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Today's Daf Yomi

October 17, 2021 | 讬状讗 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 8

This week of learning is sponsored by Beth Hait in memory of Dr. Chaya Gorsetman, “a lifelong learner and gifted educator who inspired me to start learning the daf at the beginning of this cycle.”聽

Today’s daf is sponsored by Adeena and Marc Haber for a refuah shleima for their son Yair Amitai ben Adeena Rachel who is undergoing a medical procedure today. And anonymously in honor of the yahrzeit of Rachel Imeinu “Rachel bat Lavan.”

What is the source of the debate between Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Shimon/Rabbi Elazar regarding the date for the animal tithes? First, it is suggested that they both derive it from the same verse (Tehillim 65:14) discussing what time of year sheep conceive sheep. However, after raising a question with the interpretations of Rabbi Shimon/Rabbi Elazar, they conclude that they each derive it from a comparison to tithes on food, each comparing it in a different manner. The Mishna had stated the first of Tishrei is Rosh Hashanah for years. Rav Papa says this refers to documents, and this is explained to be referring to ones written with the years of gentile kings, otherwise, it would conflict with the beginning of the Mishna. However, a question is raised against this as Rav Chisda, an amora, made the distinction between Jewish and gentile kings and why would an amora teach something already stated in the Mishna? The Gemara brings two answers. An alternate explanation is brought 鈥 that 鈥測ears鈥 means for judgment, that God judges us on the first of Tishrei for that year. This is derived from Tehillim 91:5. Several other drashot on that verse are brought. The first of Tishrei is Rosh Hashanah for Shmita. From what verse is this derived? It is also Rosh Hashanah for the jubilee year. This matches Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yochanan ben Broka鈥檚 opinion, as the rabbis hold that it starts on Yom Kippur. Two braitot that deal with the debate between them are brought.

讜讛专讬 讬讜讘诇讜转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara asks further: But the New Year for the Jubilee depends upon a certain action, i.e., sounding the shofar, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: The mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, who said that the Jubilee Year begins on Rosh HaShana, even without the shofar blast.

讜专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注 专讗砖讬 讛砖谞讬诐 讛诐 砖讛谉 讘讗专讘注 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara presents an alternative answer as to why the tanna did not include all the other New Years. Rav Ashi said: The tanna said that there are four New Years that fall on four New Moons. However, there are also other New Years that do not fall on New Moons.

讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘讟 讻讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 砖诇砖讛 诇讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘讟 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇

The Gemara raises a question: Does Rav Ashi count the first of Shevat as one of the New Years; but the first of Shevat is a New Year only according to Beit Shammai, and by the time of Rav Ashi, the halakha was known to be in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? The Gemara answers that this is what Rav Ashi is saying: There are three New Years that all agree occur on the first of the month, and the first of Shevat is subject to a dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讜注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 讗讬诪转讬 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讜讗讬诪转讬 注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讘讗讚专 诪转注讘专讜转 讘讗讚专 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 讘讗讘 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讛谉 讗诇讜诇

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: The New Year for animal tithes is on the first of Tishrei. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And both of them, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar, expounded the same verse in different ways. As it is stated in the verse: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows, and the valleys are wrapped in grain; they shout for joy, they also sing鈥 (Psalms 65:14). Rabbi Meir holds: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows, i.e., when do the rams impregnate the ewes and thereby clothe them? It is at the time when the valleys are wrapped in grain, i.e., when they are covered in grain. And when are the valleys wrapped in grain? It is in Adar. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Adar and give birth five months later in Av, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Elul, as most of the year鈥檚 lambs have been born by then.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诪转讬 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讗讬诪转讬 砖讘诇讬诐 讗讜诪专讜转 砖讬专讛 讘谞讬住谉 诪转注讘专讜转 讘谞讬住谉 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讛谉 转砖专讬

Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows? At the time that the stalks of grain 鈥渟hout for joy, and also sing.鈥 When do the stalks break out in song, i.e., when are they full, so that they rustle in the wind and create the whispering sounds of song? It is in Nisan. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Nisan and give birth in Elul, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Tishrei.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讛讛讜讗 讘讗驻诇转讗 讚讛讜讬讬谉 讘谞讬住谉 讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讻转讬讘 讜注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讛讛讜讗 讘讞专驻讬讬转讗 讚讗转讬讬谉 诪讗讚专

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Meir, as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hey shout for joy, they also sing鈥? The Gemara answers: That is referring to late sheep, which were conceived after the usual time, in Nisan. The Gemara asks: According to the other opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd the valleys wrapped in grain,鈥 which is in Adar? The Gemara answers: That is referring to early sheep, which were conceived in Adar.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讻讚讻转讬讘 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讜讗讬讻讗 谞诪讬 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讜讗讬讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专

The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, the verse can be understood as it is written: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows鈥 at the time when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain.鈥 But there are also some that do not conceive until as late as when 鈥渢hey shout for joy, they also sing.鈥 But according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon, it should have been written in the reverse order: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows鈥 at the time when 鈥渢hey shout for joy, they also sing,鈥 but there are also some that conceive earlier, when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain.鈥 If so, according to them, the words in the verse were not written in their proper order.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讘讗讚专 讜讛讻讗 讘讛讗讬 拽专讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 注砖专 转注砖专 讘砖谞讬 诪注砖专讜转 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 讜讗讞讚 诪注砖专 讚讙谉

Rather, Rava said that the dispute must be explained as follows: Everyone is of the opinion that 鈥渢he flocks are clothed in the meadows,鈥 i.e., the sheep conceive, primarily at the time when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain,鈥 in the month of Adar. But here they disagree about the meaning of the following verse: 鈥淵ou shall tithe a tithe from all the increase of your seed that the field brings forth year by year. And you shall eat before the Lord your God, in the place which He shall choose to place His name there, the tithe of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herds, and of your flocks; that you may learn to fear the Lord your God always鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:22鈥23). The verse speaks here about two tithes, one being the animal tithe and the other the grain tithe.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诇诪注砖专 讚讙谉 诪讛 诪注砖专 讚讙谉 住诪讜讱 诇讙诪专讜 注讬砖讜专讜 讗祝 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 住诪讜讱 诇讙诪专讜 注讬砖讜专讜 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘专讬 诪拽讬砖 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诇诪注砖专 讚讙谉 诪讛 诪注砖专 讚讙谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讜 转砖专讬 讗祝 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讜 转砖专讬

They disagree about the following: Rabbi Meir holds that the verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as the grain tithe is set aside close to the grain鈥檚 completion, after it dries out in the field, so too, the animal tithe is set aside close to its completion, after the animals are born. Just as the grain is completed in Elul and is set aside the following month, which is Tishrei, so too, the animals are born in Av and therefore must be set aside in the following month, which is Elul. On the other hand, Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon hold: The verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as in the case of the grain tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei, so too, in the case of the animal tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei.

讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇砖谞讬诐 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讟专讜转 讚转谞谉 砖讟专讬 讞讜讘 讛诪讜拽讚诪讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉 讜讛诪讗讜讞专讬谉 讻砖讬专讬谉

搂 It is taught in the mishna: On the first of Tishrei is the New Year for counting years. The Gemara asks: With regard to which halakha is this stated? Rav Pappa said: It is stated for determining the validity of documents, as we learned in a mishna: Antedated promissory notes, which bear a date that is earlier than the date when the loan actually took place, are invalid. But postdated promissory notes, which bear a date that is later than the date when the loan actually took place, are valid. Therefore, it is essential to know the date on which the new year begins in order to determine whether or not a particular promissory note is valid.

讜讛转谞谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪诇讻讬诐 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇砖讟专讜转

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we already learn in the mishna: On the first of Nisan is the New Year for kings; and we say about this: For what halakha is this stated? And Rav 岣sda said: It is for determining the validity of documents. Therefore, the new year for documents begins in Nisan and not in Tishrei.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻讗谉 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the document is dated according to the reign of the Jewish kings, the year begins in Nisan; and there, where the document is dated to the reign of the gentile kings of the nations of the world, the year begins in Tishrei.

讗诇讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讘诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪转砖专讬 诪谞讬谞谉 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉

The Gemara asks: But that which Rav 岣sda said in explanation of the mishna, that they taught that the New Year for kings is in Nisan only with regard to the Jewish kings, but as for the gentile kings of the nations of the world we count from Tishrei, did Rav 岣sda come to teach us what was already taught in the mishna itself?

诇讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 拽专讗讬 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉

The Gemara answers: No, Rav 岣sda came to teach us the meaning of certain biblical verses, i.e., that they should not be understood as was suggested at the beginning of this chapter but as teaching that the New Year for gentile kings is in Tishrei.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪转谞讬 诇讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 诇转拽讜驻讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

And if you wish, say that Rav 岣sda teaches the mishna as did Rabbi Zeira, and he maintains that when it says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is not referring to documents, as Rabbi Zeira said: The first of Tishrei is the New Year for years with regard to calculating the cycles of the sun and the moon. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei, and all the calculations with regard to the sun and the moon are based on when they were created.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讚讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 讜注讚 讗讞专讬转 砖谞讛 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 谞讬讚讜谉 诪讛 讬讛讗 讘住讜驻讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: When the mishna says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is with regard to judgment, as on that day God judges the world for the whole year, as it is written: 鈥淎 land that the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year until the end of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12); from the beginning of the year judgment is passed as to what will happen at the end of the year.

诪诪讗讬 讚转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 转拽注讜 讘讞讚砖 砖讜驻专 讘讻住讛 诇讬讜诐 讞讙谞讜 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讙

The Gemara raises a question: From where is it known that the day of judgment is in Tishrei? As it is written: 鈥淏low a shofar at the New Moon, at the covered time for our Festival day鈥 (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival day

砖讛讞讚砖 诪转讻住讛 讘讜 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘

on which the moon is covered, i.e., hidden? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, which is the only Festival that occurs at the beginning of a month, when the moon cannot be seen. And it is written in the next verse: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 81:5), implying that this is the day of judgment.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 诪诇诪讚 砖讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 诪注诇讛 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讚讬谉 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 拽讬讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 诪讟讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖

With regard to this same verse, the Sages taught in a baraita: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob鈥; this teaches that the heavenly court does not assemble for judgment until the earthly court has sanctified the month, once the Sanhedrin has declared that day as Rosh HaShana.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪诇诪讚 砖讬砖专讗诇 谞讻谞住讬谉 转讞讬诇讛 诇讚讬谉

It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel.鈥 From here I have derived only that this is the day of judgment for the Jewish people; from where do I derive that it is also the day of judgment for the gentile nations of the world? Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎 judgment for the God of Jacob,鈥 Who rules over the entire world. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎 statute for Israel鈥? This teaches that the Jewish people enter for judgment first.

讻讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诇讱 讜爪讬讘讜专 诪诇讱 谞讻谞住 转讞讬诇讛 诇讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜

The Gemara notes: This is in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as Rav 岣sda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd let these my words, with which I have made supplication before the Lord, be near to the Lord our God day and night, that He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times鈥 (I Kings 8:59). This verse is from King Solomon鈥檚 prayer at the dedication of the Temple, and he is referring to himself a servant of God.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇诪讬拽诐 诪诇讻讗 讗讘专讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬驻讜砖 讞专讜谉 讗祝

What is the reason that the king is brought in first? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God鈥檚 anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and he may thereby be saved from overly harsh judgment.

讜诇砖诪讬讟讬谉 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛砖讘讬注讬转 砖讘转 砖讘转讜谉 讬讛讬讛 诇讗专抓 讜讙诪专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛

搂 The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for calculating Sabbatical Years. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4), and we learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Tishrei, as it is written: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The latter verse is referring to the year that begins at the onset of the rainy season, i.e., Tishrei.

讜诇讙诪讜专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But let us learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and conclude that for this purpose the year begins from Nisan, as it is written: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2), and there the reference is to Nisan. The Gemara answers: The Sages derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse about the Sabbatical Year, where months are not mentioned with it, from the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse in Deuteronomy above, where months are also not mentioned with it. And they do not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 where months are not mentioned with it from the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse where months are mentioned with it, i.e., 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year for you.鈥

讜诇讬讜讘诇讜转 讬讜讘诇讜转 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讬讜讘诇讜转 讘注砖专讛 讘转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转注讘讬专讜 砖讜驻专

搂 The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for Jubilee Years. The Gemara asks: Is the New Year for Jubilee Years on the first of Tishrei? Isn鈥檛 the New Year for Jubilee Years on the tenth of Tishrei, Yom Kippur? As it is written: 鈥淭hen shall you cause the shofar to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, on Yom Kippur shall you sound the shofar throughout all your land. And you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a Jubilee for you鈥 (Leviticus 25:9鈥10).

讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讬讻讜诇 诇讗 转讛讗 诪转拽讚砖转 讗诇讗 诪讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讗讬诇讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 诪诇诪讚 砖诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 诪转讞讬诇转讛

The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, as it is taught in a baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year鈥? Since it is stated that the shofar is blown 鈥渙n Yom Kippur,鈥 one might have thought that the year is sanctified only from Yom Kippur and onward. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year,鈥 which teaches that the year is sanctified from its beginning onward, from the first of Tishrei, when the year begins.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注讚 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讗 讛讬讜 注讘讚讬诐 谞驻讟专讬谉 诇讘转讬讛谉 讜诇讗 诪砖转注讘讚讬谉 诇讗讚讜谞讬讛诐 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 讜砖诪讞讬谉 讜注讟专讜转讬讛谉 讘专讗砖讬讛谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转拽注讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘砖讜驻专 谞驻讟专讜 注讘讚讬诐 诇讘转讬讛谉 讜砖讚讜转 讞讜讝专讜转 诇讘注诇讬讛谉

From here, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, said: From Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, Hebrew slaves were not released to their homes because the shofar had not yet been sounded. And they were also not enslaved to their masters, as the Jubilee Year had already begun. Rather, they would eat, drink, and rejoice, and they would wear their crowns on their heads like free people. Once Yom Kippur arrived, the court would sound the shofar, slaves would be released to their houses, and fields that were sold would be returned to their original owners.

讜专讘谞谉 砖谞讬诐 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: And the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, how do they interpret the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year鈥? The Gemara answers: They derive from here that you sanctify years, but you do not sanctify months. According to this opinion, the court is commanded to sanctify the Jubilee Year with a proclamation: This year is sanctified; but it is not commanded to sanctify the months with a similar proclamation.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 诪转讞讬诇转讛 讻讱 诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 讘住讜驻讛 讜讗诇 转转诪讛 砖讛专讬 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转

It is taught in another baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee Year鈥 (Leviticus 25:11)? Since it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year,鈥 one might have thought that just as the Jubilee Year is sanctified from its beginning onward, so too, it is sanctified at its end onward, i.e., it remains sanctified until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year. And do not wonder why one might think this, as don鈥檛 we regularly add from the profane to the sacred, extending a sacred time period by adding to it both before and after from a profane time period? Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee Year, the fiftieth year,鈥 to teach that you sanctify the fiftieth year, but you do not sanctify the fifty-first year, even partially.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 8

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Rosh Hashanah 8

讜讛专讬 讬讜讘诇讜转 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讛 讛讬讗

The Gemara asks further: But the New Year for the Jubilee depends upon a certain action, i.e., sounding the shofar, and nevertheless the tanna counts it. The Gemara answers: The mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, who said that the Jubilee Year begins on Rosh HaShana, even without the shofar blast.

讜专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗专讘注 专讗砖讬 讛砖谞讬诐 讛诐 砖讛谉 讘讗专讘注 专讗砖讬 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara presents an alternative answer as to why the tanna did not include all the other New Years. Rav Ashi said: The tanna said that there are four New Years that fall on four New Moons. However, there are also other New Years that do not fall on New Moons.

讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘讟 讻讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 砖诇砖讛 诇讚讘专讬 讛讻诇 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘讟 诪讞诇讜拽转 讘讬转 砖诪讗讬 讜讘讬转 讛诇诇

The Gemara raises a question: Does Rav Ashi count the first of Shevat as one of the New Years; but the first of Shevat is a New Year only according to Beit Shammai, and by the time of Rav Ashi, the halakha was known to be in accordance with the opinion of Beit Hillel? The Gemara answers that this is what Rav Ashi is saying: There are three New Years that all agree occur on the first of the month, and the first of Shevat is subject to a dispute between Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讜砖谞讬讛诐 诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 讚专砖讜 砖谞讗诪专 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讜注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 讗讬诪转讬 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讜讗讬诪转讬 注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讘讗讚专 诪转注讘专讜转 讘讗讚专 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 讘讗讘 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讛谉 讗诇讜诇

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: The New Year for animal tithes is on the first of Tishrei. Rabbi Yo岣nan said: And both of them, Rabbi Meir and Rabbi Elazar, expounded the same verse in different ways. As it is stated in the verse: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows, and the valleys are wrapped in grain; they shout for joy, they also sing鈥 (Psalms 65:14). Rabbi Meir holds: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows, i.e., when do the rams impregnate the ewes and thereby clothe them? It is at the time when the valleys are wrapped in grain, i.e., when they are covered in grain. And when are the valleys wrapped in grain? It is in Adar. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Adar and give birth five months later in Av, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Elul, as most of the year鈥檚 lambs have been born by then.

专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬诪转讬 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讗讬诪转讬 砖讘诇讬诐 讗讜诪专讜转 砖讬专讛 讘谞讬住谉 诪转注讘专讜转 讘谞讬住谉 讜讬讜诇讚讜转 讘讗诇讜诇 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讛谉 转砖专讬

Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon say: When are the flocks clothed in the meadows? At the time that the stalks of grain 鈥渟hout for joy, and also sing.鈥 When do the stalks break out in song, i.e., when are they full, so that they rustle in the wind and create the whispering sounds of song? It is in Nisan. Therefore, the sheep conceive in Nisan and give birth in Elul, and so it is fitting that their New Year is on the first of Tishrei.

讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讗 讻转讬讘 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讛讛讜讗 讘讗驻诇转讗 讚讛讜讬讬谉 讘谞讬住谉 讜讗讬讚讱 谞诪讬 讛讻转讬讘 讜注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讛讛讜讗 讘讞专驻讬讬转讗 讚讗转讬讬谉 诪讗讚专

The Gemara asks: And according to the other tanna, Rabbi Meir, as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hey shout for joy, they also sing鈥? The Gemara answers: That is referring to late sheep, which were conceived after the usual time, in Nisan. The Gemara asks: According to the other opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon as well, isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淎nd the valleys wrapped in grain,鈥 which is in Adar? The Gemara answers: That is referring to early sheep, which were conceived in Adar.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讻讚讻转讬讘 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讜讗讬讻讗 谞诪讬 讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬驻讻讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖讬转专讜注注讜 讗祝 讬砖讬专讜 讜讗讬讻讗 谞诪讬 讚注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专

The Gemara asks further: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, the verse can be understood as it is written: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows鈥 at the time when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain.鈥 But there are also some that do not conceive until as late as when 鈥渢hey shout for joy, they also sing.鈥 But according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon, it should have been written in the reverse order: 鈥淭he flocks are clothed in the meadows鈥 at the time when 鈥渢hey shout for joy, they also sing,鈥 but there are also some that conceive earlier, when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain.鈥 If so, according to them, the words in the verse were not written in their proper order.

讗诇讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 诇讘砖讜 讻专讬诐 讛爪讗谉 讘讝诪谉 砖注诪拽讬诐 讬注讟驻讜 讘专 讘讗讚专 讜讛讻讗 讘讛讗讬 拽专讗 拽诪讬驻诇讙讬 注砖专 转注砖专 讘砖谞讬 诪注砖专讜转 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专 讗讞讚 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 讜讗讞讚 诪注砖专 讚讙谉

Rather, Rava said that the dispute must be explained as follows: Everyone is of the opinion that 鈥渢he flocks are clothed in the meadows,鈥 i.e., the sheep conceive, primarily at the time when 鈥渢he valleys are wrapped in grain,鈥 in the month of Adar. But here they disagree about the meaning of the following verse: 鈥淵ou shall tithe a tithe from all the increase of your seed that the field brings forth year by year. And you shall eat before the Lord your God, in the place which He shall choose to place His name there, the tithe of your grain, of your wine, and of your oil, and the firstborn of your herds, and of your flocks; that you may learn to fear the Lord your God always鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:22鈥23). The verse speaks here about two tithes, one being the animal tithe and the other the grain tithe.

专讘讬 诪讗讬专 住讘专 诪拽讬砖 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诇诪注砖专 讚讙谉 诪讛 诪注砖专 讚讙谉 住诪讜讱 诇讙诪专讜 注讬砖讜专讜 讗祝 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 住诪讜讱 诇讙诪专讜 注讬砖讜专讜 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 住讘专讬 诪拽讬砖 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 诇诪注砖专 讚讙谉 诪讛 诪注砖专 讚讙谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讜 转砖专讬 讗祝 诪注砖专 讘讛诪讛 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 砖诇讜 转砖专讬

They disagree about the following: Rabbi Meir holds that the verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as the grain tithe is set aside close to the grain鈥檚 completion, after it dries out in the field, so too, the animal tithe is set aside close to its completion, after the animals are born. Just as the grain is completed in Elul and is set aside the following month, which is Tishrei, so too, the animals are born in Av and therefore must be set aside in the following month, which is Elul. On the other hand, Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Shimon hold: The verse juxtaposes the animal tithe to the grain tithe. Just as in the case of the grain tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei, so too, in the case of the animal tithe, its New Year is in Tishrei.

讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇砖谞讬诐 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讗诪专 专讘 驻驻讗 诇砖讟专讜转 讚转谞谉 砖讟专讬 讞讜讘 讛诪讜拽讚诪讬谉 驻住讜诇讬谉 讜讛诪讗讜讞专讬谉 讻砖讬专讬谉

搂 It is taught in the mishna: On the first of Tishrei is the New Year for counting years. The Gemara asks: With regard to which halakha is this stated? Rav Pappa said: It is stated for determining the validity of documents, as we learned in a mishna: Antedated promissory notes, which bear a date that is earlier than the date when the loan actually took place, are invalid. But postdated promissory notes, which bear a date that is later than the date when the loan actually took place, are valid. Therefore, it is essential to know the date on which the new year begins in order to determine whether or not a particular promissory note is valid.

讜讛转谞谉 讘讗讞讚 讘谞讬住谉 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇诪诇讻讬诐 讜讗诪专讬谞谉 诇诪讗讬 讛诇讻转讗 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇砖讟专讜转

The Gemara asks: But didn鈥檛 we already learn in the mishna: On the first of Nisan is the New Year for kings; and we say about this: For what halakha is this stated? And Rav 岣sda said: It is for determining the validity of documents. Therefore, the new year for documents begins in Nisan and not in Tishrei.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讻讗谉 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐

The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the document is dated according to the reign of the Jewish kings, the year begins in Nisan; and there, where the document is dated to the reign of the gentile kings of the nations of the world, the year begins in Tishrei.

讗诇讗 讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诇讗 砖谞讜 讗诇讗 诇诪诇讻讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗讘诇 诇诪诇讻讬 讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪转砖专讬 诪谞讬谞谉 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉

The Gemara asks: But that which Rav 岣sda said in explanation of the mishna, that they taught that the New Year for kings is in Nisan only with regard to the Jewish kings, but as for the gentile kings of the nations of the world we count from Tishrei, did Rav 岣sda come to teach us what was already taught in the mishna itself?

诇讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 拽专讗讬 讗转讗 诇讗砖诪讜注讬谞谉

The Gemara answers: No, Rav 岣sda came to teach us the meaning of certain biblical verses, i.e., that they should not be understood as was suggested at the beginning of this chapter but as teaching that the New Year for gentile kings is in Tishrei.

讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪转谞讬 诇讛 讚专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讗诪专 诇转拽讜驻讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讘转砖专讬 谞讘专讗 讛注讜诇诐

And if you wish, say that Rav 岣sda teaches the mishna as did Rabbi Zeira, and he maintains that when it says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is not referring to documents, as Rabbi Zeira said: The first of Tishrei is the New Year for years with regard to calculating the cycles of the sun and the moon. And this is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: The world was created in the month of Tishrei, and all the calculations with regard to the sun and the moon are based on when they were created.

专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讚讬谉 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 讜注讚 讗讞专讬转 砖谞讛 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛 谞讬讚讜谉 诪讛 讬讛讗 讘住讜驻讛

Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: When the mishna says that the first of Tishrei is the New Year for years, it is with regard to judgment, as on that day God judges the world for the whole year, as it is written: 鈥淎 land that the Lord your God cares for; the eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year until the end of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12); from the beginning of the year judgment is passed as to what will happen at the end of the year.

诪诪讗讬 讚转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 转拽注讜 讘讞讚砖 砖讜驻专 讘讻住讛 诇讬讜诐 讞讙谞讜 讗讬讝讛讜 讞讙

The Gemara raises a question: From where is it known that the day of judgment is in Tishrei? As it is written: 鈥淏low a shofar at the New Moon, at the covered time for our Festival day鈥 (Psalms 81:4). Which is the Festival day

砖讛讞讚砖 诪转讻住讛 讘讜 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讝讛 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘

on which the moon is covered, i.e., hidden? You must say that this is Rosh HaShana, which is the only Festival that occurs at the beginning of a month, when the moon cannot be seen. And it is written in the next verse: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob鈥 (Psalms 81:5), implying that this is the day of judgment.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 诪诇诪讚 砖讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 诪注诇讛 谞讻谞住讬谉 诇讚讬谉 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 拽讬讚砖讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 诪讟讛 讗转 讛讞讚砖

With regard to this same verse, the Sages taught in a baraita: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob鈥; this teaches that the heavenly court does not assemble for judgment until the earthly court has sanctified the month, once the Sanhedrin has declared that day as Rosh HaShana.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 讛讜讗 讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 诇讬砖专讗诇 诇讗讜诪讜转 讛注讜诇诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪砖驻讟 诇讗诇讛讬 讬注拽讘 讗诐 讻谉 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讻讬 讞拽 诇讬砖专讗诇 诪诇诪讚 砖讬砖专讗诇 谞讻谞住讬谉 转讞讬诇讛 诇讚讬谉

It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: 鈥淔or this is a statute for Israel.鈥 From here I have derived only that this is the day of judgment for the Jewish people; from where do I derive that it is also the day of judgment for the gentile nations of the world? Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎 judgment for the God of Jacob,鈥 Who rules over the entire world. If so, what is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎 statute for Israel鈥? This teaches that the Jewish people enter for judgment first.

讻讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诇讱 讜爪讬讘讜专 诪诇讱 谞讻谞住 转讞讬诇讛 诇讚讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 诪砖驻讟 注讘讚讜 讜诪砖驻讟 注诪讜

The Gemara notes: This is in accordance with the opinion of Rav 岣sda, as Rav 岣sda said: When a king and a community are brought before God for judgment, the king is brought in for judgment first, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd let these my words, with which I have made supplication before the Lord, be near to the Lord our God day and night, that He make the judgment of His servant and the judgment of His people Israel at all times鈥 (I Kings 8:59). This verse is from King Solomon鈥檚 prayer at the dedication of the Temple, and he is referring to himself a servant of God.

诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗讬 讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诇讗讜 讗讜专讞 讗专注讗 诇诪讬拽诐 诪诇讻讗 讗讘专讗讬 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇讬驻讜砖 讞专讜谉 讗祝

What is the reason that the king is brought in first? If you wish, say that it is not proper conduct for the king to stand outside and wait for the trial of his subjects to come to an end. And if you wish, say instead that the king is brought in first so that he may be judged before God鈥檚 anger intensifies due to the sins of the community, and he may thereby be saved from overly harsh judgment.

讜诇砖诪讬讟讬谉 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛砖讘讬注讬转 砖讘转 砖讘转讜谉 讬讛讬讛 诇讗专抓 讜讙诪专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛

搂 The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for calculating Sabbatical Years. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land鈥 (Leviticus 25:4), and we learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that the year begins for this purpose from Tishrei, as it is written: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12). The latter verse is referring to the year that begins at the onset of the rainy season, i.e., Tishrei.

讜诇讙诪讜专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara raises a difficulty: But let us learn by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and conclude that for this purpose the year begins from Nisan, as it is written: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2), and there the reference is to Nisan. The Gemara answers: The Sages derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse about the Sabbatical Year, where months are not mentioned with it, from the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse in Deuteronomy above, where months are also not mentioned with it. And they do not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 where months are not mentioned with it from the word 鈥測ear鈥 that appears in the verse where months are mentioned with it, i.e., 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year for you.鈥

讜诇讬讜讘诇讜转 讬讜讘诇讜转 讘讗讞讚 讘转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讬讜讘诇讜转 讘注砖专讛 讘转砖专讬 讛讜讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转注讘讬专讜 砖讜驻专

搂 The mishna teaches: The first of Tishrei is also the New Year for Jubilee Years. The Gemara asks: Is the New Year for Jubilee Years on the first of Tishrei? Isn鈥檛 the New Year for Jubilee Years on the tenth of Tishrei, Yom Kippur? As it is written: 鈥淭hen shall you cause the shofar to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, on Yom Kippur shall you sound the shofar throughout all your land. And you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a Jubilee for you鈥 (Leviticus 25:9鈥10).

讛讗 诪谞讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 讛讬讗 讚转谞讬讗 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞讛 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 讘讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讬讻讜诇 诇讗 转讛讗 诪转拽讚砖转 讗诇讗 诪讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 讜讗讬诇讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 诪诇诪讚 砖诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 诪转讞讬诇转讛

The Gemara answers: In accordance with whose opinion is this mishna? It is the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, as it is taught in a baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year鈥? Since it is stated that the shofar is blown 鈥渙n Yom Kippur,鈥 one might have thought that the year is sanctified only from Yom Kippur and onward. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year,鈥 which teaches that the year is sanctified from its beginning onward, from the first of Tishrei, when the year begins.

诪讻讗谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谞讜 砖诇 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讘谉 讘专讜拽讗 诪专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注讚 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 诇讗 讛讬讜 注讘讚讬诐 谞驻讟专讬谉 诇讘转讬讛谉 讜诇讗 诪砖转注讘讚讬谉 诇讗讚讜谞讬讛诐 讗诇讗 讗讜讻诇讬谉 讜砖讜转讬谉 讜砖诪讞讬谉 讜注讟专讜转讬讛谉 讘专讗砖讬讛谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讙讬注 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 转拽注讜 讘讬转 讚讬谉 讘砖讜驻专 谞驻讟专讜 注讘讚讬诐 诇讘转讬讛谉 讜砖讚讜转 讞讜讝专讜转 诇讘注诇讬讛谉

From here, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, said: From Rosh HaShana until Yom Kippur of the Jubilee Year, Hebrew slaves were not released to their homes because the shofar had not yet been sounded. And they were also not enslaved to their masters, as the Jubilee Year had already begun. Rather, they would eat, drink, and rejoice, and they would wear their crowns on their heads like free people. Once Yom Kippur arrived, the court would sound the shofar, slaves would be released to their houses, and fields that were sold would be returned to their original owners.

讜专讘谞谉 砖谞讬诐 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: And the Rabbis who disagree with Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Beroka, how do they interpret the verse: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year鈥? The Gemara answers: They derive from here that you sanctify years, but you do not sanctify months. According to this opinion, the court is commanded to sanctify the Jubilee Year with a proclamation: This year is sanctified; but it is not commanded to sanctify the months with a similar proclamation.

转谞讬讗 讗讬讚讱 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 诪讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诇驻讬 砖谞讗诪专 讜拽讚砖转诐 讗转 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讬讻讜诇 讻砖诐 砖诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 诪转讞讬诇转讛 讻讱 诪转拽讚砖转 讜讛讜诇讻转 讘住讜驻讛 讜讗诇 转转诪讛 砖讛专讬 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪拽讚砖 砖谞转 讛讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转

It is taught in another baraita: What is the meaning when the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee Year鈥 (Leviticus 25:11)? Since it is stated: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year,鈥 one might have thought that just as the Jubilee Year is sanctified from its beginning onward, so too, it is sanctified at its end onward, i.e., it remains sanctified until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year. And do not wonder why one might think this, as don鈥檛 we regularly add from the profane to the sacred, extending a sacred time period by adding to it both before and after from a profane time period? Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee Year, the fiftieth year,鈥 to teach that you sanctify the fiftieth year, but you do not sanctify the fifty-first year, even partially.

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