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Today's Daf Yomi

October 18, 2021 | 讬状讘 讘诪专讞砖讜讜谉 转砖驻状讘

Masechet Rosh Hashanah is dedicated anonymously in honor of Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Rosh Hashanah 9

The words 鈥淚t shall be a jubilee year the fiftieth year鈥(Vayikra 25:11) are derived by Rabbi Yishmael son of Rabbi Yochanan ben Broka to teach that one may have thought we add extra days onto the jubilee year at the end of the year in the same way that we added onto it in the beginning (between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur), however, the verse comes to exclude that possibility. The rabbis derive from the verse that the fiftieth year counts as the last year of the seven shmita cycles (year 50), but it does not also count as the first year of the new shmita cycle. This is to go against Rabbi Yehuda who held that it counts as both. The concept suggested previously of extending the sanctity of the jubilee year beyond the fiftieth year is derived by Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael each from one of two places 鈥 either from the words 鈥淎nd from plowing and harvesting one should rest鈥 (Shmot 34:21) or from Yom Kippur 鈥渙n the ninth one should afflict one鈥檚 soul鈥 (Vayikra 23:32) and from 鈥渇rom eve to eve.鈥 What does each derive from the verse that the other uses as his proof? A braita brings other drashot from the words 鈥淚t shall be a jubilee year鈥 that even if not all actions are taken by the people in the jubilee year, it is still considered the jubilee year. Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosi each derive differently which actions are referred to in the drasha and which are not, meaning, which are in fact necessary. According to Rabbi Yosi, one cannot have the jubilee year without blowing the shofar, but it can happen without freeing slaves. Two explanations are brought to explain why. On what basis does Rabbi Yehuda explain differently, that slaves must be freed, however, if they work the land or do not blow the shofar, the jubilee year will still happen. A third position of the rabbis is brought that all three actions are necessary. According to them, the words 鈥淚t shall be a jubilee year鈥 come to include places outside of Israel. The first of Tishrei is the new year also for planting 鈥 as regards laws of orla. This is derived from a gzeira shava from the verses.

讜专讘谞谉 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 注讜诇讛 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗

And the Rabbis, who do not require an additional verse to derive that the Jubilee Year does not extend until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year, derive a this halakha from the verse: You count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year alone, but you do not count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. This halakha comes to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that the fiftieth year is counted for here and for there, both as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. Lest someone think that that is the case, therefore, the verse teaches us that this is not so; rather, the fiftieth year is the Jubilee Year, and the following year is the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle.

讜讚诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 诪谞诇谉

搂 Apropos of the discussion of extending the Jubilee year, the Gemara asks: From where do we derive the principle that one extends a sanctified time period by adding from the profane to the sacred at both ends?

讚转谞讬讗 讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞专讬砖 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 砖讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讙讜壮 讗诇讗 讞专讬砖 砖诇 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 讛谞讻谞住 诇砖讘讬注讬转 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬讜爪讗 诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬转

As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21). Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary to state this about plowing and harvesting during the Sabbatical Year, as it is already stated: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land, a Shabbat for the Lord; you shall neither sow your field, nor prune your vineyard鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). Rather, the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest,鈥 is referring to plowing in the year preceding the Sabbatical Year going into the Sabbatical Year, i.e., plowing in the sixth year that will benefit the crops growing in the Sabbatical Year, and about harvesting of the Sabbatical Year going into the year that follows the Sabbatical Year, i.e., harvesting grain that grew in the Sabbatical Year in the eighth year. This teaches that there is a requirement to add extra time to the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year, and not work the land both before and after.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪讛 讞专讬砖 专砖讜转 讗祝 拽爪讬专 专砖讜转 讬爪讗 拽爪讬专 讛注讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪爪讜讛

The baraita continues: Rabbi Yishmael says that the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest,鈥 is not referring to the prohibition against farming the land before and after the Sabbatical Year as Rabbi Akiva explains. He explains that the reason that the verse mentions these two particular forms of labor is to teach that just as the type of plowing that is prohibited during the Sabbatical Year is an otherwise voluntary act, as plowing is never required by the Torah, so too, the harvesting that is prohibited during that year is only voluntary harvesting. This comes to exclude the harvesting of the omer from the prohibition, as it is a mitzva. The barley for the omer must be harvested on the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, it is permitted to harvest the omer even during the Sabbatical Year.

讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 诪谞讗 诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讚转谞讬讗 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 讬讻讜诇 讘转砖注讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗讬 讘注专讘 讬讻讜诇 诪砖转讞砖讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘转砖注讛 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 诪转讞讬诇 讜诪转注谞讛 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诪诇诪讚 砖诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Yishmael derive this principle that one extends a sacred time period by adding from the profane to the sacred both before and after? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states, in reference to Yom Kippur: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening鈥 (Leviticus 23:32). One might have thought that one must begin to fast the entire day on the ninth of the month. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚n the evening.鈥 But if it is so that Yom Kippur begins in the evening, one might have thought that one need only begin to fast from when it is dark, after nightfall, when the tenth day of the month begins. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淥n the ninth.鈥 How so; how is this to be accomplished? One begins to fast on the ninth of the month while it is still day. This teaches that one extends a sacred time period by adding at the beginning from the profane to the sacred.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讻谞讬住转讜 讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪注专讘 注讚 注专讘

From here I have derived only that this addition is made at the beginning of Yom Kippur. But from where do I derive that a similar addition is made at the end of Yom Kippur? The verse states: 鈥淔rom evening to evening shall you rest on your Shabbat鈥 (Leviticus 23:32), which teaches that just as Yom Kippur is extended at the beginning, so too, it is extended at the end.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘转讜转 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 转砖讘转讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讘转讻诐 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 砖讘讜转 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖

From here I have derived only that an extension is added to Yom Kippur. From where is it derived that one must also extend Shabbat? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall rest [tishbetu],鈥 which is referring to Yom Kippur but alludes to Shabbat. From where do I know that the same applies to Festivals? The verse states: 鈥淵our Shabbat [shabbatkhem],鈥 your day of rest. How so? Wherever there is a mitzva of resting, be it Shabbat or a Festival, one adds from the profane to the sacred, extending the sacred time at both ends.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讗讬 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 讜讻讬 讘转砖注讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讛诇讗 讘注砖讬专讬 诪转注谞讬谉 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 讘转砖讬注讬 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Akiva, who learns that one adds from the profane to the sacred from the verse dealing with the Sabbatical Year, what does he do with this verse: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening鈥? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which was taught by 岣yya bar Rav of Difti, as 岣yya bar Rav of Difti taught the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month.鈥 Is the fasting on the ninth? But isn鈥檛 the fasting on Yom Kippur on the tenth of Tishrei? Rather, this verse comes to teach you: Whoever eats and drinks on the ninth, thereby preparing himself for the fast on the next day, the verse ascribes him credit

讻讗讬诇讜 讛转注谞讛 转砖讬注讬 讜注砖讬专讬

as though he fasted on both the ninth and the tenth.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诪讟讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 转拽注讜 讬讻讜诇 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The Gemara continues with the topic of the Jubilee Year. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a Jubilee for you鈥 (Leviticus 25:10). The words 鈥渋t shall be a Jubilee鈥 come to teach that although they did not release property to its original owners, and although they did not sound the shofar, it is nevertheless a Jubilee Year, and the halakhot of the Jubilee year apply. One might have thought that although they did not send free the slaves it is also still a Jubilee Year. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be,鈥 this being a term of limitation. This teaches that at least one of the essential halakhot of the year must be observed, and if not, it is not a Jubilee Year. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诪讟讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 讬讻讜诇 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 转拽注讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗

Rabbi Yosei says: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee for you鈥; although they did not release property to its original owners, and although they did not send free the slaves, it is nevertheless a Jubilee Year. One might have thought that although they did not sound the shofar, it is also still a Jubilee Year. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be.鈥 Some act must be performed. In this case, the shofar must be sounded, otherwise it is not a Jubilee Year.

讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 砖诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 诪专讘讛 讜诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 诪诪注讬讟 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 讜讗讬谉 讬讜讘诇 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 转拽注讜 诇驻讬 砖讗驻砖专 诇注讜诇诐 讘诇讗 砖讬诇讜讞 注讘讚讬诐 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注讜诇诐 讘诇讗 转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专

Rabbi Yosei explains his position: Since one verse includes situations where the Jubilee is in force, and another verse excludes such situations, for what reason do I say that it is a Jubilee Year although they did not send free the slaves, but it is a Jubilee Year only if they sounded the shofar? This is since it is possible that there would be no sending free of slaves, as perhaps no one has any slaves to release, but it is impossible that there would be no sounding of the shofar, as a shofar can always be found. Therefore, it must be that it is the sounding of the shofar that is the indispensable criterion for the Jubilee Year.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讝讜 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

Alternatively: This, sounding the shofar, is given over to the court, which is obligated to blow it. But that, setting the slaves free, is not given over to the court but to each individual slave owner. It stands to reason that the indispensable criterion is one that is in the hands of the court and not in the hands of individuals.

诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗讬 讗驻砖专 讚诇讬讻讗 讞讚 讘住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讚诇讗 诪砖诇讞 讝讜 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is the need for Rabbi Yosei to add: Alternatively? Why is his first explanation insufficient? The Gemara answers: It is necessary, as, if you say that it is impossible that there should not be at least one slave owner at the end of the world, and therefore it is inconceivable that there will ever be a time when there are no slaves that are set free, you can nevertheless say that this, sounding the shofar, is given over to the court, but that, setting the slaves free, is not given over to the court.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讚拽讗诪专 讟注诪讬讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜拽专讗转诐 讚专讜专 讘讗专抓 讜拽住讘专 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜

The Gemara asks: Granted, this is clear according to Rabbi Yosei, as he has stated his reasoning. But according to Rabbi Yehuda, what is the reason that the indispensable criterion for the Jubilee Year is sending free the slaves? The Gemara explains: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall proclaim liberty [deror] throughout all the land to all its inhabitants,鈥 and immediately afterward it says: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee for you.鈥 And Rabbi Yehuda holds that a verse may be expounded in reference to the immediately preceding clause, but not in reference to the clause before that. Therefore, the exclusion implied by the words 鈥渋t shall be,鈥 is referring to what is stated in the immediately preceding clause: 鈥淎nd you shall proclaim liberty throughout all the land,鈥 i.e., the emancipation of slaves. It is not referring to what is stated in the clause before that: 鈥淥n Yom Kippur shall you sound the shofar throughout all your land.鈥

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讚专讜专 诇砖讜谉 讞讬专讜转 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讚专讜专 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讞讬专讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讛 诇砖讜谉 讚专讜专 讻诪讚讬讬专 讘讬 讚讬讬专讗 讜诪讜讘讬诇 住讞讜专讛 讘讻诇 诪讚讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: It is clear that according to everyone the term deror is a word meaning liberty. From where may this be inferred? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: The word deror is a term meaning only liberty. Rabbi Yehuda said: What is the meaning of the word deror? It is like a man who dwells [medayyer] in any dwelling [dayyara] and moves merchandise around the entire country, i.e., he can live and do business wherever he wants.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖转谉 诪注讻讘讜转 讘讜 拽住讘专讬 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei, but the Rabbis say: All three of them are indispensable for the Jubilee Year: Releasing property, sounding the shofar, and liberating the slaves. They hold that a verse may be interpreted in reference to the immediately preceding clause, in reference to the clause before that, and it may also be interpreted in reference to the clause following it, as all of these halakhot are mentioned in this section, and the exclusion implied by the words 鈥渋t shall be鈥 applies to all of them.

讜讛讻转讬讘 讬讜讘诇 讛讛讜讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜讛讻转讬讘 讘讗专抓 讛讛讜讗 讘讝诪谉 砖谞讜讛讙 讚专讜专 讘讗专抓 谞讜讛讙 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讘讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written 鈥淛ubilee Year,鈥 which is a term of inclusion that should counter the exclusionary function of the words: 鈥淚t shall be鈥? The Gemara answers: That term 鈥淛ubilee Year鈥 comes to teach that the mitzva of the Jubilee applies even outside of Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara challenges: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hroughout the land,鈥 implying that it applies only in Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: That term, 鈥渢hroughout the land,鈥 comes to teach that when liberation applies in Eretz Yisrael, it applies outside of Eretz Yisrael as well, and when liberation does not apply in Eretz Yisrael, it does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael either.

讜诇谞讟讬注讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 砖诇砖 砖谞讬诐 注专诇讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛专讘讬注讬转 讜讬诇讬祝 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛

搂 The mishna teaches: And the first of Tishrei is the New Year for planting. It determines the years of orla, the three-year period from when a tree has been planted during which time its fruit is forbidden. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: 鈥淭hree years shall it be prohibited [arelim] to you; it shall not be eaten鈥 (Leviticus 19:23), and it is written in the following verse: 鈥淎nd in the fourth year all its fruit will be sacred for giving praise to the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:24). And it is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that for this purpose the year begins from Tishrei, as it is written with regard to Tishrei: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12).

讜诇讬讙诪专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: But let us derive by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that for this purpose the year begins from Nisan, as it is written with regard to Nisan: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2). The Gemara answers: The Sages derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse about the orla, where months are not mentioned with it, from the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse in Deuteronomy above, where months are also not mentioned with it. And they do not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 where months are not mentioned with it from the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse where months are mentioned with it, i.e., 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year for you.鈥

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讞讚 讛谞讜讟注 讗讞讚 讛诪讘专讬讱 讜讗讞讚 讛诪专讻讬讘 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛 讜诪讜转专 诇拽讬讬诪谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛 讜讗住讜专 诇拽讬讬诪谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one plants a tree, or layers a vine shoot into the ground so that it may take root, or grafts a branch onto a tree on the eve of the Sabbatical Year thirty days before Rosh HaShana, as soon as Rosh HaShana arrives, a year is counted for him. The thirty days count as a full year with regard to the prohibition of orla, and it is permitted to preserve the plant during the Sabbatical Year, as this is not considered new growth. However, if one performed these actions less than thirty days before Rosh HaShana, then when Rosh HaShana arrives, a year is not counted for him for orla, and it is prohibited to preserve the new growth during the Sabbatical Year.

Masechet Rosh Hashana 聽is dedicated anonymously in honor of聽Rabbanit Michelle Farber whose dedication to learning and teaching the daf continues to inspire so many people around the world.

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Rosh Hashanah 9

讜专讘谞谉 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 讜讗讬 讗转讛 诪讜谞讛 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 讜讗讞转 诇讗驻讜拽讬 诪讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚讗诪专 砖谞转 讞诪砖讬诐 注讜诇讛 诇讻讗谉 讜诇讻讗谉 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 讚诇讗

And the Rabbis, who do not require an additional verse to derive that the Jubilee Year does not extend until Yom Kippur of the fifty-first year, derive a this halakha from the verse: You count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year alone, but you do not count the fiftieth year as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. This halakha comes to exclude the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who said that the fiftieth year is counted for here and for there, both as the Jubilee Year and also as the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle. Lest someone think that that is the case, therefore, the verse teaches us that this is not so; rather, the fiftieth year is the Jubilee Year, and the following year is the first year of the next Sabbatical cycle.

讜讚诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 诪谞诇谉

搂 Apropos of the discussion of extending the Jubilee year, the Gemara asks: From where do we derive the principle that one extends a sanctified time period by adding from the profane to the sacred at both ends?

讚转谞讬讗 讘讞专讬砖 讜讘拽爪讬专 转砖讘讜转 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讜诪专 讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讞专讬砖 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 砖讛专讬 讻讘专 谞讗诪专 砖讚讱 诇讗 转讝专注 讜讙讜壮 讗诇讗 讞专讬砖 砖诇 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 讛谞讻谞住 诇砖讘讬注讬转 讜拽爪讬专 砖诇 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬讜爪讗 诇诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘讬注讬转

As it is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest鈥 (Exodus 34:21). Rabbi Akiva says: It is unnecessary to state this about plowing and harvesting during the Sabbatical Year, as it is already stated: 鈥淏ut in the seventh year shall be a Shabbat of solemn rest for the land, a Shabbat for the Lord; you shall neither sow your field, nor prune your vineyard鈥 (Leviticus 25:4). Rather, the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest,鈥 is referring to plowing in the year preceding the Sabbatical Year going into the Sabbatical Year, i.e., plowing in the sixth year that will benefit the crops growing in the Sabbatical Year, and about harvesting of the Sabbatical Year going into the year that follows the Sabbatical Year, i.e., harvesting grain that grew in the Sabbatical Year in the eighth year. This teaches that there is a requirement to add extra time to the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year, and not work the land both before and after.

专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讗讜诪专 诪讛 讞专讬砖 专砖讜转 讗祝 拽爪讬专 专砖讜转 讬爪讗 拽爪讬专 讛注讜诪专 砖讛讜讗 诪爪讜讛

The baraita continues: Rabbi Yishmael says that the verse: 鈥淚n plowing and in harvest you shall rest,鈥 is not referring to the prohibition against farming the land before and after the Sabbatical Year as Rabbi Akiva explains. He explains that the reason that the verse mentions these two particular forms of labor is to teach that just as the type of plowing that is prohibited during the Sabbatical Year is an otherwise voluntary act, as plowing is never required by the Torah, so too, the harvesting that is prohibited during that year is only voluntary harvesting. This comes to exclude the harvesting of the omer from the prohibition, as it is a mitzva. The barley for the omer must be harvested on the sixteenth of Nisan. Consequently, it is permitted to harvest the omer even during the Sabbatical Year.

讜专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖 诪谞讗 诇讬讛 谞驻拽讗 诇讬讛 诪讚转谞讬讗 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 讬讻讜诇 讘转砖注讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘注专讘 讗讬 讘注专讘 讬讻讜诇 诪砖转讞砖讱 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讘转砖注讛 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 诪转讞讬诇 讜诪转注谞讛 诪讘注讜讚 讬讜诐 诪诇诪讚 砖诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖

The Gemara asks: If so, from where does Rabbi Yishmael derive this principle that one extends a sacred time period by adding from the profane to the sacred both before and after? The Gemara answers: He derives it from that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states, in reference to Yom Kippur: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening鈥 (Leviticus 23:32). One might have thought that one must begin to fast the entire day on the ninth of the month. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚n the evening.鈥 But if it is so that Yom Kippur begins in the evening, one might have thought that one need only begin to fast from when it is dark, after nightfall, when the tenth day of the month begins. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淥n the ninth.鈥 How so; how is this to be accomplished? One begins to fast on the ninth of the month while it is still day. This teaches that one extends a sacred time period by adding at the beginning from the profane to the sacred.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讘讻谞讬住转讜 讘讬爪讬讗转讜 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 诪注专讘 注讚 注专讘

From here I have derived only that this addition is made at the beginning of Yom Kippur. But from where do I derive that a similar addition is made at the end of Yom Kippur? The verse states: 鈥淔rom evening to evening shall you rest on your Shabbat鈥 (Leviticus 23:32), which teaches that just as Yom Kippur is extended at the beginning, so too, it is extended at the end.

讗讬谉 诇讬 讗诇讗 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讘转讜转 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 转砖讘转讜 讬诪讬诐 讟讜讘讬诐 诪谞讬谉 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 砖讘转讻诐 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 讻诇 诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讘讜 砖讘讜转 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 诪讞讜诇 注诇 拽讚砖

From here I have derived only that an extension is added to Yom Kippur. From where is it derived that one must also extend Shabbat? The verse states: 鈥淵ou shall rest [tishbetu],鈥 which is referring to Yom Kippur but alludes to Shabbat. From where do I know that the same applies to Festivals? The verse states: 鈥淵our Shabbat [shabbatkhem],鈥 your day of rest. How so? Wherever there is a mitzva of resting, be it Shabbat or a Festival, one adds from the profane to the sacred, extending the sacred time at both ends.

讜专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讛讗讬 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讚转谞讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 专讘 诪讚驻转讬 讜注谞讬转诐 讗转 谞驻砖讜转讬讻诐 讘转砖注讛 讜讻讬 讘转砖注讛 诪转注谞讬谉 讜讛诇讗 讘注砖讬专讬 诪转注谞讬谉 讗诇讗 诇讜诪专 诇讱 讻诇 讛讗讜讻诇 讜砖讜转讛 讘转砖讬注讬 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘

The Gemara asks: And Rabbi Akiva, who learns that one adds from the profane to the sacred from the verse dealing with the Sabbatical Year, what does he do with this verse: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month in the evening鈥? The Gemara answers: He requires it for that which was taught by 岣yya bar Rav of Difti, as 岣yya bar Rav of Difti taught the following baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall afflict your souls on the ninth of the month.鈥 Is the fasting on the ninth? But isn鈥檛 the fasting on Yom Kippur on the tenth of Tishrei? Rather, this verse comes to teach you: Whoever eats and drinks on the ninth, thereby preparing himself for the fast on the next day, the verse ascribes him credit

讻讗讬诇讜 讛转注谞讛 转砖讬注讬 讜注砖讬专讬

as though he fasted on both the ninth and the tenth.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诪讟讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 转拽注讜 讬讻讜诇 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛

搂 The Gemara continues with the topic of the Jubilee Year. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants; it shall be a Jubilee for you鈥 (Leviticus 25:10). The words 鈥渋t shall be a Jubilee鈥 come to teach that although they did not release property to its original owners, and although they did not sound the shofar, it is nevertheless a Jubilee Year, and the halakhot of the Jubilee year apply. One might have thought that although they did not send free the slaves it is also still a Jubilee Year. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be,鈥 this being a term of limitation. This teaches that at least one of the essential halakhot of the year must be observed, and if not, it is not a Jubilee Year. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda.

专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诪讟讜 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 讬讻讜诇 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 转拽注讜 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 讛讬讗

Rabbi Yosei says: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee for you鈥; although they did not release property to its original owners, and although they did not send free the slaves, it is nevertheless a Jubilee Year. One might have thought that although they did not sound the shofar, it is also still a Jubilee Year. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚t shall be.鈥 Some act must be performed. In this case, the shofar must be sounded, otherwise it is not a Jubilee Year.

讜讻讬 诪讗讞专 砖诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 诪专讘讛 讜诪拽专讗 讗讞讚 诪诪注讬讟 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 讬讜讘诇 讛讬讗 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 砖诇讞讜 讜讗讬谉 讬讜讘诇 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 转拽注讜 诇驻讬 砖讗驻砖专 诇注讜诇诐 讘诇讗 砖讬诇讜讞 注讘讚讬诐 讜讗讬 讗驻砖专 诇注讜诇诐 讘诇讗 转拽讬注转 砖讜驻专

Rabbi Yosei explains his position: Since one verse includes situations where the Jubilee is in force, and another verse excludes such situations, for what reason do I say that it is a Jubilee Year although they did not send free the slaves, but it is a Jubilee Year only if they sounded the shofar? This is since it is possible that there would be no sending free of slaves, as perhaps no one has any slaves to release, but it is impossible that there would be no sounding of the shofar, as a shofar can always be found. Therefore, it must be that it is the sounding of the shofar that is the indispensable criterion for the Jubilee Year.

讚讘专 讗讞专 讝讜 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

Alternatively: This, sounding the shofar, is given over to the court, which is obligated to blow it. But that, setting the slaves free, is not given over to the court but to each individual slave owner. It stands to reason that the indispensable criterion is one that is in the hands of the court and not in the hands of individuals.

诪讗讬 讚讘专 讗讞专 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讗讬 讗驻砖专 讚诇讬讻讗 讞讚 讘住讜祝 讛注讜诇诐 讚诇讗 诪砖诇讞 讝讜 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讜讝讜 讗讬谞讛 诪住讜专讛 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉

The Gemara asks: What is the need for Rabbi Yosei to add: Alternatively? Why is his first explanation insufficient? The Gemara answers: It is necessary, as, if you say that it is impossible that there should not be at least one slave owner at the end of the world, and therefore it is inconceivable that there will ever be a time when there are no slaves that are set free, you can nevertheless say that this, sounding the shofar, is given over to the court, but that, setting the slaves free, is not given over to the court.

讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讻讚拽讗诪专 讟注诪讬讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讗诪专 拽专讗 讜拽专讗转诐 讚专讜专 讘讗专抓 讜拽住讘专 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜

The Gemara asks: Granted, this is clear according to Rabbi Yosei, as he has stated his reasoning. But according to Rabbi Yehuda, what is the reason that the indispensable criterion for the Jubilee Year is sending free the slaves? The Gemara explains: The verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall proclaim liberty [deror] throughout all the land to all its inhabitants,鈥 and immediately afterward it says: 鈥淚t shall be a Jubilee for you.鈥 And Rabbi Yehuda holds that a verse may be expounded in reference to the immediately preceding clause, but not in reference to the clause before that. Therefore, the exclusion implied by the words 鈥渋t shall be,鈥 is referring to what is stated in the immediately preceding clause: 鈥淎nd you shall proclaim liberty throughout all the land,鈥 i.e., the emancipation of slaves. It is not referring to what is stated in the clause before that: 鈥淥n Yom Kippur shall you sound the shofar throughout all your land.鈥

讚讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讚专讜专 诇砖讜谉 讞讬专讜转 诪讗讬 诪砖诪注 讚转谞讬讗 讗讬谉 讚专讜专 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讞讬专讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讛 诇砖讜谉 讚专讜专 讻诪讚讬讬专 讘讬 讚讬讬专讗 讜诪讜讘讬诇 住讞讜专讛 讘讻诇 诪讚讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: It is clear that according to everyone the term deror is a word meaning liberty. From where may this be inferred? The Gemara answers: As it is taught in a baraita: The word deror is a term meaning only liberty. Rabbi Yehuda said: What is the meaning of the word deror? It is like a man who dwells [medayyer] in any dwelling [dayyara] and moves merchandise around the entire country, i.e., he can live and do business wherever he wants.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讝讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讗讘诇 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖诇砖转谉 诪注讻讘讜转 讘讜 拽住讘专讬 诪拽专讗 谞讚专砖 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇驻谞讬 驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗讞专讬讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yo岣nan: This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei, but the Rabbis say: All three of them are indispensable for the Jubilee Year: Releasing property, sounding the shofar, and liberating the slaves. They hold that a verse may be interpreted in reference to the immediately preceding clause, in reference to the clause before that, and it may also be interpreted in reference to the clause following it, as all of these halakhot are mentioned in this section, and the exclusion implied by the words 鈥渋t shall be鈥 applies to all of them.

讜讛讻转讬讘 讬讜讘诇 讛讛讜讗 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜讛讻转讬讘 讘讗专抓 讛讛讜讗 讘讝诪谉 砖谞讜讛讙 讚专讜专 讘讗专抓 谞讜讛讙 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讘讝诪谉 砖讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讘讗专抓 讗讬谞讜 谞讜讛讙 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

The Gemara asks: But isn鈥檛 it written 鈥淛ubilee Year,鈥 which is a term of inclusion that should counter the exclusionary function of the words: 鈥淚t shall be鈥? The Gemara answers: That term 鈥淛ubilee Year鈥 comes to teach that the mitzva of the Jubilee applies even outside of Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara challenges: But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hroughout the land,鈥 implying that it applies only in Eretz Yisrael? The Gemara answers: That term, 鈥渢hroughout the land,鈥 comes to teach that when liberation applies in Eretz Yisrael, it applies outside of Eretz Yisrael as well, and when liberation does not apply in Eretz Yisrael, it does not apply outside of Eretz Yisrael either.

讜诇谞讟讬注讛 诪谞诇谉 讚讻转讬讘 砖诇砖 砖谞讬诐 注专诇讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讜讘砖谞讛 讛专讘讬注讬转 讜讬诇讬祝 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪转砖专讬 讚讻转讬讘 诪专讗砖讬转 讛砖谞讛

搂 The mishna teaches: And the first of Tishrei is the New Year for planting. It determines the years of orla, the three-year period from when a tree has been planted during which time its fruit is forbidden. The Gemara asks: From where do we derive this? As it is written: 鈥淭hree years shall it be prohibited [arelim] to you; it shall not be eaten鈥 (Leviticus 19:23), and it is written in the following verse: 鈥淎nd in the fourth year all its fruit will be sacred for giving praise to the Lord鈥 (Leviticus 19:24). And it is derived by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that for this purpose the year begins from Tishrei, as it is written with regard to Tishrei: 鈥淔rom the beginning of the year鈥 (Deuteronomy 11:12).

讜诇讬讙诪专 砖谞讛 砖谞讛 诪谞讬住谉 讚讻转讬讘 专讗砖讜谉 讛讜讗 诇讻诐 诇讞讚砖讬 讛砖谞讛 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 砖谞讛 砖讗讬谉 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐 诪砖谞讛 砖讬砖 注诪讛 讞讚砖讬诐

The Gemara asks: But let us derive by way of a verbal analogy between one instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 and another instance of the word 鈥測ear鈥 that for this purpose the year begins from Nisan, as it is written with regard to Nisan: 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year to you鈥 (Exodus 12:2). The Gemara answers: The Sages derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse about the orla, where months are not mentioned with it, from the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse in Deuteronomy above, where months are also not mentioned with it. And they do not derive the meaning of the word 鈥測ear鈥 where months are not mentioned with it from the word 鈥測ear鈥 as it appears in the verse where months are mentioned with it, i.e., 鈥淚t shall be the first month of the year for you.鈥

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讞讚 讛谞讜讟注 讗讞讚 讛诪讘专讬讱 讜讗讞讚 讛诪专讻讬讘 注专讘 砖讘讬注讬转 砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛 讜诪讜转专 诇拽讬讬诪谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转 驻讞讜转 诪砖诇砖讬诐 讬讜诐 诇驻谞讬 专讗砖 讛砖谞讛 诇讗 注诇转讛 诇讜 砖谞讛 讜讗住讜专 诇拽讬讬诪谉 讘砖讘讬注讬转

The Sages taught in a baraita: If one plants a tree, or layers a vine shoot into the ground so that it may take root, or grafts a branch onto a tree on the eve of the Sabbatical Year thirty days before Rosh HaShana, as soon as Rosh HaShana arrives, a year is counted for him. The thirty days count as a full year with regard to the prohibition of orla, and it is permitted to preserve the plant during the Sabbatical Year, as this is not considered new growth. However, if one performed these actions less than thirty days before Rosh HaShana, then when Rosh HaShana arrives, a year is not counted for him for orla, and it is prohibited to preserve the new growth during the Sabbatical Year.

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