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Today's Daf Yomi

September 4, 2017 | 讬状讙 讘讗诇讜诇 转砖注状讝

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Sanhedrin 50

The gemara brings proofs for the two different opinions regarding the order of severity of the four death penalties of the court. 聽Each death penalty had something unique about it and the gemara compares each one to the other, proving why one is considered more or less severe than the other.


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拽住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 谞砖讜讗讛 讬讜爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诇讗 讗专讜住讛 讜诪讚讗驻拽讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: The Rabbis hold that only the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery is singled out from all those who commit adultery, for burning, but not one who is betrothed, as a betrothed woman who committed adultery, whether or not she is the daughter of a priest, is executed by stoning. And since the Merciful One singles out a betrothed woman who is not married from all married women who commit adultery, to be executed by stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe than burning.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater than others? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword would appear to be more severe than stoning, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city, who also undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism. And for what reason is the severity of this case of an idolatrous city considered greater than others? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜转谞讬讗 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: The severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the one who subverts the city, inciting them to sin, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. And it is taught in a baraita: The subverters of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning. Evidently, stoning is a more severe type of execution than decapitation.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚谉 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent (see Kiddushin 30b).

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of a betrothed Jewish woman from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of a betrothed Jewish woman who committed adultery from strangulation to stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪讞诇诇转 讗转 讗讘讬讛

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

谞讗诪专 讗讘讬讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 讜谞讗诪专 讗讘讬讛 讘砖专讬驻讛 诪讛 讗讘讬讛 讛讗诪讜专 讘住拽讬诇讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 讗祝 讗讘讬讛 讛讗诪讜专 讘砖专讬驻讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝

The Gemara answers: The severity of burning is derived by means of a verbal analogy. The term 鈥渉er father鈥 is stated with regard to stoning, in the verse: 鈥淎nd the men of her city shall stone her with stones and she shall die, because she has done a depraved thing in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:21), and the term 鈥渉er father鈥 is stated with regard to burning, in the verse: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest, when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9). Therefore, just as, concerning the term 鈥渉er father鈥 that is stated with regard to stoning it is established that stoning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, so too, concerning the term 鈥渉er father鈥 that is stated with regard to burning, it may be established that burning is more severe than decapitation by the sword.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚谉 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from strangulation to burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

Decapitation by the sword is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 驻讜砖讟 讬讚讜 讘注讬拽专 注讚讬祝

The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the transgression of one who undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism is more severe, as he defiles the honor of the Omnipresent Himself, so his punishment must certainly be the most severe.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讻讜壮 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住拽讬诇讛 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪讞诇诇转 讗转 讗讘讬讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says that the order of severity is burning, stoning, strangulation, and killing. The Gemara explains the basis for his opinion. Burning is considered more severe than stoning, as burning is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than the others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 驻讜砖讟 讬讚讜 讘注讬拽专

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; stoning is more severe, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions greater? Because the transgressor undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 讗讞转 讗专讜住讛 讜讗讞转 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪住拽讬诇讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon conforms to his line of reasoning, as he says that the daughter of a priest, whether she is betrothed or married, is singled out for burning. And since the Merciful One singles out the case of the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of a betrothed Jewish woman, changing her punishment from execution by stoning to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than stoning, as the punishment for a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery must certainly be more severe than that of the daughter of a non-priest.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

The Gemara continues to explain the order of severity according to Rabbi Shimon. Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚诐 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from the category of a married Jewish woman who committed adultery, changing her punishment from execution by strangulation to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted?

讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讞谞拽 砖讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪诪谞讜 住讬讬祝 讛拽诇 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. Since those who subverted the people of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning, this is evidently a more severe type of capital punishment than decapitation. And it is inferred a聽fortiori that if it is so that concerning strangulation, which is more severe than decapitation by the sword, nevertheless burning is more severe than it, is it not all the more so obvious that burning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, which is a more lenient type of execution compared to strangulation?

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the betrothed daughter of a non-priest who committed adultery from the category of a married Jewish woman who committed adultery, changing her punishment from execution by strangulation to execution by stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讻讜壮 讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

Stoning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讞谞拽 砖讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪诪谞讜 住讬讬祝 讛拽诇 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The Gemara answers that in response to this objection you should say: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. Since those who subverted the people of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning, this punishment is evidently more severe than decapitation. And it is inferred a fortiori that if it is so that concerning strangulation, which is more severe than decapitation by the sword, nevertheless stoning is more severe than it, is it not all the more so obvious that stoning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, which is a more lenient type of execution compared to strangulation?

讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Strangulation is more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜转谞讬讗 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽

The Gemara answers that you should say in response to this objection: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater, and it is taught in a baraita: The subverters of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: By strangulation. Therefore, according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, it is clear that strangulation is a more severe type of capital punishment than decapitation.

诪专讙诇讗 讘驻讜诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞注专讛 讛诪讗讜专住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘砖专讬驻讛 讝讬谞转讛 诪讗讘讬讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘砖专讬驻讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan was wont to say the following baraita: A betrothed young woman who is the daughter of a priest and who committed adultery is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: She is executed by burning. A betrothed young woman who is the daughter of a non-priest and who engaged in intercourse with her father is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: By burning.

诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诇专讘谞谉 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诇讗 讗专讜住讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讞转 讗专讜住讛 讜讗讞转 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诇专讘谞谉 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara asks: What does this baraita teach us? The Gemara answers: It teaches us that according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the married daughter of a priest is singled out for burning, and not a betrothed one, who is executed by stoning. According to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, the daughter of a priest, whether she is betrothed or married, is singled out for burning. And what is the reason for their respective opinions with regard to the punishment of the daughter of a priest? It is because according to the Rabbis stoning is more severe than burning, whereas according to Rabbi Shimon burning is more severe.

谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 砖转讬 诪讬转讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讞诪讜专讛

In addition to the case of the priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery, there is a practical difference between these two opinions, which is that one who was sentenced to two different court-imposed death penalties for two sins he committed is punished with the more severe of the two, and these tanna鈥檌m disagree as to which type of death penalty is more severe.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 讻诇诇讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘讘转 讻讛谉

What is the source of the opinion of Rabbi Shimon that a priest鈥檚 betrothed daughter who committed adultery is executed by stoning? As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon says: Two general halakhot are stated in the Torah with regard to the daughter of a priest, one rendering the betrothed daughter of a priest who committed adultery liable to be executed by stoning, and the other rendering the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery liable to be executed by strangulation.

讘讘转 讻讛谉 讜诇讗 讘讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讘讘转 讻讛谉

The Gemara interrupts the baraita and asks: Are they stated only with regard to the daughter of a priest, and not with regard to the daughter of a non-priest? Aren鈥檛 these halakhot stated with regard to the daughter of a non-priest as well? Rather, emend the text and say: These two halakhot are stated with regard to the daughter of a priest as well.

讜讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 谞砖讜讗讛 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讜讗专讜住讛 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛

The baraita continues: The verse: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest, when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9), is stated with regard to both a betrothed woman and a married woman. And the verse thereby singles out the married daughter of a priest from the category of an ordinary married woman, whose punishment is execution by strangulation, and it singles out the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of an ordinary betrothed woman, who is executed by stoning.

诪讛 讻砖讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 谞砖讜讗讛 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 诇讛讞诪讬专 讗祝 讻砖讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 讗专讜住讛 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛 诇讛讞诪讬专

Therefore, just as when the verse singles out the married daughter of a priest from the category of a married woman it is to render her punishment more severe, so too, when the verse singles out the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of a betrothed woman it is to render her punishment more severe. This indicates that burning is a more severe type of capital punishment than stoning.

讝讜诪诪讬 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 讘讻诇诇 讝讜诪诪讬 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讝讜诪诪讬 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 讘讻诇诇 讝讜诪诪讬 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇

The punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the married daughter of a priest, who testified falsely that she committed adultery, is included in the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the married daughter of a non-priest, and the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the betrothed daughter of a priest is included in the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the betrothed daughter of a non-priest. The Torah is not more severe with them; the conspiring witnesses in the case of any married woman accused of committing adultery are strangled, and the conspiring witnesses in the case of any betrothed woman accused of committing adultery are stoned.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讜讘转 讗讬砖 讻讛谉 讻讬 转讞诇壮 讬讻讜诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讞诇诇讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮诇讝谞讜转壮 讘讞讬诇讜诇讬谉 砖讘讝谞讜转 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

The Sages taught: The verse states: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest [ish kohen], when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9). One might have thought that the expression 鈥渨hen she profanes [ki te岣l]鈥 is referring even to one who desecrated [岣llela] Shabbat; she too should be executed by burning. To counter this, the verse states: 鈥淏y playing the harlot鈥; the verse is speaking of profanation through promiscuity.

讬讻讜诇 讗驻讬诇讜 驻谞讜讬讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇

One might have thought even if she is unmarried and she engaged in promiscuous intercourse she should be executed by burning. This is incorrect, as here it is stated: 鈥淗er father,鈥 and there it is stated with regard to a betrothed woman who committed adultery: 鈥淏ecause she has done a depraved thing in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:21). Just as there, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband, so too here, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband.

讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗讜诪专 讗讘讬讛 讗诇讗 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 壮讛讬讗 诪讞诇诇转壮 讛讜讬 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诪讜专

Or perhaps one might have thought that the verse states 鈥渉er father鈥 only in order to exclude all men except her father, i.e., she is liable to be executed by burning only if she engaged in intercourse with her father. To counter this, when it states 鈥渟he profanes,鈥 indicating that it is she who profanes her father and not her father who profanes himself and her, all men are stated, i.e., included.

讛讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 壮讗讘讬讛壮 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇

Therefore, how do I realize the meaning of the expression 鈥渟he profanes her father鈥? What halakha does it teach? The baraita answers: Here it is stated: 鈥淗er father,鈥 and there it is stated: 鈥淗er father.鈥 Just as there, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband, so too here, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband.

讗讬 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 谞砖讜讗讛 讘讜讙专转 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 讘讜讙专转 讜讛讬讗 谞砖讜讗讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讝拽讬谞讛 诪谞讬谉

The baraita asks: If the halakha of the priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery is compared, by means of a verbal analogy, to the halakha of a betrothed woman who committed adultery, then perhaps one should say that just as there the reference is specifically to a young woman, i.e., to one whose first signs of maturity appeared within the past half year, who is betrothed, so too here, in the case of the daughter of a priest, the reference is to a young woman who is betrothed. But if she is a young woman who is married, or a grown woman who is betrothed, or a grown woman who is married, or even if she grew old, and is not normally referred to as a daughter, from where is it derived that her punishment is execution by burning?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜讘转 讻讛谉壮 诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The verse states: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest,鈥 in any case. It is derived from the conjunction 鈥渁nd,鈥 represented by the letter vav, that this punishment applies to any woman who is the daughter of a priest.

壮讘转 讻讛谉壮

The verse states: 鈥淭he daughter of a priest.鈥

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Terri Krivosha for the Refuah Shlemah of her husband Harav Hayim Yehuda Ben Faiga Rivah.聽

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Sanhedrin 50

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 50

拽住讘专讬 专讘谞谉 谞砖讜讗讛 讬讜爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诇讗 讗专讜住讛 讜诪讚讗驻拽讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: The Rabbis hold that only the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery is singled out from all those who commit adultery, for burning, but not one who is betrothed, as a betrothed woman who committed adultery, whether or not she is the daughter of a priest, is executed by stoning. And since the Merciful One singles out a betrothed woman who is not married from all married women who commit adultery, to be executed by stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe than burning.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater than others? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword would appear to be more severe than stoning, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city, who also undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism. And for what reason is the severity of this case of an idolatrous city considered greater than others? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜转谞讬讗 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: The severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the one who subverts the city, inciting them to sin, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. And it is taught in a baraita: The subverters of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning. Evidently, stoning is a more severe type of execution than decapitation.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚谉 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent (see Kiddushin 30b).

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of a betrothed Jewish woman from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of a betrothed Jewish woman who committed adultery from strangulation to stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪讞诇诇转 讗转 讗讘讬讛

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞谉 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because the transgressors are not only executed, their property is destroyed as well.

谞讗诪专 讗讘讬讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 讜谞讗诪专 讗讘讬讛 讘砖专讬驻讛 诪讛 讗讘讬讛 讛讗诪讜专 讘住拽讬诇讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 讗祝 讗讘讬讛 讛讗诪讜专 讘砖专讬驻讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝

The Gemara answers: The severity of burning is derived by means of a verbal analogy. The term 鈥渉er father鈥 is stated with regard to stoning, in the verse: 鈥淎nd the men of her city shall stone her with stones and she shall die, because she has done a depraved thing in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:21), and the term 鈥渉er father鈥 is stated with regard to burning, in the verse: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest, when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9). Therefore, just as, concerning the term 鈥渉er father鈥 that is stated with regard to stoning it is established that stoning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, so too, concerning the term 鈥渉er father鈥 that is stated with regard to burning, it may be established that burning is more severe than decapitation by the sword.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚谉 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest from the category of a married Jewish woman, changing the punishment of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from strangulation to burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

Decapitation by the sword is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

讗驻讬诇讜 讛讻讬 驻讜砖讟 讬讚讜 讘注讬拽专 注讚讬祝

The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the transgression of one who undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism is more severe, as he defiles the honor of the Omnipresent Himself, so his punishment must certainly be the most severe.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讻讜壮 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住拽讬诇讛 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪讞诇诇转 讗转 讗讘讬讛

搂 The mishna teaches that Rabbi Shimon says that the order of severity is burning, stoning, strangulation, and killing. The Gemara explains the basis for his opinion. Burning is considered more severe than stoning, as burning is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater than the others? Because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 驻讜砖讟 讬讚讜 讘注讬拽专

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; stoning is more severe, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions greater? Because the transgressor undermines the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诇讟注诪讬讛 讚讗诪专 讗讞转 讗专讜住讛 讜讗讞转 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪住拽讬诇讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon conforms to his line of reasoning, as he says that the daughter of a priest, whether she is betrothed or married, is singled out for burning. And since the Merciful One singles out the case of the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of a betrothed Jewish woman, changing her punishment from execution by stoning to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than stoning, as the punishment for a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery must certainly be more severe than that of the daughter of a non-priest.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

The Gemara continues to explain the order of severity according to Rabbi Shimon. Burning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讘讜讚诐 诇讻讘讜讚 讛诪拽讜诐

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇砖专讬驻讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery from the category of a married Jewish woman who committed adultery, changing her punishment from execution by strangulation to execution by burning, conclude from it that burning is more severe than strangulation.

砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Burning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to a priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, it is because she profanes both herself and her father.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞

The Gemara answers: In response to this objection, you should say: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted?

讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讞谞拽 砖讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪诪谞讜 住讬讬祝 讛拽诇 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. Since those who subverted the people of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning, this is evidently a more severe type of capital punishment than decapitation. And it is inferred a聽fortiori that if it is so that concerning strangulation, which is more severe than decapitation by the sword, nevertheless burning is more severe than it, is it not all the more so obvious that burning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, which is a more lenient type of execution compared to strangulation?

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪讞谞拽 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讜诇注讜讘讚 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Stoning is considered more severe than strangulation, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. And for what reason is the severity of these transgressions considered greater? As we said, it is because the transgressors undermine the fundamental tenets of Judaism.

讗讚专讘讛 讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 讛讜拽砖 讻讜壮

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; strangulation is more severe, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

诪讚讗驻拽讬讛 专讞诪谞讗 诇讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 诪讞谞拽 诇住拽讬诇讛 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara answers: Since the Merciful One singles out the case of the betrothed daughter of a non-priest who committed adultery from the category of a married Jewish woman who committed adultery, changing her punishment from execution by strangulation to execution by stoning, conclude from it that stoning is more severe.

住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谞讛 诇诪讙讚祝 讻讜壮 讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

Stoning is considered more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who blasphemes and to one who worships idols. The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this case considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讜诪讛 讞谞拽 砖讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诪诪谞讜 住讬讬祝 讛拽诇 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The Gemara answers that in response to this objection you should say: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater. Since those who subverted the people of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning, this punishment is evidently more severe than decapitation. And it is inferred a fortiori that if it is so that concerning strangulation, which is more severe than decapitation by the sword, nevertheless stoning is more severe than it, is it not all the more so obvious that stoning is more severe than decapitation by the sword, which is a more lenient type of execution compared to strangulation?

讞谞拽 讞诪讜专 诪住讬讬祝 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇诪讻讛 讗讘讬讜 讜讗诪讜 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 讻讚讗诪专谉

Strangulation is more severe than decapitation by the sword, as it is meted out to one who wounds his father or his mother. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? As we said, because the honor of one鈥檚 parents is compared to the honor of the Omnipresent.

讗讚专讘讛 住讬讬祝 讞诪讜专 砖讻谉 谞讬转谉 诇讗谞砖讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讜诪讗讬 讞讜诪专讗 砖讻谉 诪诪讜谞诐 讗讘讚

The Gemara raises an objection: On the contrary; decapitation by the sword is more severe, as it is meted out to the people of an idolatrous city. And for what reason is the severity of this transgression considered greater? Because their property is destroyed as well.

讗诪专转 讜讻讬 讗讬讝讛 讻讞 诪专讜讘讛 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讗讜 讻讞 讛谞讬讚讞 讛讜讬 讗讜诪专 讻讞 讛诪讚讬讞 讜转谞讬讗 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽

The Gemara answers that you should say in response to this objection: But the severity of which transgression is greater: The severity of the transgression of the subverter, or the severity of the transgression of the subverted? You must say that the severity of the transgression of the subverter is greater, and it is taught in a baraita: The subverters of an idolatrous city are executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: By strangulation. Therefore, according to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, it is clear that strangulation is a more severe type of capital punishment than decapitation.

诪专讙诇讗 讘驻讜诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 谞注专讛 讛诪讗讜专住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 砖讝讬谞转讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘砖专讬驻讛 讝讬谞转讛 诪讗讘讬讛 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘砖专讬驻讛

Rabbi Yo岣nan was wont to say the following baraita: A betrothed young woman who is the daughter of a priest and who committed adultery is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: She is executed by burning. A betrothed young woman who is the daughter of a non-priest and who engaged in intercourse with her father is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: By burning.

诪讗讬 拽讗 诪砖诪注 诇谉 诇专讘谞谉 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜诇讗 讗专讜住讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讞转 讗专讜住讛 讜讗讞转 谞砖讜讗讛 讬爪讗讛 诇砖专讬驻讛 讜讟注诪讗 诪讗讬 诪砖讜诐 讚诇专讘谞谉 住拽讬诇讛 讞诪讜专讛 诇专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 砖专讬驻讛 讞诪讜专讛

The Gemara asks: What does this baraita teach us? The Gemara answers: It teaches us that according to the opinion of the Rabbis, the married daughter of a priest is singled out for burning, and not a betrothed one, who is executed by stoning. According to the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, the daughter of a priest, whether she is betrothed or married, is singled out for burning. And what is the reason for their respective opinions with regard to the punishment of the daughter of a priest? It is because according to the Rabbis stoning is more severe than burning, whereas according to Rabbi Shimon burning is more severe.

谞驻拽讗 诪讬谞讛 诇诪讬 砖谞转讞讬讬讘 砖转讬 诪讬转讜转 讘讬转 讚讬谉 谞讬讚讜谉 讘讞诪讜专讛

In addition to the case of the priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery, there is a practical difference between these two opinions, which is that one who was sentenced to two different court-imposed death penalties for two sins he committed is punished with the more severe of the two, and these tanna鈥檌m disagree as to which type of death penalty is more severe.

诪讗讬 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讚转谞讬讗 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 讻诇诇讜转 谞讗诪专讜 讘讘转 讻讛谉

What is the source of the opinion of Rabbi Shimon that a priest鈥檚 betrothed daughter who committed adultery is executed by stoning? As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Shimon says: Two general halakhot are stated in the Torah with regard to the daughter of a priest, one rendering the betrothed daughter of a priest who committed adultery liable to be executed by stoning, and the other rendering the married daughter of a priest who committed adultery liable to be executed by strangulation.

讘讘转 讻讛谉 讜诇讗 讘讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讗讬诪讗 讗祝 讘讘转 讻讛谉

The Gemara interrupts the baraita and asks: Are they stated only with regard to the daughter of a priest, and not with regard to the daughter of a non-priest? Aren鈥檛 these halakhot stated with regard to the daughter of a non-priest as well? Rather, emend the text and say: These two halakhot are stated with regard to the daughter of a priest as well.

讜讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 谞砖讜讗讛 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 讜讗专讜住讛 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛

The baraita continues: The verse: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest, when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9), is stated with regard to both a betrothed woman and a married woman. And the verse thereby singles out the married daughter of a priest from the category of an ordinary married woman, whose punishment is execution by strangulation, and it singles out the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of an ordinary betrothed woman, who is executed by stoning.

诪讛 讻砖讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 谞砖讜讗讛 诪讻诇诇 谞砖讜讗讛 诇讛讞诪讬专 讗祝 讻砖讛讜爪讬讗 讛讻转讜讘 讗专讜住讛 诪讻诇诇 讗专讜住讛 诇讛讞诪讬专

Therefore, just as when the verse singles out the married daughter of a priest from the category of a married woman it is to render her punishment more severe, so too, when the verse singles out the betrothed daughter of a priest from the category of a betrothed woman it is to render her punishment more severe. This indicates that burning is a more severe type of capital punishment than stoning.

讝讜诪诪讬 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讻讛谉 讘讻诇诇 讝讜诪诪讬 谞砖讜讗讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇 讜讝讜诪诪讬 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讻讛谉 讘讻诇诇 讝讜诪诪讬 讗专讜住讛 讘转 讬砖专讗诇

The punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the married daughter of a priest, who testified falsely that she committed adultery, is included in the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the married daughter of a non-priest, and the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the betrothed daughter of a priest is included in the punishment for the conspiring witnesses concerning the betrothed daughter of a non-priest. The Torah is not more severe with them; the conspiring witnesses in the case of any married woman accused of committing adultery are strangled, and the conspiring witnesses in the case of any betrothed woman accused of committing adultery are stoned.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讜讘转 讗讬砖 讻讛谉 讻讬 转讞诇壮 讬讻讜诇 讗驻讬诇讜 讞诇诇讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮诇讝谞讜转壮 讘讞讬诇讜诇讬谉 砖讘讝谞讜转 讛讻转讜讘 诪讚讘专

The Sages taught: The verse states: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest [ish kohen], when she profanes herself by playing the harlot, she profanes her father; she shall be burned with fire鈥 (Leviticus 21:9). One might have thought that the expression 鈥渨hen she profanes [ki te岣l]鈥 is referring even to one who desecrated [岣llela] Shabbat; she too should be executed by burning. To counter this, the verse states: 鈥淏y playing the harlot鈥; the verse is speaking of profanation through promiscuity.

讬讻讜诇 讗驻讬诇讜 驻谞讜讬讛 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇

One might have thought even if she is unmarried and she engaged in promiscuous intercourse she should be executed by burning. This is incorrect, as here it is stated: 鈥淗er father,鈥 and there it is stated with regard to a betrothed woman who committed adultery: 鈥淏ecause she has done a depraved thing in Israel, to play the harlot in the house of her father鈥 (Deuteronomy 22:21). Just as there, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband, so too here, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband.

讗讜 讗讬谞讜 讗讜诪专 讗讘讬讛 讗诇讗 诇讛讜爪讬讗 讗转 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 讻砖讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 壮讛讬讗 诪讞诇诇转壮 讛讜讬 讻诇 讗讚诐 讗诪讜专

Or perhaps one might have thought that the verse states 鈥渉er father鈥 only in order to exclude all men except her father, i.e., she is liable to be executed by burning only if she engaged in intercourse with her father. To counter this, when it states 鈥渟he profanes,鈥 indicating that it is she who profanes her father and not her father who profanes himself and her, all men are stated, i.e., included.

讛讗 诪讛 讗谞讬 诪拽讬讬诐 壮讗讘讬讛壮 谞讗诪专 讻讗谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 讜谞讗诪专 诇讛诇谉 壮讗讘讬讛壮 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇 讗祝 讻讗谉 讝谞讜转 注诐 讝讬拽转 讛讘注诇

Therefore, how do I realize the meaning of the expression 鈥渟he profanes her father鈥? What halakha does it teach? The baraita answers: Here it is stated: 鈥淗er father,鈥 and there it is stated: 鈥淗er father.鈥 Just as there, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband, so too here, the reference is to the promiscuous intercourse of one who has a bond to a husband.

讗讬 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 谞注专讛 讜讛讬讗 谞砖讜讗讛 讘讜讙专转 讜讛讬讗 讗专讜住讛 讘讜讙专转 讜讛讬讗 谞砖讜讗讛 讜讗驻讬诇讜 讛讝拽讬谞讛 诪谞讬谉

The baraita asks: If the halakha of the priest鈥檚 daughter who committed adultery is compared, by means of a verbal analogy, to the halakha of a betrothed woman who committed adultery, then perhaps one should say that just as there the reference is specifically to a young woman, i.e., to one whose first signs of maturity appeared within the past half year, who is betrothed, so too here, in the case of the daughter of a priest, the reference is to a young woman who is betrothed. But if she is a young woman who is married, or a grown woman who is betrothed, or a grown woman who is married, or even if she grew old, and is not normally referred to as a daughter, from where is it derived that her punishment is execution by burning?

转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮讜讘转 讻讛谉壮 诪讻诇 诪拽讜诐

The verse states: 鈥淎nd the daughter of a priest,鈥 in any case. It is derived from the conjunction 鈥渁nd,鈥 represented by the letter vav, that this punishment applies to any woman who is the daughter of a priest.

壮讘转 讻讛谉壮

The verse states: 鈥淭he daughter of a priest.鈥

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