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Today's Daf Yomi

October 30, 2017 | י׳ במרחשון תשע״ח

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sanhedrin 106

The gemara continues to analyze Bilam’s words about the Jewish people and then how he advises Balak to entice them with women in order to get them killed, when he realizes that cursing them is impossible.  The next charachter mentioned in the mishna is Doeg HaEdomi.  His character is discussed.  According to the gemara, he was a great Torah scholar as well.  The rabbis then need to explain what was wrong about his Torah he learned that enabled him to speak lashon hara about David and kill the inhabitants of Nov.

מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל רוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הוא הולך ובא עמהן כיון שדוממו הרוחות עמד קנה במקומו

replenishes itself, as if it is cut another grows, and its roots are numerous. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its place and uproot it. Rather, it goes and comes with the winds. And once the winds subside the reed remains in its place.

אבל בלעם הרשע ברכן בארז מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ושרשיו מועטין ואין גזעו מחליף אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית מיד עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול ממנו קולמוס לכתוב ממנו ספרי תורה נביאים וכתובים

But Balaam the wicked blessed them with a cedar. There is an aspect of curse in that blessing, as he was saying they will be just like a cedar that does not stand in a place near water, and its roots are few relative to its height, and its trunk does not replenish itself, as if it is cut it does not grow back. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its place and uproot it; but once a southern wind gusts it immediately uproots the cedar and overturns it on its face. Moreover, it is the reed that was privileged to have a quill [kulmos] taken from it to write scrolls of Torah, Prophets, and Writings. Therefore, the curse of Ahijah is better than the blessing of Balaam.

וירא את הקיני וישא משלו אמר לו בלעם ליתרו קיני לא היית עמנו באותה עצה מי הושיבך אצל איתני עולם

§ It is stated with regard to Balaam: “And he looked at the Kenite and he took up his parable and said: Though firm is your dwelling place, and though your nest be set in rock” (Numbers 24:21). Balaam said to Yitro: Kenite, were you not in Egypt with us in that counsel to drown the newborn males of Israel? Who placed you alongside the mighty of the world?

והיינו דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה אלו הן בלעם איוב ויתרו בלעם שיעץ נהרג איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו לישב בלשכת הגזית שנאמר ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים שוכתים המה הקינים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב וכתיב ובני קיני חתן משה עלו מעיר התמרים

The Gemara comments: And that is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Simai says: Three were associates in that counsel, and they are: Balaam, Job, and Yitro. Balaam, who advised to drown the newborn males, was killed. Job, who was silent and was reluctant to express his opinion, was sentenced to suffer afflictions. And Yitro, who fled after he disagreed with that counsel and Pharaoh sought to kill him, his descendants were privileged to sit as scribes in session with the Sanhedrin in the Chamber of Hewn Stone, as it is stated: “And the families of the scribes who dwelt in Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These were the Kenites who came of Hammath the father of the house of Rechab” (I Chronicles 2:55). And it is written there with regard to the identity of the Kenites: “And the children of the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees” (Judges 1:16).

וישא משלו ויאמר אוי מי יחיה משמו אל (אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אוי מי שמחיה עצמו בשם אל) אמר רבי יוחנן אוי לה לאומה שתמצא בשעה שהקדוש ברוך הוא עושה פדיון לבניו מי מטיל כסותו בין לביא ללביאה בשעה שנזקקין זה עם זה

With regard to the verse: “And he took up his parable, and said: Alas, he who lives from what God has appointed him” (Numbers 24:23), Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Woe unto one who sustains himself in an indulgent manner in the name of God, i.e., Balaam, whose livelihood was from speaking in the name of God. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Woe unto the nation that will be found hindering the Jewish people at the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, redeems His children. Who places his garment between a male lion and a female lion when they are mating? One who does so will certainly die.

וצים מיד כתים אמר רב ליבון אספיר וענו אשור וענו עבר עד אשור קטלי מיקטל מכאן ואילך משעבדי שיעבודי

With regard to the verse: “And ships come from the coast of Kittim” (Numbers 24:24), Rav says: This is the Roman legion [libbun aspir] that will attack Assyria. “And they shall afflict Assyria, and they shall afflict Eber” (Numbers 24:24). Before they reach Assyria they will kill the Jewish people; from that point forward they will enslave them and not kill them.

הנני הולך לעמי לכה איעצך אשר יעשה העם הזה לעמך עמך לעם הזה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים

§ Balaam said to Balak: “Behold, I go to my people; come therefore, and I shall advise you what this people shall do to your people” (Numbers 24:14). Ostensibly, he should have said: What your people shall do to this people. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: Balaam spoke like a person who curses himself but does not wish to utter so awful a matter and instead ascribes his curse to take effect on others.

אמר להם אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא והם מתאוים לכלי פשתן בוא ואשיאך עצה עשה להן קלעים והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים וימכרו להן כלי פשתן

Balaam said to them: The God of these Jewish people despises lewdness, and they desire linen garments, as they have no new garments; come, and I will give you advice. Make for them enclosures using wall hangings and seat prostitutes in them, with an old woman outside the enclosure and a young woman inside, and have the women sell them linen garments.

עשה להן קלעים מהר שלג עד בית הישימות והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים ובשעה שישראל אוכלין ושותין ושמחין ויוצאין לטייל בשוק אומרת לו הזקינה אי אתה מבקש כלי פשתן זקינה אומרת לו בשוה וילדה אומרת לו בפחות שתים ושלש פעמים

Balak made for them enclosures using wall hangings from the snow mountain, the Ḥermon, until Beit HaYeshimot, and he sat prostitutes in them, with an old woman outside and a young woman on the inside. And at the time when Jewish people were eating and drinking and were glad and going out to stroll in the marketplace, the old woman would say to a Jew: Aren’t you seeking linen garments? He would enter the enclosure and ask the price, the old woman would quote him a price equal to its value, and the young woman would quote him a price less than its value. That scenario would repeat itself two or three times.

ואחר כך אומרת לו הרי את כבן בית שב ברור לעצמך וצרצורי של יין עמוני מונח אצלה ועדיין לא נאסר יין של עמוני ולא יין של נכרים אמרה לו רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין כיון ששתה בער בו

And thereafter she would say to him: You are like a member of our household, sit and choose for yourself the merchandise that you want. And a jug of Ammonite wine was placed near her, and neither Ammonite wine nor gentile wine had been prohibited yet for Jews. She said to him: Is it your wish to drink a cup of wine? Once he drank the wine, his evil inclination burned within him.

אמר לה השמיעי לי הוציאה יראתה מתוך חיקה אמרה לו עבוד לזה אמר לה הלא יהודי אני אמרה לו ומה איכפת לך כלום מבקשים ממך אלא פיעור [והוא אינו יודע שעבודתה בכך] ולא עוד אלא שאיני מנחתך עד שתכפור בתורת משה רבך שנאמר ׳המה באו בעל פעור וינזרו לבשת ויהיו שקוצים באהבם׳

He then said to her: Submit to me and engage in intercourse with me. She then removed the idol that she worshipped from her lap and said to him: Worship this. He said to her: Am I not Jewish? I am therefore forbidden from engaging in idol worship. She said to him: And what is your concern? We are asking you to do nothing more than defecate in its presence. But he does not know that its worship is conducted in that manner. Once he did so, she said to him: Moreover, I will not leave you until you deny the Torah of Moses your teacher, as it is stated: “But when they came to Ba’al-Peor they separated themselves to the shameful item; and they became detestable like that which they loved” (Hosea 9:10). They devoted themselves to the disgrace of defecation, and detested the name of God.

וישב ישראל בשטים רבי אליעזר אומר שטים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שנתעסקו בדברי שטות

With regard to the verse: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim” (Numbers 25:1), Rabbi Eliezer says: Shittim is the name of the place. Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is an allusion to the fact that they were engaged in matters of nonsense [shetut], i.e., prostitution and idol worship.

ותקראן לעם לזבחי אלהיהן רבי אליעזר אומר ערומות פגעו בהן רבי יהושע אומר שנעשו כולן בעלי קריין

With regard to the verse: “And they called [vatikrena] the people to the offerings of their gods” (Numbers 25:2), Rabbi Eliezer says: Naked women encountered them. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They all became those who experienced a seminal emission [kerayin] resulting from the lust that they experienced.

מאי לשון רפידים רבי אליעזר אומר רפידים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שריפו עצמן מדברי תורה שנאמר לא הפנו אבות אל בנים מרפיון ידים

Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the names of places, the Gemara asks: What is the connotation of the term Rephidim (see Exodus 19:2)? Rabbi Eliezer says: Rephidim is the name of the place. Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is an allusion to the fact that they enfeebled [rippu] themselves with regard to engaging in matters of Torah, as it is stated: “The fathers do not look back to their children from feebleness [rifyon] of hands” (Jeremiah 47:3). There too, the connotation of the name is dereliction in the study of Torah.

אמר רבי יוחנן כל מקום שנאמר וישב אינו אלא לשון צער שנאמר וישב ישראל בשטים ויחל העם לזנות אל בנות מואב וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען ויבא יוסף את דבתם רעה אל אביהם ונאמר וישב ישראל בארץ גשן ויקרבו ימי ישראל למות וישב יהודה וישראל לבטח איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו ויקם ה׳ שטן לשלמה את הדד האדמי מזרע המלך הוא באדום

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Everywhere that it is stated: And he dwelt, it is nothing other than an expression of pain, of an impending calamity, as it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab” (Numbers 25:1). It is stated: “And Jacob dwelt in the land where his father had sojourned in the land of Canaan” (Genesis 37:1), and it is stated thereafter: “And Joseph brought evil report of them to his father” (Genesis 37:2), which led to the sale of Joseph. And it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt in the land of Goshen” (Genesis 47:27), and it is stated thereafter: “And the time drew near that Israel was to die” (Genesis 47:29). It is stated: “And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree” (I Kings 5:5), and it is stated thereafter: “And the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in Edom” (I Kings 11:14).

ואת מלכי מדין הרגו על חלליהם וגו׳ ואת בלעם בן בעור הרגו בחרב בלעם מאי בעי התם אמר רבי יוחנן שהלך ליטול שכר עשרים וארבעה אלף [שהפיל מישראל] אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניה

§ With regard to Balaam, it is stated: “And they slew the kings of Midian, with the rest of their slain…And Balaam, son of Beor, they slew with the sword” (Numbers 31:8). The Gemara asks: Balaam, what did he seek there; what was his role in that war? He lived in Aram. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He went to collect payment for twenty-four thousand members of the Jewish people, whom he felled with his advice. Mar Zutra bar Toviya says that Rav says that this is in accordance with the adage that people say: A camel goes to seek horns and the ears that it had are severed from it. Not only was Balaam unsuccessful in collecting his fee, he also lost his life.

ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם קוסם נביא הוא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה נביא ולבסוף קוסם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגרי

It is stated: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22). The Gemara asks: Was he a diviner? He is a prophet. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Initially he was a prophet, but ultimately, he lost his capacity for prophecy and remained merely a diviner. Rav Pappa says that this is in accordance with the adage that people say: This woman was descended from princes and rulers, and was licentious with carpenters.

הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק

With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22), Rav says: It means that they accomplished in him all four means of court-imposed executions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation.

אמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה אמר ליה מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב ׳אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם׳ בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע אמר ליה שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה ׳בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה׳

A certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam was when he died? Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: It is not written explicitly in the Torah. But from the fact that it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days” (Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was thirty-two or thirty-four years old, less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic said to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him.

אמר ליה מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה

Mar, son of Ravina, said to his son: With regard to all of those enumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, do not extensively interpret verses homiletically in order to denigrate them, except with regard to Balaam the wicked, as any negative element that you discover in his regard, continue to interpret homiletically concerning him, as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.

כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר רבי יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה

§ It is written in one verse: “Doeg the Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), and it is written in another verse: “And the king said to Doyeig” (I Samuel 22:18). Rabbi Yoḥanan says in explaining the discrepancy: Initially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [doeg] that perhaps this person would emerge to undertake an evil path. After he emerged on that path, God said: Alas [vai], that person has emerged to undertake an evil path.

(סימן גבור רשע וצדיק חיל וסופר)

The Gemara cites a mnemonic for the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: Mighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter.

אמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually” (Psalms 52:3)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continually when you engage in His Torah?

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חקי אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר רבי אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes, and that you have taken My covenant in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutes and My Torah? When you reach the Torah portion of murderers and the Torah portion of slanderers, how do you teach them? You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: “And that you have taken My covenant in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16), Rabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is only insincere lip service, as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him” (Psalms 52:8)? Initially, they will fear Doeg due to his success, and ultimately they will laugh when they witness his downfall.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב חיל בלע ויקאנו מבטנו ירשנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly” (Job 20:15)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die. God said to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.” He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David said before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.” God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever” (Psalms 52:7)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come. David said before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,” i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. What is the meaning of that which is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah” (Psalms 52:7)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: At least let them state a halakha in the study hall in his name. David said before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,” i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: Let him have sons who are Sages. David said: “And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,” i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב איה ספר איה שקל איה ספר את המגדלים איה ספר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה ספר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [migdalim]” (Isaiah 33:18)? Where is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all the elements of a fortiori inferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers? This is Doeg, who would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard to the purity of a cupboard [migdal] that floats in the air [avir].

אמר רבי ארבע מאה בעייא בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard to the purity of a cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolve even one, an indication of their great knowledge. Rava says: Is it greatness to raise dilemmas? That is not a barometer of greatness, as in the years of Rav Yehuda all of their Torah study was confined to the order of Nezikin, and we study much more than that, and are expert even in tractate Okatzin, the final tractate in the difficult order of Teharot.

וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא

Moreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounter the mishna in tractate Okatzin that discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the halakha concerning a woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some say when he would reach the mishna (Okatzin 2:1): Olives pickled with their leaves are pure, because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. He would say: Those are the discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we, by contrast, teach tractate Okatzin in thirteen academies.

ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא ליבא בעי דכתיב וה׳ יראה ללבב

But nevertheless, when Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain would immediately fall, whereas we cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart, and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, as it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart” (I Samuel 16:7).

אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה ספר איה שקל איה ספר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב סוד ה׳ ליראיו

Rav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to this statement: These are people with regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers” (Isaiah 33:18), and you say that they did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather, Doeg and Ahithophel would not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhic rulings, as it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him” (Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect.

אמר רבי אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנאמר הוא ימות באין מוסר וברב אולתו ישגה רב אשי אמר נצטרע שנאמר הצמתה כל זונה ממך

Rabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray” (Proverbs 5:23). Rav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosy before his death, as it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [hitzmatta] all those who go astray from You” (Psalms 73:27).

כתיב התם לצמתת ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה

Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? It is written there: “And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity [litzmitut]” (Leviticus 25:23), and we translate it into Aramaic as: Laḥalutin. And we learned in a mishna with regard to lepers (Megilla 8b): The difference between a quarantined leper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; and a confirmed [muḥlat] leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, is only with regard to letting the hair on one’s head grow and rending one’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between hitzmatta and litzmitut; the translation of litzmitut as laḥalutin, and the etymological similarity between laḥalutin and muḥlat.

(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו)

The Gemara cites a mnemonic for the halakhot that follow: Three, saw, and half, and called him.

אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torah knowledge, one who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes of his soul in synagogues and in study halls to be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous.

אמר רבי יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another, as both died at a young age. Doeg lived in the days of Saul, and Ahithophel lived in the days of David, toward the end of David’s life.

ואמר רבי יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי ׳אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם׳ כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of their allotted days, as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). This is also taught in a baraita: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days” (Psalms 55:24); all the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, and the years of Ahithophel were only thirty-three.

ואמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחלה קראו רבו ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומידעי ולבסוף קראו חברו אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, as it is stated: “But it was you, a man my equal, my master [alufi], and my familiar friend” (Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as aluf as he trains [me’alef ] his students. And eventually, he called him his colleague, as it is stated: “We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng” (Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. And ultimately, he called him his student, as it is stated: “Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted,

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Sanhedrin 106

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Sanhedrin 106

מחליף ושרשיו מרובין ואפילו כל רוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו אלא הוא הולך ובא עמהן כיון שדוממו הרוחות עמד קנה במקומו

replenishes itself, as if it is cut another grows, and its roots are numerous. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its place and uproot it. Rather, it goes and comes with the winds. And once the winds subside the reed remains in its place.

אבל בלעם הרשע ברכן בארז מה ארז זה אינו עומד במקום מים ושרשיו מועטין ואין גזעו מחליף אפילו כל הרוחות שבעולם באות ונושבות בו אין מזיזות אותו ממקומו כיון שנשבה בו רוח דרומית מיד עוקרתו והופכתו על פניו ולא עוד אלא שזכה קנה ליטול ממנו קולמוס לכתוב ממנו ספרי תורה נביאים וכתובים

But Balaam the wicked blessed them with a cedar. There is an aspect of curse in that blessing, as he was saying they will be just like a cedar that does not stand in a place near water, and its roots are few relative to its height, and its trunk does not replenish itself, as if it is cut it does not grow back. And even if all the winds that are in the world come and gust against it, they do not move it from its place and uproot it; but once a southern wind gusts it immediately uproots the cedar and overturns it on its face. Moreover, it is the reed that was privileged to have a quill [kulmos] taken from it to write scrolls of Torah, Prophets, and Writings. Therefore, the curse of Ahijah is better than the blessing of Balaam.

וירא את הקיני וישא משלו אמר לו בלעם ליתרו קיני לא היית עמנו באותה עצה מי הושיבך אצל איתני עולם

§ It is stated with regard to Balaam: “And he looked at the Kenite and he took up his parable and said: Though firm is your dwelling place, and though your nest be set in rock” (Numbers 24:21). Balaam said to Yitro: Kenite, were you not in Egypt with us in that counsel to drown the newborn males of Israel? Who placed you alongside the mighty of the world?

והיינו דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה אלו הן בלעם איוב ויתרו בלעם שיעץ נהרג איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו לישב בלשכת הגזית שנאמר ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים שוכתים המה הקינים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב וכתיב ובני קיני חתן משה עלו מעיר התמרים

The Gemara comments: And that is what Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Simai says: Three were associates in that counsel, and they are: Balaam, Job, and Yitro. Balaam, who advised to drown the newborn males, was killed. Job, who was silent and was reluctant to express his opinion, was sentenced to suffer afflictions. And Yitro, who fled after he disagreed with that counsel and Pharaoh sought to kill him, his descendants were privileged to sit as scribes in session with the Sanhedrin in the Chamber of Hewn Stone, as it is stated: “And the families of the scribes who dwelt in Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, the Sucathites. These were the Kenites who came of Hammath the father of the house of Rechab” (I Chronicles 2:55). And it is written there with regard to the identity of the Kenites: “And the children of the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law, went up from the city of the palm trees” (Judges 1:16).

וישא משלו ויאמר אוי מי יחיה משמו אל (אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש אוי מי שמחיה עצמו בשם אל) אמר רבי יוחנן אוי לה לאומה שתמצא בשעה שהקדוש ברוך הוא עושה פדיון לבניו מי מטיל כסותו בין לביא ללביאה בשעה שנזקקין זה עם זה

With regard to the verse: “And he took up his parable, and said: Alas, he who lives from what God has appointed him” (Numbers 24:23), Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: Woe unto one who sustains himself in an indulgent manner in the name of God, i.e., Balaam, whose livelihood was from speaking in the name of God. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Woe unto the nation that will be found hindering the Jewish people at the time when the Holy One, Blessed be He, redeems His children. Who places his garment between a male lion and a female lion when they are mating? One who does so will certainly die.

וצים מיד כתים אמר רב ליבון אספיר וענו אשור וענו עבר עד אשור קטלי מיקטל מכאן ואילך משעבדי שיעבודי

With regard to the verse: “And ships come from the coast of Kittim” (Numbers 24:24), Rav says: This is the Roman legion [libbun aspir] that will attack Assyria. “And they shall afflict Assyria, and they shall afflict Eber” (Numbers 24:24). Before they reach Assyria they will kill the Jewish people; from that point forward they will enslave them and not kill them.

הנני הולך לעמי לכה איעצך אשר יעשה העם הזה לעמך עמך לעם הזה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו באחרים

§ Balaam said to Balak: “Behold, I go to my people; come therefore, and I shall advise you what this people shall do to your people” (Numbers 24:14). Ostensibly, he should have said: What your people shall do to this people. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: Balaam spoke like a person who curses himself but does not wish to utter so awful a matter and instead ascribes his curse to take effect on others.

אמר להם אלהיהם של אלו שונא זימה הוא והם מתאוים לכלי פשתן בוא ואשיאך עצה עשה להן קלעים והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים וימכרו להן כלי פשתן

Balaam said to them: The God of these Jewish people despises lewdness, and they desire linen garments, as they have no new garments; come, and I will give you advice. Make for them enclosures using wall hangings and seat prostitutes in them, with an old woman outside the enclosure and a young woman inside, and have the women sell them linen garments.

עשה להן קלעים מהר שלג עד בית הישימות והושיב בהן זונות זקינה מבחוץ וילדה מבפנים ובשעה שישראל אוכלין ושותין ושמחין ויוצאין לטייל בשוק אומרת לו הזקינה אי אתה מבקש כלי פשתן זקינה אומרת לו בשוה וילדה אומרת לו בפחות שתים ושלש פעמים

Balak made for them enclosures using wall hangings from the snow mountain, the Ḥermon, until Beit HaYeshimot, and he sat prostitutes in them, with an old woman outside and a young woman on the inside. And at the time when Jewish people were eating and drinking and were glad and going out to stroll in the marketplace, the old woman would say to a Jew: Aren’t you seeking linen garments? He would enter the enclosure and ask the price, the old woman would quote him a price equal to its value, and the young woman would quote him a price less than its value. That scenario would repeat itself two or three times.

ואחר כך אומרת לו הרי את כבן בית שב ברור לעצמך וצרצורי של יין עמוני מונח אצלה ועדיין לא נאסר יין של עמוני ולא יין של נכרים אמרה לו רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין כיון ששתה בער בו

And thereafter she would say to him: You are like a member of our household, sit and choose for yourself the merchandise that you want. And a jug of Ammonite wine was placed near her, and neither Ammonite wine nor gentile wine had been prohibited yet for Jews. She said to him: Is it your wish to drink a cup of wine? Once he drank the wine, his evil inclination burned within him.

אמר לה השמיעי לי הוציאה יראתה מתוך חיקה אמרה לו עבוד לזה אמר לה הלא יהודי אני אמרה לו ומה איכפת לך כלום מבקשים ממך אלא פיעור [והוא אינו יודע שעבודתה בכך] ולא עוד אלא שאיני מנחתך עד שתכפור בתורת משה רבך שנאמר ׳המה באו בעל פעור וינזרו לבשת ויהיו שקוצים באהבם׳

He then said to her: Submit to me and engage in intercourse with me. She then removed the idol that she worshipped from her lap and said to him: Worship this. He said to her: Am I not Jewish? I am therefore forbidden from engaging in idol worship. She said to him: And what is your concern? We are asking you to do nothing more than defecate in its presence. But he does not know that its worship is conducted in that manner. Once he did so, she said to him: Moreover, I will not leave you until you deny the Torah of Moses your teacher, as it is stated: “But when they came to Ba’al-Peor they separated themselves to the shameful item; and they became detestable like that which they loved” (Hosea 9:10). They devoted themselves to the disgrace of defecation, and detested the name of God.

וישב ישראל בשטים רבי אליעזר אומר שטים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שנתעסקו בדברי שטות

With regard to the verse: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim” (Numbers 25:1), Rabbi Eliezer says: Shittim is the name of the place. Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is an allusion to the fact that they were engaged in matters of nonsense [shetut], i.e., prostitution and idol worship.

ותקראן לעם לזבחי אלהיהן רבי אליעזר אומר ערומות פגעו בהן רבי יהושע אומר שנעשו כולן בעלי קריין

With regard to the verse: “And they called [vatikrena] the people to the offerings of their gods” (Numbers 25:2), Rabbi Eliezer says: Naked women encountered them. Rabbi Yehoshua says: They all became those who experienced a seminal emission [kerayin] resulting from the lust that they experienced.

מאי לשון רפידים רבי אליעזר אומר רפידים שמה רבי יהושע אומר שריפו עצמן מדברי תורה שנאמר לא הפנו אבות אל בנים מרפיון ידים

Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the names of places, the Gemara asks: What is the connotation of the term Rephidim (see Exodus 19:2)? Rabbi Eliezer says: Rephidim is the name of the place. Rabbi Yehoshua says: It is an allusion to the fact that they enfeebled [rippu] themselves with regard to engaging in matters of Torah, as it is stated: “The fathers do not look back to their children from feebleness [rifyon] of hands” (Jeremiah 47:3). There too, the connotation of the name is dereliction in the study of Torah.

אמר רבי יוחנן כל מקום שנאמר וישב אינו אלא לשון צער שנאמר וישב ישראל בשטים ויחל העם לזנות אל בנות מואב וישב יעקב בארץ מגורי אביו בארץ כנען ויבא יוסף את דבתם רעה אל אביהם ונאמר וישב ישראל בארץ גשן ויקרבו ימי ישראל למות וישב יהודה וישראל לבטח איש תחת גפנו ותחת תאנתו ויקם ה׳ שטן לשלמה את הדד האדמי מזרע המלך הוא באדום

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Everywhere that it is stated: And he dwelt, it is nothing other than an expression of pain, of an impending calamity, as it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab” (Numbers 25:1). It is stated: “And Jacob dwelt in the land where his father had sojourned in the land of Canaan” (Genesis 37:1), and it is stated thereafter: “And Joseph brought evil report of them to his father” (Genesis 37:2), which led to the sale of Joseph. And it is stated: “And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt in the land of Goshen” (Genesis 47:27), and it is stated thereafter: “And the time drew near that Israel was to die” (Genesis 47:29). It is stated: “And Judah and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his fig tree” (I Kings 5:5), and it is stated thereafter: “And the Lord raised up an adversary to Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in Edom” (I Kings 11:14).

ואת מלכי מדין הרגו על חלליהם וגו׳ ואת בלעם בן בעור הרגו בחרב בלעם מאי בעי התם אמר רבי יוחנן שהלך ליטול שכר עשרים וארבעה אלף [שהפיל מישראל] אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב היינו דאמרי אינשי גמלא אזלא למיבעי קרני אודני דהוו ליה גזיזן מיניה

§ With regard to Balaam, it is stated: “And they slew the kings of Midian, with the rest of their slain…And Balaam, son of Beor, they slew with the sword” (Numbers 31:8). The Gemara asks: Balaam, what did he seek there; what was his role in that war? He lived in Aram. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: He went to collect payment for twenty-four thousand members of the Jewish people, whom he felled with his advice. Mar Zutra bar Toviya says that Rav says that this is in accordance with the adage that people say: A camel goes to seek horns and the ears that it had are severed from it. Not only was Balaam unsuccessful in collecting his fee, he also lost his life.

ואת בלעם בן בעור הקוסם קוסם נביא הוא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה נביא ולבסוף קוסם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי מסגני ושילטי הואי אייזן לגברי נגרי

It is stated: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22). The Gemara asks: Was he a diviner? He is a prophet. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Initially he was a prophet, but ultimately, he lost his capacity for prophecy and remained merely a diviner. Rav Pappa says that this is in accordance with the adage that people say: This woman was descended from princes and rulers, and was licentious with carpenters.

הרגו בני ישראל [בחרב] אל חלליהם אמר רב שקיימו בו ארבע מיתות סקילה ושריפה הרג וחנק

With regard to the latter part of the verse: “And Balaam, son of Beor, the diviner, did the children of Israel slay with the sword among the rest of their slain” (Joshua 13:22), Rav says: It means that they accomplished in him all four means of court-imposed executions: Stoning, and burning, beheading, and strangulation.

אמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי חנינא מי שמיע לך בלעם בר כמה הוה אמר ליה מיכתב לא כתיב אלא מדכתיב ׳אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם׳ בר תלתין ותלת שנין או בר תלתין וארבע אמר ליה שפיר קאמרת לדידי חזי לי פנקסיה דבלעם והוה כתיב ביה ׳בר תלתין ותלת שנין בלעם חגירא כד קטיל יתיה פנחס ליסטאה׳

A certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Have you heard how old Balaam was when he died? Rabbi Ḥanina said to him: It is not written explicitly in the Torah. But from the fact that it is written: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days” (Psalms 55:24), this indicates that he was thirty-two or thirty-four years old, less than half the standard seventy-year lifespan. The heretic said to him: You have spoken well, I myself saw the notebook of Balaam and it was written therein: Balaam the lame was thirty-two years old when Pinehas the highwayman killed him.

אמר ליה מר בריה דרבינא לבריה בכולהו לא תפיש למדרש לבר מבלעם הרשע דכמה דמשכחת ביה דרוש ביה

Mar, son of Ravina, said to his son: With regard to all of those enumerated as not having a share in the World-to-Come, do not extensively interpret verses homiletically in order to denigrate them, except with regard to Balaam the wicked, as any negative element that you discover in his regard, continue to interpret homiletically concerning him, as it is appropriate to attribute wickedness to one so wicked.

כתיב דואג וכתיב דוייג אמר רבי יוחנן בתחילה יושב הקדוש ברוך הוא ודואג שמא יצא זה לתרבות רעה לאחר שיצא אמר ווי שיצא זה

§ It is written in one verse: “Doeg the Edomite” (I Samuel 22:9), and it is written in another verse: “And the king said to Doyeig” (I Samuel 22:18). Rabbi Yoḥanan says in explaining the discrepancy: Initially, the Holy One, Blessed be He, sat and was concerned [doeg] that perhaps this person would emerge to undertake an evil path. After he emerged on that path, God said: Alas [vai], that person has emerged to undertake an evil path.

(סימן גבור רשע וצדיק חיל וסופר)

The Gemara cites a mnemonic for the statements of Rabbi Yitzḥak that follow: Mighty, wicked, and righteous, riches, and counter.

אמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב מה תתהלל ברעה הגבור חסד אל כל היום אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לדואג לא גבור בתורה אתה מה תתהלל ברעה לא חסד אל נטוי עליך כל היום

Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Why boast of your evil mighty one? The mercy of God endures continually” (Psalms 52:3)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg: Aren’t you mighty in Torah? Why do you boast of evil? Isn’t God’s mercy extended over you continually when you engage in His Torah?

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חקי אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לדואג הרשע מה לך לספר חקי כשאתה מגיע לפרשת מרצחים ופרשת מספרי לשון הרע מה אתה דורש בהם ותשא בריתי עלי פיך אמר רבי אמי אין תורתו של דואג אלא משפה ולחוץ

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “But to the wicked, God says: What have you to do to declare My statutes, and that you have taken My covenant in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Doeg the wicked: Why do you speak of My statutes and My Torah? When you reach the Torah portion of murderers and the Torah portion of slanderers, how do you teach them? You have violated both. With regard to the end of that verse: “And that you have taken My covenant in your mouth” (Psalms 50:16), Rabbi Ami says: Doeg’s Torah is only insincere lip service, as it is in his mouth but not in his heart. He does not have a profound understanding of the Torah and does not commit himself to the performance of its mitzvot.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב ויראו צדיקים וייראו ועליו ישחקו בתחילה ייראו ולבסוף ישחקו

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And the righteous shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him” (Psalms 52:8)? Initially, they will fear Doeg due to his success, and ultimately they will laugh when they witness his downfall.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב חיל בלע ויקאנו מבטנו ירשנו אל אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבונו של עולם ימות דואג אמר לו חיל בלע ויקיאנו אמר לפניו מבטנו יורישנו אל

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again; God shall cast them out of his belly” (Job 20:15)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Doeg shall die. God said to him: “He has swallowed riches and he shall vomit them again.” He is filled with Torah and wisdom; wait until he forgets what he has learned. David said before Him: “God shall cast them out of his belly.” God can remove his Torah knowledge from him before he will forget it on his own.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב גם אל יתצך לנצח אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לדוד ניתי דואג לעלמא דאתי אמר לפניו גם אל יתצך לנצח מאי דכתיב יחתך ויסחך מאהל ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא לימרו שמעתא בי מדרשא משמיה אמר לפניו יחתך ויסחך מאהל ליהוי ליה בנין רבנן ושרשך מארץ חיים סלה

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “God shall likewise destroy you forever” (Psalms 52:7)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: Let Doeg enter the World-to-Come. David said before Him: “God shall likewise destroy you forever,” i.e., let Doeg not have eternal life. What is the meaning of that which is written: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent, and root you out from the land of the living. Selah” (Psalms 52:7)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: At least let them state a halakha in the study hall in his name. David said before Him: “He shall pluck you away, and pluck you from your tent,” i.e., let him be completely removed from the tents of Torah. God said to him: Let him have sons who are Sages. David said: “And root you out from the land of the living. Selah,” i.e., let Doeg be entirely uprooted.

ואמר רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב איה ספר איה שקל איה ספר את המגדלים איה ספר כל אותיות שבתורה איה שקל ששוקל כל קלים וחמורים שבתורה איה ספר את המגדלים שהיה סופר שלש מאות הלכות פסוקות במגדל הפורח באויר

And Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers [migdalim]” (Isaiah 33:18)? Where is he that counts all the letters of the Torah? Where is he that weighs, who considers all the elements of a fortiori inferences in the Torah? Where is he who counts the towers? This is Doeg, who would count three hundred halakhic conclusions with regard to the purity of a cupboard [migdal] that floats in the air [avir].

אמר רבי ארבע מאה בעייא בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר [ולא איפשט להו חד] אמר רבא רבותא למבעי בעיי בשני דרב יהודה כולי תנויי בנזיקין ואנן קא מתנינן טובא בעוקצין

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Doeg and Ahithophel raised four hundred dilemmas with regard to the purity of a cupboard that floats in the air, and they did not resolve even one, an indication of their great knowledge. Rava says: Is it greatness to raise dilemmas? That is not a barometer of greatness, as in the years of Rav Yehuda all of their Torah study was confined to the order of Nezikin, and we study much more than that, and are expert even in tractate Okatzin, the final tractate in the difficult order of Teharot.

וכי הוה מטי רב יהודה אשה שכובשת ירק בקדירה ואמרי לה זיתים שכבשן בטרפיהן טהורים אמר הויות דרב ושמואל קא חזינא הכא ואנן קא מתנינן בעוקצין תלת סרי מתיבתא

Moreover, when Rav Yehuda would encounter the mishna in tractate Okatzin that discusses the extent to which the stems of various fruits and vegetables are considered an integral part of the produce in terms of contracting ritual impurity, where the mishna discusses the halakha concerning a woman who pickles a vegetable in a pot, and some say when he would reach the mishna (Okatzin 2:1): Olives pickled with their leaves are pure, because after pickling, it is no longer possible to lift the fruit by its leaves, so they are no longer considered part of the fruit; he would find it difficult to understand. He would say: Those are the discussions between Rav and Shmuel that we see here. And we, by contrast, teach tractate Okatzin in thirteen academies.

ורב יהודה שליף מסאני ואתא מטרא ואנן צוחינן וליכא דמשגח בן אלא הקדוש ברוך הוא ליבא בעי דכתיב וה׳ יראה ללבב

But nevertheless, when Rav Yehuda would remove one of his shoes the rain would immediately fall, whereas we cry out and no one notices us. Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, seeks the heart, and the barometer of greatness is devotion of the heart and not the amount of Torah that one studies, as it is written: “But the Lord looks on the heart” (I Samuel 16:7).

אמר רב משרשיא דואג ואחיתופל לא [הוו] סברי שמעתא מתקיף לה מר זוטרא מאן דכתיב ביה איה ספר איה שקל איה ספר את המגדלים ואת אמרת לא הוו סברי שמעתא אלא דלא הוה סלקא להו שמעתא אליבא דהלכתא דכתיב סוד ה׳ ליראיו

Rav Mesharshiyya says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not comprehend halakhic discussions. Mar Zutra objects to this statement: These are people with regard to whom it is written: “Where is he that counts; where is he that weighs; where is he that counts the towers” (Isaiah 33:18), and you say that they did not comprehend halakhic discussions? Rather, Doeg and Ahithophel would not conclude halakhic discussions in accordance with halakhic rulings, as it is written: “The secret of the Lord is with those who fear Him” (Psalms 25:14). Since they did not fear God, they did not arrive at halakhic conclusions despite their keen intellect.

אמר רבי אמי לא מת דואג עד ששכח תלמודו שנאמר הוא ימות באין מוסר וברב אולתו ישגה רב אשי אמר נצטרע שנאמר הצמתה כל זונה ממך

Rabbi Ami says: Doeg died only when he forgot what he learned, as it is stated: “He shall die for want of instruction, and in his folly he shall go astray” (Proverbs 5:23). Rav Ashi says: He was afflicted with leprosy before his death, as it is stated: “Those that go far from You shall perish; You destroy [hitzmatta] all those who go astray from You” (Psalms 73:27).

כתיב התם לצמתת ומתרגמינן לחלוטין ותנן אין בין מוסגר ומוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה

Where is the allusion to leprosy in this verse? It is written there: “And the land shall not be sold in perpetuity [litzmitut]” (Leviticus 25:23), and we translate it into Aramaic as: Laḥalutin. And we learned in a mishna with regard to lepers (Megilla 8b): The difference between a quarantined leper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms to be inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop; and a confirmed [muḥlat] leper, i.e., one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a confirmed leper, is only with regard to letting the hair on one’s head grow and rending one’s garments. The derivation is based on the etymological similarity between hitzmatta and litzmitut; the translation of litzmitut as laḥalutin, and the etymological similarity between laḥalutin and muḥlat.

(סימן שלשה ראו וחצי וקראו)

The Gemara cites a mnemonic for the halakhot that follow: Three, saw, and half, and called him.

אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מלאכי חבלה נזדמנו לו לדואג אחד ששכח תלמודו ואחד ששרף נשמתו ואחד שפיזר עפרו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Three angels of destruction encountered Doeg: One who caused him to forget his Torah knowledge, one who burned his soul, and one who dispersed the ashes of his soul in synagogues and in study halls to be trampled beneath the feet of the righteous.

אמר רבי יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא ראו זה את זה דואג בימי שאול ואחיתופל בימי דוד

Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not see one another, as both died at a young age. Doeg lived in the days of Saul, and Ahithophel lived in the days of David, toward the end of David’s life.

ואמר רבי יוחנן דואג ואחיתופל לא חצו ימיהם תניא נמי הכי ׳אנשי דמים ומרמה לא יחצו ימיהם׳ כל שנותיו של דואג לא היו אלא שלשים וארבע ושל אחיתופל אינן אלא שלשים ושלש

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Doeg and Ahithophel did not reach half of their allotted days, as they died before the age of thirty-five, half of the standard lifetime mentioned in the verse: “The days of our years are seventy years” (Psalms 90:10). This is also taught in a baraita: “Bloody and deceitful men shall not live half their days” (Psalms 55:24); all the years of Doeg were only thirty-four, and the years of Ahithophel were only thirty-three.

ואמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה קרא דוד לאחיתופל רבו ולבסוף קראו חבירו ולבסוף קראו תלמידו בתחלה קראו רבו ואתה אנוש כערכי אלופי ומידעי ולבסוף קראו חברו אשר יחדו נמתיק סוד בבית אלהים נהלך ברגש ולבסוף קראו תלמידו גם איש שלומי אשר בטחתי בו

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, and eventually, he called him his colleague, and ultimately, he called him his student. Initially, David called Ahithophel his teacher, as it is stated: “But it was you, a man my equal, my master [alufi], and my familiar friend” (Psalms 55:14); a teacher is known as aluf as he trains [me’alef ] his students. And eventually, he called him his colleague, as it is stated: “We took sweet counsel together, and walked to the house of God with the throng” (Psalms 55:15); the term together indicates that they were equals. And ultimately, he called him his student, as it is stated: “Even my own familiar friend, in whom I trusted,

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