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Today's Daf Yomi

June 18, 2020 | 讻状讜 讘住讬讜谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 104

In writing a sefer torah, if a mem which is used in the middle of a word can function as a mem at the end of a word, would the same hold true in the reverse case? Historically, did one precede the other? The gemara brings a drasha on the meaning of all the letters in the Hebrew alphabet and also regarding the direction and shapes of the letters. Drashot are also brought using codes like Aleph-Tav, Bet-Shin and others. In what ways and with what types of ink is one obligated to bring a sin offering if one wrote on Shabbat and in what ways is one exempt from a sin offering (but obligated by rabbinic law). Is one obligated if one wrote over letters already written or added one letter to a letter that was already written and formed a word or wrote two letters nowhere near each other? What if one wrote on one’s body? Or scratches letters on his body? A story is told of Ben Setada who etched secret magic spells on his flesh to be able to sneak it out of Egypt. There is a section about him that was removed by the censor. Was it referring to Jesus? If one wrote the last letter of a book, is that forbidden by Torah law? What if one wrote one letter in two different cities (one letter in each city)?

注诇讜讬讬 拽讗 诪注诇讬 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 讘谞住 讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬谉 讗诇讗 住转讜诐 讜注砖讗讜 驻转讜讞 讙专讜注讬 拽讗 诪讙专注 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诪谞爪驻讱 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专讜诐

he elevates its status, as Rav 岣sda said: The letters mem and samekh that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the samekh and final mem, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open mem closed elevates its status. However, if one rendered a closed letter open, he diminishes its status, as Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The prophets instituted the difference between the open and closed forms of the letters mem, nun, tzadi, peh, kaf. Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.

讜转讬住讘专讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讗诇讗 诪讬讛讜讛 讛讜讗讬 诪讬讚注 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬谉 讛讬 讘讗诪爪注 转讬讘讛 讛讬 讘住讜祝 转讬讘讛 讜讗转讜 爪讜驻讬诐 转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讜讗讻转讬 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讗诇讗 砖讻讞讜诐 讜讞讝专讜 讜讬住讚讜诐

The Gemara rejects this: And is that reasonable? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hese are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai鈥 (Leviticus 27:34). The word 鈥渢hese鈥 underscores that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any new element related to the Torah and its mitzvot from here on. Rather, the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions existed before then. However, people did not know which form appeared in the middle of a word and which form at the end of a word. And the prophets came and instituted their set positions. The Gemara asks: And still the question remains: Didn鈥檛 the Sages derive from the verse: 鈥淭hese are the commandments,鈥 that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any new element from here on? How could they institute the position of the letters? Rather, over the course of time, the people forgot their positions in the words and the prophets then reestablished their positions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.

讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 讘谞住 讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻转讘 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 谞拽专讗 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜谞拽专讗 诪讘讞讜抓 讻讙讜谉 谞讘讜讘 讘讜讘谉 (专讛讘 讘讛专) 住专讜 讜专住:

The Gemara returns to discuss the matter itself. Rav 岣sda said: The letters mem and samekh that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. And furthermore, Rav 岣sda said: The writing on the tablets was read from the inside, from one side of the tablets, and read from the outside, the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: Nevuv was read as bet, vav, bet, nun; rahav as beit, heh, reish; and saru as vav, reish, samekh.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗转讜 讚专讚拽讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讜讗诪专讜 诪讬诇讬 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 诇讗 讗讬转诪专 讻讜讜转讬讬讛讜 讗诇祝 讘讬转 讗诇祝 讘讬谞讛 讙讬诪诇 讚诇转 讙诪讜诇 讚诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻砖讜讟讛 讻专注讬讛 讚讙讬诪诇 诇讙讘讬 讚诇转 砖讻谉 讚专讻讜 砖诇 讙讜诪诇 讞住讚讬诐 诇专讜抓 讗讞专 讚诇讬诐 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻砖讜讟讛 讻专注讬讛 讚讚诇转 诇讙讘讬 讙讬诪诇 讚诇讬诪爪讬讛 诇讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讚讚诇转 诪讙讬诪诇 讚诇讬转谉 诇讬讛 讘爪讬谞注讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讻住讬祝 诪讬谞讬讛

The Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students came today to the study hall and said things the likes of which were not said even in the days of Joshua bin Nun. These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically.
Alef beit means learn [elaf] the wisdom [bina] of the Torah.
Gimmel dalet means give to the poor [gemol dalim]. Why is the leg of the gimmel extended toward the dalet? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And why is the leg of the dalet extended toward the gimmel? It is so that a poor person will make himself available to him who wants to give him charity. And why does the dalet face away from the gimmel? It is to teach that one should give charity discreetly so that the poor person will not be embarrassed by him.

讛讜 讝讛 砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讞 讟讬 讻诇 讜讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝谉 讗讜转讱 讜讞谉 讗讜转讱 讜诪讟讬讘 诇讱 讜谞讜转谉 诇讱 讬专讜砖讛 讜拽讜砖专 诇讱 讻转专 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 诪诐 驻转讜讞讛 诪诐 住转讜诪讛 诪讗诪专 驻转讜讞 诪讗诪专 住转讜诐 谞讜谉 讻驻讜驻讛 谞讜谉 驻砖讜讟讛 谞讗诪谉 讻驻讜祝 谞讗诪谉 驻砖讜讟

The children continued to interpret the letters.
Heh vav: That is the principal name of the Holy One, Blessed be He.
Zayin 岣t, tet yod, kaf lamed: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [zan] you, and shows you favor [岣n], and bestows goodness [meitiv] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [yerusha], and ties a crown [keter] for you in the World to Come [la鈥檕lam haba].
The open mem and closed mem indicate that the Torah contains an open statement, understood by all, and an esoteric statement.
The bent nun and the straight nun at the end of a word refer to a faithful person who is bent [ne鈥檈man kafuf] and is modest now, who will ultimately become a well-known faithful person [ne鈥檈man pashut].

住注 住诪讜讱 注谞讬讬诐 诇讬砖谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 住讬诪谞讬谉 注砖讛 讘转讜专讛 讜拽谞讛 讗讜转讛 驻壮 讻驻讜驻讛 驻壮 驻砖讜讟讛 驻讛 驻转讜讞 驻讛 住转讜诐 爪讚讬 讻驻讜驻讛 讜爪讚讬 驻砖讜讟讛 爪讚讬拽 讻驻讜祝 爪讚讬拽 驻砖讜讟 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讗诪谉 讻驻讜祝 谞讗诪谉 驻砖讜讟 讛讜住讬祝 诇讱 讛讻转讜讘 讻驻讬驻讛 注诇 讻驻讬驻转讜 诪讻讗谉 砖谞转谞讛 讛转讜专讛 讘诪谞讜讚 专讗砖

Samekh ayin: Support the poor [semokh aniyyim] to prevent them from falling further. Another version: Make mnemonic signs [simanim aseh] to remember the Torah and acquire it.
The bent peh and the straight peh: Sometimes one needs to have an open mouth [peh patua岣] and speak, and sometimes one needs to have a closed mouth [peh satum].
The bent tzadi and the straight tzadi indicate that a righteous person who is bent and humble [tzaddik kafuf] now will ultimately become a well-known righteous person [tzaddik pashut] whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: That is identical to the interpretation of the bent and straight nun: Ne鈥檈man kafuf, ne鈥檈man pashut. The Gemara explains: The verse added the bending of the righteous person to the bending of the faithful person. From here it is derived that the Torah was given in an atmosphere of gravity. One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.

拽讜祝 拽讚讜砖 专讬砖 专砖注 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讚拽讜祝 诪专讬砖 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇讛住转讻诇 讘专砖注 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专讛 转讙讬讛 讚拽讜祝 诇讙讘讬 专讬砖 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诐 讞讜讝专 讘讜 讗谞讬 拽讜砖专 诇讜 讻转专 讻诪讜转讬 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻专注讬讛 讚拽讜祝 转诇讜讬讛 讚讗讬 讛讚专 讘讬讛 诇讬注讬讬诇

The children continued:
Kuf: Holy [kadosh], referring to God.
Reish: A wicked person [rasha]. Why is the kuf facing away from the reish? This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the reish that is facing away from the kuf. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person, i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. And why is the crown of the letter kuf turned toward the reish? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If the wicked person repents his evil ways I will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg of the kuf suspended and not connected to the roof of the letter? Because if the wicked person repents he can enter through this opening if he so desires.

讜诇讬注讜诇 讘讛讱 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 诇诇爪讬诐 讛讜讗 讬诇讬抓 讜诇注谞讜讬诐 讬转谉 讞谉 讘讗 诇讬讟诪讗 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 讘讗 诇讬讟讛专 诪住讬讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜

The Gemara asks: Let him enter through that opening, as the kuf is open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This supports the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚f it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace鈥 (Proverbs 3:34)? One who comes in order to become impure, i.e., to sin, they, in Heaven, provide him with an opening to do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he comes in order to become purified, not only is he allowed to do so, but they, in Heaven, assist him.

砖讬谉 砖拽专 转讬讜 讗诪转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖拽专 诪拽专讘谉 诪讬诇讬讛 讗诪转 诪专讞拽讗 诪讬诇讬讛 砖讬拽专讗 砖讻讬讞 拽讜砖讟讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讬拽专讗 讗讞讚讗 讻专注讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讗诪转 诪诇讘谉 诇讘讜谞讬讛 拽讜砖讟讗 拽讗讬 砖讬拽专讗 诇讗 拽讗讬

They further taught:
Shin: Falsehood [sheker]. Tav: Truth [emet].
Why are the letters of the word sheker adjacent to one another in the alphabet, while the letters of emet are distant from one another? That is because while falsehood is easily found, truth is found only with great difficulty. And why do the letters that comprise the word sheker all stand on one foot, and the letters that comprise the word emet stand on bases that are wide like bricks? Because the truth stands eternal and falsehood does not stand eternal.

讗转 讘砖 讗讜转讬 转注讘 讗转讗讜讛 诇讜 讘砖 讘讬 诇讗 讞砖拽 砖诪讬 讬讞讜诇 注诇讬讜 讙专 讙讜驻讜 讟讬诪讗 讗专讞诐 注诇讬讜 讚拽 讚诇转讜转讬 谞注诇 拽专谞讬讜 诇讗 讗讙讚注 注讚 讻讗谉 诪讚转 专砖注讬诐

The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on [alef tav, beit shin]. Alef tav, God said: If he despised Me [oti ti鈥檈v] would I desire [etaveh] him? Beit shin: If he does not desire to worship Me [bi], shall My name [shemi] rest upon him? Gimmel reish: He defiled his body [gufo]; shall I have mercy [ara岣m] on him? The word comprised of the letters gimmel and reish in Aramaic means licentiousness. Dalet kuf: He locked My doors [daltotai], shall I not cut off his horns [karnav]? To this point, the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to the attribute of the wicked.

讗讘诇 诪讚转 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转 讘砖 讗诐 讗转讛 讘讜砖 讙专 讚拽 讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讙讜专 讘讚讜拽 讛抓 讜祝 讞爪讬爪讛 讛讜讬 讘讬谞讱 诇讗祝 讝注 讞住 讟谉 讜讗讬谉 讗转讛 诪讝讚注讝注 诪谉 讛砖讟谉 讬诐 讻诇 讗诪专 [砖专 砖诇] 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讬诐 讻诇

However, with regard to the attribute of the righteous it is taught differently. Alef tav, beit shin: If you have shame [ata bosh], gimmel reish, dalet kuf: If you do so, you will reside [gur] in the heavens [bedok], as the verse says: 鈥淲ho stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [dok]鈥 (Isaiah 40:22). Heh tzadi, vav peh: There is a partition [岣tzitza havei] between you and anger [af]. Zayin ayin, 岣t samekh, tet nun: And you will not be shaken [mizdaze鈥檃] by the Satan. Yod mem, kaf lamed: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, send the righteous as well into the sea to which all go [yam kol], Gehenna.

讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讞住 讘讟注 讙讬祝 讗谞讬 讞住 注诇讬讛诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讘注讟讜 讘讙讬祝 讚讻抓 讚讻讬诐 讛诐 讻谞讬诐 讛诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讛诐 讛诇拽 讗讬谉 诇讱 讞诇拽 讘讛谉 讜诪专讝谉 砖转 讗诪专 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪专讬 讝谞讬谞讬 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 砖转

The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Alef 岣t samekh, bet tet ayin, gimmel yod peh: I have mercy on them [Ani 岣s aleihem] because they spurned [ba鈥檃tu] adultery [gif]. The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: Dalet kaf tzadi: They are pure [dakkim], they are honest [kenim], they are righteous [tzaddikim]. Heh lamed kuf: You have no portion [岣lek] with them, based on the interchange of the letters 岣t and heh. Vav mem reish zayin nun, shin tav: The minister of Gehenna said [amar], based on vav mem reish, before Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [Mari], sustain me [zaneini] with the seed of Seth [Shet], which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.

讗诪专 诇讜 讗诇 讘诐 讙谉 讚住 诇讛讬讻谉 讗讜诇讬讻谉 诇讙谉 讛讚住 讛注 讜祝 讗诪专 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 注讬祝 讗谞讻讬 讝抓 讞拽 讛诇诇讜 讝专注讜 砖诇 讬爪讞拽 讟专 讬砖 讻转 讟专 讬砖 诇讬 讻讬转讜转 讻讬转讜转 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 砖讗谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱:

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him using another configuration of the alphabet: Alef lamed, beit mem: Not with them [al bam], i.e., you will have no portion of them. Gimmel nun, dalet samekh: To where will I lead them? I will lead them to the garden of myrtle [gan hadas], i.e., the Garden of Eden. Heh ayin, vav peh: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ayef anokhi] and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: Zayin tzadi, 岣t kuf: These are the descendants [zaro] of Isaac [Yitz岣k]. Tet reish, yod shin, kaf tav: Wait [tar], I have groups upon groups [yesh li kittot kittot] of other nations that I will give you instead.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讻讜转讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讘讛注诇诐 讗讞讚 讞讬讬讘 讻转讘 讘讚讬讜 讘住诐 讘住讬拽专讗 讘拽讜诪讜住 讜讘拽谞拽谞转讜诐 讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 专讜砖诐 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讝讜讬讜转 讜注诇 砖谞讬 诇讜讜讞讬 驻讬谞拽住 讜讛谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讞讬讬讘 讛讻讜转讘 注诇 讘砖专讜 讞讬讬讘 讛诪住专讟 注诇 讘砖专讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪讞讬讬讘 讞讟讗转 讜讞讻诪讬诐 驻讜讟专讬谉

MISHNA: One who writes two letters on Shabbat during one lapse of awareness is liable. The following substances used as ink are explained in the Gemara. One is liable if he wrote with deyo, with sam, with sikra, with gum [komos], or with copper sulfate [kankantom] or with any substance that makes a mark. If one wrote on two walls of a house that form a corner, or on two parts of a writing tablet, and the two items are read together, he is liable. One who writes on his flesh on Shabbat is liable. If one unwittingly scratches letters on his flesh on Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering and the Sages deem him exempt.

讻转讘 讘诪砖拽讬谉 讘诪讬 驻讬专讜转 讘讗讘拽 讚专讻讬诐 讘讗讘拽 讛住讜驻专讬诐 讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转拽讬讬诐 驻讟讜专 诇讗讞专 讬讚讜 讘专讙诇讜 讘驻讬讜 讜讘诪专驻讬拽讜 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 住诪讜讱 诇讻转讘 讜讻转讘 注诇 讙讘讬 讻转讘 谞转讻讜讜谉 诇讻转讜讘 讞讬转 讜讻转讘 砖转讬 讝讬讬谞讬谉 讗讞转 讘讗专抓 讜讗讞转 讘拽讜专讛 讻转讘 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讛讘讬转 注诇 砖谞讬 讚驻讬 驻谞拽住 讜讗讬谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 驻讟讜专 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 谞讜讟专讬拽讜谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 诪讞讬讬讘 讜讞讻诪讬诐 驻讜讟专讬谉:

If one wrote with liquids or with fruit juice, or if one drew letters with road dust, with scribes鈥 dust that they use to dry the ink, or with any substance with which the writing does not endure, he is exempt. Similarly, if one wrote by holding the pen on the back of his hand, with his foot, with his mouth, or with his elbow; if one wrote only a single letter, even if it was adjacent to other preexisting writing; or if one wrote over other writing; if one meant to write the letter 岣t and instead wrote the two halves of the 岣t as two instances of the letter zayin; if one wrote one letter on the ground and one on a rafter; if one wrote one letter on two walls of a house, or on two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt. If one wrote one letter as an abbreviation representing an entire word, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira deems him liable to bring a sin-offering, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

讙诪壮 讚讬讜 讚讬讜转讗 住诐 住诪讗 住拽专讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 住拽专转讗 砖诪讛 拽讜诪讜住 拽讜诪讗 拽谞拽谞转讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讞专转讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬:

GEMARA: The Gemara defines the terms used in the mishna. Deyo is deyota made from soot. Sam is samma, which is yellow-tinged arsenic. Sikra, Rabba bar bar 岣na said: It is called sikreta in Aramaic and is a lead-based red paint. Komos is koma in Aramaic, and it is an ink made with gum Arabic from the sap of a tree. Kankantom, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Shmuel said: This is the black substance used by cobblers, copper sulfate.

讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 专讜砖诐: 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讻转讘讜 讘诪讬 讟专讬讗 讜讗驻爪讗 讻砖专 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻转讘讜 讘讗讘专 讘砖讞讜专 讜讘砖讬讞讜专 讻砖专:

And we learned in the mishna that one who writes with any substance that makes a mark is liable. The Gemara asks: What does this statement come to include? The Gemara answers: It comes to include that which Rabbi 岣nanya taught with regard to writing a bill of divorce: If one wrote it with the juice of the fruit called teriya, or with gallnut juice instead of ink, it is valid. Similarly, Rabbi 岣yya taught: If one wrote a bill of divorce with lead, with soot (ge鈥檕nim), or with shoeblack, it is valid. Since those substances leave a permanent mark, one who writes with them on Shabbat is liable.

讛诪住专讟 注诇 讘砖专讜: 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛诇讗 讘谉 住讟讚讗 讛讜爪讬讗 讻砖驻讬诐 诪诪爪专讬诐 讘住专讬讟讛 砖注诇 讘砖专讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 砖讜讟讛 讛讬讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐: 讘谉 住讟讚讗 讘谉 驻谞讚讬专讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讘注诇 住讟讚讗 讘讜注诇 驻谞讚讬专讗 讘注诇 驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗诪讜 住讟讚讗 讗诪讜 诪专讬诐 诪讙讚诇讗 砖注专 谞砖讬讗 讛讜讗讬 讗诇讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 住讟转 讚讗 诪讘注诇讛:

We learned in the mishna: If one unwittingly scratches letters on his flesh on Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering and the Sages deem him exempt. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said to the Rabbis: Didn鈥檛 the infamous ben Stada take magic spells out of Egypt in a scratch on his flesh? They said to him: He was a fool, and you cannot cite proof from a fool. That is not the way that most people write. Incidentally, the Gemara asks: Why did they call him ben Stada, when he was the son of Pandeira? Rav 岣sda said: His mother鈥檚 husband, who acted as his father, was named Stada, but the one who had relations with his mother and fathered him was named Pandeira. The Gemara asks: Wasn鈥檛 his mother鈥檚 husband Pappos ben Yehuda? Rather, his mother was named Stada and he was named ben Stada after her. The Gemara asks: But wasn鈥檛 his mother Miriam, who braided women鈥檚 hair? The Gemara explains: That is not a contradiction. Rather, Stada was merely a nickname, as they say in Pumbedita: This one strayed [setat da] from her husband.

讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 住诪讜讱 诇讻转讘: 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗诪专 讗讞转 注诇 讛讗专讬讙 讞讬讬讘:

We learned in the mishna: If one wrote only a single letter, even if it was adjacent to other preexisting writing, he is exempt. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the mishna? Rava bar Rav Huna said: This halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, didn鈥檛 he say: One who adds a single thread to a previously woven fabric is liable for weaving? In his opinion, although a single thread or letter is insignificant in and of itself, one is liable because adding even a small measure to existing material is significant.

讻转讘 注诇 讙讘讬 讻转讘: 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讛专讬 砖讛讬讛 爪专讬讱 诇讻转讜讘 讗转 讛砖诐 讜谞转讻讜讬谉 诇讻转讜讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛讟讬诇 讘讜 讚诇转 诪注讘讬专 注诇讬讜 拽讜诇诪讜住 讜诪拽讚砖讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讛砖诐 诪谉 讛诪讜讘讞专

We learned in the mishna: If one wrote over other writing he is exempt. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the mishna? Rav 岣sda said: This halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: If one needed to write the Tetragrammaton, the name of God, in a Torah scroll, and became confused and intended instead to write the name Yehuda, and while intending to write Yehuda he erred and omitted the letter dalet, thereby writing the name of God, he should do the following. He passes a quill with more ink over the name and sanctifies it, i.e., he writes it with the intention required when writing a holy name. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Even if he adds ink over what he wrote, this writing of God鈥檚 name is not ideal. Apparently, according to Rabbi Yehuda, writing over other writing is considered writing anew.

转谞讗 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 讜讛砖诇讬诪讛 诇住驻专 讗专讙 讞讜讟 讗讞讚 讜讛砖诇讬诪讛 诇讘讙讚 讞讬讬讘 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讞转 注诇 讛讗专讬讙 讞讬讬讘 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘谞谉 诇讛砖诇讬诐 砖讗谞讬

A tanna taught in a baraita: If one wrote a single letter and thereby completed a book, or if one wove a single thread and thereby completed an entire garment, he is liable. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the baraita? Rava bar Rav Huna said: It is the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: One who adds a single thread to a previously woven fabric is liable for weaving. Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, one who does so to complete a garment is different. Even if he is not liable for weaving, he is liable at least for striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 讘讟讘专讬讗 讜讗讞转 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讞讬讬讘 讻转讬讘讛 讛讬讗 讗诇讗 砖诪讞讜住专 拽专讬讘讛 讜讛转谞谉 讻转讘 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讛讘讬转 讜注诇 砖谞讬 讚驻讬 驻谞拽住 讜讗讬谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 驻讟讜专 讛转诐 诪讞讜住专 诪注砖讛 讚拽专讬讘讛 讛讻讗 诇讗 诪讞讜住专 诪注砖讛 讚拽专讬讘讛

Rabbi Ami said: If one wrote one letter on paper in Tiberias and one letter on paper in Tzippori, he is liable because he performed a full-fledged act of writing that is lacking only in proximity. When the two pieces of paper are brought together he will have written two associated letters. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: If one wrote one letter on two walls of a house, or on two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt? All the more so that this is the halakha with regard to one who wrote in two different cities. The Gemara answers: There, in the case of the parts of a tablet, there is the lack of an additional act of cutting or tearing to facilitate bringing the letters together. However, here, in the case of two cities, even though they are distant from one another, there is no lack of an additional act to facilitate bringing them together.

转谞讗 讛讙讬讛 讗讜转 讗讞转 讞讬讬讘 讛砖转讗 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 讛讙讬讛 讗讜转 讗讞转 讞讬讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讟诇讜 诇讙讙讜 砖诇 讞讬转 讜注砖讗讜 砖谞讬 讝讬讬谞讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讟诇讜 诇转讙讜 砖诇 讚诇转 讜注砖讗讜 专讬砖

A tanna taught in the Tosefta: If one emended a single letter on Shabbat, he is liable. The Gemara wonders: Now, if one wrote a single letter on Shabbat he is exempt; is it possible that if one emends a single letter he is liable? Rav Sheshet said: With what are we dealing here? We are dealing with a case where one removed the roof of a 岣t and transformed it into two instances of the letter zayin, effectively writing two letters with a single correction. Rava said: It is not necessarily referring to that specific case. It could even be referring to a case where one removed the protrusion from the back of a dalet and transformed it into a reish, thereby emending the written text. One who did so is liable for performing the prohibited labor of striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel.

转谞讗 谞转讻讜讬谉 诇讻转讜讘 讗讜转 讗讞转

A tanna taught: If one intended to write one letter on Shabbat

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 104

注诇讜讬讬 拽讗 诪注诇讬 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 讘谞住 讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬谉 讗诇讗 住转讜诐 讜注砖讗讜 驻转讜讞 讙专讜注讬 拽讗 诪讙专注 诇讬讛 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬专诪讬讛 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诪谞爪驻讱 爪讜驻讬诐 讗诪专讜诐

he elevates its status, as Rav 岣sda said: The letters mem and samekh that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the samekh and final mem, letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open mem closed elevates its status. However, if one rendered a closed letter open, he diminishes its status, as Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba who said: The prophets instituted the difference between the open and closed forms of the letters mem, nun, tzadi, peh, kaf. Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.

讜转讬住讘专讗 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讗诇讗 诪讬讛讜讛 讛讜讗讬 诪讬讚注 诇讗 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬谉 讛讬 讘讗诪爪注 转讬讘讛 讛讬 讘住讜祝 转讬讘讛 讜讗转讜 爪讜驻讬诐 转拽谞讬谞讛讜 讜讗讻转讬 讗诇讛 讛诪爪讜转 砖讗讬谉 讛谞讘讬讗 专砖讗讬 诇讞讚砖 讚讘专 诪注转讛 讗诇讗 砖讻讞讜诐 讜讞讝专讜 讜讬住讚讜诐

The Gemara rejects this: And is that reasonable? Isn鈥檛 it written: 鈥淭hese are the commandments that the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai鈥 (Leviticus 27:34). The word 鈥渢hese鈥 underscores that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any new element related to the Torah and its mitzvot from here on. Rather, the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions existed before then. However, people did not know which form appeared in the middle of a word and which form at the end of a word. And the prophets came and instituted their set positions. The Gemara asks: And still the question remains: Didn鈥檛 the Sages derive from the verse: 鈥淭hese are the commandments,鈥 that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any new element from here on? How could they institute the position of the letters? Rather, over the course of time, the people forgot their positions in the words and the prophets then reestablished their positions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.

讙讜驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 诪诐 讜住诪讱 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 讘谞住 讛讬讜 注讜诪讚讬谉 讜讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讻转讘 砖讘诇讜讞讜转 谞拽专讗 诪讘驻谞讬诐 讜谞拽专讗 诪讘讞讜抓 讻讙讜谉 谞讘讜讘 讘讜讘谉 (专讛讘 讘讛专) 住专讜 讜专住:

The Gemara returns to discuss the matter itself. Rav 岣sda said: The letters mem and samekh that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. And furthermore, Rav 岣sda said: The writing on the tablets was read from the inside, from one side of the tablets, and read from the outside, the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: Nevuv was read as bet, vav, bet, nun; rahav as beit, heh, reish; and saru as vav, reish, samekh.

讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 专讘谞谉 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗转讜 讚专讚拽讬 讛讗讬讚谞讗 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讜讗诪专讜 诪讬诇讬 讚讗驻讬诇讜 讘讬诪讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 谞讜谉 诇讗 讗讬转诪专 讻讜讜转讬讬讛讜 讗诇祝 讘讬转 讗诇祝 讘讬谞讛 讙讬诪诇 讚诇转 讙诪讜诇 讚诇讬诐 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻砖讜讟讛 讻专注讬讛 讚讙讬诪诇 诇讙讘讬 讚诇转 砖讻谉 讚专讻讜 砖诇 讙讜诪诇 讞住讚讬诐 诇专讜抓 讗讞专 讚诇讬诐 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 驻砖讜讟讛 讻专注讬讛 讚讚诇转 诇讙讘讬 讙讬诪诇 讚诇讬诪爪讬讛 诇讬讛 谞驻砖讬讛 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讚讚诇转 诪讙讬诪诇 讚诇讬转谉 诇讬讛 讘爪讬谞注讛 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讗 诇讬讻住讬祝 诪讬谞讬讛

The Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students came today to the study hall and said things the likes of which were not said even in the days of Joshua bin Nun. These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically.
Alef beit means learn [elaf] the wisdom [bina] of the Torah.
Gimmel dalet means give to the poor [gemol dalim]. Why is the leg of the gimmel extended toward the dalet? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And why is the leg of the dalet extended toward the gimmel? It is so that a poor person will make himself available to him who wants to give him charity. And why does the dalet face away from the gimmel? It is to teach that one should give charity discreetly so that the poor person will not be embarrassed by him.

讛讜 讝讛 砖诪讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝讞 讟讬 讻诇 讜讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讝谉 讗讜转讱 讜讞谉 讗讜转讱 讜诪讟讬讘 诇讱 讜谞讜转谉 诇讱 讬专讜砖讛 讜拽讜砖专 诇讱 讻转专 诇注讜诇诐 讛讘讗 诪诐 驻转讜讞讛 诪诐 住转讜诪讛 诪讗诪专 驻转讜讞 诪讗诪专 住转讜诐 谞讜谉 讻驻讜驻讛 谞讜谉 驻砖讜讟讛 谞讗诪谉 讻驻讜祝 谞讗诪谉 驻砖讜讟

The children continued to interpret the letters.
Heh vav: That is the principal name of the Holy One, Blessed be He.
Zayin 岣t, tet yod, kaf lamed: And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [zan] you, and shows you favor [岣n], and bestows goodness [meitiv] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [yerusha], and ties a crown [keter] for you in the World to Come [la鈥檕lam haba].
The open mem and closed mem indicate that the Torah contains an open statement, understood by all, and an esoteric statement.
The bent nun and the straight nun at the end of a word refer to a faithful person who is bent [ne鈥檈man kafuf] and is modest now, who will ultimately become a well-known faithful person [ne鈥檈man pashut].

住注 住诪讜讱 注谞讬讬诐 诇讬砖谞讗 讗讞专讬谞讗 住讬诪谞讬谉 注砖讛 讘转讜专讛 讜拽谞讛 讗讜转讛 驻壮 讻驻讜驻讛 驻壮 驻砖讜讟讛 驻讛 驻转讜讞 驻讛 住转讜诐 爪讚讬 讻驻讜驻讛 讜爪讚讬 驻砖讜讟讛 爪讚讬拽 讻驻讜祝 爪讚讬拽 驻砖讜讟 讛讬讬谞讜 谞讗诪谉 讻驻讜祝 谞讗诪谉 驻砖讜讟 讛讜住讬祝 诇讱 讛讻转讜讘 讻驻讬驻讛 注诇 讻驻讬驻转讜 诪讻讗谉 砖谞转谞讛 讛转讜专讛 讘诪谞讜讚 专讗砖

Samekh ayin: Support the poor [semokh aniyyim] to prevent them from falling further. Another version: Make mnemonic signs [simanim aseh] to remember the Torah and acquire it.
The bent peh and the straight peh: Sometimes one needs to have an open mouth [peh patua岣] and speak, and sometimes one needs to have a closed mouth [peh satum].
The bent tzadi and the straight tzadi indicate that a righteous person who is bent and humble [tzaddik kafuf] now will ultimately become a well-known righteous person [tzaddik pashut] whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: That is identical to the interpretation of the bent and straight nun: Ne鈥檈man kafuf, ne鈥檈man pashut. The Gemara explains: The verse added the bending of the righteous person to the bending of the faithful person. From here it is derived that the Torah was given in an atmosphere of gravity. One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.

拽讜祝 拽讚讜砖 专讬砖 专砖注 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专 讗驻讬讛 讚拽讜祝 诪专讬砖 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讬谉 讗谞讬 讬讻讜诇 诇讛住转讻诇 讘专砖注 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 诪讛讚专讛 转讙讬讛 讚拽讜祝 诇讙讘讬 专讬砖 讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗诐 讞讜讝专 讘讜 讗谞讬 拽讜砖专 诇讜 讻转专 讻诪讜转讬 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讻专注讬讛 讚拽讜祝 转诇讜讬讛 讚讗讬 讛讚专 讘讬讛 诇讬注讬讬诇

The children continued:
Kuf: Holy [kadosh], referring to God.
Reish: A wicked person [rasha]. Why is the kuf facing away from the reish? This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the reish that is facing away from the kuf. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person, i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. And why is the crown of the letter kuf turned toward the reish? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If the wicked person repents his evil ways I will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg of the kuf suspended and not connected to the roof of the letter? Because if the wicked person repents he can enter through this opening if he so desires.

讜诇讬注讜诇 讘讛讱 诪住讬讬注 诇讬讛 诇专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讚讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诐 诇诇爪讬诐 讛讜讗 讬诇讬抓 讜诇注谞讜讬诐 讬转谉 讞谉 讘讗 诇讬讟诪讗 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 讘讗 诇讬讟讛专 诪住讬讬注讬诐 讗讜转讜

The Gemara asks: Let him enter through that opening, as the kuf is open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This supports the statement of Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淚f it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace鈥 (Proverbs 3:34)? One who comes in order to become impure, i.e., to sin, they, in Heaven, provide him with an opening to do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he comes in order to become purified, not only is he allowed to do so, but they, in Heaven, assist him.

砖讬谉 砖拽专 转讬讜 讗诪转 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖拽专 诪拽专讘谉 诪讬诇讬讛 讗诪转 诪专讞拽讗 诪讬诇讬讛 砖讬拽专讗 砖讻讬讞 拽讜砖讟讗 诇讗 砖讻讬讞 讜诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 砖讬拽专讗 讗讞讚讗 讻专注讬讛 拽讗讬 讜讗诪转 诪诇讘谉 诇讘讜谞讬讛 拽讜砖讟讗 拽讗讬 砖讬拽专讗 诇讗 拽讗讬

They further taught:
Shin: Falsehood [sheker]. Tav: Truth [emet].
Why are the letters of the word sheker adjacent to one another in the alphabet, while the letters of emet are distant from one another? That is because while falsehood is easily found, truth is found only with great difficulty. And why do the letters that comprise the word sheker all stand on one foot, and the letters that comprise the word emet stand on bases that are wide like bricks? Because the truth stands eternal and falsehood does not stand eternal.

讗转 讘砖 讗讜转讬 转注讘 讗转讗讜讛 诇讜 讘砖 讘讬 诇讗 讞砖拽 砖诪讬 讬讞讜诇 注诇讬讜 讙专 讙讜驻讜 讟讬诪讗 讗专讞诐 注诇讬讜 讚拽 讚诇转讜转讬 谞注诇 拽专谞讬讜 诇讗 讗讙讚注 注讚 讻讗谉 诪讚转 专砖注讬诐

The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on [alef tav, beit shin]. Alef tav, God said: If he despised Me [oti ti鈥檈v] would I desire [etaveh] him? Beit shin: If he does not desire to worship Me [bi], shall My name [shemi] rest upon him? Gimmel reish: He defiled his body [gufo]; shall I have mercy [ara岣m] on him? The word comprised of the letters gimmel and reish in Aramaic means licentiousness. Dalet kuf: He locked My doors [daltotai], shall I not cut off his horns [karnav]? To this point, the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to the attribute of the wicked.

讗讘诇 诪讚转 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讗转 讘砖 讗诐 讗转讛 讘讜砖 讙专 讚拽 讗诐 讗转讛 注讜砖讛 讻谉 讙讜专 讘讚讜拽 讛抓 讜祝 讞爪讬爪讛 讛讜讬 讘讬谞讱 诇讗祝 讝注 讞住 讟谉 讜讗讬谉 讗转讛 诪讝讚注讝注 诪谉 讛砖讟谉 讬诐 讻诇 讗诪专 [砖专 砖诇] 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诇讬诐 讻诇

However, with regard to the attribute of the righteous it is taught differently. Alef tav, beit shin: If you have shame [ata bosh], gimmel reish, dalet kuf: If you do so, you will reside [gur] in the heavens [bedok], as the verse says: 鈥淲ho stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [dok]鈥 (Isaiah 40:22). Heh tzadi, vav peh: There is a partition [岣tzitza havei] between you and anger [af]. Zayin ayin, 岣t samekh, tet nun: And you will not be shaken [mizdaze鈥檃] by the Satan. Yod mem, kaf lamed: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, send the righteous as well into the sea to which all go [yam kol], Gehenna.

讗诪专 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讗讞住 讘讟注 讙讬祝 讗谞讬 讞住 注诇讬讛诐 诪驻谞讬 砖讘注讟讜 讘讙讬祝 讚讻抓 讚讻讬诐 讛诐 讻谞讬诐 讛诐 爪讚讬拽讬诐 讛诐 讛诇拽 讗讬谉 诇讱 讞诇拽 讘讛谉 讜诪专讝谉 砖转 讗诪专 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬讜 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪专讬 讝谞讬谞讬 诪讝专注讜 砖诇 砖转

The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Alef 岣t samekh, bet tet ayin, gimmel yod peh: I have mercy on them [Ani 岣s aleihem] because they spurned [ba鈥檃tu] adultery [gif]. The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: Dalet kaf tzadi: They are pure [dakkim], they are honest [kenim], they are righteous [tzaddikim]. Heh lamed kuf: You have no portion [岣lek] with them, based on the interchange of the letters 岣t and heh. Vav mem reish zayin nun, shin tav: The minister of Gehenna said [amar], based on vav mem reish, before Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [Mari], sustain me [zaneini] with the seed of Seth [Shet], which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.

讗诪专 诇讜 讗诇 讘诐 讙谉 讚住 诇讛讬讻谉 讗讜诇讬讻谉 诇讙谉 讛讚住 讛注 讜祝 讗诪专 讙讬讛谞诐 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 注讬祝 讗谞讻讬 讝抓 讞拽 讛诇诇讜 讝专注讜 砖诇 讬爪讞拽 讟专 讬砖 讻转 讟专 讬砖 诇讬 讻讬转讜转 讻讬转讜转 砖诇 讙讜讬诐 砖讗谞讬 谞讜转谉 诇讱:

The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him using another configuration of the alphabet: Alef lamed, beit mem: Not with them [al bam], i.e., you will have no portion of them. Gimmel nun, dalet samekh: To where will I lead them? I will lead them to the garden of myrtle [gan hadas], i.e., the Garden of Eden. Heh ayin, vav peh: The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ayef anokhi] and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: Zayin tzadi, 岣t kuf: These are the descendants [zaro] of Isaac [Yitz岣k]. Tet reish, yod shin, kaf tav: Wait [tar], I have groups upon groups [yesh li kittot kittot] of other nations that I will give you instead.

诪转谞讬壮 讛讻讜转讘 砖转讬 讗讜转讬讜转 讘讛注诇诐 讗讞讚 讞讬讬讘 讻转讘 讘讚讬讜 讘住诐 讘住讬拽专讗 讘拽讜诪讜住 讜讘拽谞拽谞转讜诐 讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 专讜砖诐 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讝讜讬讜转 讜注诇 砖谞讬 诇讜讜讞讬 驻讬谞拽住 讜讛谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 讞讬讬讘 讛讻讜转讘 注诇 讘砖专讜 讞讬讬讘 讛诪住专讟 注诇 讘砖专讜 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诪讞讬讬讘 讞讟讗转 讜讞讻诪讬诐 驻讜讟专讬谉

MISHNA: One who writes two letters on Shabbat during one lapse of awareness is liable. The following substances used as ink are explained in the Gemara. One is liable if he wrote with deyo, with sam, with sikra, with gum [komos], or with copper sulfate [kankantom] or with any substance that makes a mark. If one wrote on two walls of a house that form a corner, or on two parts of a writing tablet, and the two items are read together, he is liable. One who writes on his flesh on Shabbat is liable. If one unwittingly scratches letters on his flesh on Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering and the Sages deem him exempt.

讻转讘 讘诪砖拽讬谉 讘诪讬 驻讬专讜转 讘讗讘拽 讚专讻讬诐 讘讗讘拽 讛住讜驻专讬诐 讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讗讬谞讜 诪转拽讬讬诐 驻讟讜专 诇讗讞专 讬讚讜 讘专讙诇讜 讘驻讬讜 讜讘诪专驻讬拽讜 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 住诪讜讱 诇讻转讘 讜讻转讘 注诇 讙讘讬 讻转讘 谞转讻讜讜谉 诇讻转讜讘 讞讬转 讜讻转讘 砖转讬 讝讬讬谞讬谉 讗讞转 讘讗专抓 讜讗讞转 讘拽讜专讛 讻转讘 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讛讘讬转 注诇 砖谞讬 讚驻讬 驻谞拽住 讜讗讬谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 驻讟讜专 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 谞讜讟专讬拽讜谉 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讘转讬专讗 诪讞讬讬讘 讜讞讻诪讬诐 驻讜讟专讬谉:

If one wrote with liquids or with fruit juice, or if one drew letters with road dust, with scribes鈥 dust that they use to dry the ink, or with any substance with which the writing does not endure, he is exempt. Similarly, if one wrote by holding the pen on the back of his hand, with his foot, with his mouth, or with his elbow; if one wrote only a single letter, even if it was adjacent to other preexisting writing; or if one wrote over other writing; if one meant to write the letter 岣t and instead wrote the two halves of the 岣t as two instances of the letter zayin; if one wrote one letter on the ground and one on a rafter; if one wrote one letter on two walls of a house, or on two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt. If one wrote one letter as an abbreviation representing an entire word, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Beteira deems him liable to bring a sin-offering, and the Rabbis deem him exempt.

讙诪壮 讚讬讜 讚讬讜转讗 住诐 住诪讗 住拽专讗 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 住拽专转讗 砖诪讛 拽讜诪讜住 拽讜诪讗 拽谞拽谞转讜诐 讗诪专 专讘讛 讘专 讘专 讞谞讛 讗诪专 砖诪讜讗诇 讞专转讗 讚讗讜砖讻驻讬:

GEMARA: The Gemara defines the terms used in the mishna. Deyo is deyota made from soot. Sam is samma, which is yellow-tinged arsenic. Sikra, Rabba bar bar 岣na said: It is called sikreta in Aramaic and is a lead-based red paint. Komos is koma in Aramaic, and it is an ink made with gum Arabic from the sap of a tree. Kankantom, Rabba bar bar 岣na said that Shmuel said: This is the black substance used by cobblers, copper sulfate.

讜讘讻诇 讚讘专 砖讛讜讗 专讜砖诐: 诇讗转讜讬讬 诪讗讬 诇讗转讜讬讬 讛讗 讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讞谞谞讬讗 讻转讘讜 讘诪讬 讟专讬讗 讜讗驻爪讗 讻砖专 转谞讬 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讻转讘讜 讘讗讘专 讘砖讞讜专 讜讘砖讬讞讜专 讻砖专:

And we learned in the mishna that one who writes with any substance that makes a mark is liable. The Gemara asks: What does this statement come to include? The Gemara answers: It comes to include that which Rabbi 岣nanya taught with regard to writing a bill of divorce: If one wrote it with the juice of the fruit called teriya, or with gallnut juice instead of ink, it is valid. Similarly, Rabbi 岣yya taught: If one wrote a bill of divorce with lead, with soot (ge鈥檕nim), or with shoeblack, it is valid. Since those substances leave a permanent mark, one who writes with them on Shabbat is liable.

讛诪住专讟 注诇 讘砖专讜: 转谞讬讗 讗诪专 诇讛谉 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 诇讞讻诪讬诐 讜讛诇讗 讘谉 住讟讚讗 讛讜爪讬讗 讻砖驻讬诐 诪诪爪专讬诐 讘住专讬讟讛 砖注诇 讘砖专讜 讗诪专讜 诇讜 砖讜讟讛 讛讬讛 讜讗讬谉 诪讘讬讗讬谉 专讗讬讛 诪谉 讛砖讜讟讬诐: 讘谉 住讟讚讗 讘谉 驻谞讚讬专讗 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讘注诇 住讟讚讗 讘讜注诇 驻谞讚讬专讗 讘注诇 驻驻讜住 讘谉 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讜讗 讗诇讗 讗诪讜 住讟讚讗 讗诪讜 诪专讬诐 诪讙讚诇讗 砖注专 谞砖讬讗 讛讜讗讬 讗诇讗 讻讚讗诪专讬 讘驻讜诪讘讚讬转讗 住讟转 讚讗 诪讘注诇讛:

We learned in the mishna: If one unwittingly scratches letters on his flesh on Shabbat, Rabbi Eliezer deems him liable to bring a sin-offering and the Sages deem him exempt. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer said to the Rabbis: Didn鈥檛 the infamous ben Stada take magic spells out of Egypt in a scratch on his flesh? They said to him: He was a fool, and you cannot cite proof from a fool. That is not the way that most people write. Incidentally, the Gemara asks: Why did they call him ben Stada, when he was the son of Pandeira? Rav 岣sda said: His mother鈥檚 husband, who acted as his father, was named Stada, but the one who had relations with his mother and fathered him was named Pandeira. The Gemara asks: Wasn鈥檛 his mother鈥檚 husband Pappos ben Yehuda? Rather, his mother was named Stada and he was named ben Stada after her. The Gemara asks: But wasn鈥檛 his mother Miriam, who braided women鈥檚 hair? The Gemara explains: That is not a contradiction. Rather, Stada was merely a nickname, as they say in Pumbedita: This one strayed [setat da] from her husband.

讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 住诪讜讱 诇讻转讘: 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讚讗讬 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讗诪专 讗讞转 注诇 讛讗专讬讙 讞讬讬讘:

We learned in the mishna: If one wrote only a single letter, even if it was adjacent to other preexisting writing, he is exempt. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the mishna? Rava bar Rav Huna said: This halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as if it were in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, didn鈥檛 he say: One who adds a single thread to a previously woven fabric is liable for weaving? In his opinion, although a single thread or letter is insignificant in and of itself, one is liable because adding even a small measure to existing material is significant.

讻转讘 注诇 讙讘讬 讻转讘: 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讚诇讗 讻专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讚转谞讬讗 讛专讬 砖讛讬讛 爪专讬讱 诇讻转讜讘 讗转 讛砖诐 讜谞转讻讜讬谉 诇讻转讜讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讟注讛 讜诇讗 讛讟讬诇 讘讜 讚诇转 诪注讘讬专 注诇讬讜 拽讜诇诪讜住 讜诪拽讚砖讜 讚讘专讬 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讞讻诪讬诐 讗讜诪专讬诐 讗讬谉 讛砖诐 诪谉 讛诪讜讘讞专

We learned in the mishna: If one wrote over other writing he is exempt. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the mishna? Rav 岣sda said: This halakha is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught in a baraita: If one needed to write the Tetragrammaton, the name of God, in a Torah scroll, and became confused and intended instead to write the name Yehuda, and while intending to write Yehuda he erred and omitted the letter dalet, thereby writing the name of God, he should do the following. He passes a quill with more ink over the name and sanctifies it, i.e., he writes it with the intention required when writing a holy name. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: Even if he adds ink over what he wrote, this writing of God鈥檚 name is not ideal. Apparently, according to Rabbi Yehuda, writing over other writing is considered writing anew.

转谞讗 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 讜讛砖诇讬诪讛 诇住驻专 讗专讙 讞讜讟 讗讞讚 讜讛砖诇讬诪讛 诇讘讙讚 讞讬讬讘 诪讗谉 转谞讗 讗诪专 专讘讗 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 专讘讬 讗诇讬注讝专 讛讬讗 讚讗诪专 讗讞转 注诇 讛讗专讬讙 讞讬讬讘 专讘 讗砖讬 讗诪专 讗驻讬诇讜 转讬诪讗 专讘谞谉 诇讛砖诇讬诐 砖讗谞讬

A tanna taught in a baraita: If one wrote a single letter and thereby completed a book, or if one wove a single thread and thereby completed an entire garment, he is liable. The Gemara asks: Who is the tanna whose opinion is cited in the baraita? Rava bar Rav Huna said: It is the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, who said: One who adds a single thread to a previously woven fabric is liable for weaving. Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, one who does so to complete a garment is different. Even if he is not liable for weaving, he is liable at least for striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 讘讟讘专讬讗 讜讗讞转 讘爪讬驻讜专讬 讞讬讬讘 讻转讬讘讛 讛讬讗 讗诇讗 砖诪讞讜住专 拽专讬讘讛 讜讛转谞谉 讻转讘 注诇 砖谞讬 讻讜转诇讬 讛讘讬转 讜注诇 砖谞讬 讚驻讬 驻谞拽住 讜讗讬谉 谞讛讙讬谉 讝讛 注诐 讝讛 驻讟讜专 讛转诐 诪讞讜住专 诪注砖讛 讚拽专讬讘讛 讛讻讗 诇讗 诪讞讜住专 诪注砖讛 讚拽专讬讘讛

Rabbi Ami said: If one wrote one letter on paper in Tiberias and one letter on paper in Tzippori, he is liable because he performed a full-fledged act of writing that is lacking only in proximity. When the two pieces of paper are brought together he will have written two associated letters. The Gemara asks: Didn鈥檛 we learn in the mishna: If one wrote one letter on two walls of a house, or on two parts of a writing tablet that are not read together, he is exempt? All the more so that this is the halakha with regard to one who wrote in two different cities. The Gemara answers: There, in the case of the parts of a tablet, there is the lack of an additional act of cutting or tearing to facilitate bringing the letters together. However, here, in the case of two cities, even though they are distant from one another, there is no lack of an additional act to facilitate bringing them together.

转谞讗 讛讙讬讛 讗讜转 讗讞转 讞讬讬讘 讛砖转讗 讻转讘 讗讜转 讗讞转 驻讟讜专 讛讙讬讛 讗讜转 讗讞转 讞讬讬讘 讗诪专 专讘 砖砖转 讛讻讗 讘诪讗讬 注住拽讬谞谉 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讟诇讜 诇讙讙讜 砖诇 讞讬转 讜注砖讗讜 砖谞讬 讝讬讬谞讬谉 专讘讗 讗诪专 讻讙讜谉 砖谞讟诇讜 诇转讙讜 砖诇 讚诇转 讜注砖讗讜 专讬砖

A tanna taught in the Tosefta: If one emended a single letter on Shabbat, he is liable. The Gemara wonders: Now, if one wrote a single letter on Shabbat he is exempt; is it possible that if one emends a single letter he is liable? Rav Sheshet said: With what are we dealing here? We are dealing with a case where one removed the roof of a 岣t and transformed it into two instances of the letter zayin, effectively writing two letters with a single correction. Rava said: It is not necessarily referring to that specific case. It could even be referring to a case where one removed the protrusion from the back of a dalet and transformed it into a reish, thereby emending the written text. One who did so is liable for performing the prohibited labor of striking a blow with a hammer to complete the production process of a vessel.

转谞讗 谞转讻讜讬谉 诇讻转讜讘 讗讜转 讗讞转

A tanna taught: If one intended to write one letter on Shabbat

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