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Today's Daf Yomi

July 30, 2017 | 讝壮 讘讗讘 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Sanhedrin 14

How many judges for smicha on the par of the judges? 聽Where are the opinions derived from? 聽How many judges to give smicha to Rabbis? 聽How was smicha done? 聽Where could it be done? 聽Redemption of neta revai and ma’aser shena, as well as consecrated items聽mentioned in the mishna are discussed.


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讘讟诇讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诪讚 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜讻诇 讛谞住诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜注讬专 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛 转讬讞专讘 讜转讞讜诪讬谉 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛谉 讬注拽专讜

the laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish people, as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these laws due to a lack of ordained judges. This is because at one time the wicked kingdom of Rome issued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish people with the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that anyone who ordains judges will be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordain the judges will be destroyed, and the signs identifying the boundaries of the city in which they ordain judges will be uprooted. These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population.

诪讛 注砖讛 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讛诇讱 讜讬砖讘 诇讜 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讛专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讜讘讬谉 砖转讬 注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讜讘讬谉 砖谞讬 转讞讜诪讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讗讜砖讗 诇砖驻专注诐 讜住诪讱 砖诐 讞诪砖讛 讝拽谞讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 专讘 讗讜讬讗 诪讜住讬祝 讗祝 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛

What did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, between two large cities, and between two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram, i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he not endanger anyone not directly involved, and there he ordained five elders. And they were: Rabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. Rav Avya adds that Rabbi Ne岣mya was also among those ordained. This incident indicates that ordination can be performed by a single Sage.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讻讬专讜 讗讜讬讘讬讛诐 讘讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘谞讬讬 专讜爪讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬 诪讛 转讛讗 注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻讗讘谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 讛讜驻讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 注讚 砖谞注爪讜 讘讜 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 诇讜谞讻讬讗讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜注砖讗讜讛讜 讻讻讘专讛

When their enemies discovered them, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava said to the newly ordained Sages: My sons, run for your lives. They said to him: My teacher, what will be with you? Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He said to them: In any case, I am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned; even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People say about this incident: The Roman soldiers did not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [lunkhiyot] into him, making him appear like a sieve pierced with many holes.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讗讞专讬谞讬 讛讜讜 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 住诪讻讬讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讗 住诪讻讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讟讜注讛 住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇讜 住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讜拽讬讘诇讜

This proof is refuted: There may have been other Sages performing the ordination with Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, who were added in order to reach the quota of three Sages, and this fact that they were not mentioned is due to the honor of Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, who was the greatest among them. The Gemara asks: And with regard to Rabbi Meir, did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava actually ordain him? But doesn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Anyone who says that Rabbi Akiva did not ordain Rabbi Meir is nothing other than mistaken. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva in fact ordained Rabbi Meir, but the people did not accept the appointment, as Rabbi Meir was still very young. Therefore, some time later, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava ordained him a second time, and they accepted it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 住诪讬讻讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 住诪讬讻讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讚讬讬谞讬 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讻诇诇 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜讛讗 转谞谉 住谞讛讚专讬谉 谞讜讛讙转 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讜讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 住诪讻讬谞谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: There is no ordination outside of Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: There is no ordination? If we say that they may not adjudicate cases involving laws of fines at all outside of Eretz Yisrael, that is difficult: Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Makkot 7a): The Sanhedrin and its authority functions both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael? Rather, the intention is that we do not ordain judges outside of Eretz Yisrael.

驻砖讬讟讗 住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜谞住诪讻讬谉 讘讗专抓 讛讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讚诇讗 讗诇讗 住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讗专抓 讜谞住诪讻讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪讗讬

The Gemara comments: It is obvious that if those ordaining the new judges were outside of Eretz Yisrael, and those being ordained were inside Eretz Yisrael, we say that they may not perform the ordination. But if those ordaining the new judges were inside Eretz Yisrael, and those being ordained were outside of Eretz Yisrael, what is the halakha? May ordination be conferred from a distance in this situation?

转讗 砖诪注 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜讛 诪爪讟注专 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 讚诇讬住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讜讞讚 讚注讬诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注讻诪讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注讻诪讗讬 讜讞讚 讚注讬诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讞讚 讚讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 住诪讻讜讛讜 讜讞讚 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 诇讗 住诪讻讜讛讜

The Gemara clarifies: Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from the fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan was distressed concerning Rav Shemen bar Abba, as the latter was not with the other Sages at the time they received the consent of the Nasi so that Rabbi Yo岣nan could ordain him. In addition, concerning Rabbi Shimon ben Zeirud and one who was with him, the Gemara interjects: And who is he? Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Akhmai. And some say that it was Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Akhmai and one who was with him; the Gemara interjects: And who is he? Rabbi Shimon ben Zeirud. The Gemara continues: Although these two Sages were equal in stature, the Sages ordained only the one who was with them in Eretz Yisrael, and they did not ordain the other one, who was not with them. This indicates that ordination can be granted only in Eretz Yisrael.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 讛讜砖注讬讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转拽讬讚 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讬住诪讻讬谞讛讜 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 谞爪讟注专 诪专 讚讗谞谉 诪讚讘讬转 注诇讬 拽讗转讬谞谉

The Gemara relates several other incidents with regard to ordination. Rabbi Yo岣nan persistently tried to ordain Rabbi 岣nina and Rabbi Hoshaya, as they were scholars and righteous people. But he was not successful with regard to the matter, as various incidents repeatedly interfered with his plan, and he was very distressed about this. They said to him: Do not be distressed, our Master, as we come from, i.e., are descendants of, the house of the High Priest Eli.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 谞住诪讻讬谉 诇讘讬转 注诇讬 砖谞讗诪专 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 讝拽谉 讘讘讬转讱 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 诪讗讬 讝拽谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讝拽谉 诪诪砖 讜讛讻转讬讘 讻诇 诪专讘讬转 讘讬转讱 讬诪讜转讜 讗谞砖讬诐 讗诇讗 住诪讬讻讛

As Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣an says that Rabbi Yonatan says: From where is it known that there are not to be ordained Sages from the house of Eli? As it is stated with regard to the house of Eli: 鈥淎nd there shall not be an elder in your house forever鈥 (I聽Samuel 2:32). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of 鈥渆lder鈥 in this verse? If we say it means an actual elder, meaning an old person, but isn鈥檛 it already written: 鈥淎nd all those raised in your house shall die young men鈥 (I聽Samuel 2:33)? Rather, the term 鈥渆lder鈥 is an honorary term for a Sage, and it means that ordination will not be granted to descendants of the House of Eli.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讟诪专 诇诪讬住诪讻讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇注讜诇诐 讛讜讛 拽讘诇 讜拽讬讬诐 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 注讜诇讛 诇讙讚讜诇讛 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 注诇 讻诇 注讜谞讜转讬讜 讗诪爪讬 诇讬讛 讗谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara relates: Rabbi Zeira would habitually hide himself so that they would not ordain him. He did this due to the fact that Rabbi Elazar said: Always be obscure and remain alive, meaning the more humble and unknown you make yourself, the longer you will live. When he heard that which Rabbi Elazar also said: A person does not rise to greatness unless all his sins are forgiven, he understood that there are also benefits to greatness, and he presented himself to the Nasi in order that he would ordain him.

讻讬 住诪讻讜讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 砖专讜 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 诇讗 讻讞诇 讜诇讗 砖专拽 讜诇讗 驻讬专讻讜住 讜讬注诇转 讞谉 讻讬 住诪讻讜讛 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜诇专讘讬 讗住讬 砖专讜 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 讻诇 诪谉 讚讬谉 讻诇 诪谉 讚讬谉 住诪讜讻讜 诇谞讗 诇讗 转住诪讻讜 诇谞讗 诇讗 诪住专诪讬讟讬谉 讜诇讗 诪住专诪讬住讬谉 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讗 诪讞诪讬住讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜专诪讬住讬谉

The Gemara relates: When they ordained Rabbi Zeira the Sages who were present at the ceremony sang to him this paean of praise traditionally sung to a bride at her wedding: She wears no blue eye shadow and no rouge on her face and no hair dye, and nevertheless she radiates grace. The bride is described as so beautiful that she does not need any cosmetics or adornments, and metaphorically Rabbi Zeira is praised as exceptionally and recognizably qualified for his appointment. Similarly, when they ordained Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, they sang to them this paean of praise: Anyone like these, anyone like these, ordain for us, as they epitomized the ideal candidate for ordination. But do not ordain for us those counted among the rags [misarmitin] or among the distorters [misarmisin]. And some say that they said: Do not ordain for us those counted among the robbers [me岣misin] or among the tramplers [miturmisin].

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讬 讛讜讛 讗转讬 诪诪转讬讘转讗 诇讘讬 拽讬住专 谞驻拽讬 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讚讘讬 拽讬住专 讜诪砖专讬讬谉 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讚注诪讬讛 诪讚讘专谞讗 讚讗讜诪转讬讛 讘讜爪讬谞讗 讚谞讛讜专讗 讘专讬讱 诪转讬讬讱 诇砖诇诐

Since the songs composed for various Sages were mentioned, the Gemara also recounts that when Rabbi Abbahu would come from the yeshiva to the house of the emperor, the ladies from the emperor鈥檚 house would go out and sing before him: O great one of his people, leader of his nation, illuminating candle, may your arrival be blessed in peace.

注专讬驻转 注讙诇讛 讘砖诇砖讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讜讬爪讗讜 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 壮砖驻讟讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖拽讜诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 讗讞讚 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖拽讜诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 注讜讚 讗讞讚 讛专讬 讻讗谉 砖诇砖讛

搂 The mishna teaches that the breaking of the heifer鈥檚 neck is performed in front of a panel of three judges, and that Rabbi Yehuda says there must be five judges. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd your elders and your judges shall go out and they shall measure to the cities that are around the corpse鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:2). 鈥淵our elders鈥 is in the plural, which indicates a minimum of two, and 鈥測our judges鈥 is also plural, indicating another two, and as a court may not be composed of an even number of judges, they add an additional one to them, so there are five judges here; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 indicate two, and as a court may not be composed of an even number of judges, they add an additional one to them, so there are three judges here.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讗讬 砖驻讟讬讱 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘砖讜驻讟讬讱 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讝拽谞讬 讝拽谞讬讱 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Shimon, what does he do with this extra expression: 鈥淵our judges鈥? The Gemara answers: He requires it to teach that these judges must be of the unique ones among your judges, meaning that they must be members of the Sanhedrin. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda derive the halakha that the judges must be members of the Sanhedrin? He derives it from the fact that the verse did not merely state: 鈥淓lders,鈥 but rather: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 which indicates the elders that are unique to all of the Jewish people, meaning the Sages of the Sanhedrin.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬 诪讝拽谞讬 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讝拽谞讬 讛砖讜拽 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讝拽谞讬讱 讜讗讬 讻转讬讘 讝拽谞讬讱 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 住谞讛讚专讬 拽讟谞讛 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诪诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘砖讜驻讟讬讱 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讙诪专 讝拽谞讬 讝拽谞讬 诪讜住诪讻讜 讝拽谞讬 讛注讚讛 讗转 讬讚讬讛诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘注讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘讝拽谞讬讱

And how does Rabbi Shimon respond to this claim? He holds that had the verse written only: 鈥淓lders,鈥 I would say that the verse is referring to any elders in the marketplace who are not members of the Sanhedrin. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淵our elders.鈥 And if it was written: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 I would say that it is referring to members of a lesser Sanhedrin. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淎nd your judges,鈥 to indicate that they must be of the unique ones among your judges. And how would Rabbi Yehuda respond to this claim? He learns it by means of a verbal analogy from the word 鈥渆lders鈥 written in this verse and the word 鈥渆lders鈥 written in the verse: 鈥淎nd the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull鈥 (Leviticus 4:15). Just as there it is referring to the unique ones of the congregation, so too here, it is referring to the unique ones among your elders.

讗讬 讬诇讬祝 诇讬诇祝 讻讜诇讛 诪讛转诐 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诇讗 讜讬讜 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诇诪谞讬讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬讜 诇讗 讚专讬砖

The Gemara asks: If he learns this verbal analogy, he should learn all of it, i.e., the entire halakha, including the number of judges as well as their rank, from there, i.e., the verse in Leviticus, and if so why do I need the extra expressions: 鈥淵our elders鈥 and: 鈥淎nd your judges鈥? Rather, certainly he does not accept this verbal analogy. Rather, he holds that the additional letter vav, corresponding to the word 鈥渁nd鈥 in the expression: 鈥淎nd your judges,鈥 is there for the tally, meaning that the expression 鈥測our judges鈥 teaches that they must be members of the Great Sanhedrin, and the additional vav serves to add an additional two to the number of judges. And how does Rabbi Shimon respond to that? He does not expound the additional letter vav.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜讬爪讗讜 砖谞讬诐 讜诪讚讚讜 砖谞讬诐 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛专讬 转砖注讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讘注讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬讗 壮讜讬爪讗讜壮 讛谉 讜诇讗 砖诇讜讞谉 壮讜诪讚讚讜壮 砖讗驻讬诇讜 谞诪爪讗

The Gemara asks: If that is so, if the verbs in the plural form are each understood as adding an additional two judges, then the expression: 鈥淎nd they shall go out,鈥 in the continuation of the verse (Deuteronomy 21:2) indicates another two, and the expression: 鈥淎nd they shall measure,鈥 adds another two, meaning that according to Rabbi Yehuda there should be nine judges, and according to Rabbi Shimon, seven. The Gemara answers: He needs this exposition for that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall go out,鈥 to emphasize that they must go out, and not their agents, and the verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall measure,鈥 to teach that this measurement is itself a mitzva, such that even if the corpse is found

讘注诇讬诇 诇注讬专 爪专讬讱 诇注住讜拽 讘诪讚讬讚讛

clearly close to the city, so that there is no need to measure in order to determine the closest city, nevertheless they must involve themselves with the measurement.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 壮讜讬爪讗讜 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 讝讜 住谞讛讚专讬谉 壮讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 讝讛 诪诇讱 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 壮诪诇讱 讘诪砖驻讟 讬注诪讬讚 讗专抓壮 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 壮讜讘讗转 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诇 讛砖驻讟壮

搂 The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: With regard to the breaking of the neck of the heifer, the verse states: 鈥淎nd your elders and your judges shall go out鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:2). 鈥淵our elders,鈥 this is referring to the Sanhedrin; 鈥渁nd your judges,鈥 this is referring to the king and the High Priest. The baraita explains the assertion that the king is called a judge, as it is written: 鈥淭he king by justice establishes the land鈥 (Proverbs 29:4), and the High Priest is also called a judge, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall come to the priests the Levites, and to the judge that will be in those days鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:9), referring to the High Priest.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讘讞讚讗 驻诇讬讙 讗讜 讘转专转讬 驻诇讬讙 讘诪诇讱 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 驻诇讬讙 讗讘诇 讘住谞讛讚专讬 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘住谞讛讚专讬 谞诪讬 驻诇讬讙 讚讗诪专 讻讜诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬 讘注讬谞谉

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Does Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov disagree with the tanna鈥檌m of the mishna only with regard to one matter, or does he disagree with regard to two matters? Does he disagree only with regard to the requirement for the king and the High Priest to participate in the measurement, but with regard to the Sanhedrin he holds either in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda or in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? Or perhaps he disagrees with regard to the Sanhedrin, too, as he says we require all of the members of the Sanhedrin to participate in the measurement.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 诪爪讗谉 讗讘讬转 驻讙讬 讜讛诪专讛 注诇讬讛谉 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讛诪专讗转讜 讛诪专讗讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜拽诪转 讜注诇讬转 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐壮 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a solution to this dilemma from a baraita discussing the case of a rebellious elder, a Sage who publicly teaches a halakha against the ruling of the Great Sanhedrin: If the rebellious elder found the members of the Sanhedrin in Beit Pagei outside of Jerusalem and rebelled against them by rejecting their decision, one might have thought that his rebellion is deemed a rebellion and he will be liable to receive the death penalty if he instructs the public to follow his opinion. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall arise and go up to the place that the Lord your God shall choose鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:8), and this teaches that the location determines the authority of the Sanhedrin; to a certain extent this authority exists only when the Sanhedrin is situated in the Chamber of Hewn Stone, adjacent to the Temple.

讚谞驻讜拽 讻诪讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪拽爪转谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讛谞讱 讚讗讬讻讗 讙讜讗讬 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜讜转讬讛 讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讚谞驻讜拽 讻讜诇讛讜 诇诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇讚讘专 讛专砖讜转 诪讬 诪爪讜 谞驻拽讬 讜讛讻转讬讘 砖专专讱 讗讙谉 讛住讛专 讗诇 讬讞住专 讛诪讝讙 讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛

The Gemara clarifies: In the case discussed in the baraita, how many members of the Sanhedrin went out to Beit Pagei? If we say that only some of them went out, there is no significance in such a ruling issued by the rebellious elder, as perhaps those who are inside the Chamber of Hewn Stone are the majority and hold in accordance with his opinion; in which case he certainly would not be deemed a rebellious elder. Rather, it is obvious that they all went out. And for what reason did they go out? If we say that they did so for an optional matter, may they go out? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵our navel is like a round goblet wherein no blended wine is lacking鈥 (Song of Songs 7:3), from which it is inferred that the Sanhedrin sit in a half-circle, and there must never be more than two-thirds of them lacking, as this is the measure of wine blended in water. Rather, since the Sanhedrin may not leave the chamber unnecessarily, it is obvious that they went out for a matter relating to a mitzva.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诇讗讜 诇诪讚讬讚转 注讙诇讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讻讜诇讬 住谞讛讚专讬 讘注讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讻讚转谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讗诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚

What are the circumstances? Is it not that they went out to measure the distance between a murder victim and the nearest city, in order to perform the ritual of the breaking of the neck of the heifer, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov, from which it can be deduced that he says: We require all of the Sanhedrin to participate? Abaye said to him: No, that cannot be proven from here, as perhaps it is a case where they went out to extend the city of Jerusalem or the courtyards of the Temple, as we learned in the mishna: They may extend the city or the courtyards of the Temple only in accordance with the ruling of a court of seventy-one judges.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪爪讗谉 讗讘讬转 驻讗讙讬 讜讛诪专讛 注诇讬讛谉 讻讙讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 诇诪讚讬讚转 注讙诇讛 讜诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讬讻讜诇 砖转讛讗 讛诪专讗转讜 讛诪专讗讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜拽诪转 讜注诇讬转 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐壮 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yosef: If he found them in Beit Pagei and rebelled against them, such as in a situation where they went out to measure the distance between a murder victim and the nearest city, in order to perform the ceremony of the breaking of the neck of the heifer or to extend the city or the courtyards, one might have thought that his rebellion is deemed a rebellion. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall arise and go up to the place,鈥 which teaches that the location determines the authority of the Sanhedrin. This proves that there is a tanna who maintains that all of the members of the Sanhedrin must participate in the measurement.

谞讟注 专讘注讬 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 讘砖诇砖讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 驻讬专讜转 砖讛专拽讬讘讜 讜讬讬谉 砖讛拽专讬诐 讜诪注讜转 砖讛讞诇讬讚讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 驻讜讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘砖诇砖讛 诇拽讜讞讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘砖诇砖讛 砖讗讬谉 诇拽讜讞讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讻专讬 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讘注诇讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches: Valuations of the fruits of a fourth-year sapling or second-tithe produce in cases where their value is not known is performed by three judges. The Sages taught in a baraita: What is the second tithe whose value is not known and requires a special court to assess it? This is fruit that has decomposed, and wine that has developed a film, and coins that have become rusted and cannot be traded at full value. Therefore, there is a need for expert assessment. The Sages taught in another baraita: The second tithe whose value is not known may be redeemed by three purchasers, i.e., experts in trade, but not by three ordinary people who are not purchasers. This may be done even if one of them is a gentile, and even if one of them is the owner.

讘注讬 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖诇砖讛 讜诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇转讜讱 讻讬住 讗讞讚 诪讛讜 转讗 砖诪注 讗讬砖 讜砖转讬 谞砖讬讜 驻讜讚讬谉 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讙讜谉 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讘转 讗讘讗 住讜专讗讛

Rabbi Yirmeya asks: Concerning three people who deposit their funds into one single purse, meaning they are partners in expenses and profits, what is the halakha? With regard to valuations, are they considered as three people or as one? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a solution to the matter from a baraita: A man and his two wives may redeem produce of the second tithe where its value is unknown. It is apparent that three partners are considered a court for this matter. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps this was a case of a marriage with special arrangements, such as that between Rav Pappa and his wife, the daughter of Abba of Sura. Rav Pappa and his wife handled their finances independently; she had her own property and was responsible for her own expenses.

讛讛拽讚砖讜转 讘砖诇砖讛 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讬谞讜专讗 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 爪专讬讻讛 注砖专讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇驻讚讜转讛

搂 The mishna teaches that the valuation of consecrated property is performed by three judges. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: Even a simple item such as a small fork of consecrated property requires a valuation by ten people in order to redeem it.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讚讗诪专 讻砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 注砖专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻转讜讘讬谉 讘驻专砖讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪谞讗 诇讛讜

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Granted, the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov can be understood, since what he says is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: Ten priests are written in this Torah portion, meaning the word 鈥減riest鈥 appears ten times in the passage discussing consecrated property and redeeming consecrated property (Leviticus, chapter 27). For each time the word 鈥減riest鈥 is stated, a judge is added to the court that must endorse the calculation of the redemption, leading to a total of ten judges. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, from where do they derive a requirement for three judges?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 砖诇砖讛 拽专拽注讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讗专讘注讛 转讬住讙讬 讘讗专讘注讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诇诪讛 转谞谉 讛拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉

And if you would say that the word 鈥減riest鈥 is written with regard to them, i.e., with regard to the specific halakha of redeeming a consecrated animal, which can be generalized to any case of movable property, only three times (Leviticus 27:11鈥12), then in a case of redeeming land, with regard to which the word 鈥減riest,鈥 is written four times (Leviticus 27:14, 18, 23), it should be enough to perform the valuation in a court of four judges. And if you would say: Indeed that is the case, why did we learn in the mishna that the valuation of consecrated land is performed by nine judges and one priest?

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讚诪砖诇诪讬 讘讛讜 注砖专讛 讛拽讚砖讜转 讚诪砖诇诪讬 讘讛讜 砖讬转讗 诇讬讘注讜 砖讬转讗 拽砖讬讗

Rather, what would you say? That the count of ten instances of the word 鈥減riest鈥 written in the section is completed with these, meaning that there is a cumulative calculation of all mentions of the word since the beginning of the passage? If so, concerning consecrated items such as animals, given that a similar cumulative count of six is completed with them, they should require six judges to perform the valuation. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, the matter is difficult.

讛注专讻讬谉 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 注专讻讬谉 讛诪讟诇讟诇讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讘讗讜诪专 注专讱 讻诇讬 讝讛 注诇讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘

搂 The mishna teaches that the valuations that are movable property are performed by three judges. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Valuations that are movable property? The term: Valuations, generally is referring to a unique type of calculation in which one vows to contribute the value of a person, according to the set amounts explicitly stated in the Torah (see Leviticus 27:1鈥8). This type of calculation does not apply to property, so to what does the mishna refer? Rav Giddel says that Rav says: The mishna was discussing a case where one says: The valuation of this utensil is incumbent upon me to contribute. As Rav Giddel says that Rav says:

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Sanhedrin 14

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 14

讘讟诇讜 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 诪讬砖专讗诇 砖驻注诐 讗讞转 讙讝专讛 诪诇讻讜转 讛专砖注讛 砖诪讚 注诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖讻诇 讛住讜诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜讻诇 讛谞住诪讱 讬讛专讙 讜注讬专 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛 转讬讞专讘 讜转讞讜诪讬谉 砖住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讛谉 讬注拽专讜

the laws of fines would have ceased to be implemented from among the Jewish people, as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these laws due to a lack of ordained judges. This is because at one time the wicked kingdom of Rome issued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish people with the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that anyone who ordains judges will be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordain the judges will be destroyed, and the signs identifying the boundaries of the city in which they ordain judges will be uprooted. These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population.

诪讛 注砖讛 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讛诇讱 讜讬砖讘 诇讜 讘讬谉 砖谞讬 讛专讬诐 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讜讘讬谉 砖转讬 注讬讬专讜转 讙讚讜诇讜转 讜讘讬谉 砖谞讬 转讞讜诪讬 砖讘转 讘讬谉 讗讜砖讗 诇砖驻专注诐 讜住诪讱 砖诐 讞诪砖讛 讝拽谞讬诐 讜讗诇讜 讛谉 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讜专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讘谉 砖诪讜注 专讘 讗讜讬讗 诪讜住讬祝 讗祝 专讘讬 谞讞诪讬讛

What did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, between two large cities, and between two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram, i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he not endanger anyone not directly involved, and there he ordained five elders. And they were: Rabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. Rav Avya adds that Rabbi Ne岣mya was also among those ordained. This incident indicates that ordination can be performed by a single Sage.

讻讬讜谉 砖讛讻讬专讜 讗讜讬讘讬讛诐 讘讛谉 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘谞讬讬 专讜爪讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 专讘讬 诪讛 转讛讗 注诇讬讱 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 诇驻谞讬讛诐 讻讗讘谉 砖讗讬谉 诇讛 讛讜驻讻讬诐 讗诪专讜 诇讗 讝讝讜 诪砖诐 注讚 砖谞注爪讜 讘讜 砖诇砖 诪讗讜转 诇讜谞讻讬讗讜转 砖诇 讘专讝诇 讜注砖讗讜讛讜 讻讻讘专讛

When their enemies discovered them, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava said to the newly ordained Sages: My sons, run for your lives. They said to him: My teacher, what will be with you? Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He said to them: In any case, I am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned; even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People say about this incident: The Roman soldiers did not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [lunkhiyot] into him, making him appear like a sieve pierced with many holes.

专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讗讞专讬谞讬 讛讜讜 讘讛讚讬讛 讜讛讗讬 讚诇讗 讞砖讬讘 诇讛讜 诪砖讜诐 讻讘讜讚讜 讚专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讜专讘讬 诪讗讬专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 住诪讻讬讛 讜讛讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诇讗 住诪讻讜 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讗讬谞讜 讗诇讗 讟讜注讛 住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 讜诇讗 拽讬讘诇讜 住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讘谉 讘讘讗 讜拽讬讘诇讜

This proof is refuted: There may have been other Sages performing the ordination with Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, who were added in order to reach the quota of three Sages, and this fact that they were not mentioned is due to the honor of Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava, who was the greatest among them. The Gemara asks: And with regard to Rabbi Meir, did Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava actually ordain him? But doesn鈥檛 Rabba bar bar 岣na say that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: Anyone who says that Rabbi Akiva did not ordain Rabbi Meir is nothing other than mistaken. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Akiva in fact ordained Rabbi Meir, but the people did not accept the appointment, as Rabbi Meir was still very young. Therefore, some time later, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava ordained him a second time, and they accepted it.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗讬谉 住诪讬讻讛 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪讗讬 讗讬谉 住诪讬讻讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讚诇讗 讚讬讬谞讬 讚讬谞讬 拽谞住讜转 讻诇诇 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜讛讗 转谞谉 住谞讛讚专讬谉 谞讜讛讙转 讘讬谉 讘讗专抓 讜讘讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讗诇讗 讚诇讗 住诪讻讬谞谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: There is no ordination outside of Eretz Yisrael. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: There is no ordination? If we say that they may not adjudicate cases involving laws of fines at all outside of Eretz Yisrael, that is difficult: Didn鈥檛 we learn in a mishna (Makkot 7a): The Sanhedrin and its authority functions both in Eretz Yisrael and outside of Eretz Yisrael? Rather, the intention is that we do not ordain judges outside of Eretz Yisrael.

驻砖讬讟讗 住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 讜谞住诪讻讬谉 讘讗专抓 讛讗 讗诪专讬谞谉 讚诇讗 讗诇讗 住讜诪讻讬谉 讘讗专抓 讜谞住诪讻讬谉 讘讞讜爪讛 诇讗专抓 诪讗讬

The Gemara comments: It is obvious that if those ordaining the new judges were outside of Eretz Yisrael, and those being ordained were inside Eretz Yisrael, we say that they may not perform the ordination. But if those ordaining the new judges were inside Eretz Yisrael, and those being ordained were outside of Eretz Yisrael, what is the halakha? May ordination be conferred from a distance in this situation?

转讗 砖诪注 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讛讜讛 诪爪讟注专 注诇讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 讚诇讬住诪讻讬讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讜讞讚 讚注讬诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注讻诪讗讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 讘谉 注讻诪讗讬 讜讞讚 讚注讬诪讬讛 讜诪谞讜 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讬专讜讚 讞讚 讚讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 住诪讻讜讛讜 讜讞讚 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 讙讘讬讬讛讜 诇讗 住诪讻讜讛讜

The Gemara clarifies: Come and hear a resolution to the dilemma from the fact that Rabbi Yo岣nan was distressed concerning Rav Shemen bar Abba, as the latter was not with the other Sages at the time they received the consent of the Nasi so that Rabbi Yo岣nan could ordain him. In addition, concerning Rabbi Shimon ben Zeirud and one who was with him, the Gemara interjects: And who is he? Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Akhmai. And some say that it was Rabbi Yo岣nan ben Akhmai and one who was with him; the Gemara interjects: And who is he? Rabbi Shimon ben Zeirud. The Gemara continues: Although these two Sages were equal in stature, the Sages ordained only the one who was with them in Eretz Yisrael, and they did not ordain the other one, who was not with them. This indicates that ordination can be granted only in Eretz Yisrael.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 讛讜砖注讬讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪砖转拽讬讚 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诇诪讬住诪讻讬谞讛讜 诇讗 讛讜讛 诪住转讬讬注讗 诪讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 拽讗 诪爪讟注专 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诇讗 谞爪讟注专 诪专 讚讗谞谉 诪讚讘讬转 注诇讬 拽讗转讬谞谉

The Gemara relates several other incidents with regard to ordination. Rabbi Yo岣nan persistently tried to ordain Rabbi 岣nina and Rabbi Hoshaya, as they were scholars and righteous people. But he was not successful with regard to the matter, as various incidents repeatedly interfered with his plan, and he was very distressed about this. They said to him: Do not be distressed, our Master, as we come from, i.e., are descendants of, the house of the High Priest Eli.

讚讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 谞讞诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜谞转谉 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讗讬谉 谞住诪讻讬谉 诇讘讬转 注诇讬 砖谞讗诪专 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 讝拽谉 讘讘讬转讱 讻诇 讛讬诪讬诐 诪讗讬 讝拽谉 讗讬诇讬诪讗 讝拽谉 诪诪砖 讜讛讻转讬讘 讻诇 诪专讘讬转 讘讬转讱 讬诪讜转讜 讗谞砖讬诐 讗诇讗 住诪讬讻讛

As Rabbi Shmuel bar Na岣an says that Rabbi Yonatan says: From where is it known that there are not to be ordained Sages from the house of Eli? As it is stated with regard to the house of Eli: 鈥淎nd there shall not be an elder in your house forever鈥 (I聽Samuel 2:32). The Gemara explains: What is the meaning of 鈥渆lder鈥 in this verse? If we say it means an actual elder, meaning an old person, but isn鈥檛 it already written: 鈥淎nd all those raised in your house shall die young men鈥 (I聽Samuel 2:33)? Rather, the term 鈥渆lder鈥 is an honorary term for a Sage, and it means that ordination will not be granted to descendants of the House of Eli.

专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讛讜讛 诪讬讟诪专 诇诪讬住诪讻讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇注讜诇诐 讛讜讛 拽讘诇 讜拽讬讬诐 讻讬讜谉 讚砖诪注讛 诇讛讗 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 讗讬谉 讗讚诐 注讜诇讛 诇讙讚讜诇讛 讗诇讗 讗诐 讻谉 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 注诇 讻诇 注讜谞讜转讬讜 讗诪爪讬 诇讬讛 讗谞驻砖讬讛

The Gemara relates: Rabbi Zeira would habitually hide himself so that they would not ordain him. He did this due to the fact that Rabbi Elazar said: Always be obscure and remain alive, meaning the more humble and unknown you make yourself, the longer you will live. When he heard that which Rabbi Elazar also said: A person does not rise to greatness unless all his sins are forgiven, he understood that there are also benefits to greatness, and he presented himself to the Nasi in order that he would ordain him.

讻讬 住诪讻讜讛 诇专讘讬 讝讬专讗 砖专讜 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 诇讗 讻讞诇 讜诇讗 砖专拽 讜诇讗 驻讬专讻讜住 讜讬注诇转 讞谉 讻讬 住诪讻讜讛 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜诇专讘讬 讗住讬 砖专讜 诇讛讜 讛讻讬 讻诇 诪谉 讚讬谉 讻诇 诪谉 讚讬谉 住诪讜讻讜 诇谞讗 诇讗 转住诪讻讜 诇谞讗 诇讗 诪住专诪讬讟讬谉 讜诇讗 诪住专诪讬住讬谉 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诇讗 诪讞诪讬住讬谉 讜诇讗 诪讟讜专诪讬住讬谉

The Gemara relates: When they ordained Rabbi Zeira the Sages who were present at the ceremony sang to him this paean of praise traditionally sung to a bride at her wedding: She wears no blue eye shadow and no rouge on her face and no hair dye, and nevertheless she radiates grace. The bride is described as so beautiful that she does not need any cosmetics or adornments, and metaphorically Rabbi Zeira is praised as exceptionally and recognizably qualified for his appointment. Similarly, when they ordained Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, they sang to them this paean of praise: Anyone like these, anyone like these, ordain for us, as they epitomized the ideal candidate for ordination. But do not ordain for us those counted among the rags [misarmitin] or among the distorters [misarmisin]. And some say that they said: Do not ordain for us those counted among the robbers [me岣misin] or among the tramplers [miturmisin].

专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讻讬 讛讜讛 讗转讬 诪诪转讬讘转讗 诇讘讬 拽讬住专 谞驻拽讬 诪讟专讜谞讬转讗 讚讘讬 拽讬住专 讜诪砖专讬讬谉 诇讬讛 专讘讛 讚注诪讬讛 诪讚讘专谞讗 讚讗讜诪转讬讛 讘讜爪讬谞讗 讚谞讛讜专讗 讘专讬讱 诪转讬讬讱 诇砖诇诐

Since the songs composed for various Sages were mentioned, the Gemara also recounts that when Rabbi Abbahu would come from the yeshiva to the house of the emperor, the ladies from the emperor鈥檚 house would go out and sing before him: O great one of his people, leader of his nation, illuminating candle, may your arrival be blessed in peace.

注专讬驻转 注讙诇讛 讘砖诇砖讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讜讬爪讗讜 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 壮砖驻讟讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖拽讜诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛谉 注讜讚 讗讞讚 讛专讬 讻讗谉 讞诪砖讛 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 砖谞讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖拽讜诇 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇讬讛诐 注讜讚 讗讞讚 讛专讬 讻讗谉 砖诇砖讛

搂 The mishna teaches that the breaking of the heifer鈥檚 neck is performed in front of a panel of three judges, and that Rabbi Yehuda says there must be five judges. The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd your elders and your judges shall go out and they shall measure to the cities that are around the corpse鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:2). 鈥淵our elders鈥 is in the plural, which indicates a minimum of two, and 鈥測our judges鈥 is also plural, indicating another two, and as a court may not be composed of an even number of judges, they add an additional one to them, so there are five judges here; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 indicate two, and as a court may not be composed of an even number of judges, they add an additional one to them, so there are three judges here.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讗讬 砖驻讟讬讱 诪讗讬 注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘砖讜驻讟讬讱 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讝拽谞讬 讝拽谞讬讱 谞驻拽讗

The Gemara asks: But according to Rabbi Shimon, what does he do with this extra expression: 鈥淵our judges鈥? The Gemara answers: He requires it to teach that these judges must be of the unique ones among your judges, meaning that they must be members of the Sanhedrin. The Gemara asks: And how does Rabbi Yehuda derive the halakha that the judges must be members of the Sanhedrin? He derives it from the fact that the verse did not merely state: 鈥淓lders,鈥 but rather: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 which indicates the elders that are unique to all of the Jewish people, meaning the Sages of the Sanhedrin.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讬 诪讝拽谞讬 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 讝拽谞讬 讛砖讜拽 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讝拽谞讬讱 讜讗讬 讻转讬讘 讝拽谞讬讱 讛讜讛 讗诪讬谞讗 住谞讛讚专讬 拽讟谞讛 讻转讘 专讞诪谞讗 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诪诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘砖讜驻讟讬讱 讜专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讙诪专 讝拽谞讬 讝拽谞讬 诪讜住诪讻讜 讝拽谞讬 讛注讚讛 讗转 讬讚讬讛诐 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘注讚讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 诪讬讜讞讚讬谉 砖讘讝拽谞讬讱

And how does Rabbi Shimon respond to this claim? He holds that had the verse written only: 鈥淓lders,鈥 I would say that the verse is referring to any elders in the marketplace who are not members of the Sanhedrin. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淵our elders.鈥 And if it was written: 鈥淵our elders,鈥 I would say that it is referring to members of a lesser Sanhedrin. Therefore, the Merciful One writes: 鈥淎nd your judges,鈥 to indicate that they must be of the unique ones among your judges. And how would Rabbi Yehuda respond to this claim? He learns it by means of a verbal analogy from the word 鈥渆lders鈥 written in this verse and the word 鈥渆lders鈥 written in the verse: 鈥淎nd the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bull鈥 (Leviticus 4:15). Just as there it is referring to the unique ones of the congregation, so too here, it is referring to the unique ones among your elders.

讗讬 讬诇讬祝 诇讬诇祝 讻讜诇讛 诪讛转诐 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诇诪讛 诇讬 讗诇讗 讜讬讜 讜砖驻讟讬讱 诇诪谞讬讬谞讗 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讜讬讜 诇讗 讚专讬砖

The Gemara asks: If he learns this verbal analogy, he should learn all of it, i.e., the entire halakha, including the number of judges as well as their rank, from there, i.e., the verse in Leviticus, and if so why do I need the extra expressions: 鈥淵our elders鈥 and: 鈥淎nd your judges鈥? Rather, certainly he does not accept this verbal analogy. Rather, he holds that the additional letter vav, corresponding to the word 鈥渁nd鈥 in the expression: 鈥淎nd your judges,鈥 is there for the tally, meaning that the expression 鈥測our judges鈥 teaches that they must be members of the Great Sanhedrin, and the additional vav serves to add an additional two to the number of judges. And how does Rabbi Shimon respond to that? He does not expound the additional letter vav.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讜讬爪讗讜 砖谞讬诐 讜诪讚讚讜 砖谞讬诐 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛专讬 转砖注讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖讘注讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 诇讻讚转谞讬讗 壮讜讬爪讗讜壮 讛谉 讜诇讗 砖诇讜讞谉 壮讜诪讚讚讜壮 砖讗驻讬诇讜 谞诪爪讗

The Gemara asks: If that is so, if the verbs in the plural form are each understood as adding an additional two judges, then the expression: 鈥淎nd they shall go out,鈥 in the continuation of the verse (Deuteronomy 21:2) indicates another two, and the expression: 鈥淎nd they shall measure,鈥 adds another two, meaning that according to Rabbi Yehuda there should be nine judges, and according to Rabbi Shimon, seven. The Gemara answers: He needs this exposition for that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall go out,鈥 to emphasize that they must go out, and not their agents, and the verse states: 鈥淎nd they shall measure,鈥 to teach that this measurement is itself a mitzva, such that even if the corpse is found

讘注诇讬诇 诇注讬专 爪专讬讱 诇注住讜拽 讘诪讚讬讚讛

clearly close to the city, so that there is no need to measure in order to determine the closest city, nevertheless they must involve themselves with the measurement.

诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 壮讜讬爪讗讜 讝拽谞讬讱 讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 壮讝拽谞讬讱壮 讝讜 住谞讛讚专讬谉 壮讜砖驻讟讬讱壮 讝讛 诪诇讱 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 诪诇讱 讚讻转讬讘 壮诪诇讱 讘诪砖驻讟 讬注诪讬讚 讗专抓壮 讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 讚讻转讬讘 壮讜讘讗转 讗诇 讛讻讛谞讬诐 讛诇讜讬诐 讜讗诇 讛砖驻讟壮

搂 The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: With regard to the breaking of the neck of the heifer, the verse states: 鈥淎nd your elders and your judges shall go out鈥 (Deuteronomy 21:2). 鈥淵our elders,鈥 this is referring to the Sanhedrin; 鈥渁nd your judges,鈥 this is referring to the king and the High Priest. The baraita explains the assertion that the king is called a judge, as it is written: 鈥淭he king by justice establishes the land鈥 (Proverbs 29:4), and the High Priest is also called a judge, as it is written: 鈥淎nd you shall come to the priests the Levites, and to the judge that will be in those days鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:9), referring to the High Priest.

讗讬讘注讬讗 诇讛讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讘讞讚讗 驻诇讬讙 讗讜 讘转专转讬 驻诇讬讙 讘诪诇讱 讜讻讛谉 讙讚讜诇 驻诇讬讙 讗讘诇 讘住谞讛讚专讬 讗讬 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讬 讻专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜 讚讬诇诪讗 讘住谞讛讚专讬 谞诪讬 驻诇讬讙 讚讗诪专 讻讜诇讛 住谞讛讚专讬 讘注讬谞谉

A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Does Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov disagree with the tanna鈥檌m of the mishna only with regard to one matter, or does he disagree with regard to two matters? Does he disagree only with regard to the requirement for the king and the High Priest to participate in the measurement, but with regard to the Sanhedrin he holds either in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda or in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon? Or perhaps he disagrees with regard to the Sanhedrin, too, as he says we require all of the members of the Sanhedrin to participate in the measurement.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讜住祝 转讗 砖诪注 诪爪讗谉 讗讘讬转 驻讙讬 讜讛诪专讛 注诇讬讛谉 讬讻讜诇 转讛讗 讛诪专讗转讜 讛诪专讗讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜拽诪转 讜注诇讬转 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐壮 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

Rav Yosef said: Come and hear a solution to this dilemma from a baraita discussing the case of a rebellious elder, a Sage who publicly teaches a halakha against the ruling of the Great Sanhedrin: If the rebellious elder found the members of the Sanhedrin in Beit Pagei outside of Jerusalem and rebelled against them by rejecting their decision, one might have thought that his rebellion is deemed a rebellion and he will be liable to receive the death penalty if he instructs the public to follow his opinion. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall arise and go up to the place that the Lord your God shall choose鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:8), and this teaches that the location determines the authority of the Sanhedrin; to a certain extent this authority exists only when the Sanhedrin is situated in the Chamber of Hewn Stone, adjacent to the Temple.

讚谞驻讜拽 讻诪讛 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诪拽爪转谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讛谞讱 讚讗讬讻讗 讙讜讗讬 拽讬讬诪讬 讻讜讜转讬讛 讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 讚谞驻讜拽 讻讜诇讛讜 诇诪讗讬 讗讬诇讬诪讗 诇讚讘专 讛专砖讜转 诪讬 诪爪讜 谞驻拽讬 讜讛讻转讬讘 砖专专讱 讗讙谉 讛住讛专 讗诇 讬讞住专 讛诪讝讙 讗诇讗 驻砖讬讟讗 诇讚讘专 诪爪讜讛

The Gemara clarifies: In the case discussed in the baraita, how many members of the Sanhedrin went out to Beit Pagei? If we say that only some of them went out, there is no significance in such a ruling issued by the rebellious elder, as perhaps those who are inside the Chamber of Hewn Stone are the majority and hold in accordance with his opinion; in which case he certainly would not be deemed a rebellious elder. Rather, it is obvious that they all went out. And for what reason did they go out? If we say that they did so for an optional matter, may they go out? But isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淵our navel is like a round goblet wherein no blended wine is lacking鈥 (Song of Songs 7:3), from which it is inferred that the Sanhedrin sit in a half-circle, and there must never be more than two-thirds of them lacking, as this is the measure of wine blended in water. Rather, since the Sanhedrin may not leave the chamber unnecessarily, it is obvious that they went out for a matter relating to a mitzva.

讛讬讻讬 讚诪讬 诇讗讜 诇诪讚讬讚转 注讙诇讛 讜专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讻讜诇讬 住谞讛讚专讬 讘注讬谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讻讙讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讻讚转谞谉 讗讬谉 诪讜住讬驻讬谉 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讗诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖诇 砖讘注讬诐 讜讗讞讚

What are the circumstances? Is it not that they went out to measure the distance between a murder victim and the nearest city, in order to perform the ritual of the breaking of the neck of the heifer, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov, from which it can be deduced that he says: We require all of the Sanhedrin to participate? Abaye said to him: No, that cannot be proven from here, as perhaps it is a case where they went out to extend the city of Jerusalem or the courtyards of the Temple, as we learned in the mishna: They may extend the city or the courtyards of the Temple only in accordance with the ruling of a court of seventy-one judges.

转谞讬讗 讻讜讜转讬讛 讚专讘 讬讜住祝 诪爪讗谉 讗讘讬转 驻讗讙讬 讜讛诪专讛 注诇讬讛谉 讻讙讜谉 砖讬爪讗讜 诇诪讚讬讚转 注讙诇讛 讜诇讛讜住讬祝 注诇 讛注讬专 讜注诇 讛注讝专讜转 讬讻讜诇 砖转讛讗 讛诪专讗转讜 讛诪专讗讛 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜拽诪转 讜注诇讬转 讗诇 讛诪拽讜诐壮 诪诇诪讚 砖讛诪拽讜诐 讙讜专诐

It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rav Yosef: If he found them in Beit Pagei and rebelled against them, such as in a situation where they went out to measure the distance between a murder victim and the nearest city, in order to perform the ceremony of the breaking of the neck of the heifer or to extend the city or the courtyards, one might have thought that his rebellion is deemed a rebellion. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淎nd you shall arise and go up to the place,鈥 which teaches that the location determines the authority of the Sanhedrin. This proves that there is a tanna who maintains that all of the members of the Sanhedrin must participate in the measurement.

谞讟注 专讘注讬 讜诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 讘砖诇砖讛 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬讝讛讜 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 驻讬专讜转 砖讛专拽讬讘讜 讜讬讬谉 砖讛拽专讬诐 讜诪注讜转 砖讛讞诇讬讚讜 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 驻讜讚讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘砖诇砖讛 诇拽讜讞讜转 讗讘诇 诇讗 讘砖诇砖讛 砖讗讬谉 诇拽讜讞讜转 讗驻讬诇讜 谞讻专讬 讗讞讚 诪讛谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讗讞讚 诪讛诐 讘注诇讬诐

搂 The mishna teaches: Valuations of the fruits of a fourth-year sapling or second-tithe produce in cases where their value is not known is performed by three judges. The Sages taught in a baraita: What is the second tithe whose value is not known and requires a special court to assess it? This is fruit that has decomposed, and wine that has developed a film, and coins that have become rusted and cannot be traded at full value. Therefore, there is a need for expert assessment. The Sages taught in another baraita: The second tithe whose value is not known may be redeemed by three purchasers, i.e., experts in trade, but not by three ordinary people who are not purchasers. This may be done even if one of them is a gentile, and even if one of them is the owner.

讘注讬 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 砖诇砖讛 讜诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇转讜讱 讻讬住 讗讞讚 诪讛讜 转讗 砖诪注 讗讬砖 讜砖转讬 谞砖讬讜 驻讜讚讬谉 诪注砖专 砖谞讬 砖讗讬谉 讚诪讬讜 讬讚讜注讬谉 讚讬诇诪讗 讻讙讜谉 专讘 驻驻讗 讜讘转 讗讘讗 住讜专讗讛

Rabbi Yirmeya asks: Concerning three people who deposit their funds into one single purse, meaning they are partners in expenses and profits, what is the halakha? With regard to valuations, are they considered as three people or as one? The Gemara answers: Come and hear a solution to the matter from a baraita: A man and his two wives may redeem produce of the second tithe where its value is unknown. It is apparent that three partners are considered a court for this matter. The Gemara rejects this proof: Perhaps this was a case of a marriage with special arrangements, such as that between Rav Pappa and his wife, the daughter of Abba of Sura. Rav Pappa and his wife handled their finances independently; she had her own property and was responsible for her own expenses.

讛讛拽讚砖讜转 讘砖诇砖讛 诪转谞讬转讬谉 讚诇讗 讻讬 讛讗讬 转谞讗 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讗讜诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 爪讬谞讜专讗 砖诇 讛拽讚砖 爪专讬讻讛 注砖专讛 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诇驻讚讜转讛

搂 The mishna teaches that the valuation of consecrated property is performed by three judges. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov says: Even a simple item such as a small fork of consecrated property requires a valuation by ten people in order to redeem it.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讘砖诇诪讗 诇专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讘谉 讬注拽讘 讚讗诪专 讻砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 注砖专讛 讻讛谞讬诐 讻转讜讘讬谉 讘驻专砖讛 讗诇讗 诇专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪谞讗 诇讛讜

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Granted, the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya鈥檃kov can be understood, since what he says is in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel. As Shmuel says: Ten priests are written in this Torah portion, meaning the word 鈥減riest鈥 appears ten times in the passage discussing consecrated property and redeeming consecrated property (Leviticus, chapter 27). For each time the word 鈥減riest鈥 is stated, a judge is added to the court that must endorse the calculation of the redemption, leading to a total of ten judges. But according to the opinion of the Rabbis, from where do they derive a requirement for three judges?

讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 砖诇砖讛 拽专拽注讜转 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讗专讘注讛 转讬住讙讬 讘讗专讘注讛 讜讻讬 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讗诇诪讛 转谞谉 讛拽专拽注讜转 转砖注讛 讜讻讛谉

And if you would say that the word 鈥減riest鈥 is written with regard to them, i.e., with regard to the specific halakha of redeeming a consecrated animal, which can be generalized to any case of movable property, only three times (Leviticus 27:11鈥12), then in a case of redeeming land, with regard to which the word 鈥減riest,鈥 is written four times (Leviticus 27:14, 18, 23), it should be enough to perform the valuation in a court of four judges. And if you would say: Indeed that is the case, why did we learn in the mishna that the valuation of consecrated land is performed by nine judges and one priest?

讗诇讗 诪讗讬 讚诪砖诇诪讬 讘讛讜 注砖专讛 讛拽讚砖讜转 讚诪砖诇诪讬 讘讛讜 砖讬转讗 诇讬讘注讜 砖讬转讗 拽砖讬讗

Rather, what would you say? That the count of ten instances of the word 鈥減riest鈥 written in the section is completed with these, meaning that there is a cumulative calculation of all mentions of the word since the beginning of the passage? If so, concerning consecrated items such as animals, given that a similar cumulative count of six is completed with them, they should require six judges to perform the valuation. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, the matter is difficult.

讛注专讻讬谉 讻讜壮 诪讗讬 注专讻讬谉 讛诪讟诇讟诇讬谉 讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讘讗讜诪专 注专讱 讻诇讬 讝讛 注诇讬 讚讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘

搂 The mishna teaches that the valuations that are movable property are performed by three judges. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Valuations that are movable property? The term: Valuations, generally is referring to a unique type of calculation in which one vows to contribute the value of a person, according to the set amounts explicitly stated in the Torah (see Leviticus 27:1鈥8). This type of calculation does not apply to property, so to what does the mishna refer? Rav Giddel says that Rav says: The mishna was discussing a case where one says: The valuation of this utensil is incumbent upon me to contribute. As Rav Giddel says that Rav says:

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