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Today's Daf Yomi

June 23, 2020 | א׳ בתמוז תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 109

Today’s daf is sponsored by Pearl Mattenson in memory of her sister Karen Tendler z”l on the occasion of her 10th yahrzeit.

What things can one do/eat on shabbat for medicinal purposes. What are the criteria for permitting it? Can one soak in a body of water for medicinal purposes? Does it depend on which body of water? The gemara explains all sorts of rememdies that people used in the times of the gemara for various ailments.

לגיגית תיקצץ יד מסמא יד מחרשת יד מעלה פוליפוס תניא רבי נתן אומר בת חורין היא זו ומקפדת עד שירחוץ ידיו שלש פעמים אמר רבי יוחנן פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפיים תניא נמי הכי רבי יוסי אומר פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים

that is placed into a barrel of beer should be severed because the beer will not ferment. A hand that frequently touches the eye causes blindness. A hand that frequently touches the ear causes deafness. A hand that touches the nose or mouth causes polyps [polypus]. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: She is a liberated entity, this evil spirit that rests on one’s hands before they are washed in the morning, and she refuses to leave until one washes his hands three times. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When eye shadow is placed on the eyes it causes the evil spirit called the Daughter of the King to pass, and it stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. That was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Eye shadow causes the Daughter of the King to pass, and stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow.

ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל עלין אין בהם משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אין בה משום רפואה אמר רב ששת כשות אין בהן משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אפילו לדידי קשה לי אמר רב ששת גרגירא אפילו לדידי מעלי ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל כל מיני כשות שרו לבר מטרוזא

And Mar Ukva said that Shmuel said: Leaves that are placed on the eye (Rabbeinu Ḥananel) contain no element of healing, and therefore one may place them on his eyes on Shabbat.
Rav Yosef said: Coriander contains no element of healing.
Rav Sheshet said: Hops contain no element of healing.
Rav Yosef said: Even for me, who is blind, coriander is harmful. He overstated coriander’s inefficacy, asserting that it is in fact harmful.
Rav Sheshet said: Arugula even for me, despite my blindness, is beneficial.
And Mar Ukva also said that Shmuel said: All types of hops may be eaten on Shabbat except for teruza, which is used exclusively for medicinal purposes.

אמר רב חסדא שריקא טויא שרי פיעפועי ביעי אסור דביתהו דזעירי עבדא ליה לחייא בר אשי ולא אכל אמרה ליה לרבך עבדי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת זעירי לטעמיה דאמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אלמא כיון דמשתתי הכי לאו מידי קעביד הכא נמי כיון דמיתכיל הכי לאו מידי קעביד

Rav Ḥisda said: Melon juice, which is beneficial for the intestines, may be strained and drunk on Shabbat (ge’onim). The juice of pipuim, which are a type of vegetable (Rashba), may not be drunk on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: Ze’iri’s wife made melon juice for Ḥiyya bar Ashi and he did not consume it. She said to him: I made it for your Rabbi, Ze’iri, and he ate it, and you do not eat it? The Gemara explains: Ze’iri followed his own reasoning in permitting this drink, as Ze’iri said: One may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer used to strain dregs from wine on Shabbat without concern. Apparently, since the wine and water are drunk even with what little dregs may remain, one is doing nothing to improve them. Here, too, since melon juice is consumed this way, without being strained and for non-medical purposes, one is doing nothing and it is permitted.

ואמר מר עוקבא מי שנגפה ידו או רגלו צומתה ביין ואינו חושש איבעיא להו חלא מאי אמר רב הלל לרב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא אמרי חלא לא אמר רבא והני בני מחוזא וכיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו

And Mar Ukva also said: One whose hand or foot was wounded may immerse it in wine on Shabbat to stop the flow of blood, and he need not be concerned that he is violating the prohibition against healing on Shabbat. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to vinegar, what is the ruling? May one immerse a wound in it? Rav Hillel said to Rav Ashi: When we were in Rav Kahana’s house they said that vinegar is not permitted, as it is considered actual medicine. Rava said: And these people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them. Therefore, they may not immerse their wounds in wine.

רבינא איקלע לבי רב אשי חזייה דדריכא ליה חמרא אגבא דכרעיה ויתיב קא צמית ליה בחלא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב הילל חלא לא אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני

The Gemara relates: Ravina happened to come to the house of Rav Ashi. He saw that a donkey stepped on the back of Rav Ashi’s foot, and Rav Ashi sat and immersed his foot in vinegar on Shabbat. Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Does the Master not hold according to that which Rav Hillel stated, that vinegar is not permitted? He said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different because their wounds are dangerous.

איכא דאמרי חזייה דקא צמית ליה בחמרא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רבא הני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו ומר נמי הא מפנק אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני דאמר רב אדא בר מתנה אמר רב גב היד וגב הרגל הרי הן כמכה של חלל ומחללין עליהן את השבת

Some say that Ravina saw that Rav Ashi immersed his foot in wine. Ravina said to him: Does the Master not hold according to that which Rava said: These people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them? And the Master is also delicate. Rav Ashi said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different, as Rav Adda bar Mattana said that Rav said: A wound on the back of the hand or the back of the foot is like a fatal wound, and one may desecrate Shabbat for it.

תנו רבנן רוחצים במי גרר במי חמתן במי עסיא ובמי טבריא אבל לא בים הגדול ולא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום

The Sages taught in a baraita: On Shabbat, one may bathe in the therapeutic hot springs of the waters of Gerar, in the waters of Ḥamatan, in the waters of Asya, and in the waters of Tiberias; however, one may not bathe in the Great Sea, namely, the Mediterranean sea, nor in water in which flax was soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom, because people bathe in those bodies of water only for medicinal purposes.

ורמינהו רוחצים במי טבריא ובים הגדול אבל לא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום קשיא ים הגדול אים הגדול

And the Gemara raises a contradiction based on that which was taught in another baraita: One may bathe in the waters of Tiberias on Shabbat and in the Great Sea; but one may not bathe in water in which flax was soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom. This is difficult because in the first baraita the Sages prohibit bathing in the Great Sea, and in this baraita they permit bathing in the Great Sea.

אמר רבי יוחנן לא קשיא הא רבי מאיר הא רבי יהודה דתנן כל הימים כמקוה שנאמר ולמקוה המים קרא ימים דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר ים הגדול כמקוה ולא נאמר ימים אלא שיש בו מיני ימים הרבה

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This is not difficult, because this baraita, which permits bathing in the Great Sea, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who deems all seas equal. That baraita, which prohibits bathing there, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Great Sea is unlike other seas. As we learned in a mishna: All seas purify like a ritual bath [mikve], as it is stated: “And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering together of the waters [mikve] He called seas” (Genesis 1:10); this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Only the Great Sea purifies like a ritual bath, and the verse states seas only because there are many seas in the Great Sea, not because all seas purify.

רבי יוסי אומר כל הימים מטהרין בזוחלין ופסולים לזבים ולמצורעים ולקדש בהן מי חטאת מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק

Rabbi Yosei says: All seas purify like a ritual bath. They actually purify even more than a ritual bath, as they purify even when they are flowing. Immersion in a sea is purifying not only when its waters are still, but even when they are flowing. That is not the case with a ritual bath, whose waters only purify when still. And sea water is invalid for purifying zavim and lepers and for sanctifying purification water to mix the ashes of the red heifer with it. Those cases require spring water. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this explanation:

אימור דפליגי לענין טומאה וטהרה לענין שבת מי שמעת להו אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא קשיא הא דאישתהי הא דלא אישתהי

Say that they disagree over the status of the Mediterranean Sea with regard to impurity and purity, but with regard to Shabbat did you hear that they disagree? Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult. This baraita, which prohibits bathing in the Mediterranean, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for its curative effects. That baraita, which permits bathing, is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for non-medical purposes.

במאי אוקימתא לבתרייתא דלא אישתהי אי דלא אישתהי אפילו במי משרה נמי דהתניא רוחצין במי טבריא ובמי משרה ובימה של סדום ואף על פי שיש לו חטטים בראשו במה דברים אמורים שלא נשתהא אבל נשתהא אסור

The Gemara asks: And how did you establish this last baraita? Do you say that it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water? If it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, it would be permitted to bathe even in water in which flax was soaked, as it was taught in a baraita: One may bathe on Shabbat in the waters of Tiberias, and in water in which flax was soaked, and in the Sodom Sea, and this is even though one has wounds on his head that are healed by bathing in these waters. In what case is this statement said? In a case where one did not remain in the water, since it appears that he entered the water to cool himself. However, if one remained in the water it is prohibited.

אלא ים הגדול אים הגדול לא קשיא הא ביפין שבו הא ברעים שבו מי משרה אמי משרה נמי לא קשיא הא דאישתהי הא דלא אישתהי:

Rather, the contradiction between the baraita that permits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat and the baraita that prohibits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat is not difficult. There is a distinction between the two. This baraita, which permits doing so, is referring to the pure water in it, i.e., the area in the Great Sea in which one bathes for pleasure during the week. That baraita, which prohibits bathing, is referring to the polluted water in it, which people enter only for medicinal purposes. And with regard to the contradiction between one statement with regard to the water in which flax was soaked and the other statement about water in which flax was soaked, it is also not difficult. There is a distinction between the two statements. This baraita, which prohibits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he was bathing for medicinal purposes. That baraita, which permits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one did not remain there. It is permitted to bathe in that water for non-medical purposes.

מתני׳ אין אוכלין איזביון בשבת לפי שאינו מאכל בריאים אבל אוכל הוא את יועזר ושותה אבוברואה כל האוכלין אוכל אדם לרפואה וכל המשקין שותה חוץ ממי דקלים וכוס עיקרין מפני שהן לירוקה אבל שותה הוא מי דקלים לצמאו וסך שמן עיקרין שלא לרפואה:

MISHNA: One may not eat eizoveyon on Shabbat because healthy people do not eat it, and therefore it is clear that anyone eating it is doing so for its medicinal value. However, one may eat a plant called yo’ezer and may drink abuvro’e. Furthermore, all types of food that healthy people eat may be eaten by a person even for medicinal purposes. And one may drink all drinks except for water from palm trees and a kos ikarin because they are known as a remedy for jaundice. Therefore, it is prohibited to drink them on Shabbat for curative purposes. However, one may drink palm tree water on Shabbat in order to quench his thirst, and one may smear ikarin oil on himself for non-medical purposes.

גמ׳ אמר רב יוסף אזוב אברתה בר המג איזביון אברתה בר הינג עולא אמר מרוא חיורא עולא איקלע לבי רב שמואל בר יהודה אייתו לקמיה מרוא חיורא אמר היינו אזוב דכתיב באורייתא רב פפי אמר שומשוק אמר רב ירמיה מדיפתי כוותיה דרב פפי מסתברא דתנן מצות אזוב שלשה קלחין ובהן שלשה גבעולין ושומשוק הוא דמשתכחא הכי למאי אכלי ליה לקוקאיני במאי אכלי ליה בשבע תמרי אוכמתא ממאי הויא מקימחא דשערי (במנא) דחליף עליה ארבעין יומין:

GEMARA: Rav Yosef said: Unspecified hyssop mentioned in the Torah is called abarta bar hamag in Babylonia, and eizoveyon is called abarta bar hing. Ulla said: The hyssop mentioned in the Torah is white sage. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda. They brought white sage before him. He said: This is the hyssop that is written in the Torah. Rav Pappi said: Hyssop is the root called shumeshuk. Rav Yirmeya of Difti said: In accordance with the opinion of Rav Pappi it is reasonable, as we learned in a mishna: The mitzva of hyssop is that one take three branches each with three stems, and shumeshuk is the species that is found with that configuration of three stems on each of its branches. The Gemara says: For what purpose do people eat it? It is eaten for curing intestinal worms. And with what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven black dates. From what do worms come into being in the intestines? They come into being from eating barley flour from a vessel that held the flour for forty days since it was ground.

אבל אוכל הוא את יועזר: מאי יועזר פותנק למאי אכלי לה לארקתא במאי אכלי לה בשבע תמרי חיוורתא ממאי הויא מאומצא ומיא אליבא ריקנא ומבישרא שמנא אליבא ריקנא ומבישרא דתורא אליבא ריקנא מאמגוזא אליבא ריקנא ומגירי דרוביא אליבא ריקנא ומשתי מיא אבתריה

We learned in the mishna: However, one may eat the yo’ezer plant. The Gemara asks: What is yo’ezer? The Gemara answers: It is the vegetable known as potnak. For what is it eaten? It is eaten to cure liver worms. With what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven white dates. From what do worms come into being in the liver? From eating raw meat with water on an empty stomach, and from eating fatty meat on an empty stomach, and from eating ox meat on an empty stomach, and from eating nuts on an empty stomach, and from eating fenugreek shoots on an empty stomach and drinking water thereafter.

ואי לא ליבלע תחלי חיוורתא ואי לא ליתיב בתעניתא וליתי בישרא שמנא ולישדי אגומרי ולימיץ גרמא וליגמע חלא ואיכא דאמרי חלא לא משום דקשי לכבדא ואי לא לייתי גורדא דאסינתא דגרידא מעילאי לתתאי ולא מתתאי לעילאי דילמא נפקא איידי פומיה ולישלקה בשיכרא בי שיבבי ולמחר נסכרינון לנקבין דידיה ולישתי וכי מפני מפני אפשיחה דדקלא:

And if one has liver worms but does not have any potnak handy, or if one has taken potnak and it did not help, he should swallow white cress. And if he does not have that or if it did not help him, he should sit in fast, and take fatty meat and place it on coals and suck the bone and swallow vinegar. And some say: One should not drink vinegar because it is harmful to the liver. And if none of those options are available, let one take the sawdust that was scraped from the shell of a thorn bush from top to bottom, and not from bottom to top, as perhaps then the worms will come out through his mouth. And let one then boil the scrapings in beer at twilight and the next day close his nostrils and drink it. And when he defecates, he should defecate on the trunk of a palm tree.

ושותין אבוברואה: מאי אבוברואה חומטריא מאי חומטריא חוטרא יחידאה למאי עבדי לה לגילויא ואי לא ליתי חמשא כלילי וחמשא כוסתא דשיכרא ונישלוקינהו בהדי הדדי עד דקיימא אאנפקא ונישתי

We learned the mishna: And one may drink abuvro’e on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is abuvro’e? The Gemara answers: It is the plant known as ḥumtareya. The Gemara asks: What is ḥumtareya? It is that which is called the lonely staff. The Gemara asks: For what purpose is it used? It is used for one who drank exposed water from which we suspect a snake drank and left behind its venom. And if one does not have the lonely staff, or if it was ineffective, let him take five roses and five cups of beer and cook them together until there is a quarter of a log of liquid and then drink it.

אימיה דרב אחדבוי בר אמי עבדה ליה לההוא גברא חד כלילא וחד כוסתא דשיכרא שלקה ואישקיתיה ושגרא תנורא וגרפתיה ואותביתיה לבינתא בגוויה ונפק כהוצא ירקא

The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥadvoi bar Ami’s mother made this remedy for a certain man who had drunk exposed water suspected of having venom in it. She took one rose and one cup of beer and she boiled them. She gave it to him to drink, and lit the oven, and swept out the coals, and placed a brick inside it on which he could sit and not get burned. And something that appeared like a green leaf emerged, i.e., he vomited the venom.

רב אויא אמר רביעתא דחלבא מעיזא חיורתא רב הונא בר יהודה אמר לייתי אתרוגא חליתא ולחייקיה ולימלייה דובשא ולותבה בי מיללי דנורא וליכליה רבי חנינא אמר מי רגלים בני ארבעים יום ברזינא לזיבורא רביעאה לעקרבא פלגא ריבעא לגילויא ריבעא אפילו לכשפים מעלו אמר רבי יוחנן אניגרון ואבנגר ותירייקה מעלו בין לגילויא בין לכשפים

Rav Avya said: The remedy for one who has swallowed venom is to drink a quarter of a log of milk from a white goat. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said: Let one bring a sweet citron and make a hole in it, and fill it with honey, and place it among burning coals, and eat it. Rabbi Ḥanina said: Urine that is forty days old is an effective remedy for several maladies: A very small cupful is beneficial in treating a hornet sting. A quarter of a log is beneficial in treating a scorpion bite. Half a log is effective in treating one who drank exposed water. A log is even effective in counteracting witchcraft. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Water in which spinach was boiled [anigron], and water in which banagri grass was boiled [avangar], and balsam are effective for both one who drank exposed water and as an antidote for witchcraft.

האי מאן דבלע חיויא לוכליה כשותא במילחא ולירהטיה תלתא מילי רב שימי בר אשי חזייה לההוא גברא דבלע חיויא אידמי ליה כפרשא אוכליה כשותא במילחא וארהטיה קמיה תלתא מילי ונפק מיניה גובי גובי איכא דאמרי רב שימי בר אשי בלע חיויא אתא אליהו אידמי ליה כפרשא אוכליה כשותא במילחא וארהטיה קמיה תלתא מילי ונפק מיניה גובי גובי האי מאן דטרקיה חיויא ליתי עוברא דחמרא חיורתא וליקרעיה ולותביה עילויה והני מילי דלא אישתכח טרפה ההוא

One who swallowed a snake should be fed hops in salt, and then he should be made to run a distance of three mil. The Gemara relates: Rav Shimi bar Ashi saw a person who swallowed a snake, and Rav Ashi appeared to that person as a horseman. Rav Shimi fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. Some say that Rav Shimi bar Ashi was the one who swallowed a snake, and Elijah came and appeared to Rav Ashi as a horseman. He fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. One who was bitten by a snake should have the fetus of a white donkey brought to him, and it should be torn open and placed on the snakebite. The Gemara says: And this applies only when the mother does not have a condition that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. The Gemara relates: There was a certain

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 109

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Shabbat 109

לגיגית תיקצץ יד מסמא יד מחרשת יד מעלה פוליפוס תניא רבי נתן אומר בת חורין היא זו ומקפדת עד שירחוץ ידיו שלש פעמים אמר רבי יוחנן פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפיים תניא נמי הכי רבי יוסי אומר פוך מעביר בת מלך ופוסק את הדמעה ומרבה שיער בעפעפים

that is placed into a barrel of beer should be severed because the beer will not ferment. A hand that frequently touches the eye causes blindness. A hand that frequently touches the ear causes deafness. A hand that touches the nose or mouth causes polyps [polypus]. It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Natan says: She is a liberated entity, this evil spirit that rests on one’s hands before they are washed in the morning, and she refuses to leave until one washes his hands three times. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: When eye shadow is placed on the eyes it causes the evil spirit called the Daughter of the King to pass, and it stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow. That was also taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei says: Eye shadow causes the Daughter of the King to pass, and stops tears and causes eyelashes to grow.

ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל עלין אין בהם משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אין בה משום רפואה אמר רב ששת כשות אין בהן משום רפואה אמר רב יוסף כוסברתא אפילו לדידי קשה לי אמר רב ששת גרגירא אפילו לדידי מעלי ואמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל כל מיני כשות שרו לבר מטרוזא

And Mar Ukva said that Shmuel said: Leaves that are placed on the eye (Rabbeinu Ḥananel) contain no element of healing, and therefore one may place them on his eyes on Shabbat.
Rav Yosef said: Coriander contains no element of healing.
Rav Sheshet said: Hops contain no element of healing.
Rav Yosef said: Even for me, who is blind, coriander is harmful. He overstated coriander’s inefficacy, asserting that it is in fact harmful.
Rav Sheshet said: Arugula even for me, despite my blindness, is beneficial.
And Mar Ukva also said that Shmuel said: All types of hops may be eaten on Shabbat except for teruza, which is used exclusively for medicinal purposes.

אמר רב חסדא שריקא טויא שרי פיעפועי ביעי אסור דביתהו דזעירי עבדא ליה לחייא בר אשי ולא אכל אמרה ליה לרבך עבדי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת זעירי לטעמיה דאמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אלמא כיון דמשתתי הכי לאו מידי קעביד הכא נמי כיון דמיתכיל הכי לאו מידי קעביד

Rav Ḥisda said: Melon juice, which is beneficial for the intestines, may be strained and drunk on Shabbat (ge’onim). The juice of pipuim, which are a type of vegetable (Rashba), may not be drunk on Shabbat. The Gemara relates: Ze’iri’s wife made melon juice for Ḥiyya bar Ashi and he did not consume it. She said to him: I made it for your Rabbi, Ze’iri, and he ate it, and you do not eat it? The Gemara explains: Ze’iri followed his own reasoning in permitting this drink, as Ze’iri said: One may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer used to strain dregs from wine on Shabbat without concern. Apparently, since the wine and water are drunk even with what little dregs may remain, one is doing nothing to improve them. Here, too, since melon juice is consumed this way, without being strained and for non-medical purposes, one is doing nothing and it is permitted.

ואמר מר עוקבא מי שנגפה ידו או רגלו צומתה ביין ואינו חושש איבעיא להו חלא מאי אמר רב הלל לרב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא אמרי חלא לא אמר רבא והני בני מחוזא וכיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו

And Mar Ukva also said: One whose hand or foot was wounded may immerse it in wine on Shabbat to stop the flow of blood, and he need not be concerned that he is violating the prohibition against healing on Shabbat. A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to vinegar, what is the ruling? May one immerse a wound in it? Rav Hillel said to Rav Ashi: When we were in Rav Kahana’s house they said that vinegar is not permitted, as it is considered actual medicine. Rava said: And these people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them. Therefore, they may not immerse their wounds in wine.

רבינא איקלע לבי רב אשי חזייה דדריכא ליה חמרא אגבא דכרעיה ויתיב קא צמית ליה בחלא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רב הילל חלא לא אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני

The Gemara relates: Ravina happened to come to the house of Rav Ashi. He saw that a donkey stepped on the back of Rav Ashi’s foot, and Rav Ashi sat and immersed his foot in vinegar on Shabbat. Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Does the Master not hold according to that which Rav Hillel stated, that vinegar is not permitted? He said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different because their wounds are dangerous.

איכא דאמרי חזייה דקא צמית ליה בחמרא אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר להא דאמר רבא הני בני מחוזא כיון דמפנקי אפילו חמרא נמי מסי להו ומר נמי הא מפנק אמר ליה גב היד וגב הרגל שאני דאמר רב אדא בר מתנה אמר רב גב היד וגב הרגל הרי הן כמכה של חלל ומחללין עליהן את השבת

Some say that Ravina saw that Rav Ashi immersed his foot in wine. Ravina said to him: Does the Master not hold according to that which Rava said: These people from Meḥoza, since they are delicate, even wine heals them? And the Master is also delicate. Rav Ashi said to him: The back of the hand and the back of the foot are different, as Rav Adda bar Mattana said that Rav said: A wound on the back of the hand or the back of the foot is like a fatal wound, and one may desecrate Shabbat for it.

תנו רבנן רוחצים במי גרר במי חמתן במי עסיא ובמי טבריא אבל לא בים הגדול ולא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום

The Sages taught in a baraita: On Shabbat, one may bathe in the therapeutic hot springs of the waters of Gerar, in the waters of Ḥamatan, in the waters of Asya, and in the waters of Tiberias; however, one may not bathe in the Great Sea, namely, the Mediterranean sea, nor in water in which flax was soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom, because people bathe in those bodies of water only for medicinal purposes.

ורמינהו רוחצים במי טבריא ובים הגדול אבל לא במי משרה ולא בימה של סדום קשיא ים הגדול אים הגדול

And the Gemara raises a contradiction based on that which was taught in another baraita: One may bathe in the waters of Tiberias on Shabbat and in the Great Sea; but one may not bathe in water in which flax was soaked, nor in the Sea of Sodom. This is difficult because in the first baraita the Sages prohibit bathing in the Great Sea, and in this baraita they permit bathing in the Great Sea.

אמר רבי יוחנן לא קשיא הא רבי מאיר הא רבי יהודה דתנן כל הימים כמקוה שנאמר ולמקוה המים קרא ימים דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר ים הגדול כמקוה ולא נאמר ימים אלא שיש בו מיני ימים הרבה

Rabbi Yoḥanan said: This is not difficult, because this baraita, which permits bathing in the Great Sea, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir, who deems all seas equal. That baraita, which prohibits bathing there, is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that the Great Sea is unlike other seas. As we learned in a mishna: All seas purify like a ritual bath [mikve], as it is stated: “And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering together of the waters [mikve] He called seas” (Genesis 1:10); this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Only the Great Sea purifies like a ritual bath, and the verse states seas only because there are many seas in the Great Sea, not because all seas purify.

רבי יוסי אומר כל הימים מטהרין בזוחלין ופסולים לזבים ולמצורעים ולקדש בהן מי חטאת מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק

Rabbi Yosei says: All seas purify like a ritual bath. They actually purify even more than a ritual bath, as they purify even when they are flowing. Immersion in a sea is purifying not only when its waters are still, but even when they are flowing. That is not the case with a ritual bath, whose waters only purify when still. And sea water is invalid for purifying zavim and lepers and for sanctifying purification water to mix the ashes of the red heifer with it. Those cases require spring water. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this explanation:

אימור דפליגי לענין טומאה וטהרה לענין שבת מי שמעת להו אלא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא קשיא הא דאישתהי הא דלא אישתהי

Say that they disagree over the status of the Mediterranean Sea with regard to impurity and purity, but with regard to Shabbat did you hear that they disagree? Rather, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The contradiction between the two baraitot is not difficult. This baraita, which prohibits bathing in the Mediterranean, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for its curative effects. That baraita, which permits bathing, is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, and thereby indicated that he bathed in the Mediterranean for non-medical purposes.

במאי אוקימתא לבתרייתא דלא אישתהי אי דלא אישתהי אפילו במי משרה נמי דהתניא רוחצין במי טבריא ובמי משרה ובימה של סדום ואף על פי שיש לו חטטים בראשו במה דברים אמורים שלא נשתהא אבל נשתהא אסור

The Gemara asks: And how did you establish this last baraita? Do you say that it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water? If it is referring to a case where one did not remain in the water, it would be permitted to bathe even in water in which flax was soaked, as it was taught in a baraita: One may bathe on Shabbat in the waters of Tiberias, and in water in which flax was soaked, and in the Sodom Sea, and this is even though one has wounds on his head that are healed by bathing in these waters. In what case is this statement said? In a case where one did not remain in the water, since it appears that he entered the water to cool himself. However, if one remained in the water it is prohibited.

אלא ים הגדול אים הגדול לא קשיא הא ביפין שבו הא ברעים שבו מי משרה אמי משרה נמי לא קשיא הא דאישתהי הא דלא אישתהי:

Rather, the contradiction between the baraita that permits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat and the baraita that prohibits bathing in the Great Sea on Shabbat is not difficult. There is a distinction between the two. This baraita, which permits doing so, is referring to the pure water in it, i.e., the area in the Great Sea in which one bathes for pleasure during the week. That baraita, which prohibits bathing, is referring to the polluted water in it, which people enter only for medicinal purposes. And with regard to the contradiction between one statement with regard to the water in which flax was soaked and the other statement about water in which flax was soaked, it is also not difficult. There is a distinction between the two statements. This baraita, which prohibits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one remained in the water and thereby indicated that he was bathing for medicinal purposes. That baraita, which permits bathing on Shabbat in water in which flax was soaked, is referring to a case where one did not remain there. It is permitted to bathe in that water for non-medical purposes.

מתני׳ אין אוכלין איזביון בשבת לפי שאינו מאכל בריאים אבל אוכל הוא את יועזר ושותה אבוברואה כל האוכלין אוכל אדם לרפואה וכל המשקין שותה חוץ ממי דקלים וכוס עיקרין מפני שהן לירוקה אבל שותה הוא מי דקלים לצמאו וסך שמן עיקרין שלא לרפואה:

MISHNA: One may not eat eizoveyon on Shabbat because healthy people do not eat it, and therefore it is clear that anyone eating it is doing so for its medicinal value. However, one may eat a plant called yo’ezer and may drink abuvro’e. Furthermore, all types of food that healthy people eat may be eaten by a person even for medicinal purposes. And one may drink all drinks except for water from palm trees and a kos ikarin because they are known as a remedy for jaundice. Therefore, it is prohibited to drink them on Shabbat for curative purposes. However, one may drink palm tree water on Shabbat in order to quench his thirst, and one may smear ikarin oil on himself for non-medical purposes.

גמ׳ אמר רב יוסף אזוב אברתה בר המג איזביון אברתה בר הינג עולא אמר מרוא חיורא עולא איקלע לבי רב שמואל בר יהודה אייתו לקמיה מרוא חיורא אמר היינו אזוב דכתיב באורייתא רב פפי אמר שומשוק אמר רב ירמיה מדיפתי כוותיה דרב פפי מסתברא דתנן מצות אזוב שלשה קלחין ובהן שלשה גבעולין ושומשוק הוא דמשתכחא הכי למאי אכלי ליה לקוקאיני במאי אכלי ליה בשבע תמרי אוכמתא ממאי הויא מקימחא דשערי (במנא) דחליף עליה ארבעין יומין:

GEMARA: Rav Yosef said: Unspecified hyssop mentioned in the Torah is called abarta bar hamag in Babylonia, and eizoveyon is called abarta bar hing. Ulla said: The hyssop mentioned in the Torah is white sage. The Gemara relates: Ulla happened to come to the house of Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda. They brought white sage before him. He said: This is the hyssop that is written in the Torah. Rav Pappi said: Hyssop is the root called shumeshuk. Rav Yirmeya of Difti said: In accordance with the opinion of Rav Pappi it is reasonable, as we learned in a mishna: The mitzva of hyssop is that one take three branches each with three stems, and shumeshuk is the species that is found with that configuration of three stems on each of its branches. The Gemara says: For what purpose do people eat it? It is eaten for curing intestinal worms. And with what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven black dates. From what do worms come into being in the intestines? They come into being from eating barley flour from a vessel that held the flour for forty days since it was ground.

אבל אוכל הוא את יועזר: מאי יועזר פותנק למאי אכלי לה לארקתא במאי אכלי לה בשבע תמרי חיוורתא ממאי הויא מאומצא ומיא אליבא ריקנא ומבישרא שמנא אליבא ריקנא ומבישרא דתורא אליבא ריקנא מאמגוזא אליבא ריקנא ומגירי דרוביא אליבא ריקנא ומשתי מיא אבתריה

We learned in the mishna: However, one may eat the yo’ezer plant. The Gemara asks: What is yo’ezer? The Gemara answers: It is the vegetable known as potnak. For what is it eaten? It is eaten to cure liver worms. With what is it eaten? It is eaten with seven white dates. From what do worms come into being in the liver? From eating raw meat with water on an empty stomach, and from eating fatty meat on an empty stomach, and from eating ox meat on an empty stomach, and from eating nuts on an empty stomach, and from eating fenugreek shoots on an empty stomach and drinking water thereafter.

ואי לא ליבלע תחלי חיוורתא ואי לא ליתיב בתעניתא וליתי בישרא שמנא ולישדי אגומרי ולימיץ גרמא וליגמע חלא ואיכא דאמרי חלא לא משום דקשי לכבדא ואי לא לייתי גורדא דאסינתא דגרידא מעילאי לתתאי ולא מתתאי לעילאי דילמא נפקא איידי פומיה ולישלקה בשיכרא בי שיבבי ולמחר נסכרינון לנקבין דידיה ולישתי וכי מפני מפני אפשיחה דדקלא:

And if one has liver worms but does not have any potnak handy, or if one has taken potnak and it did not help, he should swallow white cress. And if he does not have that or if it did not help him, he should sit in fast, and take fatty meat and place it on coals and suck the bone and swallow vinegar. And some say: One should not drink vinegar because it is harmful to the liver. And if none of those options are available, let one take the sawdust that was scraped from the shell of a thorn bush from top to bottom, and not from bottom to top, as perhaps then the worms will come out through his mouth. And let one then boil the scrapings in beer at twilight and the next day close his nostrils and drink it. And when he defecates, he should defecate on the trunk of a palm tree.

ושותין אבוברואה: מאי אבוברואה חומטריא מאי חומטריא חוטרא יחידאה למאי עבדי לה לגילויא ואי לא ליתי חמשא כלילי וחמשא כוסתא דשיכרא ונישלוקינהו בהדי הדדי עד דקיימא אאנפקא ונישתי

We learned the mishna: And one may drink abuvro’e on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: What is abuvro’e? The Gemara answers: It is the plant known as ḥumtareya. The Gemara asks: What is ḥumtareya? It is that which is called the lonely staff. The Gemara asks: For what purpose is it used? It is used for one who drank exposed water from which we suspect a snake drank and left behind its venom. And if one does not have the lonely staff, or if it was ineffective, let him take five roses and five cups of beer and cook them together until there is a quarter of a log of liquid and then drink it.

אימיה דרב אחדבוי בר אמי עבדה ליה לההוא גברא חד כלילא וחד כוסתא דשיכרא שלקה ואישקיתיה ושגרא תנורא וגרפתיה ואותביתיה לבינתא בגוויה ונפק כהוצא ירקא

The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥadvoi bar Ami’s mother made this remedy for a certain man who had drunk exposed water suspected of having venom in it. She took one rose and one cup of beer and she boiled them. She gave it to him to drink, and lit the oven, and swept out the coals, and placed a brick inside it on which he could sit and not get burned. And something that appeared like a green leaf emerged, i.e., he vomited the venom.

רב אויא אמר רביעתא דחלבא מעיזא חיורתא רב הונא בר יהודה אמר לייתי אתרוגא חליתא ולחייקיה ולימלייה דובשא ולותבה בי מיללי דנורא וליכליה רבי חנינא אמר מי רגלים בני ארבעים יום ברזינא לזיבורא רביעאה לעקרבא פלגא ריבעא לגילויא ריבעא אפילו לכשפים מעלו אמר רבי יוחנן אניגרון ואבנגר ותירייקה מעלו בין לגילויא בין לכשפים

Rav Avya said: The remedy for one who has swallowed venom is to drink a quarter of a log of milk from a white goat. Rav Huna bar Yehuda said: Let one bring a sweet citron and make a hole in it, and fill it with honey, and place it among burning coals, and eat it. Rabbi Ḥanina said: Urine that is forty days old is an effective remedy for several maladies: A very small cupful is beneficial in treating a hornet sting. A quarter of a log is beneficial in treating a scorpion bite. Half a log is effective in treating one who drank exposed water. A log is even effective in counteracting witchcraft. Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Water in which spinach was boiled [anigron], and water in which banagri grass was boiled [avangar], and balsam are effective for both one who drank exposed water and as an antidote for witchcraft.

האי מאן דבלע חיויא לוכליה כשותא במילחא ולירהטיה תלתא מילי רב שימי בר אשי חזייה לההוא גברא דבלע חיויא אידמי ליה כפרשא אוכליה כשותא במילחא וארהטיה קמיה תלתא מילי ונפק מיניה גובי גובי איכא דאמרי רב שימי בר אשי בלע חיויא אתא אליהו אידמי ליה כפרשא אוכליה כשותא במילחא וארהטיה קמיה תלתא מילי ונפק מיניה גובי גובי האי מאן דטרקיה חיויא ליתי עוברא דחמרא חיורתא וליקרעיה ולותביה עילויה והני מילי דלא אישתכח טרפה ההוא

One who swallowed a snake should be fed hops in salt, and then he should be made to run a distance of three mil. The Gemara relates: Rav Shimi bar Ashi saw a person who swallowed a snake, and Rav Ashi appeared to that person as a horseman. Rav Shimi fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. Some say that Rav Shimi bar Ashi was the one who swallowed a snake, and Elijah came and appeared to Rav Ashi as a horseman. He fed him hops with salt and made him run in front of him for three mil, and the snake came out of him in pieces. One who was bitten by a snake should have the fetus of a white donkey brought to him, and it should be torn open and placed on the snakebite. The Gemara says: And this applies only when the mother does not have a condition that will cause it to die within twelve months [tereifa]. The Gemara relates: There was a certain

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