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Today's Daf Yomi

October 16, 2021 | 讬壮 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

A month of shiurim are sponsored for a refuah shleima for Noam Eliezer ben Yael Chaya v'Aytan Yehoshua.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 7 – Shabbat October 16

This is the daf for Shabbat. For Friday’s daf, click here.

Today’s daf is sponsored by Risa Tzohar in memory of her grandmother Rissel Schwartz Wittels, Rissel bat Dina v’Shmuel Lev on her yahrzeit today.

A braita states that the first of Nissan is the first of the year for other issues 鈥 for months, determining a leap year and for shekalim for the new year鈥檚 sacrifices. Another opinion there adds for rentals. The Gemara delves into the meaning of each of these and then explains why the Mishna didn鈥檛 mention them as well. The line in the Mishna about the animal tithes, first of Elul, matches Rabbi Meir鈥檚 opinion, as proven by a braita. However, the line before it is Rabbi Shimon (first of Nissan for the holidays, as explained on Rosh Hashanah 4a) and the line after it is Rabbi Shimon, so the structure seems strange. The answer given is that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi held like Rabbi Meir on one issue and Rabbi Shimon on another. But then, how does the number 鈥渇our鈥 mentioned in the Mishna fit, as there are five separate dates? Two explanations are brought 鈥 either the number is according to each Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Shimon separately. Or the number goes by months and not by dates. A braita is brought where two more dates are mentioned, which should add either one or two more cases to the Mishna. Why were these not mentioned in the Mishna? Three answers are brought and questions are raised on each.

讛讗 讘讘注诇 诪讜诐

That one, Abaye, who said that one counts from the time that the animal is born, is speaking about a blemished animal. Since it was already fit to be slaughtered from the day of its birth, if one does not give it to the priest within a year of that day he transgresses the prohibition against delaying.

讘注诇 诪讜诐 诪讬 诪爪讬 讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚拽讬诐 诇讬讛 讘讬讛 砖讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜

The Gemara asks: Can an animal with a blemish really be eaten immediately on the day that it is born? Isn鈥檛 there a requirement to wait eight days before slaughtering it, in order to ascertain that the animal is viable and was not born prematurely? The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where one is certain of when the animal was conceived and that its months of gestation have been completed, so that it may be presumed to be viable.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讞讚砖讬诐 讜诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 讜诇转专讜诪转 砖拽诇讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诇砖讻讬专讜转 讘转讬诐

The Sages taught a baraita that expands upon what was taught in the mishna: On the first of Nisan is the New Year for counting the months of the year, and for leap years, and for collection of the shekels that had been collected in Adar and used to purchase animals for communal offerings and other needs of the Temple; and some say that it is also the New Year for the renting of houses.

诇讞讚砖讬诐 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖讬诐 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚讘专讜 讗诇 讻诇 注讚转 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗诪专 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讜讬拽讞讜 诇讛诐 讗讬砖 砖讛 诇讘讬转 讗讘讜转 砖讛 诇讘讬转 讜讛讬讛 诇讻诐 诇诪砖诪专转 注讚 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诇讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讜砖讞讟讜 讗讜转讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗转 讞讚砖 讛讗讘讬讘” 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讚砖 砖讬砖 讘讜 讗讘讬讘 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讗砖讜谉

From where do we derive that the first of Nisan is the New Year for months? As it is written: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: On the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a household鈥nd you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month: And the whole assembly of the congregation shall slaughter it toward evening鈥 (Exodus 12:2鈥6). And elsewhere it is written: 鈥淥bserve the month of ripening and keep Passover to the Lord your God; for in the month of ripening the Lord your God brought you forth out of Egypt by night鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). Which is the month in which there is a ripening of grain? You must say that this is Nisan, and it is called the first month of the year.

讜讗讬诪讗 讗讬讬专 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讬讘 讜诇讬讻讗 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讚专 讘注讬谞讗 专讜讘 讗讘讬讘 讜诇讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 专讜讘 讗讘讬讘 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: But one could say that it is the month of Iyyar. The Gemara answers: A month of ripening is required, and in Iyyar there is no ripening, as the grain has already ripened. The Gemara asks further: But one could say that it is the month of Adar, the month in which some of the grain begins to ripen. The Gemara answers: The month in which most of the ripening takes place is required, and this is not the case in Adar, as most of the grain ripens during the next month, the month of Nisan. The Gemara asks: But is most of the ripening written in the verse? The verse merely speaks of the month of ripening, and since there is some ripening in Adar, it is possible that this is the first month.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讛讻讗 讗讱 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诇讞讚砖 讛砖讘讬注讬 讘讗住驻讻诐 讗转 转讘讜讗转 讛讗专抓 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讚砖 砖讬砖 讘讜 讗住讬驻讛 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 转砖专讬 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖讘讬注讬

Rather, Rav 岣sda said: It is derived that Nisan is the first of the months from here. The verse states: 鈥淎lso on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the fruit of the land鈥 (Leviticus 23:39). Which is the month in which there is a gathering of the grain of the field before the rains begin? You must say that this is Tishrei, and it is called the seventh month. Therefore, Nisan is the first month of the year.

讜讗讬诪讗 诪专讞砖讜谉 讜诪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讗讬讬专 讘注讬谞讗 讗住讬祝 讜诇讬讻讗 讜讗讬诪讗 讗诇讜诇 讜诪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讗讚专 讘注讬谞讗 专讜讘 讗住讬祝 讜诇讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 专讜讘 讗住讬祝 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: But one could say that verse is referring to the month of Mar岣shvan, and what is meant by seventh? It is the seventh month from the month of Iyyar. The Gemara rejects this possibility: A month of gathering is required, and in Mar岣shvan there is no gathering, as the crops have already been gathered in, and the fields have already begun to be plowed to prepare them for the next year鈥檚 planting. The Gemara asks further: But one could say that it is the month of Elul, the month in which the gathering of the grain from the fields begins, and what is meant by seventh? It is the seventh month from the month of Adar. The Gemara answers: The month in which most of the gathering takes place is required, and this is not the case in Elul, as most of the gathering is done in Tishrei. The Gemara asks: But is most of the gathering written in the verse?

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讚讘专 讝讛 诪转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 诇诪讚谞讜 诪讚讘专讬 拽讘诇讛 诇诪讚谞讜 讘讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诇注砖转讬 注砖专 讞讚砖 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 砖讘讟 专讘讛 讘专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜转诇拽讞 讗住转专 讗诇 讛诪诇讱 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讗诇 讘讬转 诪诇讻讜转讜 讘讞讚砖 讛注砖讬专讬 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 讟讘转

Rather, Ravina said: This matter we did not learn from the Torah of Moses, our teacher; rather, we learned it from the texts of the tradition, i.e., the Prophets and Writings: 鈥淥n the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month of Shevat鈥 (Zechariah 1:7). If Shevat is the eleventh month, Nisan must be the first month. Rabba bar Ulla said: It is derived from here, as it is stated: 鈥淪o Esther was taken to the king Ahasuerus into his royal house in the tenth month, which is the month of Tevet鈥 (Esther 2:16).

专讘 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讘讗专讘注讛 诇讞讚砖 讛转砖讬注讬 讘讻住诇讜 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬拽专讗讜 住讜驻专讬 讛诪诇讱 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 住讬讜谉 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讛驻讬诇 驻讜专 讛讜讗 讛讙讜专诇 诇驻谞讬 讛诪谉 诪讬讜诐 诇讬讜诐 讜诪讞讚砖 诇讞讚砖 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 讗讚专 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 谞讬住谉

Rav Kahana said: It is derived from here: 鈥淥n the fourth day of the ninth month, in Kislev鈥 (Zechariah 7:1). Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: It is derived from here, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the scribes of the king were called at that time in the third month, that is the month of Sivan鈥 (Esther 8:9). Rav Ashi said: It is derived from here: 鈥淗e cast pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month of Adar鈥 (Esther 3:7). And if you wish, say that it is derived from here: 鈥淚n the first month, that is, the month of Nisan鈥 (Esther 3:7).

讜讻讜诇讛讜 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专讬 诪讛讗讬 讚诇诪讗 诪讗讬 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讬诇转讬讛

The Gemara asks: And all of the others, what is the reason that they did not say that it is derived from here, the last verse mentioned, which is explicitly referring to Nisan as the first month? The Gemara answers: It is because one could perhaps have said: What is meant here by first? It means the first in relation to its matter, i.e., the months of the decree, and so it cannot be proven from here that Nisan is the first of the months of the year.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘砖谞讬诐 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讞讚砖讬诐 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna list the first of Nisan as the New Year for months, as did the tanna of the baraita? The Gemara answers: He is dealing with matters connected to years, but he is not dealing with matters connected to months.

讜诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 诪谞讬住谉 诪谞讬谞谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诪注讘专讬谉 讛砖谞讛 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讗诐 注讬讘专讜讛 讗讬谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讗讘诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讚讞拽 诪注讘专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗讞专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪讬讚 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬谉 诪注讘专讬谉 讗诇讗 讗讚专

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And on the first of Nisan is the New Year for leap years. The Gemara asks: Do we really count leap years from Nisan? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The court may not declare a leap year before Rosh HaShana, and if they did declare a leap year before Rosh HaShana, the declaration is not valid and it is not considered a leap year. But due to pressing circumstances, e.g., religious persecution, it may be declared immediately after Rosh HaShana. At that time, the Sages may declare that the coming year will be a leap year in accordance with their calculations. Even so, the additional month added to the leap year can be only a second Adar. In what sense, then, is Nisan the New Year for leap years?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 注讬讘讜专讬谉 讛驻住拽转 注讬讘讜专讬谉 讚转谞谉 讛谉 讛注讬讚讜 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讗讚专 砖讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛驻讜专讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: What is meant here by leap years? It means the end of the leap year. Once the month of Nisan has arrived, the previous year can no longer be declared a leap year, as we learned in a mishna: They, Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Papeyyas, testified that the court may declare a leap year all through the month of Adar, as there were Sages who said: A year may be declared a leap year only until Purim, and if the decision to declare a leap year was not made before Purim, the year can no longer be declared a leap year.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讛驻讜专讬诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 诪专 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘讛诇讻讜转 讛驻住讞 拽讜讚诐 诇驻住讞 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗转讬 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讞诪抓

The Gemara explains the dispute: What is the rationale of the one who said that a leap year can be declared only until Purim? It is since the Master said: One asks about the halakhot of Passover thirty days before Passover. Immediately following Purim, on the fifteenth of Adar, people already began to immerse themselves in the halakhot of Passover, which occurs on the fifteenth of Nisan. Were the court to declare a leap year after Purim, the festival of Passover would then be delayed for another month. In that case, there is concern that people will come to demean the prohibition against leavened bread and not observe Passover on its new date in the proper manner.

讜讗讬讚讱 诪讬讚注 讬讚讬注 讚砖转讗 诪注讘专转讗 讘讞讜砖讘谞讗 转诇讬讗 诪诇转讗 讜住讘专讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗

And the other Sages, Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Papeyyas, who are not concerned about this, what do they say? They say that people know that a leap year is dependent on the calculation, and they will assume that the Sages did not complete the calculation until now, after Purim. Since this is a matter of common knowledge, there is no concern that declaring a leap year at that late time will lead to a disregard of the halakhot of Passover.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘讛转讞诇讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讛驻住拽讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna include the first of Nisan as the New Year for leap years? The Gemara answers: He is dealing with years that begin on the first of Nisan, but he is not dealing with years that end on that date. With regard to leap years, the first of Nisan is the end not a beginning.

讜诇转专讜诪转 砖拽诇讬诐 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗诪专 拽专讗 讝讗转 注讜诇转 讞讚砖 讘讞讚砖讜 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讞讚砖 讜讛讘讗 拽专讘谉 诪转专讜诪讛 讞讚砖讛 讜讙诪专讬 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And the first of Nisan is the New Year for collection of the shekels that had been collected in Adar and were used to purchase animals for communal offerings and other needs of the Temple. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rabbi Yoshiya said that the verse states: 鈥淭his is the burnt-offering of each month in its month throughout the months [le岣dshei] of the year鈥 (Numbers 28:14). The seemingly superfluous term: 鈥淭hroughout the months [le岣dshei] of the year,鈥 should be understood as follows: The Torah is saying here: Renew [岣ddesh] the year and bring an offering from the new collection of the shekels. And it is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Nisan, as it is written with regard to Nisan: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2).

讜诇讙诪讜专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: But let us learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and a different instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Tishrei, as it is written with regard to Tishrei: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The Gemara answers: One derives the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which 鈥渕onths鈥 are mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淭hroughout the months of the year,鈥 from another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which months are mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you.鈥 And one does not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which months are mentioned from an instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which 鈥渕onths鈥 are not mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽专讘谞讜转 爪讘讜专 讛讘讗讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 砖讞讬住专 诪爪讜讛

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to communal offerings that are brought on the first of Nisan, there is a mitzva to bring them from the new contribution of shekels collected for that year. However, if one brought them from the old contribution, i.e., from last year鈥檚 shekels, he has fulfilled the obligation with regard to the offerings, but he lacks the mitzva of bringing them from the new shekels.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 拽专讘谞讜转 爪讘讜专 讛讘讗讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 砖讞讬住专 诪爪讜讛 讜讬讞讬讚 砖讛转谞讚讘 诪砖诇讜 讻砖专讬谉 讘诇讘讚 砖讬诪住专诐 诇爪讘讜专

The Gemara comments: This halakha is also taught in a baraita: With regard to communal offerings that are brought on the first of Nisan, there is a mitzva to bring them from the new contribution of shekels. However, if one brought them from the old contribution, he has fulfilled the obligation with regard to the sacrifices, but he lacks the mitzva of bringing them from the new shekels. If a private individual volunteered to bring the communal offerings from his own property, they are fit for the altar, provided that he transfers them over to the community.

驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 砖诪讗

The Gemara asks: It is obvious that one may donate of his own property to the community, provided that he transfers it to the community in the proper manner. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that we should be concerned that perhaps

诇讗 讬诪住专诐 诇爪讘讜专 讬驻讛 讬驻讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

he will not transfer them over to the public without reservation, and in his heart he will hold on to them as his own, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a matter of concern.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讻讬讜谉 讚拽转谞讬 讗诐 讛讘讬讗 讬爪讗 诇讗 驻住讬拽讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna count the first of Nisan as the New Year for shekels? The Gemara answers: The tanna of the mishna lists only definite New Years. Since it is taught: If one brought them from the old contribution, he has fulfilled his obligation, he could not state this New Year as a definite rule, and so he did not teach it.

讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诇砖讻讬专讜转 讘转讬诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪砖讻讬专 讘讬转 诇讞讘讬专讜 诇砖谞讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖 诪讬讜诐 诇讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗诪专 诇砖谞讛 讝讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗 注诪讚 讗诇讗 讘讗讞讚 讘讗讚专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And some say that the first of Nisan is also the New Year for the renting of houses. The Sages taught the following baraita: If one rents out a house to another person for a year, he counts twelve months from day to day. But if he said that he was renting it for this year, then even if the agreement was made only on the first of Adar, once the first of Nisan arrived one month later, it is counted as a year, and the rental contract comes to end.

讜讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讘砖谞讛 讞砖讜讘 砖谞讛 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讟专讞 讗讬谞讬砖 诇诪讬讙专 讘讬转讗 诇讘爪讬专 诪转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉

The Gemara comments: Even according to the one who said that one day in a year is considered a year, it is different here, with regard to rental halakhot, as a person does not take the trouble to rent a house for less than thirty days. Therefore, if one rented a house after the first of Adar, the remaining days of Adar are not considered a full year.

讜讗讬诪讗 转砖专讬 住转诐 讻讬 讗讙专 讗讬谞讬砖 讘讬转讗 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗讙专

The Gemara asks: But why not say that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for the renting of houses, and so if one rents a house for a year in the summer the year would come to an end in Tishrei? The Gemara answers: A person who rents a house without specification intends to rent it for all of the rainy season, until Nisan, when the rainy season comes to a close.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讘专讬讬转讗 讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘谞讬住谉 谞诪讬 诪讬砖讻讞 砖讻讬讞 拽讬讟专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the first tanna of the baraita and the tanna of our mishna include the first of Nisan as the New Year for the renting of houses? They hold that even in Nisan it is common that the sky becomes covered with clouds and rain falls. Therefore, one who rents a house does not have in mind to rent it only until the first of Nisan, as presumably he does not want to find himself in a situation where he is homeless when it is still raining.

讘讗讞讚 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诪谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讘讗讞讚 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛

搂 The mishna states: On the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes. The Gemara comments: Who is the author of the opinion cited in this mishna? It is Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a mishna that Rabbi Meir says: On the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes.

讜诇专讙诇讬诐 诪谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讗讬诪讗 住讬驻讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 专讬砖讗 讜住讬驻讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诪爪讬注转讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the Festivals, i.e., that the first of Nisan is the New Year for Festivals, who is the author of the opinion cited in the mishna? It is Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying only if the three Festivals have passed in their proper order, with Passover first. Say the last clause of the mishna, which states that Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: The New Year for animal tithes is on the first of Tishrei. Can it be that the first clause and the last clause follow the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, while the middle clause relating to animal tithes follows the opinion of Rabbi Meir?

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 专讘讬 讛讬讗 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 讗诇讬讘讗 讚转谞讗讬 讘专讙诇讬诐 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讘诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Yosef said: The entire mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he takes the mishna according to the opinions of different tanna鈥檌m. With regard to the Festivals, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, while with regard to animal tithes he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗专讘注讛 讞诪砖讛 讛讜讜 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗专讘注讛 诇讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗专讘注讛 讚诇 专讙诇讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讚诇 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, how are there four New Years? If the tanna of the mishna holds that the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes, there are five New Years: The first of Nisan, the fifteenth of Nisan, the first of Elul, the first of Tishrei, and the fifteenth of Shevat. Rava said: There are only four New Years according to each opinion: There are four according to Rabbi Meir, who removes the New Year for Festivals, as according to him there is no fixed time from which to begin counting the Festivals. According to Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 opinion as well there are four New Years, for he removes the New Year for animal tithes, as according to him it is on the first of Tishrei, which is already listed.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讛谉 讻诪讛 专讗砖讬 砖谞讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said an alternative answer: The mishna is to be understood as follows: There are four months in which there are several New Years, since in Nisan, according to Rabbi Meir, there are two New Years: For kings on the first and for Festivals on the fifteenth.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇注讜诪专 砖砖讛 讘住讬讜谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诇专讘讗 诇讬转谞讬 砖砖讛 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讬转谞讬 讞诪砖讛

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: The sixteenth of Nisan is the New Year for the omer offering, as from this date onward it is permitted to eat from the new crop of grain. The sixth of Sivan is the New Year for the two loaves, i.e., the public offering of two loaves from the new wheat brought on Shavuot, as from this day onward it is permitted to sacrifice meal-offerings in the Temple from the new grain. If so, according to Rava, let the mishna teach that there are six New Years, including the sixteenth of Nisan and the sixth of Sivan, and according to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k let it teach that there are five New Years, since Sivan is a month in which there is a New Year.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讬讬诇 诪讗讜专转讗 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇 诪讗讜专转讗 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Rav Pappa said: When the tanna of the mishna counts New Years, he counts only those that begin in the evening; those that do not begin in the evening he does not count. Since the New Years associated with the omer and the two loaves do not begin in the evening but only from the time that they are sacrificed, he does not include them.

讜讛专讬 专讙诇讬诐 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讜拽讞砖讬讘 讻讬讜谉 砖爪专讬讱 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 诪注讬拽专讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘 讜拽讗讬

The Gemara asks: But there is the New Year for Festivals, which does not begin in the evening, as the prohibition against delaying is not transgressed in the evening, when the Festival begins, but only in the morning, after the daily offering has been brought and one is able to bring the vowed animal to the altar, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: Since he had to bring his vow by the Festival, he stands liable from the beginning of the Festival for transgressing the prohibition against delaying.

讜讛专讬 讬讜讘诇讜转 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讜拽讞砖讬讘 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讞讬讬诇 讬讜讘诇

The Gemara asks further: But there is New Year for the Jubilee, which does not begin in the evening but from the time of the shofar blast on Yom Kippur during the day, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: The mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, who said that the Jubilee Year begins on Rosh HaShana, and the blowing of the shofar merely completes the release of the slaves. Therefore, the New Year for the Jubilee is included.

专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讻讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 诪讬讚讬 讚转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said a different explanation for why the New Year for the omer offering and the New Year for the two loaves are not mentioned in the mishna: When the tanna of the mishna counts New Years, he counts only those that do not depend upon an action; those that depend upon an action, e.g., the offering of the omer or the two loaves, he does not count.

讜讛专讬 专讙诇讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讚转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 讜拽讗 讞砖讬讘 讘诇 转讗讞专 诪诪讬诇讗 讞讬讬诇

The Gemara asks: But there is the New Year for the Festivals, which depends upon an action, i.e., the sacrifice of the daily offering, since no offering may be brought before the daily offering, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: This is not so, as the transgression of the prohibition: You shall not delay, does not depend upon anything else; rather, it begins on its own as soon as the Festival begins.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

This month's shiurim are dedicated by Tamara Katz in memory of her maternal grandparents, Sarah bat Chaya v'Tzvi Hirsh and Meir Leib ben Esther v'Harav Yehoshua Zelig whose yahrzeits are both this month.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 7 – Shabbat October 16

讛讗 讘讘注诇 诪讜诐

That one, Abaye, who said that one counts from the time that the animal is born, is speaking about a blemished animal. Since it was already fit to be slaughtered from the day of its birth, if one does not give it to the priest within a year of that day he transgresses the prohibition against delaying.

讘注诇 诪讜诐 诪讬 诪爪讬 讗讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚拽讬诐 诇讬讛 讘讬讛 砖讻诇讜 诇讜 讞讚砖讬讜

The Gemara asks: Can an animal with a blemish really be eaten immediately on the day that it is born? Isn鈥檛 there a requirement to wait eight days before slaughtering it, in order to ascertain that the animal is viable and was not born prematurely? The Gemara answers: This is referring to a case where one is certain of when the animal was conceived and that its months of gestation have been completed, so that it may be presumed to be viable.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讞讚砖讬诐 讜诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 讜诇转专讜诪转 砖拽诇讬诐 讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诇砖讻讬专讜转 讘转讬诐

The Sages taught a baraita that expands upon what was taught in the mishna: On the first of Nisan is the New Year for counting the months of the year, and for leap years, and for collection of the shekels that had been collected in Adar and used to purchase animals for communal offerings and other needs of the Temple; and some say that it is also the New Year for the renting of houses.

诇讞讚砖讬诐 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讛讞讚砖 讛讝讛 诇讻诐 专讗砖 讞讚砖讬诐 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚讘专讜 讗诇 讻诇 注讚转 讬砖专讗诇 诇讗诪专 讘注砖讜专 诇讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讜讬拽讞讜 诇讛诐 讗讬砖 砖讛 诇讘讬转 讗讘讜转 砖讛 诇讘讬转 讜讛讬讛 诇讻诐 诇诪砖诪专转 注讚 讗专讘注讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诇讞讚砖 讛讝讛 讜砖讞讟讜 讗讜转讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 砖诪讜专 讗转 讞讚砖 讛讗讘讬讘” 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讚砖 砖讬砖 讘讜 讗讘讬讘 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 谞讬住谉 讜拽专讬 诇讬讛 专讗砖讜谉

From where do we derive that the first of Nisan is the New Year for months? As it is written: 鈥淭his month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: On the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for a household鈥nd you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month: And the whole assembly of the congregation shall slaughter it toward evening鈥 (Exodus 12:2鈥6). And elsewhere it is written: 鈥淥bserve the month of ripening and keep Passover to the Lord your God; for in the month of ripening the Lord your God brought you forth out of Egypt by night鈥 (Deuteronomy 16:1). Which is the month in which there is a ripening of grain? You must say that this is Nisan, and it is called the first month of the year.

讜讗讬诪讗 讗讬讬专 讘注讬谞讗 讗讘讬讘 讜诇讬讻讗 讜讗讬诪讗 讗讚专 讘注讬谞讗 专讜讘 讗讘讬讘 讜诇讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 专讜讘 讗讘讬讘 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: But one could say that it is the month of Iyyar. The Gemara answers: A month of ripening is required, and in Iyyar there is no ripening, as the grain has already ripened. The Gemara asks further: But one could say that it is the month of Adar, the month in which some of the grain begins to ripen. The Gemara answers: The month in which most of the ripening takes place is required, and this is not the case in Adar, as most of the grain ripens during the next month, the month of Nisan. The Gemara asks: But is most of the ripening written in the verse? The verse merely speaks of the month of ripening, and since there is some ripening in Adar, it is possible that this is the first month.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪讛讻讗 讗讱 讘讞诪砖讛 注砖专 讬讜诐 诇讞讚砖 讛砖讘讬注讬 讘讗住驻讻诐 讗转 转讘讜讗转 讛讗专抓 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讚砖 砖讬砖 讘讜 讗住讬驻讛 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 转砖专讬 讜拽讗 拽专讬 诇讬讛 砖讘讬注讬

Rather, Rav 岣sda said: It is derived that Nisan is the first of the months from here. The verse states: 鈥淎lso on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the fruit of the land鈥 (Leviticus 23:39). Which is the month in which there is a gathering of the grain of the field before the rains begin? You must say that this is Tishrei, and it is called the seventh month. Therefore, Nisan is the first month of the year.

讜讗讬诪讗 诪专讞砖讜谉 讜诪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讗讬讬专 讘注讬谞讗 讗住讬祝 讜诇讬讻讗 讜讗讬诪讗 讗诇讜诇 讜诪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬 砖讘讬注讬 诇讗讚专 讘注讬谞讗 专讜讘 讗住讬祝 讜诇讬讻讗 诪讬讚讬 专讜讘 讗住讬祝 讻转讬讘

The Gemara asks: But one could say that verse is referring to the month of Mar岣shvan, and what is meant by seventh? It is the seventh month from the month of Iyyar. The Gemara rejects this possibility: A month of gathering is required, and in Mar岣shvan there is no gathering, as the crops have already been gathered in, and the fields have already begun to be plowed to prepare them for the next year鈥檚 planting. The Gemara asks further: But one could say that it is the month of Elul, the month in which the gathering of the grain from the fields begins, and what is meant by seventh? It is the seventh month from the month of Adar. The Gemara answers: The month in which most of the gathering takes place is required, and this is not the case in Elul, as most of the gathering is done in Tishrei. The Gemara asks: But is most of the gathering written in the verse?

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讬谞讗 讚讘专 讝讛 诪转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 诇讗 诇诪讚谞讜 诪讚讘专讬 拽讘诇讛 诇诪讚谞讜 讘讬讜诐 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 诇注砖转讬 注砖专 讞讚砖 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 砖讘讟 专讘讛 讘专 注讜诇讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜转诇拽讞 讗住转专 讗诇 讛诪诇讱 讗讞砖讜专讜砖 讗诇 讘讬转 诪诇讻讜转讜 讘讞讚砖 讛注砖讬专讬 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 讟讘转

Rather, Ravina said: This matter we did not learn from the Torah of Moses, our teacher; rather, we learned it from the texts of the tradition, i.e., the Prophets and Writings: 鈥淥n the twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month of Shevat鈥 (Zechariah 1:7). If Shevat is the eleventh month, Nisan must be the first month. Rabba bar Ulla said: It is derived from here, as it is stated: 鈥淪o Esther was taken to the king Ahasuerus into his royal house in the tenth month, which is the month of Tevet鈥 (Esther 2:16).

专讘 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讘讗专讘注讛 诇讞讚砖 讛转砖讬注讬 讘讻住诇讜 专讘 讗讞讗 讘专 讬注拽讘 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讜讬拽专讗讜 住讜驻专讬 讛诪诇讱 讘注转 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讚砖 讛砖诇讬砖讬 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 住讬讜谉 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 诪讛讻讗 讛驻讬诇 驻讜专 讛讜讗 讛讙讜专诇 诇驻谞讬 讛诪谉 诪讬讜诐 诇讬讜诐 讜诪讞讚砖 诇讞讚砖 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 讗讚专 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪讛讻讗 讘讞讚砖 讛专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 讞讚砖 谞讬住谉

Rav Kahana said: It is derived from here: 鈥淥n the fourth day of the ninth month, in Kislev鈥 (Zechariah 7:1). Rav A岣 bar Ya鈥檃kov said: It is derived from here, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the scribes of the king were called at that time in the third month, that is the month of Sivan鈥 (Esther 8:9). Rav Ashi said: It is derived from here: 鈥淗e cast pur, that is, the lot, before Haman from day to day, and from month to month, to the twelfth month, that is, the month of Adar鈥 (Esther 3:7). And if you wish, say that it is derived from here: 鈥淚n the first month, that is, the month of Nisan鈥 (Esther 3:7).

讜讻讜诇讛讜 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诇讗 讗诪专讬 诪讛讗讬 讚诇诪讗 诪讗讬 专讗砖讜谉 专讗砖讜谉 诇诪讬诇转讬讛

The Gemara asks: And all of the others, what is the reason that they did not say that it is derived from here, the last verse mentioned, which is explicitly referring to Nisan as the first month? The Gemara answers: It is because one could perhaps have said: What is meant here by first? It means the first in relation to its matter, i.e., the months of the decree, and so it cannot be proven from here that Nisan is the first of the months of the year.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘砖谞讬诐 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讞讚砖讬诐 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna list the first of Nisan as the New Year for months, as did the tanna of the baraita? The Gemara answers: He is dealing with matters connected to years, but he is not dealing with matters connected to months.

讜诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 诇注讬讘讜专讬谉 诪谞讬住谉 诪谞讬谞谉 讜讛转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 诪注讘专讬谉 讛砖谞讛 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讗诐 注讬讘专讜讛 讗讬谞讛 诪注讜讘专转 讗讘诇 诪驻谞讬 讛讚讞拽 诪注讘专讬谉 讗讜转讛 讗讞专 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诪讬讚 讜讗祝 注诇 驻讬 讻谉 讗讬谉 诪注讘专讬谉 讗诇讗 讗讚专

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And on the first of Nisan is the New Year for leap years. The Gemara asks: Do we really count leap years from Nisan? But isn鈥檛 it taught in a baraita: The court may not declare a leap year before Rosh HaShana, and if they did declare a leap year before Rosh HaShana, the declaration is not valid and it is not considered a leap year. But due to pressing circumstances, e.g., religious persecution, it may be declared immediately after Rosh HaShana. At that time, the Sages may declare that the coming year will be a leap year in accordance with their calculations. Even so, the additional month added to the leap year can be only a second Adar. In what sense, then, is Nisan the New Year for leap years?

讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讗讬 注讬讘讜专讬谉 讛驻住拽转 注讬讘讜专讬谉 讚转谞谉 讛谉 讛注讬讚讜 砖诪注讘专讬谉 讛砖谞讛 讻诇 讗讚专 砖讛讬讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 注讚 讛驻讜专讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: What is meant here by leap years? It means the end of the leap year. Once the month of Nisan has arrived, the previous year can no longer be declared a leap year, as we learned in a mishna: They, Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Papeyyas, testified that the court may declare a leap year all through the month of Adar, as there were Sages who said: A year may be declared a leap year only until Purim, and if the decision to declare a leap year was not made before Purim, the year can no longer be declared a leap year.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 注讚 讛驻讜专讬诐 讻讬讜谉 讚讗诪专 诪专 砖讜讗诇讬谉 讘讛诇讻讜转 讛驻住讞 拽讜讚诐 诇驻住讞 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 讗转讬 诇讝诇讝讜诇讬 讘讞诪抓

The Gemara explains the dispute: What is the rationale of the one who said that a leap year can be declared only until Purim? It is since the Master said: One asks about the halakhot of Passover thirty days before Passover. Immediately following Purim, on the fifteenth of Adar, people already began to immerse themselves in the halakhot of Passover, which occurs on the fifteenth of Nisan. Were the court to declare a leap year after Purim, the festival of Passover would then be delayed for another month. In that case, there is concern that people will come to demean the prohibition against leavened bread and not observe Passover on its new date in the proper manner.

讜讗讬讚讱 诪讬讚注 讬讚讬注 讚砖转讗 诪注讘专转讗 讘讞讜砖讘谞讗 转诇讬讗 诪诇转讗 讜住讘专讬 讞讜砖讘谞讗 讛讜讗 讚诇讗 住诇讬拽 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 注讚 讛讗讬讚谞讗

And the other Sages, Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Papeyyas, who are not concerned about this, what do they say? They say that people know that a leap year is dependent on the calculation, and they will assume that the Sages did not complete the calculation until now, after Purim. Since this is a matter of common knowledge, there is no concern that declaring a leap year at that late time will lead to a disregard of the halakhot of Passover.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘讛转讞诇讛 拽诪讬讬专讬 讘讛驻住拽讛 诇讗 拽诪讬讬专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna include the first of Nisan as the New Year for leap years? The Gemara answers: He is dealing with years that begin on the first of Nisan, but he is not dealing with years that end on that date. With regard to leap years, the first of Nisan is the end not a beginning.

讜诇转专讜诪转 砖拽诇讬诐 诪谞诇谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讗砖讬讛 讗诪专 拽专讗 讝讗转 注讜诇转 讞讚砖 讘讞讚砖讜 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讞讚砖 讜讛讘讗 拽专讘谉 诪转专讜诪讛 讞讚砖讛 讜讙诪专讬 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And the first of Nisan is the New Year for collection of the shekels that had been collected in Adar and were used to purchase animals for communal offerings and other needs of the Temple. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? Rabbi Yoshiya said that the verse states: 鈥淭his is the burnt-offering of each month in its month throughout the months [le岣dshei] of the year鈥 (Numbers 28:14). The seemingly superfluous term: 鈥淭hroughout the months [le岣dshei] of the year,鈥 should be understood as follows: The Torah is saying here: Renew [岣ddesh] the year and bring an offering from the new collection of the shekels. And it is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Nisan, as it is written with regard to Nisan: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2).

讜诇讙诪讜专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: But let us learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and a different instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Tishrei, as it is written with regard to Tishrei: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The Gemara answers: One derives the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which 鈥渕onths鈥 are mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淭hroughout the months of the year,鈥 from another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which months are mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you.鈥 And one does not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which months are mentioned from an instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 together with which 鈥渕onths鈥 are not mentioned, as the verse states: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 拽专讘谞讜转 爪讘讜专 讛讘讗讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 砖讞讬住专 诪爪讜讛

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to communal offerings that are brought on the first of Nisan, there is a mitzva to bring them from the new contribution of shekels collected for that year. However, if one brought them from the old contribution, i.e., from last year鈥檚 shekels, he has fulfilled the obligation with regard to the offerings, but he lacks the mitzva of bringing them from the new shekels.

转谞讬讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 拽专讘谞讜转 爪讘讜专 讛讘讗讬谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 诪爪讜讛 诇讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讞讚砖 讜讗诐 讛讘讬讗 诪谉 讛讬砖谉 讬爪讗 讗诇讗 砖讞讬住专 诪爪讜讛 讜讬讞讬讚 砖讛转谞讚讘 诪砖诇讜 讻砖专讬谉 讘诇讘讚 砖讬诪住专诐 诇爪讘讜专

The Gemara comments: This halakha is also taught in a baraita: With regard to communal offerings that are brought on the first of Nisan, there is a mitzva to bring them from the new contribution of shekels. However, if one brought them from the old contribution, he has fulfilled the obligation with regard to the sacrifices, but he lacks the mitzva of bringing them from the new shekels. If a private individual volunteered to bring the communal offerings from his own property, they are fit for the altar, provided that he transfers them over to the community.

驻砖讬讟讗 诪讛讜 讚转讬诪讗 诇讬讞讜砖 砖诪讗

The Gemara asks: It is obvious that one may donate of his own property to the community, provided that he transfers it to the community in the proper manner. The Gemara answers: Lest you say that we should be concerned that perhaps

诇讗 讬诪住专诐 诇爪讘讜专 讬驻讛 讬驻讛 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉

he will not transfer them over to the public without reservation, and in his heart he will hold on to them as his own, therefore the baraita teaches us that this is not a matter of concern.

讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讻讬讜谉 讚拽转谞讬 讗诐 讛讘讬讗 讬爪讗 诇讗 驻住讬拽讗 诇讬讛

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the tanna of our mishna count the first of Nisan as the New Year for shekels? The Gemara answers: The tanna of the mishna lists only definite New Years. Since it is taught: If one brought them from the old contribution, he has fulfilled his obligation, he could not state this New Year as a definite rule, and so he did not teach it.

讜讬砖 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗祝 诇砖讻讬专讜转 讘转讬诐 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讛诪砖讻讬专 讘讬转 诇讞讘讬专讜 诇砖谞讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞讬诐 注砖专 讞讜讚砖 诪讬讜诐 诇讬讜诐 讜讗诐 讗诪专 诇砖谞讛 讝讜 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讗 注诪讚 讗诇讗 讘讗讞讚 讘讗讚专 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛

搂 It was taught in the baraita: And some say that the first of Nisan is also the New Year for the renting of houses. The Sages taught the following baraita: If one rents out a house to another person for a year, he counts twelve months from day to day. But if he said that he was renting it for this year, then even if the agreement was made only on the first of Adar, once the first of Nisan arrived one month later, it is counted as a year, and the rental contract comes to end.

讜讗驻讬诇讜 诇诪讗谉 讚讗诪专 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 讘砖谞讛 讞砖讜讘 砖谞讛 砖讗谞讬 讛讻讗 讚诇讗 讟专讞 讗讬谞讬砖 诇诪讬讙专 讘讬转讗 诇讘爪讬专 诪转诇转讬谉 讬讜诪讬谉

The Gemara comments: Even according to the one who said that one day in a year is considered a year, it is different here, with regard to rental halakhot, as a person does not take the trouble to rent a house for less than thirty days. Therefore, if one rented a house after the first of Adar, the remaining days of Adar are not considered a full year.

讜讗讬诪讗 转砖专讬 住转诐 讻讬 讗讙专 讗讬谞讬砖 讘讬转讗 诇讻讜诇讛讜 讬诪讜转 讛讙砖诪讬诐 讗讙专

The Gemara asks: But why not say that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for the renting of houses, and so if one rents a house for a year in the summer the year would come to an end in Tishrei? The Gemara answers: A person who rents a house without specification intends to rent it for all of the rainy season, until Nisan, when the rainy season comes to a close.

讜转谞讗 拽诪讗 讚讘专讬讬转讗 讜转谞讗 讚讬讚谉 讘谞讬住谉 谞诪讬 诪讬砖讻讞 砖讻讬讞 拽讬讟专讬

The Gemara asks: And why didn鈥檛 the first tanna of the baraita and the tanna of our mishna include the first of Nisan as the New Year for the renting of houses? They hold that even in Nisan it is common that the sky becomes covered with clouds and rain falls. Therefore, one who rents a house does not have in mind to rent it only until the first of Nisan, as presumably he does not want to find himself in a situation where he is homeless when it is still raining.

讘讗讞讚 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诪谞讬 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗讜诪专 讘讗讞讚 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛

搂 The mishna states: On the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes. The Gemara comments: Who is the author of the opinion cited in this mishna? It is Rabbi Meir, as it is taught in a mishna that Rabbi Meir says: On the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes.

讜诇专讙诇讬诐 诪谞讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗 讗讬诪讗 住讬驻讗 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 专讬砖讗 讜住讬驻讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜诪爪讬注转讗 专讘讬 诪讗讬专

The Gemara asks: And with regard to the Festivals, i.e., that the first of Nisan is the New Year for Festivals, who is the author of the opinion cited in the mishna? It is Rabbi Shimon, who holds that one transgresses the prohibition against delaying only if the three Festivals have passed in their proper order, with Passover first. Say the last clause of the mishna, which states that Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: The New Year for animal tithes is on the first of Tishrei. Can it be that the first clause and the last clause follow the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, while the middle clause relating to animal tithes follows the opinion of Rabbi Meir?

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 专讘讬 讛讬讗 讜谞住讬讘 诇讛 讗诇讬讘讗 讚转谞讗讬 讘专讙诇讬诐 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讘诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 住讘专 诇讛 讻专讘讬 诪讗讬专

Rav Yosef said: The entire mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he takes the mishna according to the opinions of different tanna鈥檌m. With regard to the Festivals, he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, while with regard to animal tithes he holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir.

讗讬 讛讻讬 讗专讘注讛 讞诪砖讛 讛讜讜 讗诪专 专讘讗 讗专讘注讛 诇讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讗专讘注讛 讚诇 专讙诇讬诐 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗专讘注讛 讚诇 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛

The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, how are there four New Years? If the tanna of the mishna holds that the first of Elul is the New Year for animal tithes, there are five New Years: The first of Nisan, the fifteenth of Nisan, the first of Elul, the first of Tishrei, and the fifteenth of Shevat. Rava said: There are only four New Years according to each opinion: There are four according to Rabbi Meir, who removes the New Year for Festivals, as according to him there is no fixed time from which to begin counting the Festivals. According to Rabbi Shimon鈥檚 opinion as well there are four New Years, for he removes the New Year for animal tithes, as according to him it is on the first of Tishrei, which is already listed.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 讗专讘注讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讘讛谉 讻诪讛 专讗砖讬 砖谞讬诐

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said an alternative answer: The mishna is to be understood as follows: There are four months in which there are several New Years, since in Nisan, according to Rabbi Meir, there are two New Years: For kings on the first and for Festivals on the fifteenth.

诪讬转讬讘讬 砖砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇注讜诪专 砖砖讛 讘住讬讜谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇砖转讬 讛诇讞诐 诇专讘讗 诇讬转谞讬 砖砖讛 诇专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诇讬转谞讬 讞诪砖讛

The Gemara raises an objection from the following baraita: The sixteenth of Nisan is the New Year for the omer offering, as from this date onward it is permitted to eat from the new crop of grain. The sixth of Sivan is the New Year for the two loaves, i.e., the public offering of two loaves from the new wheat brought on Shavuot, as from this day onward it is permitted to sacrifice meal-offerings in the Temple from the new grain. If so, according to Rava, let the mishna teach that there are six New Years, including the sixteenth of Nisan and the sixth of Sivan, and according to Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k let it teach that there are five New Years, since Sivan is a month in which there is a New Year.

讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 讻讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 诪讬讚讬 讚讞讬讬诇 诪讗讜专转讗 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇 诪讗讜专转讗 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Rav Pappa said: When the tanna of the mishna counts New Years, he counts only those that begin in the evening; those that do not begin in the evening he does not count. Since the New Years associated with the omer and the two loaves do not begin in the evening but only from the time that they are sacrificed, he does not include them.

讜讛专讬 专讙诇讬诐 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讜拽讞砖讬讘 讻讬讜谉 砖爪专讬讱 诇讗讬转讜讬讬 诪注讬拽专讗 诪讬讞讬讬讘 讜拽讗讬

The Gemara asks: But there is the New Year for Festivals, which does not begin in the evening, as the prohibition against delaying is not transgressed in the evening, when the Festival begins, but only in the morning, after the daily offering has been brought and one is able to bring the vowed animal to the altar, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: Since he had to bring his vow by the Festival, he stands liable from the beginning of the Festival for transgressing the prohibition against delaying.

讜讛专讬 讬讜讘诇讜转 讚诇讗 讞讬讬诇讬 诪讗讜专转讗 讜拽讞砖讬讘 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讞讬讬诇 讬讜讘诇

The Gemara asks further: But there is New Year for the Jubilee, which does not begin in the evening but from the time of the shofar blast on Yom Kippur during the day, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: The mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, who said that the Jubilee Year begins on Rosh HaShana, and the blowing of the shofar merely completes the release of the slaves. Therefore, the New Year for the Jubilee is included.

专讘 砖讬砖讗 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬讚讬 讗诪专 讻讬 拽讗 讞砖讬讘 诪讬讚讬 讚诇讗 转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 诪讬讚讬 讚转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 诇讗 拽讗 讞砖讬讘

Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said a different explanation for why the New Year for the omer offering and the New Year for the two loaves are not mentioned in the mishna: When the tanna of the mishna counts New Years, he counts only those that do not depend upon an action; those that depend upon an action, e.g., the offering of the omer or the two loaves, he does not count.

讜讛专讬 专讙诇讬诐 诪讬讚讬 讚转诇讬 讘诪注砖讛 讜拽讗 讞砖讬讘 讘诇 转讗讞专 诪诪讬诇讗 讞讬讬诇

The Gemara asks: But there is the New Year for the Festivals, which depends upon an action, i.e., the sacrifice of the daily offering, since no offering may be brought before the daily offering, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: This is not so, as the transgression of the prohibition: You shall not delay, does not depend upon anything else; rather, it begins on its own as soon as the Festival begins.

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