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Today's Daf Yomi

October 23, 2017 | ג׳ במרחשון תשע״ח

  • This month's learning is sponsored by Joanna Rom and Steven Goldberg in loving memory of Steve's mother Shirley "Nana" Goldberg (Sura Tema bat Chaim v'Hanka)

Sanhedrin 99

How long will the time of the mashiach be?  What type of people will not have a part in olam haba?

והיינו דאמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אימתי אתי משיח אמר ליה לכי חפי להו חשוכא להנהו אינשי אמר ליה מילט קא לייטת לי אמר ליה קרא כתיב ׳כי הנה החשך יכסה ארץ וערפל לאמים ועליך יזרח ה׳ וכבודו עליך יראה׳

And that is the background for the following exchange, as a certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: When will the Messiah come? Rabbi Abbahu said to him: He will come when the darkness will enshroud these people, i.e., you. The heretic said to him: Are you cursing me for no reason? Rabbi Abbahu said to him, I am merely relating to you a verse that is written: “For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and fog the peoples; but the Lord shall shine upon you, and His glory shall be seen upon you” (Isaiah 60:2).

תניא רבי אליעזר אומר ימות המשיח ארבעים שנה שנאמר ׳ארבעים שנה אקוט בדור׳ רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר שבעים שנה שנאמר ׳והיה ביום ההוא ונשכחת צר שבעים שנה כימי מלך אחד׳ איזהו מלך מיוחד הוי אומר זה משיח

§ It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The messianic era will be forty years long, as it is stated: “Forty years will I strive with the generation” (Psalms 95:10). The forty years of strife with the gentiles will be followed by the glory days of the Messiah. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The messianic era will last seventy years, as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass on that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king” (Isaiah 23:15). In this context, one [eḥad], means unique [meyuḥad]. Which is the unique king? You must say that this is a reference to the Messiah.

רבי אומר שלשה דורות שנאמר ׳ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים׳ רבי הילל אומר אין להם משיח לישראל שכבר אכלוהו בימי חזקיה

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The messianic era will last three generations, as it is stated: “May they fear You as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout the generations [dor dorim]” (Psalms 72:5). Dor is singular and dorim is plural, for a total of three generations. Rabbi Hillel says: There is no Messiah coming for the Jewish people, as they already ate from him, as all the prophecies relating to the Messiah were already fulfilled, during the days of Hezekiah.

אמר רב יוסף שרא ליה מריה לרבי הילל חזקיה אימת הוה בבית ראשון ואילו זכריה קא מתנבי בבית שני ואמר גילי מאד בת ציון הריעי בת ירושלים הנה מלכך יבוא לך צדיק ונושע הוא עני ורכב על חמור ועל עיר בן אתנות

Rav Yosef says: May the Master forgive Rabbi Hillel for stating matters with no basis. With regard to Hezekiah, when was his reign? It was during the First Temple period. Whereas Zechariah ben Berechiah, the prophet, prophesied during the Second Temple period and said: “Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; shout, daughter of Jerusalem; behold, your king will come to you; he is just and victorious; lowly and riding upon a donkey and upon a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9). In the generations after Hezekiah, there are prophecies about both redemption and the coming of the Messiah.

תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר ימות המשיח ארבעים שנה כתיב הכא ׳ויענך וירעבך ויאכלך׳ וכתיב התם ׳שמחנו כימות עניתנו שנות ראינו רעה׳

It is taught in another baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The messianic era will be forty years long. It is written here with regard to the forty-year sojourn of the children of Israel in the wilderness: “And He afflicted you, and suffered you to hunger and fed you with manna” (Deuteronomy 8:3); and it is written there: “Make us glad according to the days that You afflicted us, the years that we saw evil” (Psalms 90:15).

רבי דוסא אומר ארבע מאות שנה כתיב הכא ׳ועבדום וענו אתם ארבע מאות שנה׳ וכתיב התם ׳שמחנו כימות עניתנו׳

Rabbi Dosa says: The messianic era will last four hundred years. It is written here with regard to the Covenant of the Pieces: “And they shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13); and it is written there: “Make us glad according to the days that You afflicted us.”

רבי אומר שלש מאות וששים וחמש שנה כמנין ימות החמה שנאמר ׳כי יום נקם בלבי ושנת גאולי באה׳

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The messianic era will last 365 years, corresponding to the number of days of the solar year, as it is stated: “For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed is come” (Isaiah 63:4).

מאי יום נקם בלבי אמר רבי יוחנן ללבי גליתי לאבריי לא גליתי רבי שמעון בן לקיש אמר ללבי גליתי למלאכי השרת לא גליתי

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: “For the day of vengeance is in My heart”? Rabbi Yoḥanan says that it means that God said: I revealed the day of vengeance to My heart, but I did not reveal it to My limbs, as it were, as I never stated it explicitly. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says that it means that God said: I revealed this secret to My heart, but I did not reveal it to the ministering angels.

תני אבימי בריה דרבי אבהו ימות המשיח לישראל שבעת אלפים שנה שנאמר ׳ומשוש חתן על כלה כן ישיש עליך אלהיך׳

Avimi, son of Rabbi Abbahu, taught: The messianic era for the Jewish people will last seven thousand years, as it is stated: “And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so shall your God rejoice over you” (Isaiah 62:5). The bridegroom rejoices over the bride for seven days, and the day of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is one thousand years.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ימות המשיח כמיום שנברא העולם ועד עכשיו שנאמר כימי השמים על הארץ

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The duration of the messianic era is like the duration of the period that runs from the day the world was created until now, i.e., the day when the Messiah will come, as it is stated: “That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land that the Lord swore to your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the earth” (Deuteronomy 11:21).

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר כימי נח עד עכשיו שנאמר כי מי נח זאת לי אשר נשבעתי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: The duration of the messianic era is like the duration of the period that runs from the days of Noah until now, i.e., the day when the Messiah will come, as it is stated with regard to redemption: “For this is as the seas of [ki mei] Noah to me; as I have sworn that the seas of Noah shall no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I will not be angry with you nor rebuke you” (Isaiah 54:9). The words ki mei can be understood as one word, kimei, meaning: Like the days of.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לימות המשיח אבל לעולם הבא עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך אלהים יעשה למחכה לו ופליגא דשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בין העולם הזה לימות המשיח אלא שעבוד מלכיות בלבד

§ Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: In their prophecies with regard to redemption and the end of days, all the prophets prophesied only about the messianic era, but with regard to the World-to-Come the reward is not quantifiable, as it states: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You, Who will do for those who await Him” (Isaiah 64:3). The Gemara notes: And this statement disagrees with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only with regard to servitude to foreign kingdoms alone, as they will leave Eretz Yisrael.

ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים לא נתנבאו אלא לבעלי תשובה אבל צדיקים גמורים עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך ופליגא דרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רב מקום שבעלי תשובה עומדין שם צדיקים אינן עומדין שם שנאמר שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב ברישא רחוק והדר קרוב מאי רחוק רחוק דמעיקרא ומאי קרוב קרוב דמעיקרא ודהשתא

And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: All of the prophets prophesied their prophecies of consolation only with regard to penitents, but with regard to the reward of the completely righteous it is stated: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You.” The Gemara notes: And the opinion expressed in this statement disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, who holds that penitents are superior to the righteous, as Rabbi Abbahu says that Rav says: In the place where penitents stand, even the completely righteous do not stand, as it is stated: “Peace, peace upon him who is far and him who is near” (Isaiah 57:19). Peace and greeting is extended first to him who is far, and only thereafter is peace extended to him who is near. What is the meaning of the term: “Upon him who is far”? It means: One who was initially far, i.e., the penitent. And what is the meaning of the term: “Him who is near”? It means: One who was initially near and continues to be near at present, i.e., the completely righteous individual.

ורבי יוחנן אמר לרחוק שהוא רחוק מעבירה קרוב שהוא קרוב מעבירה ונתרחק ממנה

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: “Upon him who is far” is referring to one who is distant from transgression, the completely righteous individual. “Him who is near” is referring to one who is near to transgression and distanced himself from it, the penitent.

ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא למשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם ולעושה פרקמטיא לתלמיד חכם ולמהנה תלמיד חכם מנכסיו אבל תלמידי חכמים עצמן עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך

And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: All of the prophets prophesied their prophecies of consolation only with regard to one who values wisdom and therefore marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and to one who conducts business [perakmatya] on behalf of a Torah scholar, and to one who utilizes his wealth to benefit a Torah scholar from his property in some other way. But the prophets did not describe the extent of the reward for Torah scholars themselves, whose reward is not quantifiable, as it is stated: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You.”

מאי עין לא ראתה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זה יין המשומר בענביו מששת ימי בראשית ריש לקיש אמר זה עדן לא ראתה עין מעולם ואם תאמר אדם היכן דר בגן ואם תאמר גן הוא עדן תלמוד לומר ונהר יצא מעדן להשקות את הגן

The Gemara asks: What reward is indicated in the phrase “no eye has seen it”? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is wine preserved in its grapes from the six days of Creation. No person has drunk that wine and therefore no one can appreciate its quality. Reish Lakish says: This is Eden, which no eye has ever seen. And if you say: Where did Adam the first man live, if not in Eden, the answer is that he lived in the garden. And lest you say: The garden is Eden and they are indistinguishable, the verse states: “And a river emerged from Eden to irrigate the garden” (Genesis 2:10), indicating that they are two distinct places.

והאומר ׳אין תורה מן השמים׳ וכו׳ תנו רבנן ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה ומצותו הפר הכרת תכרת׳ זה האומר אין תורה מן השמים דבר אחר ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה אפיקורוס

§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include: And one who says: The Torah did not originate from Heaven. The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to the verse: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord and has breached His commandment; that soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him” (Numbers 15:31), this is a reference to one who says: The Torah did not originate from Heaven. Alternatively, one can explain: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to an epikoros, who treats the word of God with contempt.

דבר אחר ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה המגלה פנים בתורה ׳ואת מצותו הפר׳ זה המפר ברית בשר ׳הכרת תכרת׳ ׳הכרת׳ בעולם הזה ׳תכרת׳ לעולם הבא מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר המודעי המחלל את הקדשים והמבזה את המועדות והמפר בריתו של אברהם אבינו והמגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה והמלבין פני חבירו ברבים אף על פי שיש בידו תורה ומעשים טובים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא

Alternatively, one can explain: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who interprets the Torah inappropriately. “And has breached His commandment”; this is a reference to one who breaches the covenant of flesh, who refuses to circumcise his foreskin. “Shall be excised [hikkaret tikkaret]”; “hikkaret” refers to being excised in this world, and “tikkaret” refers to being excised from the World-to-Come. From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: With regard to one who desecrates consecrated items, e.g., intentionally rendering them impure; and one who treats the intermediate days of the Festivals with contempt; and one who breaches the covenant of Abraham our forefather; and one who reveals aspects in the Torah that are not in accordance with halakha; and one who humiliates another in public, even if he has to his credit Torah study and good deeds, he has no share in the World-to-Come.

תניא אידך ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואפילו אמר כל התורה כולה מן השמים חוץ מפסוק זה שלא אמרו הקדוש ברוך הוא אלא משה מפי עצמו זהו ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ ואפילו אמר כל התורה כולה מן השמים חוץ מדקדוק זה מקל וחומר זה מגזרה שוה זו זה הוא ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳

It is taught in another baraita: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who says the Torah did not originate from Heaven. And even if one says the entire Torah originated from Heaven except for this verse, i.e., any one verse, claiming that the Holy One, Blessed be He, did not say it but Moses himself said it on his own, this is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.” And even if one says the entire Torah originated from Heaven except for this inference inferred by the Sages, or except for this a fortiori inference, or except for this verbal analogy, this is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.”

תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר הלומד תורה ואינו מלמדה זה הוא ׳דבר ה׳ בזה׳ רבי נתן אומר כל מי שאינו משגיח על המשנה רבי נהוראי אומר כל שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: With regard to one who studies Torah and does not teach it to others, this person is included in the category of: “He has despised the word of the Lord,” as his conduct indicates that he does not consider the word of God significant enough to teach others. Rabbi Natan says: Anyone who does not pay the requisite attention to the Mishna and does not consider it essential halakha is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.” Rabbi Nehorai says: Anyone for whom it is possible to engage in Torah study and who nevertheless does not engage in its study is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.”

רבי ישמעאל אומר זה העובד עבודה זרה מאי משמעה דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה המבזה דבור שנאמר לו למשה מסיני ׳אנכי ה׳ אלהיך לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים׳ וגו׳

Rabbi Yishmael says: This verse: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord,” is a reference to an idol worshipper. The Gemara asks: From where in the verse is this inferred? The Gemara explains: It is derived from a verse, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “Because he has despised the word [devar] of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who treats with contempt a statement [dibbur] that was stated to Moses at Sinai and heard by all of the Jewish people: “I am the Lord your God…You shall have no other gods beside me” (Exodus 20:2–3).

רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר כל הלומד תורה ואינו חוזר עליה דומה לאדם שזורע ואינו קוצר רבי יהושע אומר כל הלומד תורה ומשכחה דומה לאשה שיולדת וקוברת

Apropos Torah study, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Anyone who studies Torah and does not review it is comparable to a person who sows and does not reap. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Anyone who studies Torah and causes himself to forget it is similar to a woman who gives birth and buries her newborn child.

רבי עקיבא אומר

Rabbi Akiva says:

זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר

Sing every day, sing every day, i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says: From what verse is this derived? It is as it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. He labors in Torah in this place, this world, and his Torah labors for him in another place, the World-to-Come.

אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא

Rabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil” (Job 5:7). Based on this verse, I do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth, speech, or whether he was created for the toil of labor. When the verse states: “For his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), you must say that he was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not know with regard to the toil of the mouth whether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. When the verse states: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth” (Joshua 1:8), you must say that he was created for the toil of Torah. And that is the meaning of what Rava said: All bodies are like receptacles to store items until use. Happy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah.

נאף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכנו יחדו על שפתיך

The verse states: “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding” (Proverbs 6:32). Reish Lakish says: This is a reference to one who studies Torah intermittently, who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, as it is stated about words of Torah: “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips” (Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.

תנו רבנן ׳והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה׳ זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי

§ The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to the verse: “But the person who acts high-handedly, whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), this is a reference to Manasseh ben Hezekiah, king of Israel, who would sit and teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.

אמר ׳וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פילגש לאליפז וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה׳ יצאה בת קול ואמרה לו ׳תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דפי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך׳

Manasseh said: But did Moses need to write only insignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: “And Lotan’s sister was Timna” (Genesis 36:22), or: “And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found duda’im in the field” (Genesis 30:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes” (Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import.

ועליו מפורש בקבלה ׳הוי משכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה׳ מאי כעבות העגלה אמר רבי אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה

And about Manasseh ben Hezekiah it is stated explicitly in the texts of tradition, the Prophets: “Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope” (Isaiah 5:18). What is the meaning of the phrase “as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says: This is a reference to the evil inclination. Initially, it seems like a flimsy spinning [kuveya] thread and ultimately it seems like a sturdy cart rope.

דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא

Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse that we came to discuss, in any event, what is the significance of the phrase in the verse “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? The Gemara explains: Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” (Genesis 36:29), and: “The chief of Timna” (Genesis 36:40), and each chief is a member of a monarchy, albeit without a crown. That is why they are called chief and not king.

בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה

Timna sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, referring to herself: It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. Ultimately, Amalek, son of Eliphaz, emerged from her, and that tribe afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact that they should not have rejected her when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant.

וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא ברבי יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי רבי יונתן אמר סביסקי

“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest” (Genesis 30:14). Rava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says that Rav says: From here it can be seen that the righteous do not extend their hands to engage in robbery even of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless duda’im. The verse continues: “And he found duda’im in the field.” The Gemara asks: What are duda’im? Rav says: They are a plant called yavruḥei. Levi says: They are violets. Rabbi Yonatan says: They are seviskei.

אמר רבי אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר או יחזק במעזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי

§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, Rabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages in the study of Torah for its own sake introduces peace into the heavenly entourage above and into the earthly entourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ma’uzi], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me” (Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called oz, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were.

רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר ואשם דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטע שמים וליסד ארץ רבי יוחנן אמר אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר ולאמר לציון עמי אתה

Rav says: It is as though he built a palace of heaven above and of earth below, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: One who engages in Torah study also protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advances the coming of the redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.”

אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן רבי אלעזר אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אתם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אתם אל תקרי אתם אלא אתם

Reish Lakish said: With regard to anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes him credit as though he formed that student, as it is stated: “And Abram took Sarai his wife…and the souls that they formed in Haran” (Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. Rabbi Elazar says: It is as though he fashioned [asa’an] the words of Torah themselves, as it is stated: “Observe the words of this covenant, va’asitem otam” (Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. Rava says: It is as though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “Va’asitem otam.” Do not read “va’asitem otam” as: And you shall fashion them; rather, read it as va’asitem atem, meaning: You shall fashion yourself.

אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה

Rabbi Abbahu says: With regard to anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses…and your rod, with which you struck the river, take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). And was it Moses who struck the river? But isn’t it written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that Aaron struck the river? Rather, that verse serves to say to you: Anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself.

אפיקורוס רב ורבי חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה תלמיד חכם רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם

§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include an epikoros. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.

בשלמא למאן דאמר המבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למאן דאמר מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt is characterized as one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. But according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one who interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like what individual does such a person conduct himself? He is like Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.

ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ורבי חנינא אמרי זה המבזה תלמיד חכם רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם

And there are those who teach this dispute with regard to the latter clause of the baraita: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: One who interprets the Torah inappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.

בשלמא למאן דאמר המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם אפיקורוס הוי אלא למאן דאמר מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is characterized as the epikoros mentioned in the mishna. But according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, how would he characterize the epikoros mentioned in the mishna? Like whom does he conduct himself? Rav Yosef says: It is referring to one who conducts himself like those who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? They read the Bible for their own benefit and they study the Mishna for their own benefit.

אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם

Abaye said to him: That person who questions the benefit provided by Sages is also in the category of one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, as it is written: “If not for My covenant, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covenant of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too conclude the same concept from it, as it is stated: “If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, then I will spare the entire place for their sakes” (Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside.

אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם

Rather, the epikoros mentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself like one who sits before his teacher and a halakha that he learned from another place happens to fall into his consciousness and the student says: This is what we say there, and he does not say deferentially: This is what the Master said, even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. Rava said: The term epikoros is referring to one who conducts himself like those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? Never

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Sanhedrin 99

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Sanhedrin 99

והיינו דאמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אימתי אתי משיח אמר ליה לכי חפי להו חשוכא להנהו אינשי אמר ליה מילט קא לייטת לי אמר ליה קרא כתיב ׳כי הנה החשך יכסה ארץ וערפל לאמים ועליך יזרח ה׳ וכבודו עליך יראה׳

And that is the background for the following exchange, as a certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: When will the Messiah come? Rabbi Abbahu said to him: He will come when the darkness will enshroud these people, i.e., you. The heretic said to him: Are you cursing me for no reason? Rabbi Abbahu said to him, I am merely relating to you a verse that is written: “For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and fog the peoples; but the Lord shall shine upon you, and His glory shall be seen upon you” (Isaiah 60:2).

תניא רבי אליעזר אומר ימות המשיח ארבעים שנה שנאמר ׳ארבעים שנה אקוט בדור׳ רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר שבעים שנה שנאמר ׳והיה ביום ההוא ונשכחת צר שבעים שנה כימי מלך אחד׳ איזהו מלך מיוחד הוי אומר זה משיח

§ It is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The messianic era will be forty years long, as it is stated: “Forty years will I strive with the generation” (Psalms 95:10). The forty years of strife with the gentiles will be followed by the glory days of the Messiah. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The messianic era will last seventy years, as it is stated: “And it shall come to pass on that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king” (Isaiah 23:15). In this context, one [eḥad], means unique [meyuḥad]. Which is the unique king? You must say that this is a reference to the Messiah.

רבי אומר שלשה דורות שנאמר ׳ייראוך עם שמש ולפני ירח דור דורים׳ רבי הילל אומר אין להם משיח לישראל שכבר אכלוהו בימי חזקיה

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The messianic era will last three generations, as it is stated: “May they fear You as long as the sun and moon endure, throughout the generations [dor dorim]” (Psalms 72:5). Dor is singular and dorim is plural, for a total of three generations. Rabbi Hillel says: There is no Messiah coming for the Jewish people, as they already ate from him, as all the prophecies relating to the Messiah were already fulfilled, during the days of Hezekiah.

אמר רב יוסף שרא ליה מריה לרבי הילל חזקיה אימת הוה בבית ראשון ואילו זכריה קא מתנבי בבית שני ואמר גילי מאד בת ציון הריעי בת ירושלים הנה מלכך יבוא לך צדיק ונושע הוא עני ורכב על חמור ועל עיר בן אתנות

Rav Yosef says: May the Master forgive Rabbi Hillel for stating matters with no basis. With regard to Hezekiah, when was his reign? It was during the First Temple period. Whereas Zechariah ben Berechiah, the prophet, prophesied during the Second Temple period and said: “Rejoice greatly, daughter of Zion; shout, daughter of Jerusalem; behold, your king will come to you; he is just and victorious; lowly and riding upon a donkey and upon a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9). In the generations after Hezekiah, there are prophecies about both redemption and the coming of the Messiah.

תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר ימות המשיח ארבעים שנה כתיב הכא ׳ויענך וירעבך ויאכלך׳ וכתיב התם ׳שמחנו כימות עניתנו שנות ראינו רעה׳

It is taught in another baraita: Rabbi Eliezer says: The messianic era will be forty years long. It is written here with regard to the forty-year sojourn of the children of Israel in the wilderness: “And He afflicted you, and suffered you to hunger and fed you with manna” (Deuteronomy 8:3); and it is written there: “Make us glad according to the days that You afflicted us, the years that we saw evil” (Psalms 90:15).

רבי דוסא אומר ארבע מאות שנה כתיב הכא ׳ועבדום וענו אתם ארבע מאות שנה׳ וכתיב התם ׳שמחנו כימות עניתנו׳

Rabbi Dosa says: The messianic era will last four hundred years. It is written here with regard to the Covenant of the Pieces: “And they shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13); and it is written there: “Make us glad according to the days that You afflicted us.”

רבי אומר שלש מאות וששים וחמש שנה כמנין ימות החמה שנאמר ׳כי יום נקם בלבי ושנת גאולי באה׳

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The messianic era will last 365 years, corresponding to the number of days of the solar year, as it is stated: “For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed is come” (Isaiah 63:4).

מאי יום נקם בלבי אמר רבי יוחנן ללבי גליתי לאבריי לא גליתי רבי שמעון בן לקיש אמר ללבי גליתי למלאכי השרת לא גליתי

The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: “For the day of vengeance is in My heart”? Rabbi Yoḥanan says that it means that God said: I revealed the day of vengeance to My heart, but I did not reveal it to My limbs, as it were, as I never stated it explicitly. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says that it means that God said: I revealed this secret to My heart, but I did not reveal it to the ministering angels.

תני אבימי בריה דרבי אבהו ימות המשיח לישראל שבעת אלפים שנה שנאמר ׳ומשוש חתן על כלה כן ישיש עליך אלהיך׳

Avimi, son of Rabbi Abbahu, taught: The messianic era for the Jewish people will last seven thousand years, as it is stated: “And as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so shall your God rejoice over you” (Isaiah 62:5). The bridegroom rejoices over the bride for seven days, and the day of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is one thousand years.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ימות המשיח כמיום שנברא העולם ועד עכשיו שנאמר כימי השמים על הארץ

Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: The duration of the messianic era is like the duration of the period that runs from the day the world was created until now, i.e., the day when the Messiah will come, as it is stated: “That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land that the Lord swore to your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the earth” (Deuteronomy 11:21).

רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר כימי נח עד עכשיו שנאמר כי מי נח זאת לי אשר נשבעתי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: The duration of the messianic era is like the duration of the period that runs from the days of Noah until now, i.e., the day when the Messiah will come, as it is stated with regard to redemption: “For this is as the seas of [ki mei] Noah to me; as I have sworn that the seas of Noah shall no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I will not be angry with you nor rebuke you” (Isaiah 54:9). The words ki mei can be understood as one word, kimei, meaning: Like the days of.

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לימות המשיח אבל לעולם הבא עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך אלהים יעשה למחכה לו ופליגא דשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בין העולם הזה לימות המשיח אלא שעבוד מלכיות בלבד

§ Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: In their prophecies with regard to redemption and the end of days, all the prophets prophesied only about the messianic era, but with regard to the World-to-Come the reward is not quantifiable, as it states: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You, Who will do for those who await Him” (Isaiah 64:3). The Gemara notes: And this statement disagrees with the opinion of Shmuel, as Shmuel says: The difference between this world and the messianic era is only with regard to servitude to foreign kingdoms alone, as they will leave Eretz Yisrael.

ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים לא נתנבאו אלא לבעלי תשובה אבל צדיקים גמורים עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך ופליגא דרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רב מקום שבעלי תשובה עומדין שם צדיקים אינן עומדין שם שנאמר שלום שלום לרחוק ולקרוב ברישא רחוק והדר קרוב מאי רחוק רחוק דמעיקרא ומאי קרוב קרוב דמעיקרא ודהשתא

And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: All of the prophets prophesied their prophecies of consolation only with regard to penitents, but with regard to the reward of the completely righteous it is stated: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You.” The Gemara notes: And the opinion expressed in this statement disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Abbahu, who holds that penitents are superior to the righteous, as Rabbi Abbahu says that Rav says: In the place where penitents stand, even the completely righteous do not stand, as it is stated: “Peace, peace upon him who is far and him who is near” (Isaiah 57:19). Peace and greeting is extended first to him who is far, and only thereafter is peace extended to him who is near. What is the meaning of the term: “Upon him who is far”? It means: One who was initially far, i.e., the penitent. And what is the meaning of the term: “Him who is near”? It means: One who was initially near and continues to be near at present, i.e., the completely righteous individual.

ורבי יוחנן אמר לרחוק שהוא רחוק מעבירה קרוב שהוא קרוב מעבירה ונתרחק ממנה

And Rabbi Yoḥanan says: “Upon him who is far” is referring to one who is distant from transgression, the completely righteous individual. “Him who is near” is referring to one who is near to transgression and distanced himself from it, the penitent.

ואמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא למשיא בתו לתלמיד חכם ולעושה פרקמטיא לתלמיד חכם ולמהנה תלמיד חכם מנכסיו אבל תלמידי חכמים עצמן עין לא ראתה אלהים זולתך

And Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says that Rabbi Yoḥanan says: All of the prophets prophesied their prophecies of consolation only with regard to one who values wisdom and therefore marries his daughter to a Torah scholar, and to one who conducts business [perakmatya] on behalf of a Torah scholar, and to one who utilizes his wealth to benefit a Torah scholar from his property in some other way. But the prophets did not describe the extent of the reward for Torah scholars themselves, whose reward is not quantifiable, as it is stated: “No eye has seen it, God, aside from You.”

מאי עין לא ראתה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי זה יין המשומר בענביו מששת ימי בראשית ריש לקיש אמר זה עדן לא ראתה עין מעולם ואם תאמר אדם היכן דר בגן ואם תאמר גן הוא עדן תלמוד לומר ונהר יצא מעדן להשקות את הגן

The Gemara asks: What reward is indicated in the phrase “no eye has seen it”? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: This is wine preserved in its grapes from the six days of Creation. No person has drunk that wine and therefore no one can appreciate its quality. Reish Lakish says: This is Eden, which no eye has ever seen. And if you say: Where did Adam the first man live, if not in Eden, the answer is that he lived in the garden. And lest you say: The garden is Eden and they are indistinguishable, the verse states: “And a river emerged from Eden to irrigate the garden” (Genesis 2:10), indicating that they are two distinct places.

והאומר ׳אין תורה מן השמים׳ וכו׳ תנו רבנן ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה ומצותו הפר הכרת תכרת׳ זה האומר אין תורה מן השמים דבר אחר ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה אפיקורוס

§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include: And one who says: The Torah did not originate from Heaven. The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to the verse: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord and has breached His commandment; that soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him” (Numbers 15:31), this is a reference to one who says: The Torah did not originate from Heaven. Alternatively, one can explain: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to an epikoros, who treats the word of God with contempt.

דבר אחר ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה המגלה פנים בתורה ׳ואת מצותו הפר׳ זה המפר ברית בשר ׳הכרת תכרת׳ ׳הכרת׳ בעולם הזה ׳תכרת׳ לעולם הבא מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר המודעי המחלל את הקדשים והמבזה את המועדות והמפר בריתו של אברהם אבינו והמגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה והמלבין פני חבירו ברבים אף על פי שיש בידו תורה ומעשים טובים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא

Alternatively, one can explain: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who interprets the Torah inappropriately. “And has breached His commandment”; this is a reference to one who breaches the covenant of flesh, who refuses to circumcise his foreskin. “Shall be excised [hikkaret tikkaret]”; “hikkaret” refers to being excised in this world, and “tikkaret” refers to being excised from the World-to-Come. From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: With regard to one who desecrates consecrated items, e.g., intentionally rendering them impure; and one who treats the intermediate days of the Festivals with contempt; and one who breaches the covenant of Abraham our forefather; and one who reveals aspects in the Torah that are not in accordance with halakha; and one who humiliates another in public, even if he has to his credit Torah study and good deeds, he has no share in the World-to-Come.

תניא אידך ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה האומר אין תורה מן השמים ואפילו אמר כל התורה כולה מן השמים חוץ מפסוק זה שלא אמרו הקדוש ברוך הוא אלא משה מפי עצמו זהו ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ ואפילו אמר כל התורה כולה מן השמים חוץ מדקדוק זה מקל וחומר זה מגזרה שוה זו זה הוא ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳

It is taught in another baraita: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who says the Torah did not originate from Heaven. And even if one says the entire Torah originated from Heaven except for this verse, i.e., any one verse, claiming that the Holy One, Blessed be He, did not say it but Moses himself said it on his own, this is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.” And even if one says the entire Torah originated from Heaven except for this inference inferred by the Sages, or except for this a fortiori inference, or except for this verbal analogy, this is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.”

תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר הלומד תורה ואינו מלמדה זה הוא ׳דבר ה׳ בזה׳ רבי נתן אומר כל מי שאינו משגיח על המשנה רבי נהוראי אומר כל שאפשר לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק

It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Meir would say: With regard to one who studies Torah and does not teach it to others, this person is included in the category of: “He has despised the word of the Lord,” as his conduct indicates that he does not consider the word of God significant enough to teach others. Rabbi Natan says: Anyone who does not pay the requisite attention to the Mishna and does not consider it essential halakha is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.” Rabbi Nehorai says: Anyone for whom it is possible to engage in Torah study and who nevertheless does not engage in its study is included in the category of: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord.”

רבי ישמעאל אומר זה העובד עבודה זרה מאי משמעה דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ׳כי דבר ה׳ בזה׳ זה המבזה דבור שנאמר לו למשה מסיני ׳אנכי ה׳ אלהיך לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים׳ וגו׳

Rabbi Yishmael says: This verse: “Because he has despised the word of the Lord,” is a reference to an idol worshipper. The Gemara asks: From where in the verse is this inferred? The Gemara explains: It is derived from a verse, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “Because he has despised the word [devar] of the Lord”; this is a reference to one who treats with contempt a statement [dibbur] that was stated to Moses at Sinai and heard by all of the Jewish people: “I am the Lord your God…You shall have no other gods beside me” (Exodus 20:2–3).

רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר כל הלומד תורה ואינו חוזר עליה דומה לאדם שזורע ואינו קוצר רבי יהושע אומר כל הלומד תורה ומשכחה דומה לאשה שיולדת וקוברת

Apropos Torah study, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: Anyone who studies Torah and does not review it is comparable to a person who sows and does not reap. Rabbi Yehoshua says: Anyone who studies Torah and causes himself to forget it is similar to a woman who gives birth and buries her newborn child.

רבי עקיבא אומר

Rabbi Akiva says:

זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר

Sing every day, sing every day, i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says: From what verse is this derived? It is as it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. He labors in Torah in this place, this world, and his Torah labors for him in another place, the World-to-Come.

אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא

Rabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil” (Job 5:7). Based on this verse, I do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth, speech, or whether he was created for the toil of labor. When the verse states: “For his mouth presses upon him” (Proverbs 16:26), you must say that he was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not know with regard to the toil of the mouth whether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. When the verse states: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth” (Joshua 1:8), you must say that he was created for the toil of Torah. And that is the meaning of what Rava said: All bodies are like receptacles to store items until use. Happy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah.

נאף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכנו יחדו על שפתיך

The verse states: “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding” (Proverbs 6:32). Reish Lakish says: This is a reference to one who studies Torah intermittently, who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, as it is stated about words of Torah: “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips” (Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.

תנו רבנן ׳והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה׳ זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי

§ The Sages taught in a baraita that with regard to the verse: “But the person who acts high-handedly, whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), this is a reference to Manasseh ben Hezekiah, king of Israel, who would sit and teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.

אמר ׳וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פילגש לאליפז וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה׳ יצאה בת קול ואמרה לו ׳תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דפי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך׳

Manasseh said: But did Moses need to write only insignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: “And Lotan’s sister was Timna” (Genesis 36:22), or: “And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found duda’im in the field” (Genesis 30:14)? A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes” (Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import.

ועליו מפורש בקבלה ׳הוי משכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה׳ מאי כעבות העגלה אמר רבי אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה

And about Manasseh ben Hezekiah it is stated explicitly in the texts of tradition, the Prophets: “Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope” (Isaiah 5:18). What is the meaning of the phrase “as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says: This is a reference to the evil inclination. Initially, it seems like a flimsy spinning [kuveya] thread and ultimately it seems like a sturdy cart rope.

דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא

Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse that we came to discuss, in any event, what is the significance of the phrase in the verse “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? The Gemara explains: Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” (Genesis 36:29), and: “The chief of Timna” (Genesis 36:40), and each chief is a member of a monarchy, albeit without a crown. That is why they are called chief and not king.

בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה

Timna sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, referring to herself: It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. Ultimately, Amalek, son of Eliphaz, emerged from her, and that tribe afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact that they should not have rejected her when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant.

וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא ברבי יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי רבי יונתן אמר סביסקי

“And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest” (Genesis 30:14). Rava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says that Rav says: From here it can be seen that the righteous do not extend their hands to engage in robbery even of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless duda’im. The verse continues: “And he found duda’im in the field.” The Gemara asks: What are duda’im? Rav says: They are a plant called yavruḥei. Levi says: They are violets. Rabbi Yonatan says: They are seviskei.

אמר רבי אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר או יחזק במעזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי

§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, Rabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages in the study of Torah for its own sake introduces peace into the heavenly entourage above and into the earthly entourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ma’uzi], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me” (Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called oz, introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were.

רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר ואשם דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטע שמים וליסד ארץ רבי יוחנן אמר אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר ולאמר לציון עמי אתה

Rav says: It is as though he built a palace of heaven above and of earth below, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. Rabbi Yoḥanan says: One who engages in Torah study also protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advances the coming of the redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.”

אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן רבי אלעזר אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אתם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אתם אל תקרי אתם אלא אתם

Reish Lakish said: With regard to anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes him credit as though he formed that student, as it is stated: “And Abram took Sarai his wife…and the souls that they formed in Haran” (Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. Rabbi Elazar says: It is as though he fashioned [asa’an] the words of Torah themselves, as it is stated: “Observe the words of this covenant, va’asitem otam” (Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. Rava says: It is as though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “Va’asitem otam.” Do not read “va’asitem otam” as: And you shall fashion them; rather, read it as va’asitem atem, meaning: You shall fashion yourself.

אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה

Rabbi Abbahu says: With regard to anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses…and your rod, with which you struck the river, take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). And was it Moses who struck the river? But isn’t it written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that Aaron struck the river? Rather, that verse serves to say to you: Anyone who causes another to engage in a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him credit as though he performed it himself.

אפיקורוס רב ורבי חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה תלמיד חכם רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם

§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include an epikoros. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.

בשלמא למאן דאמר המבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למאן דאמר מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt is characterized as one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. But according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the epikoros mentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one who interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like what individual does such a person conduct himself? He is like Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives.

ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ורבי חנינא אמרי זה המבזה תלמיד חכם רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם

And there are those who teach this dispute with regard to the latter clause of the baraita: From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: One who interprets the Torah inappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: This is one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This is one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar.

בשלמא למאן דאמר המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם אפיקורוס הוי אלא למאן דאמר מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו

The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the one who says that one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is characterized as the epikoros mentioned in the mishna. But according to the one who says that one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is the one mentioned in the baraita who interprets the Torah inappropriately, how would he characterize the epikoros mentioned in the mishna? Like whom does he conduct himself? Rav Yosef says: It is referring to one who conducts himself like those who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? They read the Bible for their own benefit and they study the Mishna for their own benefit.

אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם

Abaye said to him: That person who questions the benefit provided by Sages is also in the category of one who interprets the Torah inappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, as it is written: “If not for My covenant, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covenant of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too conclude the same concept from it, as it is stated: “If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, then I will spare the entire place for their sakes” (Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside.

אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם

Rather, the epikoros mentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself like one who sits before his teacher and a halakha that he learned from another place happens to fall into his consciousness and the student says: This is what we say there, and he does not say deferentially: This is what the Master said, even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. Rava said: The term epikoros is referring to one who conducts himself like those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say: In what manner have the Sages benefited us with all their Torah study? Never

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