐 驻专 讛讜讗讬诇 讜讗砖转谞讬 讗砖转谞讬

The Gemara asks: But do we not use a cow in the Holy of Holies? But there is the blood of the bull that is brought there to be sprinkled on Yom Kippur, despite the fact that the Jewish people sinned with a calf. The Gemara answers: Since it has changed, i.e., it is not the bull itself, but only its blood, then it has changed, i.e., so it does not bring the sin of the Golden Calf to mind.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讗专讜谉 讜讻驻讜专转 讜讻专讜讘 讞讜讟讗 讘诇 讬拽专讬讘 拽讗诪专讬谞谉

The Gemara raises another difficulty: But there is the Ark, the Ark cover, and the cherub, all of which are plated with gold. If this is problematic, why are they in the Holy of Holies? The Gemara explains: What we are saying is that a sinner seeking atonement should not bring something made of gold into the Holy of Holies, as it would bring the sin of the Golden Calf to mind.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讻祝 讜诪讞转讛 讞讜讟讗 讘诇 讬转谞讗讛 拽讗 讗诪专讬谞谉

The Gemara asks further: But there is the spoon and coal pan that are brought into the Holy of Holies, and they are made of gold. The Gemara answers: What we are saying is that a sinner seeking atonement should not adorn himself with ornaments of gold.

讜讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讘讙讚讬 讝讛讘 诪讘讞讜抓 诪讘驻谞讬诐 拽讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 砖讜驻专 谞诪讬 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讜讗 讻讬讜谉 讚诇讝讻专讜谉 讛讜讗 讻讘驻谞讬诐 讚诪讬

The Gemara raises yet another question: But there are the golden garments the High Priest wears outside the Holy of Holies. The Gemara answers: What we are saying is that a sinner should not adorn himself with gold inside the Holy of Holies, but outside there is no concern. The Gemara continues this line of questioning: If so, the shofar is also outside, since it is not brought into the Holy of Holies. The Gemara answers: Since the shofar is sounded in order to evoke God鈥檚 remembrance, it is considered as if it were sounded inside the Holy of Holies.

讜讛讗 转谞讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讚讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专 讜注讜讚 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: Is this indeed the reason that the Rabbis disqualify the use of a cow鈥檚 horn? But the tanna taught: The horn of a cow cannot be used because it is a keren. The Gemara answers: The tanna stated one reason and also another reason: One reason is that a prosecutor cannot become an advocate, and another is because it is called a keren and not a shofar.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚拽讗 讗诪专转 讗讬谉 拽讟讬讙讜专 谞注砖讛 住谞讬讙讜专 讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜讛讗讬 砖讜驻专 诪讘讞讜抓 讛讜讗 讜讚拽讗 讗诪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞诪讬 讗拽专讜 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: And how would Rabbi Yosei counter these arguments? The Gemara explains: He could have said to you: That which you said, that a prosecutor cannot become an advocate, is indeed true, but this applies only inside the Holy of Holies, and the shofar is sounded outside. And with regard to that which you said, because it is a keren, all shofarot are also called keren.

讗讘讬讬 讗诪专 讛讬讬谞讜 讟注诪讬讬讛讜 讚专讘谞谉 砖讜驻专 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讜讛讗 讚驻专讛 讻讬讜谉 讚拽讗讬 讙讬诇讚讬 讙讬诇讚讬 诪讬转讞讝讬 讻砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转

Abaye said: This is the reasoning of the Rabbis: The Merciful One says to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot together, but this horn of a cow, since it is comprised of layers, looks like two or three shofarot.

讜讛讗 转谞讗 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讜注讜讚 拽讗诪专 讞讚讗 讚砖讜驻专 讗讞讚 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讜注讜讚 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉

The Gemara asks: But the tanna taught: The horn of a cow cannot be used because it is a keren. Since the Rabbis鈥 reasoning appears clearly in the mishna, how can the reasoning provided by Abaye be correct? The Gemara replies: The tanna stated one reason and also another reason. One reason is that the Merciful One says to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot together, and another is because it is a keren.

讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗诪专 诇讱 讚拽讗诪专转 砖讜驻专 讗讞讚 讗诪专 专讞诪谞讗 讜诇讗 砖谞讬诐 讜砖诇砖讛 砖讜驻专讜转 讻讬讜谉 讚诪讞讘专讬 讗讛讚讚讬 讞讚 讛讜讗 讜讚拽讗诪专转 诪驻谞讬 砖讛讜讗 拽专谉 讻诇 讛砖讜驻专讜转 谞诪讬 讗拽专讜 拽专谉

And Rabbi Yosei could have said to you: That which you said, that the Merciful One says in the Torah to sound a single shofar, and not two or three shofarot, is not a difficulty. Since the layers of the cow鈥檚 horn are connected to each other, it is considered a single shofar. And with regard to that which you said: Because it is a keren, all shofarot are also called keren.

诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚讛讗讬 讬讜讘诇讗 诇讬砖谞讗 讚讚讻专讗 讛讜讗 讚转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇注专讘讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇讚讻专讗 讬讜讘诇讗

搂 It is taught in the mishna that Rabbi Yosei proves from a verse that a the horn of a ram [yovel] is called a keren. The Gemara asks: From where may it be inferred that this term yovel denotes the horn of a ram? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Arabia, I heard that they called a ram yovla, and from this we can infer the meaning of the term yovel in the related language of Hebrew.

讜讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讙诇讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇谞讚讛 讙诇诪讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讙诇诪讜讚讛 讙诪讜诇讛 讚讗 诪讘注诇讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讗驻专讬拽讬 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇诪注讛 拽砖讬讟讛 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇驻专讜砖讬 诪讗讛 拽砖讬讟讛 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 诪讗讛 讚谞拽讬

The Gemara records a series of similar statements: And Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Galia, I heard that they called a menstruating woman galmuda, and this clarifies the meaning of that word in Scripture. It should be understood as follows: What does galmuda mean? She is separated [gemula da] from her husband, as all physical contact between a menstruating woman and her husband is forbidden. And Rabbi Akiva said: When I went to Africa, I heard that they called a ma鈥檃, which is a certain coin, kesita. The Gemara asks: What is the practical significance of this? The Gemara answers: To explain that the words in the Torah relating to Jacob鈥檚 purchase of his field near Shechem: 鈥淎nd he bought the parcel of ground where he had spread his tent, from the sons of Hamor for a hundred kesita (Genesis 33:19), denote a hundred dankei, i.e., a hundred ma鈥檃.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇讻专讻讬 讛讬诐 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇诪讻讬专讛 讻讬专讛 诇诪讗讬 谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇驻专讜砖讬 讗砖专 讻专讬转讬 诇讬

Similarly, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I went to the sea towns, I heard that they called a sale kira. And the Gemara asks: What is the practical significance of this? The Gemara answers: To explain the verse relating to Jacob鈥檚 burial plot: 鈥淚n my grave which I purchased [kariti] for myself, there shall you bury me鈥 (Genesis 50:5).

讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 诇拽讬砖 讻砖讛诇讻转讬 诇转讞讜诐 拽谉 谞砖专讬讬讗 讛讬讜 拽讜专讬谉 诇讻诇讛 谞讬谞驻讬 讜诇转专谞讙讜诇 砖讻讜讬 诇讻诇讛 谞讬谞驻讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 讬驻讛 谞讜祝 诪砖讜砖 讻诇 讛讗专抓 讜诇转专谞讙讜诇 砖讻讜讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪讗讬 拽专讗 诪讬 砖转 讘讟讜讞讜转 讞讻诪讛 讗讜 诪讬 谞转谉 诇砖讻讜讬 讘讬谞讛 诪讬 砖转 讘讟讜讞讜转 讞讻诪讛 讗诇讜 讻诇讬讜转 讗讜 诪讬 谞转谉 诇砖讻讜讬 讘讬谞讛 讝讛 转专谞讙讜诇

Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: When I went to the district of Kan Nishrayya, I heard that they called a bride ninfi and a rooster sekhvi. The Gemara explains how this information serves to clarify the meanings of biblical verses: A bride is called ninfi; what is the verse that uses a similar term? 鈥淏eautiful view [nof ], the joy of the whole earth, Mount Zion鈥 (Psalms 48:3), which therefore means beautiful like a bride. And a rooster is called sekhvi; Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: And if you wish, you can say that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said this: What is the verse that employs this term? 鈥淲ho has put wisdom in the inward parts? Or who has given understanding to the sekhvi (Job 38:36), which should be understood as follows: 鈥淲ho has put wisdom in the inward parts鈥: These are the kidneys that are hidden in the body; 鈥渙r who has given understanding to the sekhvi鈥: This is a rooster, who knows to crow at fixed times during the night.

诇讜讬 讗讬拽诇注 诇讛讛讜讗 讗转专讗 讗转讗 讙讘专讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛

Incidental to the discussion of the meanings of certain words in foreign countries, it was related that Levi once happened to come to a certain place, where a man came before him to complain about what had been done to him. This man said to him:

拽讘注谉 驻诇谞讬讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诪讗讬 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗转讗 砖讗讬诇 讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讙讝诇谉 讗诪专 诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 讛讬拽讘注 讗讚诐 讗诇讛讬诐 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘讗 诪讘专谞讬砖 诇专讘 讗砖讬 讗讬 讛讜讗讬 讛转诐 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 诇讬讛 讛讬讻讬 拽讘注讱 讘诪讗讬 拽讘注讱 讜讗诪讗讬 拽讘注讱 讜诪诪讬诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬谞讗 讜讗讬讛讜 住讘专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讗讬住讜专讗 拽讗诪专 诇讬讛

So-and-so keva鈥檃 from me. Levi did not understand what that man was saying to him, as he did not know the meaning of the word kava. So he went and asked in the study hall. They said to him: That man said to you: He robbed me, as it is written: 鈥淲ill a man rob [hayikba] God?鈥 (Malachi 3:8). Rava from a place called Barnish said to Rav Ashi: Had I been there in Levi鈥檚 place I would have tried to uncover the meaning of the word in a different way, for I would have said to him: How did he keva鈥檃 you? With what did he keva鈥檃 you? And why did he keva鈥檃 you? And from his answers I would have understood on my own what was being said. The Gemara comments: And Levi, who did not do this, thought that the man was talking about a matter of prohibition and not a monetary matter, and so asking the man these questions would not have helped, as they are relevant only to monetary matters.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 住讬专讜讙讬谉 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讞讝转谞讛讜 专讘谞谉 讚讛讜讜 注讬讬诇讬 驻住拽讬 驻住拽讬 讗诪专讛 诇讛讜 注讚 诪转讬 讗转诐 谞讻谞住讬谉 住讬专讜讙讬谉 住讬专讜讙讬谉

The Gemara continues its discussion of unusual words: The Sages did not know the meaning of the word seirugin, which is found in a mishna. One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to the Sages whom she saw entering the house not all at once, but intermittently: How long shall you enter seirugin seirugin? and from this they understood that the word seirugin means: At intervals.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讞诇讜讙诇讜讙讜转 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讞讝讬转 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚拽讗 诪讘讚专 驻专驻讞讬谞讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 诪驻讝专 讞诇讜讙诇讜讙讱

It is similarly recounted that the Sages did not know the meaning of the word 岣loglogot, which is mentioned in various mishnayot and baraitot. One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to a certain man whom she saw scattering his purslane plants: How long shall you scatter your 岣loglogot? So they understood that 岣loglogot means purslane.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 住诇住诇讛 讜转专讜诪诪讱 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讛讜讜转 讗诪专讛 诇讛讛讜讗 讙讘专讗 讚讛讜讛 拽讗 诪讛驻讱 讘砖注专讬讛 讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 注讚 诪转讬 讗转讛 诪住诇住诇 讘砖注专讱

The Sages also did not know the meaning of the word salseleha in the verse: Salseleha and it will exalt you鈥 (Proverbs 4:8). One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house say to a certain man who was curling his hair: How long shall you mesalsel your hair? And from this they understood that the verse means: Turn wisdom about, and it will exalt you.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讜讟讗讟讗转讬讛 讘诪讟讗讟讗 讛砖诪讚 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 砖诪注讜讛 诇讗诪转讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讚讛讜讜转 讗诪专讛 诇讞讘讬专转讛 砖拽讜诇讬 讟讗讟讬转讗 讜讟讗讟讬 讘讬转讗

It is further related that the Sages did not know the meaning of the words in the verse: 鈥淎nd sweep it [vetetetiha] with the broom [matatei] of destruction鈥 (Isaiah 14:23). One day they heard the maidservant in Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 house saying to her workmate: Take a broom [tateita] and sweep [ta鈥檃ti] the house,鈥 and they understood the meaning of these words.

诇讗 讛讜讜 讬讚注讬 专讘谞谉 诪讗讬 讛砖诇讱 注诇 讛壮 讬讛讘讱 讜讛讜讗 讬讻诇讻诇讱 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讬讜诪讗 讞讚 讛讜讛 讗讝诇讬谞讗 讘讛讚讬 讛讛讜讗 讟讬讬注讗 讛讜讛 讚专讬谞讗 讟讜谞讗 讜讗诪专 诇讬 砖拽讜诇 讬讛讘讬讱 讜砖讚讬 讗讙诪诇讗讬

The Sages also did not know the meaning of the word yehavkha in the verse: 鈥淐ast your load [yehavkha] upon the Lord and He will sustain you鈥 (Psalms 55:23). Rabba bar bar 岣na said: One day I was traveling with a certain Arab [Tayya鈥檃], and I was carrying a load, and he said to me: Take your yehav and cast it on my camel, and from this I understood that yehav means a load.

诪转谞讬壮 砖讜驻专 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇 讬注诇 驻砖讜讟 讜驻讬讜 诪爪讜驻讛 讝讛讘 讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪谉 讛爪讚讚讬谉 砖讜驻专 诪讗专讬讱 讜讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪拽爪专讜转 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘砖讜驻专

MISHNA: The shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana in the Temple was made from the straight horn of an ibex, and its mouth, the mouthpiece into which one blows, was plated with gold. And there were two trumpets, one on each of the two sides of the person sounding the shofar. The shofar would sound a long blast, whereas the trumpets would sound a short blast, because the mitzva of the day is with the shofar.

讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜驻讬讛谉 诪爪讜驻讛 讻住祝 讜砖转讬 讞爪讜爪专讜转 讘讗诪爪注 砖讜驻专 诪拽爪专 讜讞爪讜爪专讜转 诪讗专讬讻讜转 砖诪爪讜转 讛讬讜诐 讘讞爪讜爪专讜转

And in contrast, the shofarot used on public fast days were made from the curved horns of rams, and their mouths were plated with silver. There were two trumpets in the middle between the shofarot, and the shofar would sound a short blast, whereas the trumpets would sound a long blast, for the mitzva of the day is with the trumpets.

砖讜讛 讛讬讜讘诇 诇专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇转拽讬注讛 讜诇讘专讻讜转 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讘砖诇 讬注诇讬诐

Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is the same as Rosh HaShana with regard to both the shofar blasts that are sounded and the additional blessings that are recited in the Amida prayer. Rabbi Yehuda disagrees and says: There is a difference between the two days: On Rosh HaShana one blows with horns of rams, whereas in Jubilee Years one blows with horns of ibexes.

讙诪壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 诇讜讬 诪爪讜讛 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜砖诇 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讘讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜砖诇 讻诇 讛砖谞讛 讘驻砖讜讟讬谉 讜讛转谞谉 砖讜驻专 砖诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇 讬注诇 驻砖讜讟 讛讜讗 讚讗诪专 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讛讬讜 转讜拽注讬谉 讘砖诇 讝讻专讬诐 讻驻讜驻讬谉 讜讘讬讜讘诇讜转 讘砖诇 讬注诇讬诐

GEMARA: Rabbi Levi said: The mitzva of Rosh HaShana and of Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year is to blow with curved shofarot, and that of the rest of the year, on fast days, is to blow with straight shofarot. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But didn鈥檛 we learn differently in the mishna: The shofar that was used on Rosh HaShana was made from the straight horn of an ibex? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Levi said his statement in accordance with the opinion of that tanna, Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yehuda says: On Rosh HaShana they would blow with the curved horns of rams, and on the Days of Atonement of the Jubilee Years with the horns of ibexes.

讜诇讬诪讗 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讗诪专转 讛诇讻转讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 砖诇 讬讜讘诇 谞诪讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 住讘讬专讗 诇讬讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

The Gemara asks: If so, let it simply say that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. Why was it necessary to quote the baraita in full, as if it provided new information? The Gemara explains: If you had said that the halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, I would have said that he, Rabbi Levi, holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda even with regard to the shofar used in the Jubilee Year, i.e., that one must blow with the horn of ibexes at that time. Therefore, the Gemara teaches us that he agrees with Rabbi Yehuda only with regard to Rosh HaShana, and not with regard to any other matter.

讘诪讗讬 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 诪专 住讘专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诪讛 讚讻讬讬祝 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讻诪讛 讚驻砖讬讟 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜诪专 住讘专 讘专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讻诪讛 讚驻砖讬讟 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬 讜讘转注谞讬讜转 讻诪讛 讚讻讬讬祝 讗讬谞讬砖 讚注转讬讛 讟驻讬 诪注诇讬

The Gemara asks: With regard to what principle do these tanna鈥檌m disagree? One Sage, Rabbi Yehuda, holds that on Rosh HaShana the more a person bends his mind and humbles himself by bending in prayer, the better. Therefore, a curved shofar is sounded as an allusion to our bent minds and bodies. But on Yom Kippur, the more a person straightens his mind and prays with simplicity, the better. Therefore, a straight shofar is sounded. The other Sage, the anonymous tanna of the mishna, maintains the opposite: On Rosh HaShana, the more a person straightens his mind and avoids any crookedness, the better. On fasts, on the other hand, the more a person bends his mind and humbles himself, the better.

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