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Today's Daf Yomi

October 15, 2017 | 讻状讛 讘转砖专讬 转砖注状讞

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sanhedrin 91

The rabbis bring various sources (some in the context of debates against non Jews) to prove from the Torah that there is resurrection of the dead.

讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讘专转讬讛 砖讘拽讬讛 讜讗谞讗 诪讛讚专谞讗 诇讬讛 砖谞讬 讬讜爪专讬诐 讬砖 讘注讬专谞讜 讗讞讚 讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 讗讬讝讛 诪讛谉 诪砖讜讘讞 讗诪专 诇讛 讝讛 砖讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 爪专 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The daughter of the emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Leave him, and I will respond to him with a parable. She said: There are two craftsmen in our city; one fashions vessels from water, and one fashions vessels from mortar. Which is more noteworthy? The emperor said to her: It is that craftsman that fashions vessels from water. His daughter said to him: If he fashions a vessel from the water, all the more so is it not clear that he can fashion vessels from mortar? By the same token, if God was able to create the world from water, He is certainly able to resurrect people from dust.

讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转谞讗 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 诪讛 讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 砖注诪诇谉 讘专讜讞 讘砖专 讜讚诐 谞砖讘专讜 讬砖 诇讛谉 转拽谞讛 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讘专讜讞讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that resurrection of the dead a fortiori from glass vessels: If concerning glass vessels, which are fashioned by the breath of those of flesh and blood, who blow and form the vessels, and yet if they break they can be repaired, as they can be melted and subsequently blown again, then with regard to those of flesh and blood, whose souls are a product of the breath of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so can God restore them to life.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专讬转讜 讚砖讻讘讬 讞讬讬 讜讛讗 讛讜讜 注驻专讗 讜注驻专讗 诪讬 拽讗 讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讗诪专 诇注讘讚讬讜 壮诇讻讜 讜讘谞讜 诇讬 驻诇讟专讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讜注驻专壮 讛诇讻讜 讜讘谞讜 讗讜转讜 诇讬诪讬诐 谞驻诇讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 壮讞讝专讜 讜讘谞讜 讗讜转讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 注驻专 讜诪讬诐壮 讗诪专讜 诇讜 壮讗讬谉 讗谞讜 讬讻讜诇讬谉壮

The Gemara relates that a certain heretic said to Rabbi Ami: You say that the dead will live. Aren鈥檛 they dust? And does dust come to life? Rabbi Ami said to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Go and construct for me a great palace [palterin] in a place where there is no water and earth available. They went and constructed it. Sometime later, the palace collapsed. The king said to them: Return to your labor and construct the palace in a place where there is earth and water available. They said to him: We are unable to do so.

讻注住 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讜注驻专 讘谞讬转诐 注讻砖讬讜 砖讬砖 诪讬诐 讜注驻专 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛壮 讜讗诐 讗讬 讗转讛 诪讗诪讬谉 爪讗 诇讘拽注讛 讜专讗讛 注讻讘专 砖讛讬讜诐 讞爪讬讜 讘砖专 讜讞爪讬讜 讗讚诪讛 诇诪讞专 讛砖专讬抓 讜谞注砖讛 讻诇讜 讘砖专 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 诇讝诪谉 诪专讜讘讛 注诇讛 诇讛专 讜专讗讛 砖讛讬讜诐 讗讬谉 讘讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讝讜谉 讗讞讚 诇诪讞专 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜谞转诪诇讗 讻讜诇讜 讞诇讝讜谞讜转

The king became angry at them and said to them: If in a place where there is no water and earth available you constructed a palace, now that there is water and earth available all the more so should you be able to do so. Similarly, concerning man, whom God created ex nihilo, all the more so will God be able to resurrect him from dust. And if you do not believe that a being can be created from dust, go out to the valley and see an akhbar, a creature that today is half flesh and half earth, and tomorrow the being will develop and all of it will become flesh. Lest you say that creation of living creatures is a matter that develops over an extended period, ascend a mountain and see that today there is only one snail there; then ascend tomorrow, after rain will have fallen, and see that it will be entirely filled with snails.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 讜讜讬 诇讻讜谉 讞讬讬讘讬讗 讚讗诪专讬转讜谉 诪讬转讬 讞讬讬谉 讚讞讬讬谉 诪讬转讬 讚诪讬转讬 讞讬讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讜讬 诇讻讜谉 讞讬讬讘讬讗 讚讗诪专讬转讜谉 诪讬转讬 诇讗 讞讬讬谉 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 讞讬讬 讚讛讜讬 讞讬讬 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讬讬讘讬讗 拽专讬转 诇讬 讗讬 拽讗讬诪谞讗 讘注讬讟谞讗 讘讱 讜驻砖讬讟谞讗 诇注拽诪讜转讱 诪讬谞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 专讜驻讗 讗讜诪谉 转拽专讗 讜砖讻专 讛专讘讛 转讟讜诇

The Gemara relates that a certain heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will come to life. The way of the world is that those who are alive die. How can you say that the dead will come to life? Geviha ben Pesisa said to him: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will not come to life. If those who were not in existence come to life, is it not reasonable all the more so that those who were once alive will come to life again? The heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa angrily: You called me wicked? If I stand, I will kick you and flatten your hump, as Geviha ben Pesisa was a hunchback. Geviha ben Pesisa said to him jocularly: If you do so, you will be called an expert doctor and will take high wages for your services.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讘谞讬住谉 讗讬转谞讟讬诇讜 讚讬诪讜住谞讗讬 诪讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻砖讘讗讜 讘谞讬 讗驻专讬拽讬讗 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗专抓 讻谞注谉 砖诇谞讜 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 壮讗专抓 讻谞注谉 诇讙讘诇转讬讛壮 讜讻谞注谉 讗讘讜讛讜谉 讚讛谞讛讜 讗讬谞砖讬 讛讜讛

搂 Apropos Geviha ben Pesisa and his cleverness in debate, the Gemara cites additional incidents where he represented the Jewish people in debates. The Sages taught in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: On the twenty-fourth day in Nisan it is a joyous day, since the usurpers [dimusana鈥檈i] were expelled from Judea and Jerusalem. When the people of Afrikiya came to judgment with the Jewish people before the emperor, Alexander of Macedon, they said to him: The land of Canaan is ours, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the land that shall fall to you as an inheritance, the land of Canaan according to its borders鈥 (Numbers 34:2). And the people of Afrikiya said, referring to themselves: Canaan is the forefather of these people.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛谉 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讜讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛诐

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讬讗诪专 讗专讜专 讻谞注谉 注讘讚 注讘讚讬诐 讬讛讬讛 诇讗讞讬讜壮 注讘讚 砖拽谞讛 谞讻住讬诐 注讘讚 诇诪讬 讜谞讻住讬诐 诇诪讬 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讛专讬 讻诪讛 砖谞讬诐 砖诇讗 注讘讚转讜谞讜

Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: From where are you citing proof that the land of Canaan is yours? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he said: Cursed will be Canaan; a slave of slaves shall he be to his brethren鈥 (Genesis 9:25). And with regard to a slave who acquired property, the slave belongs to whom and the property belongs to whom? The slave and his property belong to the master. And moreover, it is several years now that you have not served us. Therefore, not only are you not entitled to the land, there are additional debts that must be repaid, as well as a return to enslavement.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪诇讻讗 讛讞讝讬专讜 诇讜 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讝诪谉 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 谞转谉 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讘讚拽讜 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诪讬讚 讘专讞讜 讜讛谞讬讞讜 砖讚讜转讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 讝专讜注讜转 讜讻专诪讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 谞讟讜注讜转 讜讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬转讛

Alexander the king said to the people of Afrikiya: Provide Geviha ben Pesisa with a response to his claims. They said to Alexander: Give us time; give us three days to consider the matter. The emperor gave them the requested time and they examined the matter and did not find a response to the claims. Immediately, they fled and abandoned their fields when they were sown and their vineyards when they were planted. The Gemara adds: And since that year was a Sabbatical Year, with the accompanying restrictions on agricultural activity, this benefited the Jewish people, as they were able to consume the produce of those fields and vineyards.

砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘讗讜 讘谞讬 诪爪专讬诐 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 壮讜讛壮 谞转谉 讗转 讞谉 讛注诐 讘注讬谞讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜讬砖讗诇讜诐壮 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讻住祝 讜讝讛讘 砖谞讟诇转诐 诪诪谞讜

The Gemara relates: On another occasion, the people of Egypt came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon. The Egyptian people said to Alexander: It says in the Torah: 鈥淎nd the Lord gave the people favor in the eyes of Egypt, and they lent them鈥 (Exodus 12:36). Give us the silver and gold that you took from us; you claimed that you were borrowing it and you never returned it.

讗诪专 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛谉 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讜讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛谉

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜诪讜砖讘 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗砖专 讬砖讘讜 讘诪爪专讬诐 砖诇砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛壮 转谞讜 诇谞讜 砖讻专 注讘讜讚讛 砖诇 砖砖讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 砖砖讬注讘讚转诐 讘诪爪专讬诐 砖诇砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛

Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: From where are you citing proof that you are entitled to the silver and gold? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years鈥 (Exodus 12:40), during which they were enslaved to Egypt, engaged in hard manual labor. Give us the wages for the work performed by the 600,000 men above the age of twenty (see Exodus 12:37) whom you enslaved in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讛讞讝讬专讜 诇讜 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讝诪谉 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 谞转谉 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讘讚拽讜 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诪讬讚 讛谞讬讞讜 砖讚讜转讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 讝专讜注讜转 讜讻专诪讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 谞讟讜注讜转 讜讘专讞讜 讜讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬转讛

Alexander of Macedon said to the people of Egypt: Provide Geviha ben Pesisa with a response to his claims. They said to him: Give us time; give us three days to consider the matter. The emperor gave them the requested time and they examined the matter and did not find a response to the claims. Immediately, they abandoned their fields when they were sown and their vineyards when they were planted, and fled. The Gemara adds: And that year was a Sabbatical Year.

讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讘谞讬 拽讟讜专讛 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗专抓 讻谞注谉 砖诇谞讜 讜砖诇讻诐 讚讻转讬讘 壮讜讗诇讛 转诇讚转 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐壮 讜讻转讬讘 壮讜讗诇讛 转讜诇讚转 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐壮

The Gemara relates: And on another occasion, the descendants of Ishmael and the descendants of Keturah came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon. They said to the Jewish people before Alexander: The land of Canaan is both ours and yours, as it is written: 鈥淎nd these are the generations of Ishmael, son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah鈥檚 maidservant, bore unto Abraham鈥 (Genesis 25:12), and it is written: 鈥淎nd these are the generations of Isaac, son of Abraham鈥 (Genesis 25:19). Therefore, the land should be divided between Abraham鈥檚 heirs.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛诐 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛谉

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讬转谉 讗讘专讛诐 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 诇讜 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讘谞讬 讛驻讬诇讙砖讬诐 讗砖专 诇讗讘专讛诐 谞转谉 讗讘专讛诐 诪转谞转壮 讗讘 砖谞转谉 讗讙讟讬谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讜砖讬讙专 讝讛 诪注诇 讝讛 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讻诇讜诐 诪讗讬 诪转谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 诪诇诪讚 砖诪住专 诇讛诐 砖诐 讟讜诪讗讛

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the descendants of Ishmael: From where are you citing proof that the land of Canaan belongs to both you and the Jewish people? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac. But to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from his son, while he yet lived, eastward, to the east country鈥 (Genesis 25:5鈥6). In the case of a father who gave a document of bequest [agatin] to his sons during his lifetime and sent one of the sons away from the other, does the one who was sent away have any claim against the other? The father himself divided his property. The Gemara asks: What were these gifts that Abraham gave to the sons of the concubines? Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: This teaches that Abraham provided them with the name of the supernatural spirit of impurity, enabling them to perform witchcraft.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 讙讜祝 讜谞砖诪讛 讬讻讜诇讬谉 诇驻讟讜专 注爪诪谉 诪谉 讛讚讬谉 讻讬爪讚 讙讜祝 讗讜诪专 壮谞砖诪讛 讞讟讗转 砖诪讬讜诐 砖驻讬专砖讛 诪诪谞讬 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 讻讗讘谉 讚讜诪诐 讘拽讘专壮 讜谞砖诪讛 讗讜诪专转 壮讙讜祝 讞讟讗 砖诪讬讜诐 砖驻讬专砖转讬 诪诪谞讜 讛专讬谞讬 驻讜专讞转 讘讗讜讬专 讻爪驻讜专壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诇讜 驻专讚住 谞讗讛 讜讛讬讛 讘讜

搂 Apropos exchanges with prominent gentile leaders, the Gemara cites an exchange where Antoninos, the Roman emperor, said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: The body and the soul are able to exempt themselves from judgment for their sins. How so? The body says: The soul sinned, as from the day of my death when it departed from me, I am cast like a silent stone in the grave, and do not sin. And the soul says: The body sinned, as from the day that I departed from it, I am flying in the air like a bird, incapable of sin. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a king of flesh and blood who had a fine orchard, and in it there were

讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讜讛讜砖讬讘 讘讜 砖谞讬 砖讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讞讬讙专 讜讗讞讚 住讜诪讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讞讬讙专 诇住讜诪讗 壮讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讗谞讬 专讜讗讛 讘驻专讚住 讘讗 讜讛专讻讬讘谞讬 讜谞讘讬讗诐 诇讗讻诇诐壮 专讻讘 讞讬讙专 注诇 讙讘讬 住讜诪讗 讜讛讘讬讗讜诐 讜讗讻诇讜诐

fine first fruits of a fig tree, and he stationed two guards in the orchard, one lame, who was unable to walk, and one blind. Neither was capable of reaching the fruit on the trees in the orchard without the assistance of the other. The lame person said to the blind person: I see fine first fruits of a fig tree in the orchard; come and place me upon your shoulders. I will guide you to the tree, and we will bring the figs to eat them. The lame person rode upon the shoulders of the blind person and they brought the figs and ate them.

诇讬诪讬诐 讘讗 讘注诇 驻专讚住 讗诪专 诇讛谉 壮讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讛讬讻谉 讛谉壮 讗诪专 诇讜 讞讬讙专 壮讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 诇讛诇讱 讘讛谉壮 讗诪专 诇讜 住讜诪讗 壮讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讬 注讬谞讬诐 诇专讗讜转壮 诪讛 注砖讛 讛专讻讬讘 讞讬讙专 注诇 讙讘讬 住讜诪讗 讜讚谉 讗讜转诐 讻讗讞讚

Sometime later the owner of the orchard came to the orchard. He said to the guards: The fine first fruits of a fig tree that were in the orchard, where are they? The lame person said: Do I have any legs with which I would be able to walk and take the figs? The blind person said: Do I have any eyes with which I would be able to see the way to the figs? What did the owner of the orchard do? He placed the lame person upon the shoulders of the blind person just as they did when they stole the figs, and he judged them as one.

讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讘讬讗 谞砖诪讛 讜讝讜专拽讛 讘讙讜祝 讜讚谉 讗讜转诐 讻讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 壮讬拽专讗 讗诇 讛砖诪讬诐 诪注诇 讜讗诇 讛讗专抓 诇讚讬谉 注诪讜壮 壮讬拽专讗 讗诇 讛砖诪讬诐 诪注诇壮 讝讜 谞砖诪讛 壮讜讗诇 讛讗专抓 诇讚讬谉 注诪讜壮 讝讛 讛讙讜祝

So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings the soul on the day of judgment and casts it back into the body, as they were when they sinned, and He judges them as one, as it is stated: 鈥淗e calls to the heavens above and to the earth that He may judge His people鈥 (Psalms 50:4). 鈥淗e calls to the heavens above鈥; this is the soul, which is heavenly. 鈥淎nd to the earth that He may judge His people鈥; this is the body, which is earthly.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞诪讛 讬讜爪讗讛 讘诪讝专讞 讜砖讜拽注转 讘诪注专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讛讜讛 讗讬驻讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讗诪专转 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 砖讜拽注转 讘诪注专讘

The Gemara relates another exchange. Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: For what reason does the sun emerge in the east and set in the west? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: If it were the reverse, you would have also said that to me, as the sun must emerge from one direction and set in the other. Antoninos said to him: This is what I am saying to you: For what reason does the sun set in the west and not occasionally deviate and set elsewhere?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 砖诇讜诐 诇拽讜谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜爪讘讗 讛砖诪讬诐 诇讱 诪砖转讞讜讬诐壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜转讬转讬 注讚 驻诇讙讗 讚专拽讬注 讜转转谉 砖诇诪讗 讜转讬注讜诇 诪砖讜诐 驻讜注诇讬诐 讜诪砖讜诐 注讜讘专讬 讚专讻讬诐

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: The sun always sets in the west in order to greet its Creator, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the hosts of heaven worship You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6). Setting is a form of worship; it is as though the sun is bowing to God. The Divine Presence rests in the west, as is evident from the fact that the Holy of Holies in the Temple, in which the Ark, the resting place of the Divine Presence, is located in the west. Antoninos said to him: If so, let the sun come until the midpoint of the sky, set slightly and greet its Creator, and return and enter its place of origin in the east and set there. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answered him: The sun sets in the west due to workers and due to travelers, as, if the sun did not proceed from east to west with the light of day gradually waning, they would not know that it is time to return home or to find an inn.

讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 谞砖诪讛 诪讗讬诪转讬 谞讬转谞讛 讘讗讚诐 诪砖注转 驻拽讬讚讛 讗讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗驻砖专 讞转讬讻讛 砖诇 讘砖专 注讜诪讚转 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 诪诇讞 讜讗讬谞讛 诪住专讞转 讗诇讗 诪砖注转 驻拽讬讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讘专 讝讛 诇诪讚谞讬 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 讜诪拽专讗 诪住讬讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜驻拽讚转讱 砖诪专讛 专讜讞讬壮

And Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: From when is the soul placed in a person? Is it from the moment of conception or from the moment of the formation of the embryo, forty days after conception? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: It is from the moment of the formation of the embryo. Antoninos said to him: That is inconceivable. Is it possible that a piece of meat could stand for even three days without salt as a preservative and would not rot? The embryo could not exist for forty days without a soul. Rather, the soul is placed in man from the moment of conception. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Antoninos taught me this matter, and there is a verse that supports him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Your Providence [pekudatekha] has preserved my spirit鈥 (Job 10:12) indicating that it is from the moment of conception [pekida] that the soul is preserved within a person.

讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬诪转讬 讬爪专 讛专注 砖讜诇讟 讘讗讚诐 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬讗讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘讜注讟 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 讜讬讜爪讗 讗诇讗 诪砖注转 讬爪讬讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讘专 讝讛 诇诪讚谞讬 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 讜诪拽专讗 诪住讬讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 壮诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讘抓壮

And Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: From when does the evil inclination dominate a person? Is it from the moment of the formation of the embryo or from the moment of emergence from the womb? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: It is from the moment of the formation of the embryo. Antoninos said to him: If so, the evil inclination would cause the fetus to kick his mother鈥檚 innards and emerge from the womb. Rather, the evil inclination dominates a person from the moment of emergence from the womb. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Antoninos taught me this matter, and there is a verse that supports him, as it is stated: 鈥淪in crouches at the entrance鈥 (Genesis 4:7), indicating that it is from the moment of birth, when the newborn emerges from the entrance of his mother鈥檚 womb, that the evil inclination lurks.

专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讘诐 注讜专 讜驻住讞 讛专讛 讜讬诇讚转 讬讞讚讬讜 讜讻转讬讘 讗讝 讬讚诇讙 讻讗讬诇 驻住讞 讜转专谉 诇砖讜谉 讗诇诐 讻讬 谞讘拽注讜 讘诪讚讘专 诪讬诐 讜谞讞诇讬诐 讘注专讘讛 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘诪讜诪谉 讜诪转专驻讗讬谉

Reish Lakish raises a contradiction between two verses written with regard to the resurrection of the dead. It is written: 鈥淚 will bring them from the north country and gather them from the ends of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and the woman giving birth together鈥 (Jeremiah 31:7), indicating that at the end of days there will still be people with physical defects. And it is written: 鈥淭hen shall the lame man leap as a deer and the tongue of the mute sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert鈥 (Isaiah 35:6), indicating that at the end of days there will be no people with physical defects. How so? When resurrected, the dead will arise still afflicted with their defects, and they will then be healed.

注讜诇讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讘诇注 讛诪讜转 诇谞爪讞 讜诪讞讛 讛壮 讚诪注讛 诪注诇 讻诇 驻谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛谞注专 讘谉 诪讗讛 砖谞讛 讬诪讜转 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诪砖诐 注讜讚 注讜诇 讬诪讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讬砖专讗诇 讻讗谉 讘谞讻专讬诐 讜谞讻专讬诐 诪讗讬 讘注讜 讛转诐 讛谞讱 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜注诪讚讜 讝专讬诐 讜专注讜 爪讗谞讻诐 讜讘谞讬 谞讻专 讗讻专讬讻诐 讜讻专诪讬讻诐

Ulla raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淗e will swallow death forever; and the Lord God will wipe tears from all faces鈥 (Isaiah 25:8), indicating that death will no longer exist at the end of days. And it is written: 鈥淭here shall be no more an infant a few days old then鈥or the youngest shall die one hundred years old鈥 (Isaiah 65:20). The Gemara answers that this contradiction is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 25, is written with regard to the Jewish people, who will live forever after resurrection; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 65, is written with regard to gentiles, who will ultimately die after an extremely long life. The Gemara asks: And what do gentiles seek, i.e., why will they merit to live, in that era? The Gemara answers that the verse is referring to those gentiles about whom it is written: 鈥淎nd strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and aliens shall be your plowmen and vinedressers鈥 (Isaiah 61:5).

专讘 讞住讚讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜讞驻专讛 讛诇讘谞讛 讜讘讜砖讛 讛讞诪讛 讻讬 诪诇讱 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗讜专 讛诇讘谞讛 讻讗讜专 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讜专 讛讞诪讛 讬讛讬讛 砖讘注转讬诐 讻讗讜专 砖讘注转 讛讬诪讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讻讗谉 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

Rav 岣sda raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淭hen the moon shall be confounded and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts will reign in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be His glory鈥 (Isaiah 24:23), indicating that the sun and the moon will no longer shine at the end of days. And it is written: 鈥淎nd the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days鈥 (Isaiah 30:26), indicating that the sun and the moon will exist then and they will shine more brightly. The Gemara answers that this is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the days of the Messiah, when the sun and moon will shine more brightly; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 24, is written with regard to the World-to-Come, when the only light will be the light of God.

讜诇砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讗诇讗 砖讬注讘讜讚 讙诇讬讜转 讘诇讘讚 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讞谞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻讗谉 讘诪讞谞讛 砖讻讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: And according to Shmuel, who says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only subjugation of the exiles, as during that era the Jewish people will be freed from that subjugation, how is the contradiction resolved? The Gemara answers that even according to Shmuel this contradiction is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the light in the camp of the righteous; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 24, the verse is written with regard to the camp of the Divine Presence, when the only light will be the light of God.

专讘讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讗谞讬 讗诪讬转 讜讗讞讬讛 讜讻转讬讘 诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讛 砖讗谞讬 诪诪讬转 讗谞讬 诪讞讬讛 讜讛讚专 诪讛 砖诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗

Rava raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淚 will kill and I will bring to life鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:39), indicating that God is capable of reviving the dead. And it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淚 wounded and I will heal,鈥 which indicates that God will only heal the wounded. Rather, it should be understood: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying: What I kill, I bring to life, indicating that God revives the dead. And then what I wounded, I will heal.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讗谞讬 讗诪讬转 讜讗讞讬讛壮 讬讻讜诇 砖转讛讗 诪讬转讛 讘讗讞讚 讜讞讬讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讻讚专讱 砖讛注讜诇诐 谞讜讛讙 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗壮 诪讛 诪讞讬爪讛 讜专驻讜讗讛 讘讗讞讚 讗祝 诪讬转讛 讜讞讬讬诐 讘讗讞讚 诪讬讻谉 转砖讜讘讛 诇讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讬谉 转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淚 will kill and I will bring to life.鈥 One might have thought that it means that there will be death for one person and life for one other person, in the typical manner that the world operates. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚 wounded and I will heal.鈥 Just as wounding and healing take place in one person, so too, death and bringing back to life take place in one person. From here there is a response to those who say that there is no resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讗讝 讬砖讬专 诪砖讛 讜讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛砖讬专讛 讛讝讗转 诇讛壮 壮砖专壮 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬砖讬专壮 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 壮讗讝 讬讘谞讛 讬讛讜砖注 诪讝讘讞 诇讛壮壮 壮讘谞讛壮 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬讘谞讛壮 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir said: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淭hen Moses and the children of Israel will sing this song to the Lord鈥 (Exodus 15:1). It is not stated: Sang, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢hey will sing鈥 is stated, indicating that Moses will come back to life and sing the song in the future. From here it is proved that resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. On a similar note, you can say: 鈥淭hen Joshua will build an altar to the Lord God of Israel on Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:30). It is not stated: Built, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渨ill build鈥 is stated. From here, resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讗讝 讬讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讘诪讛 诇讻诪讜砖 砖拽抓 诪讜讗讘 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讚讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讘谞讛

The Gemara challenges: If that is so, then in the verse: 鈥淭hen Solomon will build an altar for Chemosh the abomination of Moab鈥 (I聽Kings 11:7), does this also mean that Solomon will build in the future? Rather, the use of the future tense here should be understood differently. Solomon did not build an altar to the idol; rather, the use of the future tense teaches that the verse ascribes him blame as though he built it, since he did not prevent his wives from doing so. Therefore, no proof for the resurrection of the dead may be cited from this verse.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专讬 讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转讱 注讜讚 讬讛诇诇讜讱 住诇讛 讛讬诇诇讜讱 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讬讛诇诇讜讱 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 砖讬专讛 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讝讜讻讛 讜讗讜诪专讛 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专讬 讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转讱 注讜讚 讬讛诇诇讜讱 住诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淗appy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah鈥 (Psalms 84:5). It is not stated: They praised you, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢hey will praise you鈥 is stated. From here, resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who recites song to God in this world is privileged and recites it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: 鈥淗appy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah.鈥

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 爪驻讬讱 谞砖讗讜 拽讜诇 讬讞讚讜 讬专谞谞讜 讜讙讜壮 专讬谞谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讬专谞谞讜 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注转讬讚讬谉 讻诇 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讻讜诇谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讬专讛 讘拽讜诇 讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 爪驻讬讱 谞砖讗讜 拽讜诇 讬讞讚讜 讬专谞谞讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淵our watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing, for they shall see eye to eye the Lord returning to Zion鈥 (Isaiah 52:8). It is not stated: They sang, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢ogether shall they sing鈥 is stated. From here resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. And Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: All the prophets are all destined to recite song in one voice, as it is stated: 鈥淵our watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪讜谞注 讛诇讻讛 诪驻讬 转诇诪讬讚 讻讗讬诇讜 讙讜讝诇讜 诪谞讞诇转 讗讘讜转讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 转讜专讛 爪讜讛 诇谞讜 诪砖讛 诪讜专砖讛 拽讛诇转 讬注拽讘 诪讜专砖讛 讛讬讗 诇讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讻诇 讛诪讜谞注 讛诇讻讛 诪驻讬 转诇诪讬讚 讗驻讬诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 砖讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诪拽诇诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 诪谞注 讘专

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: With regard to anyone who withholds halakha from being studied by the mouth of a student who seeks to study Torah, it is as though he robs him of the inheritance of his ancestors, as it is stated: 鈥淢oses commanded us the Torah, an inheritance of the congregation of Jacob鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:4), indicating that the Torah is an inheritance for all of the Jewish people from the six days of Creation. Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says: With regard to anyone who withholds halakha from being studied by the mouth of a student who seeks to study Torah, even fetuses in their mother鈥檚 womb curse him, as it is stated: 鈥淗e who withholds bar,

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

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Sanhedrin 91

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 91

讗诪专讛 诇讬讛 讘专转讬讛 砖讘拽讬讛 讜讗谞讗 诪讛讚专谞讗 诇讬讛 砖谞讬 讬讜爪专讬诐 讬砖 讘注讬专谞讜 讗讞讚 讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讜讗讞讚 讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 讗讬讝讛 诪讛谉 诪砖讜讘讞 讗诪专 诇讛 讝讛 砖讬讜爪专 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 讗诪专讛 诇讜 诪谉 讛诪讬诐 爪专 诪谉 讛讟讬讟 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉

The daughter of the emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Leave him, and I will respond to him with a parable. She said: There are two craftsmen in our city; one fashions vessels from water, and one fashions vessels from mortar. Which is more noteworthy? The emperor said to her: It is that craftsman that fashions vessels from water. His daughter said to him: If he fashions a vessel from the water, all the more so is it not clear that he can fashion vessels from mortar? By the same token, if God was able to create the world from water, He is certainly able to resurrect people from dust.

讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 转谞讗 拽诇 讜讞讜诪专 诪讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 诪讛 讻诇讬 讝讻讜讻讬转 砖注诪诇谉 讘专讜讞 讘砖专 讜讚诐 谞砖讘专讜 讬砖 诇讛谉 转拽谞讛 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讘专讜讞讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛

The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught that resurrection of the dead a fortiori from glass vessels: If concerning glass vessels, which are fashioned by the breath of those of flesh and blood, who blow and form the vessels, and yet if they break they can be repaired, as they can be melted and subsequently blown again, then with regard to those of flesh and blood, whose souls are a product of the breath of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so can God restore them to life.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇专讘讬 讗诪讬 讗诪专讬转讜 讚砖讻讘讬 讞讬讬 讜讛讗 讛讜讜 注驻专讗 讜注驻专讗 诪讬 拽讗 讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讗诪专 诇注讘讚讬讜 壮诇讻讜 讜讘谞讜 诇讬 驻诇讟专讬谉 讙讚讜诇讬诐 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讜注驻专壮 讛诇讻讜 讜讘谞讜 讗讜转讜 诇讬诪讬诐 谞驻诇讜 讗诪专 诇讛诐 壮讞讝专讜 讜讘谞讜 讗讜转讜 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 注驻专 讜诪讬诐壮 讗诪专讜 诇讜 壮讗讬谉 讗谞讜 讬讻讜诇讬谉壮

The Gemara relates that a certain heretic said to Rabbi Ami: You say that the dead will live. Aren鈥檛 they dust? And does dust come to life? Rabbi Ami said to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Go and construct for me a great palace [palterin] in a place where there is no water and earth available. They went and constructed it. Sometime later, the palace collapsed. The king said to them: Return to your labor and construct the palace in a place where there is earth and water available. They said to him: We are unable to do so.

讻注住 注诇讬讛诐 讜讗诪专 诇讛谉 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讗讬谉 诪讬诐 讜注驻专 讘谞讬转诐 注讻砖讬讜 砖讬砖 诪讬诐 讜注驻专 注诇 讗讞转 讻诪讛 讜讻诪讛壮 讜讗诐 讗讬 讗转讛 诪讗诪讬谉 爪讗 诇讘拽注讛 讜专讗讛 注讻讘专 砖讛讬讜诐 讞爪讬讜 讘砖专 讜讞爪讬讜 讗讚诪讛 诇诪讞专 讛砖专讬抓 讜谞注砖讛 讻诇讜 讘砖专 砖诪讗 转讗诪专 诇讝诪谉 诪专讜讘讛 注诇讛 诇讛专 讜专讗讛 砖讛讬讜诐 讗讬谉 讘讜 讗诇讗 讞诇讝讜谉 讗讞讚 诇诪讞专 讬专讚讜 讙砖诪讬诐 讜谞转诪诇讗 讻讜诇讜 讞诇讝讜谞讜转

The king became angry at them and said to them: If in a place where there is no water and earth available you constructed a palace, now that there is water and earth available all the more so should you be able to do so. Similarly, concerning man, whom God created ex nihilo, all the more so will God be able to resurrect him from dust. And if you do not believe that a being can be created from dust, go out to the valley and see an akhbar, a creature that today is half flesh and half earth, and tomorrow the being will develop and all of it will become flesh. Lest you say that creation of living creatures is a matter that develops over an extended period, ascend a mountain and see that today there is only one snail there; then ascend tomorrow, after rain will have fallen, and see that it will be entirely filled with snails.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讛讜讗 诪讬谞讗 诇讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 讜讜讬 诇讻讜谉 讞讬讬讘讬讗 讚讗诪专讬转讜谉 诪讬转讬 讞讬讬谉 讚讞讬讬谉 诪讬转讬 讚诪讬转讬 讞讬讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜讜讬 诇讻讜谉 讞讬讬讘讬讗 讚讗诪专讬转讜谉 诪讬转讬 诇讗 讞讬讬谉 讚诇讗 讛讜讜 讞讬讬 讚讛讜讬 讞讬讬 诇讗 讻诇 砖讻谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讞讬讬讘讬讗 拽专讬转 诇讬 讗讬 拽讗讬诪谞讗 讘注讬讟谞讗 讘讱 讜驻砖讬讟谞讗 诇注拽诪讜转讱 诪讬谞讱 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 专讜驻讗 讗讜诪谉 转拽专讗 讜砖讻专 讛专讘讛 转讟讜诇

The Gemara relates that a certain heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will come to life. The way of the world is that those who are alive die. How can you say that the dead will come to life? Geviha ben Pesisa said to him: Woe unto you, the wicked, as you say: The dead will not come to life. If those who were not in existence come to life, is it not reasonable all the more so that those who were once alive will come to life again? The heretic said to Geviha ben Pesisa angrily: You called me wicked? If I stand, I will kick you and flatten your hump, as Geviha ben Pesisa was a hunchback. Geviha ben Pesisa said to him jocularly: If you do so, you will be called an expert doctor and will take high wages for your services.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 讘注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 讘谞讬住谉 讗讬转谞讟讬诇讜 讚讬诪讜住谞讗讬 诪讬讛讜讚讛 讜诪讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讻砖讘讗讜 讘谞讬 讗驻专讬拽讬讗 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗专抓 讻谞注谉 砖诇谞讜 讛讬讗 讚讻转讬讘 壮讗专抓 讻谞注谉 诇讙讘诇转讬讛壮 讜讻谞注谉 讗讘讜讛讜谉 讚讛谞讛讜 讗讬谞砖讬 讛讜讛

搂 Apropos Geviha ben Pesisa and his cleverness in debate, the Gemara cites additional incidents where he represented the Jewish people in debates. The Sages taught in Megillat Ta鈥檃nit: On the twenty-fourth day in Nisan it is a joyous day, since the usurpers [dimusana鈥檈i] were expelled from Judea and Jerusalem. When the people of Afrikiya came to judgment with the Jewish people before the emperor, Alexander of Macedon, they said to him: The land of Canaan is ours, as it is written: 鈥淭his is the land that shall fall to you as an inheritance, the land of Canaan according to its borders鈥 (Numbers 34:2). And the people of Afrikiya said, referring to themselves: Canaan is the forefather of these people.

讗诪专 诇讛讜 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛谉 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讜讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛诐

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讬讗诪专 讗专讜专 讻谞注谉 注讘讚 注讘讚讬诐 讬讛讬讛 诇讗讞讬讜壮 注讘讚 砖拽谞讛 谞讻住讬诐 注讘讚 诇诪讬 讜谞讻住讬诐 诇诪讬 讜诇讗 注讜讚 讗诇讗 砖讛专讬 讻诪讛 砖谞讬诐 砖诇讗 注讘讚转讜谞讜

Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: From where are you citing proof that the land of Canaan is yours? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd he said: Cursed will be Canaan; a slave of slaves shall he be to his brethren鈥 (Genesis 9:25). And with regard to a slave who acquired property, the slave belongs to whom and the property belongs to whom? The slave and his property belong to the master. And moreover, it is several years now that you have not served us. Therefore, not only are you not entitled to the land, there are additional debts that must be repaid, as well as a return to enslavement.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪诇讻讗 讛讞讝讬专讜 诇讜 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讝诪谉 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 谞转谉 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讘讚拽讜 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诪讬讚 讘专讞讜 讜讛谞讬讞讜 砖讚讜转讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 讝专讜注讜转 讜讻专诪讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 谞讟讜注讜转 讜讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬转讛

Alexander the king said to the people of Afrikiya: Provide Geviha ben Pesisa with a response to his claims. They said to Alexander: Give us time; give us three days to consider the matter. The emperor gave them the requested time and they examined the matter and did not find a response to the claims. Immediately, they fled and abandoned their fields when they were sown and their vineyards when they were planted. The Gemara adds: And since that year was a Sabbatical Year, with the accompanying restrictions on agricultural activity, this benefited the Jewish people, as they were able to consume the produce of those fields and vineyards.

砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘讗讜 讘谞讬 诪爪专讬诐 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讛专讬 讛讜讗 讗讜诪专 壮讜讛壮 谞转谉 讗转 讞谉 讛注诐 讘注讬谞讬 诪爪专讬诐 讜讬砖讗诇讜诐壮 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讻住祝 讜讝讛讘 砖谞讟诇转诐 诪诪谞讜

The Gemara relates: On another occasion, the people of Egypt came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon. The Egyptian people said to Alexander: It says in the Torah: 鈥淎nd the Lord gave the people favor in the eyes of Egypt, and they lent them鈥 (Exodus 12:36). Give us the silver and gold that you took from us; you claimed that you were borrowing it and you never returned it.

讗诪专 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛谉 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讜讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛谉

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 诇讻诐 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜诪讜砖讘 讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗砖专 讬砖讘讜 讘诪爪专讬诐 砖诇砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛壮 转谞讜 诇谞讜 砖讻专 注讘讜讚讛 砖诇 砖砖讬诐 专讬讘讜讗 砖砖讬注讘讚转诐 讘诪爪专讬诐 砖诇砖讬诐 砖谞讛 讜讗专讘注 诪讗讜转 砖谞讛

Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: From where are you citing proof that you are entitled to the silver and gold? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years鈥 (Exodus 12:40), during which they were enslaved to Egypt, engaged in hard manual labor. Give us the wages for the work performed by the 600,000 men above the age of twenty (see Exodus 12:37) whom you enslaved in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讛讞讝讬专讜 诇讜 转砖讜讘讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 转谞讜 诇谞讜 讝诪谉 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 谞转谉 诇讛诐 讝诪谉 讘讚拽讜 讜诇讗 诪爪讗讜 转砖讜讘讛 诪讬讚 讛谞讬讞讜 砖讚讜转讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 讝专讜注讜转 讜讻专诪讬讛谉 讻砖讛谉 谞讟讜注讜转 讜讘专讞讜 讜讗讜转讛 砖谞讛 砖讘讬注讬转 讛讬转讛

Alexander of Macedon said to the people of Egypt: Provide Geviha ben Pesisa with a response to his claims. They said to him: Give us time; give us three days to consider the matter. The emperor gave them the requested time and they examined the matter and did not find a response to the claims. Immediately, they abandoned their fields when they were sown and their vineyards when they were planted, and fled. The Gemara adds: And that year was a Sabbatical Year.

讜砖讜讘 驻注诐 讗讞转 讘讗讜 讘谞讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讜讘谞讬 拽讟讜专讛 诇讚讜谉 注诐 讬砖专讗诇 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诪专讜 诇讜 讗专抓 讻谞注谉 砖诇谞讜 讜砖诇讻诐 讚讻转讬讘 壮讜讗诇讛 转诇讚转 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐壮 讜讻转讬讘 壮讜讗诇讛 转讜诇讚转 讬爪讞拽 讘谉 讗讘专讛诐壮

The Gemara relates: And on another occasion, the descendants of Ishmael and the descendants of Keturah came to judgment with the Jewish people before Alexander of Macedon. They said to the Jewish people before Alexander: The land of Canaan is both ours and yours, as it is written: 鈥淎nd these are the generations of Ishmael, son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah鈥檚 maidservant, bore unto Abraham鈥 (Genesis 25:12), and it is written: 鈥淎nd these are the generations of Isaac, son of Abraham鈥 (Genesis 25:19). Therefore, the land should be divided between Abraham鈥檚 heirs.

讗诪专 诇讛谉 讙讘讬讛讗 讘谉 驻住讬住讗 诇讞讻诪讬诐 转谞讜 诇讬 专砖讜转 讜讗诇讱 讜讗讚讜谉 注诪讛诐 诇驻谞讬 讗诇讻住谞讚专讜住 诪讜拽讚讜谉 讗诐 讬谞爪讞讜谞讬 讗诪专讜 壮讛讚讬讜讟 砖讘谞讜 谞爪讞转诐壮 讜讗诐 讗谞讬 讗谞爪讞 讗讜转诐 讗诪专讜 诇讛诐 壮转讜专转 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 谞爪讞转讻诐壮 谞转谞讜 诇讜 专砖讜转 讛诇讱 讜讚谉 注诪讛谉

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the Sages: Give me permission and I will go and deliberate with them before Alexander of Macedon. If they will defeat me, say to them: You have defeated an ordinary person from among us, and until you overcome our Sages, it is no victory. And if I will defeat them, say to them: The Torah of Moses, our teacher, defeated you, and attribute no significance to me. The Sages gave him permission, and he went and deliberated with them.

讗诪专 诇讛诐 诪讛讬讻谉 讗转诐 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讬讛 讗诪专讜 诇讜 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讗诪专 诇讛谉 讗祝 讗谞讬 诇讗 讗讘讬讗 专讗讬讬讛 讗诇讗 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜讬转谉 讗讘专讛诐 讗转 讻诇 讗砖专 诇讜 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讘谞讬 讛驻讬诇讙砖讬诐 讗砖专 诇讗讘专讛诐 谞转谉 讗讘专讛诐 诪转谞转壮 讗讘 砖谞转谉 讗讙讟讬谉 诇讘谞讬讜 讘讞讬讬讜 讜砖讬讙专 讝讛 诪注诇 讝讛 讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讝讛 注诇 讝讛 讻诇讜诐 诪讗讬 诪转谞讜转 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讘专 讗讘讗 诪诇诪讚 砖诪住专 诇讛诐 砖诐 讟讜诪讗讛

Geviha ben Pesisa said to the descendants of Ishmael: From where are you citing proof that the land of Canaan belongs to both you and the Jewish people? They said to him: From the Torah. Geviha ben Pesisa said to them: I too will cite proof to you only from the Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac. But to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from his son, while he yet lived, eastward, to the east country鈥 (Genesis 25:5鈥6). In the case of a father who gave a document of bequest [agatin] to his sons during his lifetime and sent one of the sons away from the other, does the one who was sent away have any claim against the other? The father himself divided his property. The Gemara asks: What were these gifts that Abraham gave to the sons of the concubines? Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba says: This teaches that Abraham provided them with the name of the supernatural spirit of impurity, enabling them to perform witchcraft.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 讙讜祝 讜谞砖诪讛 讬讻讜诇讬谉 诇驻讟讜专 注爪诪谉 诪谉 讛讚讬谉 讻讬爪讚 讙讜祝 讗讜诪专 壮谞砖诪讛 讞讟讗转 砖诪讬讜诐 砖驻讬专砖讛 诪诪谞讬 讛专讬谞讬 诪讜讟诇 讻讗讘谉 讚讜诪诐 讘拽讘专壮 讜谞砖诪讛 讗讜诪专转 壮讙讜祝 讞讟讗 砖诪讬讜诐 砖驻讬专砖转讬 诪诪谞讜 讛专讬谞讬 驻讜专讞转 讘讗讜讬专 讻爪驻讜专壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪砖讜诇 诇讱 诪砖诇 诇诪讛 讛讚讘专 讚讜诪讛 诇诪诇讱 讘砖专 讜讚诐 砖讛讬讛 诇讜 驻专讚住 谞讗讛 讜讛讬讛 讘讜

搂 Apropos exchanges with prominent gentile leaders, the Gemara cites an exchange where Antoninos, the Roman emperor, said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: The body and the soul are able to exempt themselves from judgment for their sins. How so? The body says: The soul sinned, as from the day of my death when it departed from me, I am cast like a silent stone in the grave, and do not sin. And the soul says: The body sinned, as from the day that I departed from it, I am flying in the air like a bird, incapable of sin. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: I will tell you a parable. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a king of flesh and blood who had a fine orchard, and in it there were

讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讜讛讜砖讬讘 讘讜 砖谞讬 砖讜诪专讬诐 讗讞讚 讞讬讙专 讜讗讞讚 住讜诪讗 讗诪专 诇讜 讞讬讙专 诇住讜诪讗 壮讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讗谞讬 专讜讗讛 讘驻专讚住 讘讗 讜讛专讻讬讘谞讬 讜谞讘讬讗诐 诇讗讻诇诐壮 专讻讘 讞讬讙专 注诇 讙讘讬 住讜诪讗 讜讛讘讬讗讜诐 讜讗讻诇讜诐

fine first fruits of a fig tree, and he stationed two guards in the orchard, one lame, who was unable to walk, and one blind. Neither was capable of reaching the fruit on the trees in the orchard without the assistance of the other. The lame person said to the blind person: I see fine first fruits of a fig tree in the orchard; come and place me upon your shoulders. I will guide you to the tree, and we will bring the figs to eat them. The lame person rode upon the shoulders of the blind person and they brought the figs and ate them.

诇讬诪讬诐 讘讗 讘注诇 驻专讚住 讗诪专 诇讛谉 壮讘讻讜专讜转 谞讗讜转 讛讬讻谉 讛谉壮 讗诪专 诇讜 讞讬讙专 壮讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讬 专讙诇讬诐 诇讛诇讱 讘讛谉壮 讗诪专 诇讜 住讜诪讗 壮讻诇讜诐 讬砖 诇讬 注讬谞讬诐 诇专讗讜转壮 诪讛 注砖讛 讛专讻讬讘 讞讬讙专 注诇 讙讘讬 住讜诪讗 讜讚谉 讗讜转诐 讻讗讞讚

Sometime later the owner of the orchard came to the orchard. He said to the guards: The fine first fruits of a fig tree that were in the orchard, where are they? The lame person said: Do I have any legs with which I would be able to walk and take the figs? The blind person said: Do I have any eyes with which I would be able to see the way to the figs? What did the owner of the orchard do? He placed the lame person upon the shoulders of the blind person just as they did when they stole the figs, and he judged them as one.

讗祝 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讘讬讗 谞砖诪讛 讜讝讜专拽讛 讘讙讜祝 讜讚谉 讗讜转诐 讻讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 壮讬拽专讗 讗诇 讛砖诪讬诐 诪注诇 讜讗诇 讛讗专抓 诇讚讬谉 注诪讜壮 壮讬拽专讗 讗诇 讛砖诪讬诐 诪注诇壮 讝讜 谞砖诪讛 壮讜讗诇 讛讗专抓 诇讚讬谉 注诪讜壮 讝讛 讛讙讜祝

So too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings the soul on the day of judgment and casts it back into the body, as they were when they sinned, and He judges them as one, as it is stated: 鈥淗e calls to the heavens above and to the earth that He may judge His people鈥 (Psalms 50:4). 鈥淗e calls to the heavens above鈥; this is the soul, which is heavenly. 鈥淎nd to the earth that He may judge His people鈥; this is the body, which is earthly.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 讞诪讛 讬讜爪讗讛 讘诪讝专讞 讜砖讜拽注转 讘诪注专讘 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬 讛讜讛 讗讬驻讻讗 谞诪讬 讛讻讬 讛讜讛 讗诪专转 诇讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪讬谞讗 诇讱 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 砖讜拽注转 讘诪注专讘

The Gemara relates another exchange. Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: For what reason does the sun emerge in the east and set in the west? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: If it were the reverse, you would have also said that to me, as the sun must emerge from one direction and set in the other. Antoninos said to him: This is what I am saying to you: For what reason does the sun set in the west and not occasionally deviate and set elsewhere?

讗诪专 诇讬讛 讻讚讬 诇讬转谉 砖诇讜诐 诇拽讜谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讜爪讘讗 讛砖诪讬诐 诇讱 诪砖转讞讜讬诐壮 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讜转讬转讬 注讚 驻诇讙讗 讚专拽讬注 讜转转谉 砖诇诪讗 讜转讬注讜诇 诪砖讜诐 驻讜注诇讬诐 讜诪砖讜诐 注讜讘专讬 讚专讻讬诐

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: The sun always sets in the west in order to greet its Creator, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the hosts of heaven worship You鈥 (Nehemiah 9:6). Setting is a form of worship; it is as though the sun is bowing to God. The Divine Presence rests in the west, as is evident from the fact that the Holy of Holies in the Temple, in which the Ark, the resting place of the Divine Presence, is located in the west. Antoninos said to him: If so, let the sun come until the midpoint of the sky, set slightly and greet its Creator, and return and enter its place of origin in the east and set there. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi answered him: The sun sets in the west due to workers and due to travelers, as, if the sun did not proceed from east to west with the light of day gradually waning, they would not know that it is time to return home or to find an inn.

讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 谞砖诪讛 诪讗讬诪转讬 谞讬转谞讛 讘讗讚诐 诪砖注转 驻拽讬讚讛 讗讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗驻砖专 讞转讬讻讛 砖诇 讘砖专 注讜诪讚转 砖诇砖讛 讬诪讬诐 讘诇讗 诪诇讞 讜讗讬谞讛 诪住专讞转 讗诇讗 诪砖注转 驻拽讬讚讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讘专 讝讛 诇诪讚谞讬 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 讜诪拽专讗 诪住讬讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 讜驻拽讚转讱 砖诪专讛 专讜讞讬壮

And Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: From when is the soul placed in a person? Is it from the moment of conception or from the moment of the formation of the embryo, forty days after conception? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: It is from the moment of the formation of the embryo. Antoninos said to him: That is inconceivable. Is it possible that a piece of meat could stand for even three days without salt as a preservative and would not rot? The embryo could not exist for forty days without a soul. Rather, the soul is placed in man from the moment of conception. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Antoninos taught me this matter, and there is a verse that supports him, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd Your Providence [pekudatekha] has preserved my spirit鈥 (Job 10:12) indicating that it is from the moment of conception [pekida] that the soul is preserved within a person.

讜讗诪专 诇讜 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 诇专讘讬 诪讗讬诪转讬 讬爪专 讛专注 砖讜诇讟 讘讗讚诐 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬讗讛 讗诪专 诇讜 诪砖注转 讬爪讬专讛 讗诪专 诇讜 讗诐 讻谉 讘讜注讟 讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 讜讬讜爪讗 讗诇讗 诪砖注转 讬爪讬讗讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讚讘专 讝讛 诇诪讚谞讬 讗谞讟讜谞讬谞讜住 讜诪拽专讗 诪住讬讬注讜 砖谞讗诪专 壮诇驻转讞 讞讟讗转 专讘抓壮

And Antoninos said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: From when does the evil inclination dominate a person? Is it from the moment of the formation of the embryo or from the moment of emergence from the womb? Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: It is from the moment of the formation of the embryo. Antoninos said to him: If so, the evil inclination would cause the fetus to kick his mother鈥檚 innards and emerge from the womb. Rather, the evil inclination dominates a person from the moment of emergence from the womb. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: Antoninos taught me this matter, and there is a verse that supports him, as it is stated: 鈥淪in crouches at the entrance鈥 (Genesis 4:7), indicating that it is from the moment of birth, when the newborn emerges from the entrance of his mother鈥檚 womb, that the evil inclination lurks.

专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讘诐 注讜专 讜驻住讞 讛专讛 讜讬诇讚转 讬讞讚讬讜 讜讻转讬讘 讗讝 讬讚诇讙 讻讗讬诇 驻住讞 讜转专谉 诇砖讜谉 讗诇诐 讻讬 谞讘拽注讜 讘诪讚讘专 诪讬诐 讜谞讞诇讬诐 讘注专讘讛 讛讗 讻讬爪讚 注讜诪讚讬谉 讘诪讜诪谉 讜诪转专驻讗讬谉

Reish Lakish raises a contradiction between two verses written with regard to the resurrection of the dead. It is written: 鈥淚 will bring them from the north country and gather them from the ends of the earth, and with them the blind and the lame, the woman with child and the woman giving birth together鈥 (Jeremiah 31:7), indicating that at the end of days there will still be people with physical defects. And it is written: 鈥淭hen shall the lame man leap as a deer and the tongue of the mute sing; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert鈥 (Isaiah 35:6), indicating that at the end of days there will be no people with physical defects. How so? When resurrected, the dead will arise still afflicted with their defects, and they will then be healed.

注讜诇讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讘诇注 讛诪讜转 诇谞爪讞 讜诪讞讛 讛壮 讚诪注讛 诪注诇 讻诇 驻谞讬诐 讜讻转讬讘 讻讬 讛谞注专 讘谉 诪讗讛 砖谞讛 讬诪讜转 诇讗 讬讛讬讛 诪砖诐 注讜讚 注讜诇 讬诪讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘讬砖专讗诇 讻讗谉 讘谞讻专讬诐 讜谞讻专讬诐 诪讗讬 讘注讜 讛转诐 讛谞讱 讚讻转讬讘 讘讛讜 讜注诪讚讜 讝专讬诐 讜专注讜 爪讗谞讻诐 讜讘谞讬 谞讻专 讗讻专讬讻诐 讜讻专诪讬讻诐

Ulla raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淗e will swallow death forever; and the Lord God will wipe tears from all faces鈥 (Isaiah 25:8), indicating that death will no longer exist at the end of days. And it is written: 鈥淭here shall be no more an infant a few days old then鈥or the youngest shall die one hundred years old鈥 (Isaiah 65:20). The Gemara answers that this contradiction is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 25, is written with regard to the Jewish people, who will live forever after resurrection; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 65, is written with regard to gentiles, who will ultimately die after an extremely long life. The Gemara asks: And what do gentiles seek, i.e., why will they merit to live, in that era? The Gemara answers that the verse is referring to those gentiles about whom it is written: 鈥淎nd strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and aliens shall be your plowmen and vinedressers鈥 (Isaiah 61:5).

专讘 讞住讚讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讜讞驻专讛 讛诇讘谞讛 讜讘讜砖讛 讛讞诪讛 讻讬 诪诇讱 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讗讜专 讛诇讘谞讛 讻讗讜专 讛讞诪讛 讜讗讜专 讛讞诪讛 讬讛讬讛 砖讘注转讬诐 讻讗讜专 砖讘注转 讛讬诪讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讻讗谉 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

Rav 岣sda raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淭hen the moon shall be confounded and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts will reign in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be His glory鈥 (Isaiah 24:23), indicating that the sun and the moon will no longer shine at the end of days. And it is written: 鈥淎nd the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days鈥 (Isaiah 30:26), indicating that the sun and the moon will exist then and they will shine more brightly. The Gemara answers that this is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the days of the Messiah, when the sun and moon will shine more brightly; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 24, is written with regard to the World-to-Come, when the only light will be the light of God.

讜诇砖诪讜讗诇 讚讗诪专 讗讬谉 讘讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诇讬诪讜转 讛诪砖讬讞 讗诇讗 砖讬注讘讜讚 讙诇讬讜转 讘诇讘讚 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讻讗谉 讘诪讞谞讛 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讻讗谉 讘诪讞谞讛 砖讻讬谞讛

The Gemara asks: And according to Shmuel, who says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only subjugation of the exiles, as during that era the Jewish people will be freed from that subjugation, how is the contradiction resolved? The Gemara answers that even according to Shmuel this contradiction is not difficult. The verse here, in Isaiah chapter 30, is written with regard to the light in the camp of the righteous; the verse there, in Isaiah chapter 24, the verse is written with regard to the camp of the Divine Presence, when the only light will be the light of God.

专讘讗 专诪讬 讻转讬讘 讗谞讬 讗诪讬转 讜讗讞讬讛 讜讻转讬讘 诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 诪讛 砖讗谞讬 诪诪讬转 讗谞讬 诪讞讬讛 讜讛讚专 诪讛 砖诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗

Rava raises a contradiction. It is written: 鈥淚 will kill and I will bring to life鈥 (Deuteronomy 32:39), indicating that God is capable of reviving the dead. And it is written immediately afterward: 鈥淚 wounded and I will heal,鈥 which indicates that God will only heal the wounded. Rather, it should be understood: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is saying: What I kill, I bring to life, indicating that God revives the dead. And then what I wounded, I will heal.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 壮讗谞讬 讗诪讬转 讜讗讞讬讛壮 讬讻讜诇 砖转讛讗 诪讬转讛 讘讗讞讚 讜讞讬讬诐 讘讗讞讚 讻讚专讱 砖讛注讜诇诐 谞讜讛讙 转诇诪讜讚 诇讜诪专 壮诪讞爪转讬 讜讗谞讬 讗专驻讗壮 诪讛 诪讞讬爪讛 讜专驻讜讗讛 讘讗讞讚 讗祝 诪讬转讛 讜讞讬讬诐 讘讗讞讚 诪讬讻谉 转砖讜讘讛 诇讗讜诪专讬谉 讗讬谉 转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

The Sages taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: 鈥淚 will kill and I will bring to life.鈥 One might have thought that it means that there will be death for one person and life for one other person, in the typical manner that the world operates. Therefore, the verse states: 鈥淚 wounded and I will heal.鈥 Just as wounding and healing take place in one person, so too, death and bringing back to life take place in one person. From here there is a response to those who say that there is no resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah.

转谞讬讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 诪讗讬专 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 壮讗讝 讬砖讬专 诪砖讛 讜讘谞讬 讬砖专讗诇 讗转 讛砖讬专讛 讛讝讗转 诇讛壮 壮砖专壮 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬砖讬专壮 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讻讬讜爪讗 讘讚讘专 讗转讛 讗讜诪专 壮讗讝 讬讘谞讛 讬讛讜砖注 诪讝讘讞 诇讛壮壮 壮讘谞讛壮 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 壮讬讘谞讛壮 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir said: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淭hen Moses and the children of Israel will sing this song to the Lord鈥 (Exodus 15:1). It is not stated: Sang, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢hey will sing鈥 is stated, indicating that Moses will come back to life and sing the song in the future. From here it is proved that resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. On a similar note, you can say: 鈥淭hen Joshua will build an altar to the Lord God of Israel on Mount Ebal鈥 (Joshua 8:30). It is not stated: Built, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渨ill build鈥 is stated. From here, resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah.

讗诇讗 诪注转讛 讗讝 讬讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讘诪讛 诇讻诪讜砖 砖拽抓 诪讜讗讘 讛讻讬 谞诪讬 讚讬讘谞讛 讗诇讗 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 讘谞讛

The Gemara challenges: If that is so, then in the verse: 鈥淭hen Solomon will build an altar for Chemosh the abomination of Moab鈥 (I聽Kings 11:7), does this also mean that Solomon will build in the future? Rather, the use of the future tense here should be understood differently. Solomon did not build an altar to the idol; rather, the use of the future tense teaches that the verse ascribes him blame as though he built it, since he did not prevent his wives from doing so. Therefore, no proof for the resurrection of the dead may be cited from this verse.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专讬 讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转讱 注讜讚 讬讛诇诇讜讱 住诇讛 讛讬诇诇讜讱 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讬讛诇诇讜讱 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛讗讜诪专 砖讬专讛 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讝讜讻讛 讜讗讜诪专讛 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 砖谞讗诪专 讗砖专讬 讬讜砖讘讬 讘讬转讱 注讜讚 讬讛诇诇讜讱 住诇讛

Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淗appy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah鈥 (Psalms 84:5). It is not stated: They praised you, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢hey will praise you鈥 is stated. From here, resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who recites song to God in this world is privileged and recites it in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: 鈥淗appy are they who dwell in Your house; they will yet praise You, Selah.鈥

讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪谞讬讬谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 爪驻讬讱 谞砖讗讜 拽讜诇 讬讞讚讜 讬专谞谞讜 讜讙讜壮 专讬谞谞讜 诇讗 谞讗诪专 讗诇讗 讬专谞谞讜 诪讻讗谉 诇转讞讬讬转 讛诪转讬诐 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 注转讬讚讬谉 讻诇 讛谞讘讬讗讬诐 讻讜诇谉 讗讜诪专讬诐 砖讬专讛 讘拽讜诇 讗讞讚 砖谞讗诪专 拽讜诇 爪驻讬讱 谞砖讗讜 拽讜诇 讬讞讚讜 讬专谞谞讜

Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: 鈥淵our watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing, for they shall see eye to eye the Lord returning to Zion鈥 (Isaiah 52:8). It is not stated: They sang, in the verse; rather, the term 鈥渢ogether shall they sing鈥 is stated. From here resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah. And Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yo岣nan says: All the prophets are all destined to recite song in one voice, as it is stated: 鈥淵our watchmen, they raise the voice; together shall they sing.鈥

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪讜谞注 讛诇讻讛 诪驻讬 转诇诪讬讚 讻讗讬诇讜 讙讜讝诇讜 诪谞讞诇转 讗讘讜转讬讜 砖谞讗诪专 转讜专讛 爪讜讛 诇谞讜 诪砖讛 诪讜专砖讛 拽讛诇转 讬注拽讘 诪讜专砖讛 讛讬讗 诇讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 诪砖砖转 讬诪讬 讘专讗砖讬转 讗诪专 专讘 讞谞讗 讘专 讘讬讝谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讞住讬讚讗 讻诇 讛诪讜谞注 讛诇讻讛 诪驻讬 转诇诪讬讚 讗驻讬诇讜 注讜讘专讬谉 砖讘诪注讬 讗诪讜 诪拽诇诇讬谉 讗讜转讜 砖谞讗诪专 诪谞注 讘专

Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: With regard to anyone who withholds halakha from being studied by the mouth of a student who seeks to study Torah, it is as though he robs him of the inheritance of his ancestors, as it is stated: 鈥淢oses commanded us the Torah, an inheritance of the congregation of Jacob鈥 (Deuteronomy 33:4), indicating that the Torah is an inheritance for all of the Jewish people from the six days of Creation. Rav 岣na bar Bizna says that Rabbi Shimon 岣sida says: With regard to anyone who withholds halakha from being studied by the mouth of a student who seeks to study Torah, even fetuses in their mother鈥檚 womb curse him, as it is stated: 鈥淗e who withholds bar,

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