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Today's Daf Yomi

October 13, 2017 | 讻状讙 讘转砖专讬 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sanhedrin 89

Further conditions are brought under which the rebellious elder can get killed.聽 There is a debate about how his death is publicized.聽 Details regarding false prophets and those who don’t listen to prophecies are brought.聽 Three types of cases receive strangulation and another聽three are killed by God.聽 The derivations of these cases as well as rea;l examples of these cases are brought.聽 The gemara digresses to the akeida story and聽brings in the satan character fromJob into the story of the akeida.

讚拽砖专 讛注诇讬讜谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讙专讜注 讜注讜诪讚

that the upper knot is mandated by Torah law, then fulfillment of the mitzva is already compromised from the outset when the additional string is tied together with the other threads.

讗讬 讛讻讬 转驻讬诇讬谉 谞诪讬 讗讬 注讘讬讚 讗专讘注讛 讘转讬 讜讗讬讬转讬 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讗谞讞 讙讘讬讬讛讜 讛讗讬 诇讞讜讚讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讛讗讬 诇讞讜讚讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讗讬 注讘讬讚 讞诪砖讛 讘转讬 讙专讜注 讜注讜诪讚 讛讜讗 讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘讬转 讞讬爪讜谉 砖讗讬谞讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛讗讜讬专 驻住讜诇

The Gemara challenges: If so, the status of phylacteries is also the same. If one crafts phylacteries of the head with four compartments, and he then brings another compartment and places it alongside them, these compartments with which he fulfills the mitzva stand alone and that additional compartment stands alone and does not compromise the fulfillment of the mitzva. And if one crafts phylacteries of the head with five compartments, the fulfillment of the mitzva is already compromised from the outset. The Gemara answers: But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Zeira say: If there is an obstruction which creates an outer compartment of the phylacteries of the head that is not exposed to the air, the phylacteries of the head are unfit for use in the fulfillment of the mitzva? Therefore, adding a fifth compartment to the four compartments of the phylacteries of the head always compromises the fulfillment of the mitzva.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘注讬专讜 讜诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讚 讛专讙诇 讜诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讻诇 讛注诐 讬砖诪注讜 讜讬专讗讜 讜诇讗 讬讝讬讚讜谉 注讜讚 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪注谞讬谉 讗转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜讻讜转讘讬谉 讜砖讜诇讞讬谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讘讻诇 讛诪拽讜诪讜转 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 诪转讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

MISHNA: One does not execute the rebellious elder, neither in the court that is in his city, nor in the court that is in Yavne, although that was the seat of the Sanhedrin after the destruction of the Second Temple. Rather, one takes him up to the High Court in Jerusalem. And they guard him in incarceration until the pilgrimage Festival, and the court executes him during the pilgrimage Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear, and fear, and no longer sin intentionally鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13); this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda says: One does not delay administering justice to this individual. Rather, the court executes him immediately, and the judges write reports and dispatch agents to all the places, informing them: So-and-so is liable to be punished with the court-imposed death penalty for disobeying the court.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘注讬专讜 讜诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讚 讛专讙诇 讜诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讻诇 讛注诐 讬砖诪注讜 讜讬专讗讜壮 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:3): One does not execute the rebellious elder, neither in the court that is in his city, nor in the court that is in Yavne. Rather, one takes him up to the High Court that is in Jerusalem. And they guard him in incarceration until the pilgrimage Festival, and the court executes him during the pilgrimage Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear, and fear鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13); this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 谞讗诪专 壮讬专讗讜 讜讬讬专讗讜壮 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬砖诪注讜 讜讬讬专讗讜壮 诇诪讛 诪注谞讬谉 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜讻讜转讘讬谉 讜砖讜诇讞讬谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 谞转讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Akiva: Is it stated: And all the nation shall see and fear, which would indicate that the entire nation must actually witness his execution? But isn鈥檛 it stated only: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear and fear,鈥 indicating that merely informing the people of the execution is sufficient? Why delay administering justice to this individual? Rather, the court executes him immediately, and the judges write reports and dispatch agents to all the places informing them: So-and-so was sentenced and found liable to be punished with execution in court.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注讛 爪专讬讻讬谉 讛讻专讝讛 讛诪住讬转 讜讘谉 住讜专专 讜诪讜专讛 讜讝拽谉 诪诪专讗 讜注讚讬诐 讝讜诪诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇讛讜 讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜讻诇 讛注诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘注讚讬诐 讝讜诪诪讬谉 讻转讬讘 讜讛谞砖讗专讬诐 讚诇讗 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讞讝讜 诇住讛讚讜转讗

The Sages taught: There are four transgressors condemned to be executed whose verdicts require a proclamation to inform the public: One who instigates others to engage in idol worship, and the stubborn and rebellious son, and the rebellious elder, and conspiring witnesses. In all of these cases, it is written concerning them: 鈥淎nd all the nation鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13), or: 鈥淎nd all Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:12, 21:21), except with regard to conspiring witnesses, where it is written: 鈥淎nd those who remain shall hear and fear鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:20), as not everyone is fit for providing testimony. Therefore, rather than saying that all of the nation or all of Israel must be informed, only those remaining who are not disqualified from providing testimony are those who must heed the verse: 鈥淗ear and fear and shall henceforth commit no more such evil in the midst of you鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:20).

诪转谞讬壮 谞讘讬讗 讛砖拽专 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 诪讬转转讜 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐

MISHNA: The false prophet mentioned in the Torah includes one who prophesies that which he did not hear from God and one who prophesies that which was not said to him, even if it was said to another prophet. In those cases, his execution is at the hand of man, through strangulation imposed by the court.

讗讘诇 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转讜 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗谞讻讬 讗讚专砖 诪注诪讜

But with regard to one who suppresses his prophecy because he does not want to share it with the public, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet and refuses to heed it, and a prophet who violated his own statement and failed to perform that which he was commanded to do, his death is at the hand of Heaven, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall not hearken unto My words that he shall speak in My name, I will exact it of him鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:19).

讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗讜诪专 讻讱 讗诪专讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讜讜谉 讗转 讛讛诇讻讛 诇讟诪讗 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜诇讟讛专 讗转 讛讟讛讜专

One who prophesies in the name of idol worship and says: This is what the idol said, even if he approximated the correct halakha in the name of the idol to deem ritually impure that which is ritually impure and to deem ritually pure that which is ritually pure, is executed by strangulation.

讛讘讗 注诇 讗砖转 讗讬砖 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇专砖讜转 讛讘注诇 诇谞砖讜讗讬谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 谞讘注诇讛 讛讘讗 注诇讬讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讞谞拽

In the case of one who engages in intercourse with a married woman once she entered her husband鈥檚 domain for the purposes of marriage, even if the marriage was not yet consummated, as she did not yet engage in intercourse with him, one who engages in intercourse with her is executed by strangulation. Before marriage, one who engages in intercourse with her is liable to be executed by stoning.

讜讝讜诪诪讬 讘转 讻讛谉 讜讘讜注诇讛 砖讻诇 讛诪讜讝诪讬谉 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讗讜转讛 诪讬转讛 讞讜抓 诪讝讜诪诪讬 讘转 讻讛谉 讜讘讜注诇讛

And conspiring witnesses who testified that the daughter of a priest committed adultery are executed by strangulation, even though were she guilty, she would be executed by burning. And her paramour is also executed by strangulation, as in any case where one engages in intercourse with a married woman. As all those who are rendered conspiring witnesses are led to their deaths via the same mode of execution with which they conspired to have their victim executed, except for conspiring witnesses who testified that the daughter of a priest and her paramour committed adultery. In that case, although the priest鈥檚 daughter who commits adultery is executed by burning, the conspiring witnesses who sought to have her executed are executed by strangulation, as is the paramour whom they also conspired to have executed.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讜讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita about the punishment of those who sin concerning prophecy: With regard to three of them, their execution is at the hand of man, and with regard to three of them, their execution is at the hand of Heaven. In the case of one who prophesies that which he did not hear from God, and one who prophesies that which was not stated to him, and one who prophesies in the name of idol worship, their execution is at the hand of man. In the case of one who suppresses his prophecy, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet, and a prophet who violated his own statement, their execution is at the hand of Heaven.

诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讗讱 讛谞讘讬讗 讗砖专 讬讝讬讚 诇讚讘专 讚讘专 讘砖诪讬 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜讗砖专 诇讗 爪讜讬转讬讜 讛讗 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪讜讬转讬讜 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讜讗砖专 讬讚讘专 讘砖诐 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜诪转 讛谞讘讬讗 讛讛讜讗 讜讻诇 诪讬转讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘转讜专讛 住转诐 讗讬谞讛 讗诇讗 讞谞拽

The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says that it is derived from a verse, as the verse states: 鈥淏ut the prophet who shall sin intentionally to speak a word in My name that I have not commanded him to speak, or who shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:20). The Gemara analyzes the verse: 鈥淏ut the prophet who shall sin intentionally to speak a word in My name鈥; this is a reference to one who prophesies that which he did not hear. The verse then states: 鈥淭hat I have not commanded him,鈥 from which it is inferred: But I did command another. This is a reference to one who prophesies that which was not stated to him. 鈥淥r who shall speak in the name of other gods鈥; this is a reference to one who prophesies in the name of idol worship. And it is written with regard to all of these: 鈥淭hat prophet shall die.鈥 And every death stated in the Torah without specification is referring to nothing other than strangulation.

讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 诇讗 讬砖诪注 拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇讗 讬砖诪讬注 讜拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇讗 讬砖诪注 讗诇 讚讘专讬 讜讻转讬讘 讗谞讻讬 讗讚专砖 诪注诪讜 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

One who suppresses his prophecy, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet, and a prophet who violated his own statement, their execution is at the hand of Heaven, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall not hearken [yishma] unto My words that he shall speak in My name, I will exact from him鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:19). The reference is to one who forgoes the statement of a prophet. Read into the verse: Who shall not voice [yashmia]; the reference is to one who suppresses the prophecy. And read into the verse: Shall not heed [yishama]; the reference is to one who violated his own statement. And it is written with regard to all of these: 鈥淚 will exact from him,鈥 meaning he is liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven.

讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讻讙讜谉 爪讚拽讬讛 讘谉 讻谞注谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注砖 诇讜 爪讚拽讬讛讜 讘谉 讻谞注谞讛 拽专谞讬 讘专讝诇 诪讗讬 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪注讘讚 专讜讞 谞讘讜转 讗讟注讬转讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 诪讬 讬驻转讛 讗转 讗讞讗讘 讜讬注诇 讜讬驻诇 讘专诪转 讙诇注讚 讜讬爪讗 讛专讜讞 讜讬注诪讚 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讜讬讗诪专 讗谞讬 讗驻转谞讜 讜讬讗诪专 转驻转讛 讜讙诐 转讜讻诇 爪讗 讜注砖讛 讻谉

搂 The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as a false prophet one who prophesies that which he did not hear. The Gemara comments: For example, Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, who prophesied that Ahab should wage war against the kingdom of Aram and would be successful, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, made for him horns of iron, and said: So says the Lord: With these shall you gore the Arameans, until they are consumed鈥 (II聽Chronicles 18:10). The Gemara asks: What was Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, to do? Why was he held responsible? After all, the spirit of Naboth misled him, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord said: Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth Gilead鈥nd there came forth the spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said: I will entice him. And He said鈥ou shall entice him, and shall prevail also; go forth, and do so鈥 (I聽Kings 22:20鈥22).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 爪讗 爪讗 诪诪讞讬爪转讬 诪讗讬 专讜讞 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讜讞讜 砖诇 谞讘讜转 讛讬讝专注讗诇讬

Rav Yehuda says: What is the meaning of the apparently unnecessary term: 鈥淕o forth鈥? Could the Lord not have sufficed with telling the spirit: Do so? The term means: Go forth from My proximity. Since the spirit volunteered to engage in deceit, it was no longer fit to stand in proximity to God. What is the identity of the spirit that undertook to entice Ahab? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It was the spirit of Naboth the Jezreelite, who was eager to take revenge upon Ahab.

讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讬讚拽 讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚 注讜诇讛 诇讻诪讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖谞讬 谞讘讬讗讬诐 诪转谞讘讗讬谉 讘住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚

The Gemara comments: It was incumbent upon Zedekiah to discern between actual prophecies and false prophecies, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yitz岣k, as Rabbi Yitz岣k says: A prophetic vision relating to one and the same subject matter [sigenon] may appear to several prophets, but two prophets do not prophesy employing one and the same style of expression.

注讜讘讚讬讛 讗诪专 讝讚讜谉 诇讘讱 讛砖讬讗讱 讬专诪讬讛 讗诪专 转驻诇爪转讱 讛砖讬讗 讗转讱 讝讚讜谉 诇讘讱 讜讛谞讬 诪讚拽讗诪专讬 讻讜诇讛讜 讻讛讚讚讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讗 讻诇讜诐 拽讗诪专讬

An example of identical content expressed in different styles is the prophecy where Obadiah said: 鈥淭he pride of your heart has beguiled you鈥 (Obadiah 1:3), and Jeremiah said a similar message employing slightly different language: 鈥淵our terribleness has deceived you, even the pride of your heart鈥 (Jeremiah 49:16). And with regard to these false prophets, from the fact that in their case all the prophets are saying their prophecies like each other, i.e., employing an identical style, conclude from it that they are saying nothing of substance and that it is a false prophecy.

讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诇讬讛 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬讛讜砖驻讟 讛讜讛 讛转诐 讜拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讬讛讜砖驻讟 讛讗讬谉 驻讛 谞讘讬讗 注讜讚 诇讛壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚 注讜诇讛 诇讻诪讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖谞讬 谞讘讬讗讬诐 诪转谞讘讗讬诐 讘住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚

The Gemara asks: Perhaps Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, did not know this statement of Rabbi Yitz岣k, and therefore should not have been held responsible? The Gemara answers: Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, was there, and he said to them that they were false prophets, as it is written: 鈥淏ut Jehoshaphat said: Is there not here besides a prophet of the Lord, that we might inquire of him?鈥 (I聽Kings 22:7). Ahab said to him: But aren鈥檛 there all these prophets here? Why seek others? Jehoshaphat said to Ahab: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father, the house of David: A prophetic vision relating to one and the same subject matter may appear to several prophets, but two prophets do not prophesy employing one and the same style of expression. They are false prophets, as they employed the same language when stating their prophecy.

讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讻讙讜谉 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注讝讜专 讚拽讗讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘砖讜拽 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜拽讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 [爪讘讗讜转] 讛谞谞讬 砖讘专 讗转 拽砖转 注讬诇诐 谞砖讗 讞谞谞讬讛 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪讜 诪讛 注讬诇诐 砖诇讗 讘讗 讗诇讗 诇注讝讜专 讗转 讘讘诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛谞谞讬 砖讘专 讗转 拽砖转 注讬诇诐 讻砖讚讬诐 注爪诪谉 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讘砖讜拽 讛转讞转讜谉 讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 砖讘专转讬 讗转 注诇 诪诇讱 讘讘诇

搂 The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as false prophets one who prophesies that which was not stated to him. The Gemara comments: For example, Hananiah, son of Azzur, as Jeremiah was standing in the upper market in Jerusalem and saying: 鈥淪o says the Lord of hosts: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might鈥 (Jeremiah 49:35). Hananiah raised an a fortiori inference himself: If, with regard to Elam, which came only to assist Babylonia, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: 鈥淏ehold, I will break the bow of Elam,鈥 all the more so are the Chaldeans, i.e., the Babylonians, themselves, destined to fall. Hananiah came to the lower market and said: 鈥淪o speaks the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon鈥 (Jeremiah 28:2). As a result, Hananiah, son of Azzur, was killed at the hand of Heaven (Jeremiah 28:16).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讛讗讬 诇讞讘讬专讜 谞诪讬 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬转讬讛讬讘 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诇诪讬讚专砖 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讬转诪专 诇讬讛 讚诪讬 讛讜讗 谞讬讛讜 讚诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Referring to this case as one who prophesies that which was not said to him is not precise, as not only was it not said to Hananiah, neither was this prophecy stated to another prophet. Abaye said to him: Since this matter can be inferred by means of an a fortiori inference, it is like a prophecy that was said to Jeremiah, as inferring matters a fortiori is a legitimate manner of derivation. It is Hananiah who misrepresented the prophecy, as it was not stated to him, i.e., to Hananiah, and then he presented the prophecy as though he heard it from God.

讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讻讙讜谉 谞讘讬讗讬 讛讘注诇

The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as false prophets one who prophesies in the name of idol worship. The Gemara comments: For example, the prophets of the Baal (see I聽Kings, chapter 18).

讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讻讙讜谉 讬讜谞讛 讘谉 讗诪讬转讬 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讻讙讜谉

The mishna lists among those liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven one who suppresses his prophecy. The Gemara comments: For example, Jonah, son of Amittai (Jonah 1:1鈥3). The mishna also lists: And one who forgoes the statement of a prophet. The Gemara comments: For example,

讞讘专讬讛 讚诪讬讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讗诪专 讗诇 专注讛讜 讘讚讘专 讛壮 讛讻讬谞讬 谞讗 讜讬诪讗谉 讛讗讬砖 诇讛讻讜转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讜 讬注谉 讗砖专 诇讗 砖诪注转 [讜讙讜壮]

the colleague of the prophet Micah, son of Imla (see II聽Chronicles 18:7鈥8), as it is written: 鈥淎nd a certain man of the sons of the prophets said unto his colleague by the word of the Lord: Strike me, please. And the man refused to strike him鈥 (I聽Kings 20:35). And it is written: 鈥淭hen he said he to him: Because you have not listened to the voice of the Lord, behold, as soon as you leave me, a lion shall slay you. And as soon as he left from him, a lion found him; and slew him鈥 (I聽Kings 20:36).

讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 讻讙讜谉 注讚讜 讛谞讘讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讻谉 爪讜讛 讗转讬 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讜 讙诐 讗谞讬 谞讘讬讗 讻诪讜讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讘 讗转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 讜讬诪爪讗讛讜 讗专讬讛

The mishna lists among those liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven: And a prophet who violated his own statement. The Gemara comments: For example, Iddo the prophet, who, according to tradition, prophesied the punishment of Jeroboam in Bethel, as it is written: 鈥淚 will neither eat bread nor drink water in this place, for it so was commanded me by the word of the Lord鈥 (I聽Kings 13:8鈥9). And it is written: 鈥淎nd he said to him: I too am a prophet like you; and an angel spoke unto me by the word of the Lord, saying: Bring him back with you into your house, that he may eat bread and drink water鈥 (I聽Kings 13:18). And it is written: 鈥淎nd he went back with him, and ate bread in his house, and drank water鈥 (I聽Kings 13:19). And it is written that he died at the hand of Heaven: 鈥淎nd he went, and a lion met him by the way, and killed him鈥 (I聽Kings 13:24).

转谞讬 转谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 诇讜拽讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讚讗讻讬诇 转诪专讬 讘讗专讘诇讗 诇拽讬 诪讗谉 诪转专讬 讘讬讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讞讘专讬讛 谞讘讬讗讬

A tanna taught a baraita before Rav 岣sda: One who suppresses his prophecy is flogged. Rav 岣sda said a parable to him: Is one who eats dates in a sieve flogged? How can he be flogged? Who forewarns him if he eats dates infested with worms that no one sees? Likewise, as no one knows whether the prophet received a prophecy, how can he be forewarned? Abaye said: His fellow prophets forewarn him.

诪谞讗 讬讚注讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇讗 讬注砖讛 讛壮 [讗诇讛讬诐] 讚讘专 讻讬 讗诐 讙诇讛 住讜讚讜 讜讚讬诇诪讗 讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讗诐 讗讬转讗 讚讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讗讜讚讜注讬 讛讜讜 诪讜讚注讬 诇讻诇讛讜 谞讘讬讗讬

The Gemara asks: From where do they know that he received a prophecy? Abaye says: They know, as it is written: 鈥淔or the Lord God will do nothing, unless He reveals His counsel to His servants the prophets鈥 (Amos 3:7). The Gemara challenges: And perhaps the heavenly court reconsidered with regard to the prophecy, and the prophet is no longer commanded to disseminate the prophecy. The Gemara answers: If it is so that they reconsidered with regard to the prophecy, the heavenly court would have informed all the prophets.

讜讛讗 讬讜谞讛 讚讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讜诇讗 讗讜讚注讜讛讜 讬讜谞讛 诪注讬拽专讗 谞讬谞讜讛 谞讛驻讻转 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗讬讛讜 诇讗 讬讚注 讗讬 诇讟讜讘讛 讗讬 诇专注讛

The Gemara challenges: But in the case of Jonah, they reconsidered it and did not inform them that the people of Nineveh had repented for their sins and were therefore spared the foretold destruction. The Gemara explains: In the case of Jonah, from the outset, the heavenly court told him to say: 鈥淣ineveh will be overturned鈥 (Jonah 3:4). Still, he did not know if the sentence would be for the good, as their corruption would be overturned through repentance, or if it would be for the bad, as the city would be overturned through destruction. Therefore, the prophecy was never revoked, but simply fulfilled in accordance with one of its possible interpretations.

讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讚讗讬注谞砖 讚讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讗讜转 讜讛讗 诪讬讻讛 讚诇讗 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 讗讜转 讜讗讬注谞砖 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讜讞讝拽 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara asks: In the case of one who forgoes the statement of a prophet, from where does he know that the one prophesying is actually a prophet and that he will be punished for failing to comply with the prophecy? The Gemara answers: It is referring to a case where the prophet provides him with a sign indicating that he is a prophet. The Gemara asks: But in the case of Micah, who did not provide him with a sign, and yet he was punished, how could he have known that Micah was a prophet? A case where he has already assumed the presumptive status of a prophet is different, and no sign is necessary.

讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗讘专讛诐 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讬讻讬 砖诪注 诇讬讛 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讛专 讛讻专诪诇 讛讬讻讬 住诪讻讬 注诇讬讛 讜注讘讚讬 砖讞讜讟讬 讞讜抓 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讜讞讝拽 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara continues: Since if you do not say so, and claim that even the prophecy of one established as a prophet requires a sign, then in the case of Abraham at Mount Moriah, how did Isaac listen to him and submit to being slaughtered as an offering? Likewise, in the case of Elijah at Mount Carmel, how did the people rely upon him and enable him to engage in the sacrifice of animals slaughtered outside the Temple, which is prohibited? Rather, perforce, a case where he has already assumed the presumptive status of a prophet is different.

讜讬讛讬 讗讞专 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讗讞专 诪讗讬

搂 Apropos the binding of Isaac, the Gemara elaborates: It is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass after these matters [hadevarim] that God tried Abraham鈥 (Genesis 22:1). The Gemara asks: After what matters? How does the binding of Isaac relate to the preceding events?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讝讬诪专讗 讗讞专 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 砖讟谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讙讚诇 讛讬诇讚 讜讬讙诪诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 砖讟谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讝拽谉 讝讛 讞谞谞转讜 诇诪讗讛 砖谞讛 驻专讬 讘讟谉 诪讻诇 住注讜讚讛 砖注砖讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讜 转讜专 讗讞讚 讗讜 讙讜讝诇 讗讞讚 诇讛拽专讬讘 诇驻谞讬讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讘谞讜 讗诐 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讜 壮讝讘讞 讗转 讘谞讱 诇驻谞讬壮 诪讬讚 讝讜讘讞讜 诪讬讚 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐

Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: This means after the statement [devarav] of Satan, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the child grew, and was weaned, and Abraham prepared a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned鈥 (Genesis 21:8). Satan said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, this old man, you favored him with a product of the womb, i.e., a child, at one hundred years of age. From the entire feast that he prepared, did he not have even one dove or one pigeon to sacrifice before You as a thanks-offering? God said to Satan: Did Abraham prepare the feast for any reason but for his son? If I say to him: Sacrifice your son before Me, he would immediately slaughter him. Immediately, after these matters, the verse states: 鈥淎nd God tried Abraham.鈥

讜讬讗诪专 拽讞 谞讗 讗转 讘谞讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讬谉 谞讗 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讘拽砖讛 诪砖诇 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖注诪讚讜 注诇讬讜 诪诇讞诪讜转 讛专讘讛 讜讛讬讛 诇讜 讙讘讜专 讗讞讚 讜谞爪讞谉 诇讬诪讬诐 注诪讚讛 注诇讬讜 诪诇讞诪讛 讞讝拽讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 注诪讜讚 诇讬 讘诪诇讞诪讛 讝讜 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪诪砖 讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讗讘专讛诐 谞讬住讬转讬讱 讘讻诪讛 谞住讬讜谞讜转 讜注诪讚转 讘讻诇谉 注讻砖讬讜 注诪讜讚 诇讬 讘谞住讬讜谉 讝讛 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 讗讬谉 诪诪砖 讘专讗砖讜谞讬诐

The Torah continues: 鈥淎nd He said: Take, please [na], your son鈥 (Genesis 22:2). Rabbi Shimon bar Abba says: The word na is nothing other than an expression of entreaty. Why did God request rather than command that Abraham take his son? The Gemara cites a parable of a flesh-and-blood king who confronted many wars. And he had one warrior fighting for him, and he overcame his enemies. Over time, there was a fierce war confronting him. The king said to his warrior: I entreat you, stand firm for me in this war, so that others will not say: There is no substance in the first victories, and you are not a true warrior. Likewise, the Holy One, Blessed be He, also said to Abraham: I have tried you with several ordeals, and you have withstood them all. Now, stand firm in this ordeal for Me, so that others will not say: There is no substance in the first ordeals.

讗转 讘谞讱 砖谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讬砖 诇讬 讗转 讬讞讬讚讱 讝讛 讬讞讬讚 诇讗诪讜 讜讝讛 讬讞讬讚 诇讗诪讜 讗砖专 讗讛讘转 转专讜讬讬讛讜 专讞讬诪谞讗 诇讛讜 讗转 讬爪讞拽 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转讟专祝 讚注转讜 注诇讬讜

God said to Abraham: 鈥淧lease take your son, your only, whom you love, Isaac鈥 (Genesis 22:2). When God said: 鈥淵our son,鈥 Abraham said: I have two sons. When God said: 鈥淵our only,鈥 Abraham said: This son is an only son to his mother, and that son is an only son to his mother. When God said: 鈥淲hom you love,鈥 Abraham said: I love both of them. Then God said: 鈥淚saac.鈥 And why did God prolong His command to that extent? Why did He not say Isaac鈥檚 name from the outset? God did so, so that Abraham鈥檚 mind would not be confused by the trauma.

拽讚诪讜 砖讟谉 诇讚专讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讛谞住讛 讚讘专 讗诇讬讱 转诇讗讛 讛谞讛 讬住专转 专讘讬诐 讜讬讚讬诐 专驻讜转 转讞讝拽 讻讜砖诇 讬拽讬诪讜谉 诪诇讬讱 讻讬 注转讛 转讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜转诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讬 讘转诪讬 讗诇讱

Satan preceded Abraham to the path that he took to bind his son and said to him: 鈥淚f one ventures a word to you, will you be weary鈥ou have instructed many, and you have strengthened the weak hands. Your words have upheld him that was falling鈥ut now it comes upon you, and you are weary鈥 (Job 4:2鈥5). Do you now regret what you are doing? Abraham said to him in response: 鈥淎nd I will walk with my integrity鈥 (Psalms 26:11).

讗诪专 诇讜 讛诇讗 讬专讗转讱 讻住诇转讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讝讻专 谞讗 诪讬 讛讜讗 谞拽讬 讗讘讚 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 讚诇讗 拽讗 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讗诇讬 讚讘专 讬讙谞讘 讻讱 砖诪注转讬 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讛砖讛 诇注讜诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讬爪讞拽 诇注讜诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讱 注讜谞砖讜 砖诇 讘讚讗讬 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讗诪专 讗诪转 讗讬谉 砖讜诪注讬谉 诇讜

Satan said to Abraham: 鈥淚s not your fear of God your foolishness?鈥 (Job 4:6). In other words, your fear will culminate in the slaughter of your son. Abraham said to him: 鈥淩emember, please, whoever perished, being innocent鈥 (Job 4:7). God is righteous and His pronouncements are just. Once Satan saw that Abraham was not heeding him, he said to him: 鈥淣ow a word was secretly brought to me, and my ear received a whisper thereof鈥 (Job 4:12). This is what I heard from behind the heavenly curtain [pargod], which demarcates between God and the ministering angels: The sheep is to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering, and Isaac is not to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering. Abraham said to him: Perhaps that is so. However, this is the punishment of the liar, that even if he speaks the truth, others do not listen to him. Therefore, I do not believe you and will fulfill that which I was commanded to perform.

专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讗讞专 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讬爪讞拽 讗谞讬 讙讚讜诇 诪诪讱 讘诪爪讜转 砖讗转讛 诪诇转 讘谉 砖诪谞转 讬诪讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讘谉 砖诇砖 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讜讘讗讘专 讗讞讚 讗转讛 诪讙专讛 讘讬 讗诐 讗讜诪专 诇讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 壮讝讘讞 注爪诪讱 诇驻谞讬壮 讗谞讬 讝讜讘讞 诪讬讚 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the verse: 鈥淎nd it came to pass after these matters that God tried Abraham鈥 (Genesis 22:1). Rabbi Levi says: This means after the statement of Ishmael to Isaac, during an exchange between them described in the verse: 鈥淎nd Sarah saw the son of Hagar鈥ocking鈥 (Genesis 21:9). Ishmael said to Isaac: I am greater than you in the fulfillment of mitzvot, as you were circumcised at the age of eight days, without your knowledge and without your consent, and I was circumcised at the age of thirteen years, with both my knowledge and my consent. Isaac said to Ishmael: And do you provoke me with one organ? If the Holy One, Blessed be He, were to say to me: Sacrifice yourself before Me, I would sacrifice myself. Immediately, God tried Abraham, to confirm that Isaac was sincere in his offer to give his life.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽

The Sages taught: A prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: He is executed by strangulation. Those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, are executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: They are executed by strangulation.

谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞 讘住拽讬诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讗转讬讗 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 诪诪住讬转 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘住拽讬诇讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘住拽讬诇讛

The Gemara elaborates: A prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning. What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? They derive a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols from the word incitement written with regard to a layman who instigates others to worship idols. Just as there, the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning, so too here, the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讬转讛 讻转讬讘讗 讘讬讛 讜讻诇 诪讬转讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘转讜专讛 住转诐 讗讬谞讛 讗诇讗 讞谞拽

And Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to a prophet, the term death is written concerning him. And every death stated in the Torah without specification is referring to nothing other than strangulation.

诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讙诪讬专讬 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 讗讜 诪诪住讬转 讗讜 诪谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞

The Gemara continues: Those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, are executed by stoning. What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? They derive a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, from the word incitement written either with regard to a layman who instigates others to worship idols or from the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols. Just as there, the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning, so too here, the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讙诪专 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 诪谞讘讬讗

And Rabbi Shimon derives a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, from the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols, who, in his opinion, is executed by strangulation.

讜诇讬讙诪专 诪诪住讬转 讚谞讬谉 诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 诪诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 诪诪住讬转 讬讞讬讚 讗讚专讘讛 讚谞讬谉 讛讚讬讜讟 诪讛讚讬讜讟 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讛讚讬讜讟 诪谞讘讬讗

The Gemara challenges: Let him derive the punishment from the punishment of one who is not a prophet who instigates others to worship idols, as those cases are similar. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon derives the punishment for one who instigates the multitudes from the punishment of one who instigates the multitudes, and does not derive the punishment for one who instigates the multitudes from the punishment of one who instigates an individual. The Gemara asks: On the contrary, one derives the punishment for an ordinary person, i.e., one who is not a prophet, who instigates others from the punishment of an ordinary person who incites an idolatrous city, and one does not derive the punishment for an ordinary person who instigates others from the punishment of a prophet who instigates others.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讚讬讞 讗讬谉 诇讱 讛讚讬讜讟 讙讚讜诇 诪讝讛

And Rabbi Shimon holds that in this case there is no distinction between prophet and layman; once the prophet has incited others to idol worship, you have no greater example of an ordinary person than that.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗

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Sanhedrin 89

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 89

讚拽砖专 讛注诇讬讜谉 讚讗讜专讬讬转讗 讙专讜注 讜注讜诪讚

that the upper knot is mandated by Torah law, then fulfillment of the mitzva is already compromised from the outset when the additional string is tied together with the other threads.

讗讬 讛讻讬 转驻讬诇讬谉 谞诪讬 讗讬 注讘讬讚 讗专讘注讛 讘转讬 讜讗讬讬转讬 讗讞专讬谞讗 讜讗谞讞 讙讘讬讬讛讜 讛讗讬 诇讞讜讚讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讛讗讬 诇讞讜讚讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讗讬 注讘讬讚 讞诪砖讛 讘转讬 讙专讜注 讜注讜诪讚 讛讜讗 讛讗诪专 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 讘讬转 讞讬爪讜谉 砖讗讬谞讜 专讜讗讛 讗转 讛讗讜讬专 驻住讜诇

The Gemara challenges: If so, the status of phylacteries is also the same. If one crafts phylacteries of the head with four compartments, and he then brings another compartment and places it alongside them, these compartments with which he fulfills the mitzva stand alone and that additional compartment stands alone and does not compromise the fulfillment of the mitzva. And if one crafts phylacteries of the head with five compartments, the fulfillment of the mitzva is already compromised from the outset. The Gemara answers: But doesn鈥檛 Rabbi Zeira say: If there is an obstruction which creates an outer compartment of the phylacteries of the head that is not exposed to the air, the phylacteries of the head are unfit for use in the fulfillment of the mitzva? Therefore, adding a fifth compartment to the four compartments of the phylacteries of the head always compromises the fulfillment of the mitzva.

诪转谞讬壮 讗讬谉 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘注讬专讜 讜诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讚 讛专讙诇 讜诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讻诇 讛注诐 讬砖诪注讜 讜讬专讗讜 讜诇讗 讬讝讬讚讜谉 注讜讚 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 讗讬谉 诪注谞讬谉 讗转 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜讻讜转讘讬谉 讜砖讜诇讞讬谉 砖诇讜讞讬谉 讘讻诇 讛诪拽讜诪讜转 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 诪转讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

MISHNA: One does not execute the rebellious elder, neither in the court that is in his city, nor in the court that is in Yavne, although that was the seat of the Sanhedrin after the destruction of the Second Temple. Rather, one takes him up to the High Court in Jerusalem. And they guard him in incarceration until the pilgrimage Festival, and the court executes him during the pilgrimage Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear, and fear, and no longer sin intentionally鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13); this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yehuda says: One does not delay administering justice to this individual. Rather, the court executes him immediately, and the judges write reports and dispatch agents to all the places, informing them: So-and-so is liable to be punished with the court-imposed death penalty for disobeying the court.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗讬谉 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘注讬专讜 讜诇讗 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉 砖讘讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 诇讘讬转 讚讬谉 讛讙讚讜诇 砖讘讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诪砖诪专讬谉 讗讜转讜 注讚 讛专讙诇 讜诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 讘专讙诇 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讻诇 讛注诐 讬砖诪注讜 讜讬专讗讜壮 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 注拽讬讘讗

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita (Tosefta 11:3): One does not execute the rebellious elder, neither in the court that is in his city, nor in the court that is in Yavne. Rather, one takes him up to the High Court that is in Jerusalem. And they guard him in incarceration until the pilgrimage Festival, and the court executes him during the pilgrimage Festival, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear, and fear鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13); this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.

讗诪专 诇讜 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻讬 谞讗诪专 壮讬专讗讜 讜讬讬专讗讜壮 讜讛诇讗 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬砖诪注讜 讜讬讬专讗讜壮 诇诪讛 诪注谞讬谉 讚讬谞讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗诇讗 诪诪讬转讬谉 讗讜转讜 诪讬讚 讜讻讜转讘讬谉 讜砖讜诇讞讬谉 讘讻诇 诪拽讜诐 讗讬砖 驻诇讜谞讬 谞转讞讬讬讘 诪讬转讛 讘讘讬转 讚讬谉

Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Akiva: Is it stated: And all the nation shall see and fear, which would indicate that the entire nation must actually witness his execution? But isn鈥檛 it stated only: 鈥淎nd all the nation shall hear and fear,鈥 indicating that merely informing the people of the execution is sufficient? Why delay administering justice to this individual? Rather, the court executes him immediately, and the judges write reports and dispatch agents to all the places informing them: So-and-so was sentenced and found liable to be punished with execution in court.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讗专讘注讛 爪专讬讻讬谉 讛讻专讝讛 讛诪住讬转 讜讘谉 住讜专专 讜诪讜专讛 讜讝拽谉 诪诪专讗 讜注讚讬诐 讝讜诪诪讬谉 讘讻讜诇讛讜 讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜讻诇 讛注诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 讘注讚讬诐 讝讜诪诪讬谉 讻转讬讘 讜讛谞砖讗专讬诐 讚诇讗 讻讜诇讬 注诇诪讗 讞讝讜 诇住讛讚讜转讗

The Sages taught: There are four transgressors condemned to be executed whose verdicts require a proclamation to inform the public: One who instigates others to engage in idol worship, and the stubborn and rebellious son, and the rebellious elder, and conspiring witnesses. In all of these cases, it is written concerning them: 鈥淎nd all the nation鈥 (Deuteronomy 17:13), or: 鈥淎nd all Israel鈥 (Deuteronomy 13:12, 21:21), except with regard to conspiring witnesses, where it is written: 鈥淎nd those who remain shall hear and fear鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:20), as not everyone is fit for providing testimony. Therefore, rather than saying that all of the nation or all of Israel must be informed, only those remaining who are not disqualified from providing testimony are those who must heed the verse: 鈥淗ear and fear and shall henceforth commit no more such evil in the midst of you鈥 (Deuteronomy 19:20).

诪转谞讬壮 谞讘讬讗 讛砖拽专 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 诪讬转转讜 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐

MISHNA: The false prophet mentioned in the Torah includes one who prophesies that which he did not hear from God and one who prophesies that which was not said to him, even if it was said to another prophet. In those cases, his execution is at the hand of man, through strangulation imposed by the court.

讗讘诇 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转讜 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讗谞讻讬 讗讚专砖 诪注诪讜

But with regard to one who suppresses his prophecy because he does not want to share it with the public, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet and refuses to heed it, and a prophet who violated his own statement and failed to perform that which he was commanded to do, his death is at the hand of Heaven, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall not hearken unto My words that he shall speak in My name, I will exact it of him鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:19).

讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讗讜诪专 讻讱 讗诪专讛 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻讜讜谉 讗转 讛讛诇讻讛 诇讟诪讗 讗转 讛讟诪讗 讜诇讟讛专 讗转 讛讟讛讜专

One who prophesies in the name of idol worship and says: This is what the idol said, even if he approximated the correct halakha in the name of the idol to deem ritually impure that which is ritually impure and to deem ritually pure that which is ritually pure, is executed by strangulation.

讛讘讗 注诇 讗砖转 讗讬砖 讻讬讜谉 砖谞讻谞住讛 诇专砖讜转 讛讘注诇 诇谞砖讜讗讬谉 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖诇讗 谞讘注诇讛 讛讘讗 注诇讬讛 讛专讬 讝讛 讘讞谞拽

In the case of one who engages in intercourse with a married woman once she entered her husband鈥檚 domain for the purposes of marriage, even if the marriage was not yet consummated, as she did not yet engage in intercourse with him, one who engages in intercourse with her is executed by strangulation. Before marriage, one who engages in intercourse with her is liable to be executed by stoning.

讜讝讜诪诪讬 讘转 讻讛谉 讜讘讜注诇讛 砖讻诇 讛诪讜讝诪讬谉 诪拽讚讬诪讬谉 诇讗讜转讛 诪讬转讛 讞讜抓 诪讝讜诪诪讬 讘转 讻讛谉 讜讘讜注诇讛

And conspiring witnesses who testified that the daughter of a priest committed adultery are executed by strangulation, even though were she guilty, she would be executed by burning. And her paramour is also executed by strangulation, as in any case where one engages in intercourse with a married woman. As all those who are rendered conspiring witnesses are led to their deaths via the same mode of execution with which they conspired to have their victim executed, except for conspiring witnesses who testified that the daughter of a priest and her paramour committed adultery. In that case, although the priest鈥檚 daughter who commits adultery is executed by burning, the conspiring witnesses who sought to have her executed are executed by strangulation, as is the paramour whom they also conspired to have executed.

讙诪壮 转谞讜 专讘谞谉 砖诇砖讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讜砖诇砖讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讜讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 讗讚诐 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

GEMARA: The Sages taught in a baraita about the punishment of those who sin concerning prophecy: With regard to three of them, their execution is at the hand of man, and with regard to three of them, their execution is at the hand of Heaven. In the case of one who prophesies that which he did not hear from God, and one who prophesies that which was not stated to him, and one who prophesies in the name of idol worship, their execution is at the hand of man. In the case of one who suppresses his prophecy, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet, and a prophet who violated his own statement, their execution is at the hand of Heaven.

诪谞讛谞讬 诪讬诇讬 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 拽专讗 讗讱 讛谞讘讬讗 讗砖专 讬讝讬讚 诇讚讘专 讚讘专 讘砖诪讬 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讜讗砖专 诇讗 爪讜讬转讬讜 讛讗 诇讞讘讬专讜 爪讜讬转讬讜 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讜讗砖专 讬讚讘专 讘砖诐 讗诇讛讬诐 讗讞专讬诐 讝讛 讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜诪转 讛谞讘讬讗 讛讛讜讗 讜讻诇 诪讬转讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘转讜专讛 住转诐 讗讬谞讛 讗诇讗 讞谞拽

The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Yehuda says that Rav says that it is derived from a verse, as the verse states: 鈥淏ut the prophet who shall sin intentionally to speak a word in My name that I have not commanded him to speak, or who shall speak in the name of other gods, that prophet shall die鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:20). The Gemara analyzes the verse: 鈥淏ut the prophet who shall sin intentionally to speak a word in My name鈥; this is a reference to one who prophesies that which he did not hear. The verse then states: 鈥淭hat I have not commanded him,鈥 from which it is inferred: But I did command another. This is a reference to one who prophesies that which was not stated to him. 鈥淥r who shall speak in the name of other gods鈥; this is a reference to one who prophesies in the name of idol worship. And it is written with regard to all of these: 鈥淭hat prophet shall die.鈥 And every death stated in the Torah without specification is referring to nothing other than strangulation.

讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 诪讬转转谉 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐 讚讻转讬讘 讜讛讗讬砖 讗砖专 诇讗 讬砖诪注 拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇讗 讬砖诪讬注 讜拽专讬 讘讬讛 诇讗 讬砖诪注 讗诇 讚讘专讬 讜讻转讬讘 讗谞讻讬 讗讚专砖 诪注诪讜 讘讬讚讬 砖诪讬诐

One who suppresses his prophecy, and one who contemptuously forgoes the statement of a prophet, and a prophet who violated his own statement, their execution is at the hand of Heaven, as it is written: 鈥淎nd it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall not hearken [yishma] unto My words that he shall speak in My name, I will exact from him鈥 (Deuteronomy 18:19). The reference is to one who forgoes the statement of a prophet. Read into the verse: Who shall not voice [yashmia]; the reference is to one who suppresses the prophecy. And read into the verse: Shall not heed [yishama]; the reference is to one who violated his own statement. And it is written with regard to all of these: 鈥淚 will exact from him,鈥 meaning he is liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven.

讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 砖诪注 讻讙讜谉 爪讚拽讬讛 讘谉 讻谞注谞讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬注砖 诇讜 爪讚拽讬讛讜 讘谉 讻谞注谞讛 拽专谞讬 讘专讝诇 诪讗讬 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪注讘讚 专讜讞 谞讘讜转 讗讟注讬转讬讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讛壮 诪讬 讬驻转讛 讗转 讗讞讗讘 讜讬注诇 讜讬驻诇 讘专诪转 讙诇注讚 讜讬爪讗 讛专讜讞 讜讬注诪讚 诇驻谞讬 讛壮 讜讬讗诪专 讗谞讬 讗驻转谞讜 讜讬讗诪专 转驻转讛 讜讙诐 转讜讻诇 爪讗 讜注砖讛 讻谉

搂 The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as a false prophet one who prophesies that which he did not hear. The Gemara comments: For example, Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, who prophesied that Ahab should wage war against the kingdom of Aram and would be successful, as it is written: 鈥淎nd Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, made for him horns of iron, and said: So says the Lord: With these shall you gore the Arameans, until they are consumed鈥 (II聽Chronicles 18:10). The Gemara asks: What was Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, to do? Why was he held responsible? After all, the spirit of Naboth misled him, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the Lord said: Who shall entice Ahab, that he may go up and fall at Ramoth Gilead鈥nd there came forth the spirit, and stood before the Lord, and said: I will entice him. And He said鈥ou shall entice him, and shall prevail also; go forth, and do so鈥 (I聽Kings 22:20鈥22).

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 诪讗讬 爪讗 爪讗 诪诪讞讬爪转讬 诪讗讬 专讜讞 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 专讜讞讜 砖诇 谞讘讜转 讛讬讝专注讗诇讬

Rav Yehuda says: What is the meaning of the apparently unnecessary term: 鈥淕o forth鈥? Could the Lord not have sufficed with telling the spirit: Do so? The term means: Go forth from My proximity. Since the spirit volunteered to engage in deceit, it was no longer fit to stand in proximity to God. What is the identity of the spirit that undertook to entice Ahab? Rabbi Yo岣nan says: It was the spirit of Naboth the Jezreelite, who was eager to take revenge upon Ahab.

讛讜讛 诇讬讛 诇诪讬讚拽 讻讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚 注讜诇讛 诇讻诪讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖谞讬 谞讘讬讗讬诐 诪转谞讘讗讬谉 讘住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚

The Gemara comments: It was incumbent upon Zedekiah to discern between actual prophecies and false prophecies, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yitz岣k, as Rabbi Yitz岣k says: A prophetic vision relating to one and the same subject matter [sigenon] may appear to several prophets, but two prophets do not prophesy employing one and the same style of expression.

注讜讘讚讬讛 讗诪专 讝讚讜谉 诇讘讱 讛砖讬讗讱 讬专诪讬讛 讗诪专 转驻诇爪转讱 讛砖讬讗 讗转讱 讝讚讜谉 诇讘讱 讜讛谞讬 诪讚拽讗诪专讬 讻讜诇讛讜 讻讛讚讚讬 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 诇讗 讻诇讜诐 拽讗诪专讬

An example of identical content expressed in different styles is the prophecy where Obadiah said: 鈥淭he pride of your heart has beguiled you鈥 (Obadiah 1:3), and Jeremiah said a similar message employing slightly different language: 鈥淵our terribleness has deceived you, even the pride of your heart鈥 (Jeremiah 49:16). And with regard to these false prophets, from the fact that in their case all the prophets are saying their prophecies like each other, i.e., employing an identical style, conclude from it that they are saying nothing of substance and that it is a false prophecy.

讚讬诇诪讗 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注 诇讬讛 诇讛讗 讚专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 讬讛讜砖驻讟 讛讜讛 讛转诐 讜拽讗诪专 诇讛讜 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 讬讛讜砖驻讟 讛讗讬谉 驻讛 谞讘讬讗 注讜讚 诇讛壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讗 讗讬讻讗 讻诇 讛谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讘讬转 讗讘讬 讗讘讗 住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚 注讜诇讛 诇讻诪讛 谞讘讬讗讬诐 讜讗讬谉 砖谞讬 谞讘讬讗讬诐 诪转谞讘讗讬诐 讘住讬讙谞讜谉 讗讞讚

The Gemara asks: Perhaps Zedekiah, son of Chenaanah, did not know this statement of Rabbi Yitz岣k, and therefore should not have been held responsible? The Gemara answers: Jehoshaphat, king of Judea, was there, and he said to them that they were false prophets, as it is written: 鈥淏ut Jehoshaphat said: Is there not here besides a prophet of the Lord, that we might inquire of him?鈥 (I聽Kings 22:7). Ahab said to him: But aren鈥檛 there all these prophets here? Why seek others? Jehoshaphat said to Ahab: This is the tradition that I received from the house of the father of my father, the house of David: A prophetic vision relating to one and the same subject matter may appear to several prophets, but two prophets do not prophesy employing one and the same style of expression. They are false prophets, as they employed the same language when stating their prophecy.

讛诪转谞讘讗 诪讛 砖诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜 讻讙讜谉 讞谞谞讬讛 讘谉 注讝讜专 讚拽讗讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘砖讜拽 讛注诇讬讜谉 讜拽讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 [爪讘讗讜转] 讛谞谞讬 砖讘专 讗转 拽砖转 注讬诇诐 谞砖讗 讞谞谞讬讛 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 讘注爪诪讜 诪讛 注讬诇诐 砖诇讗 讘讗 讗诇讗 诇注讝讜专 讗转 讘讘诇 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讛谞谞讬 砖讘专 讗转 拽砖转 注讬诇诐 讻砖讚讬诐 注爪诪谉 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛 讗转讗 讗讬讛讜 讘砖讜拽 讛转讞转讜谉 讗诪专 讻讛 讗诪专 讛壮 讜讙讜壮 砖讘专转讬 讗转 注诇 诪诇讱 讘讘诇

搂 The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as false prophets one who prophesies that which was not stated to him. The Gemara comments: For example, Hananiah, son of Azzur, as Jeremiah was standing in the upper market in Jerusalem and saying: 鈥淪o says the Lord of hosts: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might鈥 (Jeremiah 49:35). Hananiah raised an a fortiori inference himself: If, with regard to Elam, which came only to assist Babylonia, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: 鈥淏ehold, I will break the bow of Elam,鈥 all the more so are the Chaldeans, i.e., the Babylonians, themselves, destined to fall. Hananiah came to the lower market and said: 鈥淪o speaks the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying: I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon鈥 (Jeremiah 28:2). As a result, Hananiah, son of Azzur, was killed at the hand of Heaven (Jeremiah 28:16).

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讛讗讬 诇讞讘讬专讜 谞诪讬 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讬讜谉 讚讗讬转讬讛讬讘 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诇诪讬讚专砖 讻诪讗谉 讚讗讬转诪专 诇讬讛 讚诪讬 讛讜讗 谞讬讛讜 讚诇讗 谞讗诪专 诇讜

Rav Pappa said to Abaye: Referring to this case as one who prophesies that which was not said to him is not precise, as not only was it not said to Hananiah, neither was this prophecy stated to another prophet. Abaye said to him: Since this matter can be inferred by means of an a fortiori inference, it is like a prophecy that was said to Jeremiah, as inferring matters a fortiori is a legitimate manner of derivation. It is Hananiah who misrepresented the prophecy, as it was not stated to him, i.e., to Hananiah, and then he presented the prophecy as though he heard it from God.

讛诪转谞讘讗 讘砖诐 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 讻讙讜谉 谞讘讬讗讬 讛讘注诇

The mishna lists among those liable to be executed as false prophets one who prophesies in the name of idol worship. The Gemara comments: For example, the prophets of the Baal (see I聽Kings, chapter 18).

讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 讻讙讜谉 讬讜谞讛 讘谉 讗诪讬转讬 讜讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 讻讙讜谉

The mishna lists among those liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven one who suppresses his prophecy. The Gemara comments: For example, Jonah, son of Amittai (Jonah 1:1鈥3). The mishna also lists: And one who forgoes the statement of a prophet. The Gemara comments: For example,

讞讘专讬讛 讚诪讬讻讛 讚讻转讬讘 讜讗讬砖 讗讞讚 诪讘谞讬 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讗诪专 讗诇 专注讛讜 讘讚讘专 讛壮 讛讻讬谞讬 谞讗 讜讬诪讗谉 讛讗讬砖 诇讛讻讜转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讜 讬注谉 讗砖专 诇讗 砖诪注转 [讜讙讜壮]

the colleague of the prophet Micah, son of Imla (see II聽Chronicles 18:7鈥8), as it is written: 鈥淎nd a certain man of the sons of the prophets said unto his colleague by the word of the Lord: Strike me, please. And the man refused to strike him鈥 (I聽Kings 20:35). And it is written: 鈥淭hen he said he to him: Because you have not listened to the voice of the Lord, behold, as soon as you leave me, a lion shall slay you. And as soon as he left from him, a lion found him; and slew him鈥 (I聽Kings 20:36).

讜谞讘讬讗 砖注讘专 注诇 讚讘专讬 注爪诪讜 讻讙讜谉 注讚讜 讛谞讘讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 讻谉 爪讜讛 讗转讬 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬讗诪专 诇讜 讙诐 讗谞讬 谞讘讬讗 讻诪讜讱 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬砖讘 讗转讜 讜讻转讬讘 讜讬诇讱 讜讬诪爪讗讛讜 讗专讬讛

The mishna lists among those liable to receive death at the hand of Heaven: And a prophet who violated his own statement. The Gemara comments: For example, Iddo the prophet, who, according to tradition, prophesied the punishment of Jeroboam in Bethel, as it is written: 鈥淚 will neither eat bread nor drink water in this place, for it so was commanded me by the word of the Lord鈥 (I聽Kings 13:8鈥9). And it is written: 鈥淎nd he said to him: I too am a prophet like you; and an angel spoke unto me by the word of the Lord, saying: Bring him back with you into your house, that he may eat bread and drink water鈥 (I聽Kings 13:18). And it is written: 鈥淎nd he went back with him, and ate bread in his house, and drank water鈥 (I聽Kings 13:19). And it is written that he died at the hand of Heaven: 鈥淎nd he went, and a lion met him by the way, and killed him鈥 (I聽Kings 13:24).

转谞讬 转谞讗 拽诪讬讛 讚专讘 讞住讚讗 讛讻讜讘砖 讗转 谞讘讜讗转讜 诇讜拽讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诪讗谉 讚讗讻讬诇 转诪专讬 讘讗专讘诇讗 诇拽讬 诪讗谉 诪转专讬 讘讬讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讞讘专讬讛 谞讘讬讗讬

A tanna taught a baraita before Rav 岣sda: One who suppresses his prophecy is flogged. Rav 岣sda said a parable to him: Is one who eats dates in a sieve flogged? How can he be flogged? Who forewarns him if he eats dates infested with worms that no one sees? Likewise, as no one knows whether the prophet received a prophecy, how can he be forewarned? Abaye said: His fellow prophets forewarn him.

诪谞讗 讬讚注讬 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 讚讻转讬讘 讻讬 诇讗 讬注砖讛 讛壮 [讗诇讛讬诐] 讚讘专 讻讬 讗诐 讙诇讛 住讜讚讜 讜讚讬诇诪讗 讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讗诐 讗讬转讗 讚讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讗讜讚讜注讬 讛讜讜 诪讜讚注讬 诇讻诇讛讜 谞讘讬讗讬

The Gemara asks: From where do they know that he received a prophecy? Abaye says: They know, as it is written: 鈥淔or the Lord God will do nothing, unless He reveals His counsel to His servants the prophets鈥 (Amos 3:7). The Gemara challenges: And perhaps the heavenly court reconsidered with regard to the prophecy, and the prophet is no longer commanded to disseminate the prophecy. The Gemara answers: If it is so that they reconsidered with regard to the prophecy, the heavenly court would have informed all the prophets.

讜讛讗 讬讜谞讛 讚讛讚专讬 讘讬讛 讜诇讗 讗讜讚注讜讛讜 讬讜谞讛 诪注讬拽专讗 谞讬谞讜讛 谞讛驻讻转 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讗讬讛讜 诇讗 讬讚注 讗讬 诇讟讜讘讛 讗讬 诇专注讛

The Gemara challenges: But in the case of Jonah, they reconsidered it and did not inform them that the people of Nineveh had repented for their sins and were therefore spared the foretold destruction. The Gemara explains: In the case of Jonah, from the outset, the heavenly court told him to say: 鈥淣ineveh will be overturned鈥 (Jonah 3:4). Still, he did not know if the sentence would be for the good, as their corruption would be overturned through repentance, or if it would be for the bad, as the city would be overturned through destruction. Therefore, the prophecy was never revoked, but simply fulfilled in accordance with one of its possible interpretations.

讛诪讜讜转专 注诇 讚讘专讬 谞讘讬讗 诪谞讗 讬讚注 讚讗讬注谞砖 讚讬讛讘 诇讬讛 讗讜转 讜讛讗 诪讬讻讛 讚诇讗 讬讛讬讘 诇讬讛 讗讜转 讜讗讬注谞砖 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讜讞讝拽 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara asks: In the case of one who forgoes the statement of a prophet, from where does he know that the one prophesying is actually a prophet and that he will be punished for failing to comply with the prophecy? The Gemara answers: It is referring to a case where the prophet provides him with a sign indicating that he is a prophet. The Gemara asks: But in the case of Micah, who did not provide him with a sign, and yet he was punished, how could he have known that Micah was a prophet? A case where he has already assumed the presumptive status of a prophet is different, and no sign is necessary.

讚讗讬 诇讗 转讬诪讗 讛讻讬 讗讘专讛诐 讘讛专 讛诪讜专讬讛 讛讬讻讬 砖诪注 诇讬讛 讬爪讞拽 讗诇讬讛讜 讘讛专 讛讻专诪诇 讛讬讻讬 住诪讻讬 注诇讬讛 讜注讘讚讬 砖讞讜讟讬 讞讜抓 讗诇讗 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讜讞讝拽 砖讗谞讬

The Gemara continues: Since if you do not say so, and claim that even the prophecy of one established as a prophet requires a sign, then in the case of Abraham at Mount Moriah, how did Isaac listen to him and submit to being slaughtered as an offering? Likewise, in the case of Elijah at Mount Carmel, how did the people rely upon him and enable him to engage in the sacrifice of animals slaughtered outside the Temple, which is prohibited? Rather, perforce, a case where he has already assumed the presumptive status of a prophet is different.

讜讬讛讬 讗讞专 讛讚讘专讬诐 讛讗诇讛 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐 讗讞专 诪讗讬

搂 Apropos the binding of Isaac, the Gemara elaborates: It is written: 鈥淎nd it came to pass after these matters [hadevarim] that God tried Abraham鈥 (Genesis 22:1). The Gemara asks: After what matters? How does the binding of Isaac relate to the preceding events?

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘谉 讝讬诪专讗 讗讞专 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 砖讟谉 讚讻转讬讘 讜讬讙讚诇 讛讬诇讚 讜讬讙诪诇 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 砖讟谉 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讝拽谉 讝讛 讞谞谞转讜 诇诪讗讛 砖谞讛 驻专讬 讘讟谉 诪讻诇 住注讜讚讛 砖注砖讛 诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讜 转讜专 讗讞讚 讗讜 讙讜讝诇 讗讞讚 诇讛拽专讬讘 诇驻谞讬讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇讜诐 注砖讛 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讘谞讜 讗诐 讗谞讬 讗讜诪专 诇讜 壮讝讘讞 讗转 讘谞讱 诇驻谞讬壮 诪讬讚 讝讜讘讞讜 诪讬讚 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐

Rabbi Yo岣nan said in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: This means after the statement [devarav] of Satan, as it is written: 鈥淎nd the child grew, and was weaned, and Abraham prepared a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned鈥 (Genesis 21:8). Satan said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, this old man, you favored him with a product of the womb, i.e., a child, at one hundred years of age. From the entire feast that he prepared, did he not have even one dove or one pigeon to sacrifice before You as a thanks-offering? God said to Satan: Did Abraham prepare the feast for any reason but for his son? If I say to him: Sacrifice your son before Me, he would immediately slaughter him. Immediately, after these matters, the verse states: 鈥淎nd God tried Abraham.鈥

讜讬讗诪专 拽讞 谞讗 讗转 讘谞讱 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗讬谉 谞讗 讗诇讗 诇砖讜谉 讘拽砖讛 诪砖诇 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖注诪讚讜 注诇讬讜 诪诇讞诪讜转 讛专讘讛 讜讛讬讛 诇讜 讙讘讜专 讗讞讚 讜谞爪讞谉 诇讬诪讬诐 注诪讚讛 注诇讬讜 诪诇讞诪讛 讞讝拽讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讘拽砖讛 诪诪讱 注诪讜讚 诇讬 讘诪诇讞诪讛 讝讜 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 专讗砖讜谞讜转 讗讬谉 讘讛诐 诪诪砖 讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诪专 诇讗讘专讛诐 谞讬住讬转讬讱 讘讻诪讛 谞住讬讜谞讜转 讜注诪讚转 讘讻诇谉 注讻砖讬讜 注诪讜讚 诇讬 讘谞住讬讜谉 讝讛 砖诇讗 讬讗诪专讜 讗讬谉 诪诪砖 讘专讗砖讜谞讬诐

The Torah continues: 鈥淎nd He said: Take, please [na], your son鈥 (Genesis 22:2). Rabbi Shimon bar Abba says: The word na is nothing other than an expression of entreaty. Why did God request rather than command that Abraham take his son? The Gemara cites a parable of a flesh-and-blood king who confronted many wars. And he had one warrior fighting for him, and he overcame his enemies. Over time, there was a fierce war confronting him. The king said to his warrior: I entreat you, stand firm for me in this war, so that others will not say: There is no substance in the first victories, and you are not a true warrior. Likewise, the Holy One, Blessed be He, also said to Abraham: I have tried you with several ordeals, and you have withstood them all. Now, stand firm in this ordeal for Me, so that others will not say: There is no substance in the first ordeals.

讗转 讘谞讱 砖谞讬 讘谞讬诐 讬砖 诇讬 讗转 讬讞讬讚讱 讝讛 讬讞讬讚 诇讗诪讜 讜讝讛 讬讞讬讚 诇讗诪讜 讗砖专 讗讛讘转 转专讜讬讬讛讜 专讞讬诪谞讗 诇讛讜 讗转 讬爪讞拽 讜讻诇 讻讱 诇诪讛 讻讚讬 砖诇讗 转讟专祝 讚注转讜 注诇讬讜

God said to Abraham: 鈥淧lease take your son, your only, whom you love, Isaac鈥 (Genesis 22:2). When God said: 鈥淵our son,鈥 Abraham said: I have two sons. When God said: 鈥淵our only,鈥 Abraham said: This son is an only son to his mother, and that son is an only son to his mother. When God said: 鈥淲hom you love,鈥 Abraham said: I love both of them. Then God said: 鈥淚saac.鈥 And why did God prolong His command to that extent? Why did He not say Isaac鈥檚 name from the outset? God did so, so that Abraham鈥檚 mind would not be confused by the trauma.

拽讚诪讜 砖讟谉 诇讚专讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讛谞住讛 讚讘专 讗诇讬讱 转诇讗讛 讛谞讛 讬住专转 专讘讬诐 讜讬讚讬诐 专驻讜转 转讞讝拽 讻讜砖诇 讬拽讬诪讜谉 诪诇讬讱 讻讬 注转讛 转讘讜讗 讗诇讬讱 讜转诇讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讬 讘转诪讬 讗诇讱

Satan preceded Abraham to the path that he took to bind his son and said to him: 鈥淚f one ventures a word to you, will you be weary鈥ou have instructed many, and you have strengthened the weak hands. Your words have upheld him that was falling鈥ut now it comes upon you, and you are weary鈥 (Job 4:2鈥5). Do you now regret what you are doing? Abraham said to him in response: 鈥淎nd I will walk with my integrity鈥 (Psalms 26:11).

讗诪专 诇讜 讛诇讗 讬专讗转讱 讻住诇转讱 讗诪专 诇讜 讝讻专 谞讗 诪讬 讛讜讗 谞拽讬 讗讘讚 讻讬讜谉 讚讞讝讗 讚诇讗 拽讗 砖诪讬注 诇讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讗诇讬 讚讘专 讬讙谞讘 讻讱 砖诪注转讬 诪讗讞讜专讬 讛驻专讙讜讚 讛砖讛 诇注讜诇讛 讜讗讬谉 讬爪讞拽 诇注讜诇讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讱 注讜谞砖讜 砖诇 讘讚讗讬 砖讗驻讬诇讜 讗诪专 讗诪转 讗讬谉 砖讜诪注讬谉 诇讜

Satan said to Abraham: 鈥淚s not your fear of God your foolishness?鈥 (Job 4:6). In other words, your fear will culminate in the slaughter of your son. Abraham said to him: 鈥淩emember, please, whoever perished, being innocent鈥 (Job 4:7). God is righteous and His pronouncements are just. Once Satan saw that Abraham was not heeding him, he said to him: 鈥淣ow a word was secretly brought to me, and my ear received a whisper thereof鈥 (Job 4:12). This is what I heard from behind the heavenly curtain [pargod], which demarcates between God and the ministering angels: The sheep is to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering, and Isaac is not to be sacrificed as a burnt-offering. Abraham said to him: Perhaps that is so. However, this is the punishment of the liar, that even if he speaks the truth, others do not listen to him. Therefore, I do not believe you and will fulfill that which I was commanded to perform.

专讘讬 诇讜讬 讗诪专 讗讞专 讚讘专讬讜 砖诇 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讬爪讞拽 讗诪专 诇讜 讬砖诪注讗诇 诇讬爪讞拽 讗谞讬 讙讚讜诇 诪诪讱 讘诪爪讜转 砖讗转讛 诪诇转 讘谉 砖诪谞转 讬诪讬诐 讜讗谞讬 讘谉 砖诇砖 注砖专讛 砖谞讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讜讘讗讘专 讗讞讚 讗转讛 诪讙专讛 讘讬 讗诐 讗讜诪专 诇讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 壮讝讘讞 注爪诪讱 诇驻谞讬壮 讗谞讬 讝讜讘讞 诪讬讚 讜讛讗诇讛讬诐 谞住讛 讗转 讗讘专讛诐

The Gemara cites an alternative explanation of the verse: 鈥淎nd it came to pass after these matters that God tried Abraham鈥 (Genesis 22:1). Rabbi Levi says: This means after the statement of Ishmael to Isaac, during an exchange between them described in the verse: 鈥淎nd Sarah saw the son of Hagar鈥ocking鈥 (Genesis 21:9). Ishmael said to Isaac: I am greater than you in the fulfillment of mitzvot, as you were circumcised at the age of eight days, without your knowledge and without your consent, and I was circumcised at the age of thirteen years, with both my knowledge and my consent. Isaac said to Ishmael: And do you provoke me with one organ? If the Holy One, Blessed be He, were to say to me: Sacrifice yourself before Me, I would sacrifice myself. Immediately, God tried Abraham, to confirm that Isaac was sincere in his offer to give his life.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽 诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讗讜诪专 讘讞谞拽

The Sages taught: A prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: He is executed by strangulation. Those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, are executed by stoning. Rabbi Shimon says: They are executed by strangulation.

谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞 讘住拽讬诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讗转讬讗 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 诪诪住讬转 诪讛 诇讛诇谉 讘住拽讬诇讛 讗祝 讻讗谉 讘住拽讬诇讛

The Gemara elaborates: A prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning. What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? They derive a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols from the word incitement written with regard to a layman who instigates others to worship idols. Just as there, the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning, so too here, the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 诪讬转讛 讻转讬讘讗 讘讬讛 讜讻诇 诪讬转讛 讛讗诪讜专讛 讘转讜专讛 住转诐 讗讬谞讛 讗诇讗 讞谞拽

And Rabbi Shimon says: With regard to a prophet, the term death is written concerning him. And every death stated in the Torah without specification is referring to nothing other than strangulation.

诪讚讬讞讬 注讬专 讛谞讚讞转 讘住拽讬诇讛 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚专讘谞谉 讙诪讬专讬 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 讗讜 诪诪住讬转 讗讜 诪谞讘讬讗 砖讛讚讬讞

The Gemara continues: Those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, are executed by stoning. What is the reason for the opinion of the Rabbis? They derive a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, from the word incitement written either with regard to a layman who instigates others to worship idols or from the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols. Just as there, the layman who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning, so too here, the prophet who incites others to worship idols is executed by stoning.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讙诪专 讛讚讞讛 讛讚讞讛 诪谞讘讬讗

And Rabbi Shimon derives a verbal analogy to clarify the meaning of the word incitement written with regard to those who incite residents of a city to worship idols, leading the city to be declared an idolatrous city, from the word incitement written with regard to a prophet who incites others to worship idols, who, in his opinion, is executed by strangulation.

讜诇讬讙诪专 诪诪住讬转 讚谞讬谉 诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 诪诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 诪住讬转 专讘讬诐 诪诪住讬转 讬讞讬讚 讗讚专讘讛 讚谞讬谉 讛讚讬讜讟 诪讛讚讬讜讟 讜讗讬谉 讚谞讬谉 讛讚讬讜讟 诪谞讘讬讗

The Gemara challenges: Let him derive the punishment from the punishment of one who is not a prophet who instigates others to worship idols, as those cases are similar. The Gemara answers: Rabbi Shimon derives the punishment for one who instigates the multitudes from the punishment of one who instigates the multitudes, and does not derive the punishment for one who instigates the multitudes from the punishment of one who instigates an individual. The Gemara asks: On the contrary, one derives the punishment for an ordinary person, i.e., one who is not a prophet, who instigates others from the punishment of an ordinary person who incites an idolatrous city, and one does not derive the punishment for an ordinary person who instigates others from the punishment of a prophet who instigates others.

讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讻讬讜谉 砖讛讚讬讞 讗讬谉 诇讱 讛讚讬讜讟 讙讚讜诇 诪讝讛

And Rabbi Shimon holds that in this case there is no distinction between prophet and layman; once the prophet has incited others to idol worship, you have no greater example of an ordinary person than that.

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗

Rav 岣sda says:

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