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Today's Daf Yomi

July 3, 2020 | 讬状讗 讘转诪讜讝 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 119

The gemara lists rabbis who all did special things to prepare food for Shabbat including being involved in cooking the food for Shabbat. The story is told of Yosef Mokir Shabbat who was rewarded financially for always buying good food for Shabbat and for borrowing money to do so. The gemara talks about the importance of other mitzvot (by promising rewards) like tithing, learning Torah, answering amen to a blessing and answering in Kaddish “may God’s great name be blessed” with a lot of intent, and saying “veyechulu” on Friday night in davening. The gemara then says that a fire will break out in one’s house if one doesn’t keep Shabbat. They bring a verse from Jeremiah that discusses the fire of the destruction of Jerusalem (that will not be able to be extinguished) will be on account of not keeping Shabbat but it is derived that also one’s personal house will burn on fire on Shabbat when one will not be able to extinguish it. Abaye uses that verse to teach that Jerusalem was destroyed on account of desecration of Shabbat. Seven other opinions are brought regarding why the temple was destroyed – people did not recite Shema twice a day, places of Torah learning for young children were closed, people had no shame, leaders were treated with disrespect, people did not rebuke one another, Torah scholars were disrespected, there were no longer honest people.

注讘讬讚谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讬转讬 诇讬 讚讻讬 讗转讗 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇拽诪讗讬 诇讚讬谞讗 诇讗 诪讝讬讙谞讗 专讬砖讬 讗讘讬 住讚讬讗 讻诪讛 讚诇讗 诪讛驻讬讻谞讗 讘讝讻讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 驻住讬诇谞讗 诇讬讛 诇爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇讚讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讞讘讬讘 注诇讬 讻讙讜驻讗讬 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 专讜讗讛 讞讜讘讛 诇注爪诪讜

I make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receive my reward because when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seek as many of his merits as possible, based on conditions and his claims. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified to sit in judgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reason that I am disqualified? It is because the Torah scholar is as beloved to me as my own self, and a person does not find fault in himself.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讬注讟祝 讜拽讗讬 讗驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诪专 讘讜讗讜 讜谞爪讗 诇拽专讗转 砖讘转 讛诪诇讻讛 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讘讬砖 诪讗谞讬讛 诪注诇讬 砖讘转 讜讗诪专 讘讜讗讬 讻诇讛 讘讜讗讬 讻诇讛 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 拽专讬讘讜 诇讬讛 转诇转 住讗讜讬 讟讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬转讜谉 讚讗转讬谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讬 注讚讬驻转 诇谉 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. Rabbi 岣nina would wrap himself in his garment and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, and say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride. The Gemara relates: Rabba bar Rav Huna happened to come to the house of Rabba bar Rav Na岣an. They brought before him three se鈥檃 of oiled biscuits. He said to them: Did you know I was coming and prepared all of this in my honor? They said to him: Are you more important to us than Shabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讝讘谉 讘转诇讬住专 讗住转讬专讬 驻砖讬讟讬 讘讬砖专讗 诪转诇讬住专 讟讘讞讬 讜诪砖诇讬诐 诇讛讜 讗爪讬谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗砖讜专 讛讬讬讗 讗砖讜专 讛讬讬讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讗转讻转拽讗 讚砖讬谞讗 讜诪讜砖讬祝 谞讜专讗 专讘 注谞谉 诇讘讬砖 讙讜谞讚讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讙讚讬诐 砖讘讬砖诇 讘讛谉 拽讚讬专讛 诇专讘讜 讗诇 讬诪讝讜讙 讘讛谉 讻讜住 诇专讘讜

Rabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [astirei peshitei] worth half a zuz of meat from thirteen butchers in deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. And he would place the meats at the door hinge at the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. And he said to the cooks, in order to rush them: Hurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it. The Gemara also relates: Rabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [takhteka] and fan the fire cooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. Rav Anan would don a simple black garment for the Shabbat preparations, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: While wearing the garments in which he cooked a pot of food for his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master. One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand.

专讘 住驻专讗 诪讞专讬讱 专讬砖讗 专讘讗 诪诇讞 砖讬讘讜讟讗 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讚诇讬拽 砖专讙讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讙讚讬诇 驻转讬诇转讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 驻专讬诐 住讬诇拽讗 专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 诪爪诇讞讬 爪讬讘讬 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪爪转转 爪转讜转讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讻转祝 讜注讬讬诇 诪讻转祝 讜谞驻讬拽 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪拽诇注讬谉 诇讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讬 诇讗 诪讻转讬驻谞讗 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讻转驻讬 讜注讬讬诇讬 诪讻转驻讬 讜谞驻拽讬 讗诪专讬 讗讬诇讜 讗讬拽诇注 诇谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讬 诇讗 诪讻转驻讬谞谉 拽诪讬讛

Rav Safra would roast the head of an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. Rava salted a shibuta fish in deference to Shabbat. Rav Huna kindled lamps in deference to Shabbat. Rav Pappa spun the wicks for the Shabbat lamp. Rav 岣sda cut the beets in preparation for Shabbat. Rabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticks for kindling. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k would load objects on his shoulder and enter, load objects on his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to visit me, would I not load objects on my shoulder before them? So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. And some say that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would load objects on their shoulders and enter, load objects on their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yo岣nan happened to come to visit us, would we not load objects on our shoulders before him?

讬讜住祝 诪讜拽讬专 砖讘讬 讛讜讛 讛讛讜讗 讙讜讬 讘砖讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 谞驻讬砖讬 谞讻住讬讛 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讻诇讚讗讬 讻讜诇讛讜 谞讻住讬 讬讜住祝 诪讜拽专 砖讘讬 讗讻讬诇 诇讛讜 讗讝诇 讝讘谞讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 谞讬讻住讬 讝讘谉 讘讛讜 诪专讙谞讬转讗 讗讜转讘讛 讘住讬讬谞讬讛 讘讛讚讬 讚拽讗 注讘专 诪讘专讗 讗驻专讞讬讛 讝讬拽讗 砖讚讬讬讛 讘诪讬讗 讘诇注讬讛 讻讜讜专讗 讗住拽讜讛 讗讬讬转讜讛 讗驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诪专讬 诪讗谉 讝讘讬谉 讻讬 讛砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讝讬诇讜 讗诪讟讬讜讛讜 诇讙讘讬 讬讜住祝 诪讜拽专 砖讘讬 讚专讙讬诇 讚讝讘讬谉 讗诪讟讬讜讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讝讘谞讬讛 拽专注讬讛 讗砖讻讞 讘讬讛 诪专讙谞讬转讗 讝讘谞讬讛 讘转诇讬住专 注讬诇讬转讗 讚讚讬谞专讬 讚讚讛讘讗 驻讙注 讘讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚讬讝讬祝 砖讘转讗 驻专注讬讛 砖讘转讗

The Gemara relates with regard to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said to the gentile with regard to all his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it. The gentile went and sold all of his property, and with the money he received he bought a pearl, and he placed it in his hat. When he was crossing a river in a ferry, the wind blew his hat and cast it into the water, and a fish swallowed it. The fish was caught and removed from the water and it was brought to shore adjacent to nightfall on Shabbat eve. The fishermen said: Who buys fish at a time like this? The townspeople said to the fishermen: Go bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchases delicacies in deference to Shabbat. They brought it to him and he purchased it. He ripped the fish open and found a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars (Tosafot). This elderly man who encountered him and said: One who lends to Shabbat, Shabbat repays him.

讘注讗 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘讬 诪专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注砖讬专讬诐 砖讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪注砖专讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 注砖专 转注砖专 注砖专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖转转注砖专 砖讘讘讘诇 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛转讜专讛

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to the wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: 鈥淎 tithe you shall tithe [asser te鈥檃sser] from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: Take a tithe [asser] so that you will become wealthy [titasher]. He asked: With regard to the wealthy of Babylonia, who are not obligated to tithe, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor the Torah and the Sages in Babylonia.

讜砖讘砖讗专 讗专爪讜转 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞转讗专讞转讬 讗爪诇 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘诇讜讚拽讬讗 讜讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诇讞谉 砖诇 讝讛讘 诪砖讜讬 砖砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜砖砖 注砖专讛 砖诇砖诇讗讜转 砖诇 讻住祝 拽讘讜注讜转 讘讜 讜拽注专讜转 讜讻讜住讜转 讜拽讬转讜谞讬讜转 讜爪诇讜讞讬讜转 拽讘讜注讜转 讘讜 讜注诇讬讜 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讗讻诇 讜讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讙讚讬诐 讜讘砖诪讬诐 讜讻砖诪谞讬讞讬诐 讗讜转讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛壮 讛讗专抓 讜诪诇讜讗讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻砖诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛砖诪讬诐 砖诪讬诐 诇讛壮 讜讛讗专抓 谞转谉 诇讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讘谞讬 讘诪讛 讝讻讬转 诇讻讱 讗诪专 诇讬 拽爪讘 讛讬讬转讬 讜诪讻诇 讘讛诪讛 砖讛讬转讛 谞讗讛 讗诪专转讬 讝讜 转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 [讗砖专讬讱 砖讝讻讬转] 讜讘专讜讱 讛诪拽讜诐 砖讝讬讻讱 诇讻讱

With regard to the wealthy of other countries, where there are no Sages, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted at the home of a homeowner in Laodicea and they brought before him a table of gold that was so heavy it required sixteen people to carry it, and there were sixteen chains of silver attached to it, and there were bowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, and there were all sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed it there they would say: 鈥淭he earth and all that fills it is God鈥檚, the world and all that inhabit it鈥 (Psalms 24:1). And when they removed it they would say: 鈥淭he heavens are God鈥檚 heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind鈥 (Psalms 115:16). I said to him: My son, what did you do to merit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, and when I would come across parts from every animal that I slaughtered that was fine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you merited this, and blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit.

讗诪专 诇讜 拽讬住专 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讞谞谞讬讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转讘砖讬诇 砖诇 砖讘转 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 转讘诇讬谉 讗讞讚 讬砖 诇谞讜 讜砖讘转 砖诪讜 砖讗谞讜 诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇转讜讻讜 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 转谉 诇谞讜 讛讬诪谞讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛砖讘转 诪讜注讬诇 诇讜 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诪砖诪专 讗转 讛砖讘转 讗讬谞讜 诪讜注讬诇 诇讜

The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben 岣nanya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse? He said to him: We have a certain spice called dill [shevet], which we place in the cooked dishes and its fragrance diffuses. The emperor said to him: Give us some of it. He said to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat, the spice is effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讚讜砖 讛壮 诪讻讜讘讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诇讗 讗讻讬诇讛 讜诇讗 砖转讬讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讻讘讚讛讜 讘讻住讜转 谞拽讬讛 讜讻讘讚转讜 专讘 讗诪专 诇讛拽讚讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讻讙讜谉 讗谞谉 讚砖讻讬讞 诇谉 讘讬砖专讗 讜讞诪专讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讘诪讗讬 谞讬砖谞讬讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 专讙讬诇讬转讜 诇讗拽讚讜诪讬 讗讞专讜讛 讗讬 专讙讬诇讬转讜 诇讗讞专讜讛 讗拽讚诪讜讛 专讘 砖砖转 讘拽讬讟讗 诪讜转讬讘 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讬讗 砖讬诪砖讗 讘住讬转讜讗 诪讜转讬讘 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讬讗 讟讜诇讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬拽讜诪讜 讛讬讬讗 专讘讬 讝讬专讗

The Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: What is the meaning of that which is written, 鈥淭he holy one of God is honored鈥 (Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna said to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking, and so the Torah said: Honor it with a clean garment. And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, 鈥淎nd you shall honor it,鈥 Rav said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast earlier than on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. And Shmuel said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast later, so that one鈥檚 appetite will be greater. The sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa: People like us, for whom meat and wine is found on our table every day, in what manner can we change it on Shabbat? He said to them: If you are accustomed to eating your meal early, make it later on Shabbat; if you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlier on Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: In the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sages who attended his lecture in a place where the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sages in a place where the shade would reach. He did this so that they would stand quickly after the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira

诪讛讚专 讗讝讜讝讬 讝讜讝讬 讚专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讟讜转讗 诪讬谞讬讬讻讜 诇讗 转讞诇诇讜谞讬讛

would seek pairs of Sages engaged in conversation on Shabbat and said to them: Please do not desecrate Shabbat by failing to delight in Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讞讬讚 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 谞注砖讛 砖讜转祝 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讗诇讗 讜讬讻诇讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讛讚讬讘讜专 讻诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讚讘专 讛壮 砖诪讬诐 谞注砖讜

Rava said, and some say it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said: Even an individual who prays on Shabbat evening must recite the passage: 鈥淎nd the heavens and the earth were finished [vaykhullu]鈥 (Genesis 2:1鈥3), as Rav Hamnuna said: Anyone who prays on Shabbat evening and recites the passage of vaykhullu, the verse ascribed him credit as if he became a partner with the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation. As it is stated: 鈥淎nd the heavens and the earth were finished [vaykhullu].鈥 Do not read it as: Were finished [vaykhullu]; rather, as: They finished [vaykhallu]. It is considered as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the individual who says this become partners and completed the work together. Rabbi Elazar said: From where is it derived that speech is like action? As it is stated: 鈥淏y the word of God the heavens were made, and all of their hosts by the breath of His mouth鈥 (Psalms 33:6).

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 砖谞讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 讛诪诇讜讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讬讚讬讛谉 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讜住专 注讜谞讱 讜讞讟讗转讱 转讻驻专 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪诇讜讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讘讬转讜 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讜讗讞讚 专注 讜讻砖讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讜诪爪讗 谞专 讚诇讜拽 讜砖诇讞谉 注专讜讱 讜诪讟转讜 诪讜爪注转 诪诇讗讱 讟讜讘 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗讞专转 讻讱 讜诪诇讗讱 专注 注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘注诇 讻专讞讜 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪诇讗讱 专注 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗讞专转 讻讱 讜诪诇讗讱 讟讜讘 注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘注诇 讻专讞讜

Rav 岣sda said that Mar Ukva said: One who prays on Shabbat evening and recites vaykhullu, the two ministering angels who accompany the person at all times place their hands on his head and say to him: 鈥淎nd your iniquity has passed, and your sin has been atoned鈥 (Isaiah 6:7). It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Two ministering angels accompany a person on Shabbat evening from the synagogue to his home, one good angel and one evil angel. And when he reaches his home and finds a lamp burning and a table set and his bed made, the good angel says: May it be Your will that it shall be like this for another Shabbat. And the evil angel answers against his will: Amen. And if the person鈥檚 home is not prepared for Shabbat in that manner, the evil angel says: May it be Your will that it shall be so for another Shabbat, and the good angel answers against his will: Amen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇注讜诇诐 讬住讚专 讗讚诐 砖诇讞谞讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇讻讝讬转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬住讚专 讗讚诐 砖诇讞谞讜 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇讻讝讬转 讞诪讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 诪诇讜讙诪讗 驻转 讞诪讛 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 诪诇讜讙诪讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 注讘讚讬谉 诇讬讛 讘讗驻讜拽讬 砖讘转讗 注讬讙诇讗 转讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 讗讻讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讻讜诇讬讬转讗 讻讬 讙讚诇 讗讘讬诪讬 讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讛 诇讱 诇讗驻住讜讚讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 谞砖讘讜拽 讻讜诇讬讬转讗 诪诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 砖讘拽讜讛讜 讜讗转讗 讗专讬讗 讗讻诇讬讛

Rabbi Elazar said: A person should always set his table on Shabbat eve with all the preparations for an important feast, even if he only needs the table set for an olive-bulk of food. And Rabbi 岣nina said: A person should always set his table at the conclusion of Shabbat, Saturday night, for a feast in deference to the Shabbat that passed, even if he only needs the table set for an olive-bulk of food. And with regard to the meal at the conclusion of Shabbat, they said: Hot water after Shabbat is a remedy [melugma], warm bread at the conclusion of Shabbat is a remedy. The Gemara relates: They would prepare for Rabbi Abbahu at the conclusion of Shabbat a third-born calf, and he would eat one kidney from it. When his son Avimi grew up, he said to his father: Why do you waste so much? Let us leave a kidney over from Shabbat eve, and you will not need to slaughter an entire calf for that purpose. Indeed, they left the calf and did not slaughter it, and a lion came and ate it. This teaches that one should not be miserly when it comes to honoring Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 专讘讗 诪讘专讱 讘讻诇 讻讞讜 拽讜专注讬谉 诇讜 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 讘讛转谞讚讘 注诐 讘专讻讜 讛壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 诪砖讜诐 讚讘专讻讜 讛壮 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 讘讜 砖诪抓 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讻讬 驻专讜注 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘讻诇 讻讞讜 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 砖注专讬 讙谉 注讚谉 砖谞讗诪专 驻转讞讜 砖注专讬诐 讜讬讘讗 讙讜讬 爪讚讬拽 砖讜诪专 讗诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 砖讜诪专 讗诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉 诪讗讬 讗诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇 诪诇讱 谞讗诪谉

Apropos the reward for honoring Shabbat, the Gemara cites statements about the reward for answering amen. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that anyone who answers: Amen, may His great name be blessed, wholeheartedly, with all his might, they rip his sentence, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen punishments are annulled in Israel, when the people offer themselves, bless the Lord鈥 (Judges 5:2). What is the reason for when punishments are annulled? Because the Jewish people blessed God. When one recites: Amen, may His great name be blessed, and blesses God, his punishment is annulled. Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even if one has within him a trace of idolatry, when he answers amen he is forgiven. It is written here, in the verse above: 鈥淲hen punishments [pera鈥檕t] are annulled.鈥 And it is written there, with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: 鈥淎nd Moses saw that the nation was wild [paru鈥檃], for Aaron had let them loose for anyone who might rise against them鈥 (Exodus 32:25). Even one with the wildness of idolatry is forgiven. Reish Lakish said: One who answers amen with all his strength, they open the gates of the Garden of Eden before him, as it is stated: 鈥淥pen the gates, and a righteous nation shall come who keeps the faith鈥 (Isaiah 26:2). Do not read: Who keeps [shomer] the faith [emunim], but rather: Who say [she鈥檕merim] amen. What is the allusion of the word amen? Rabbi 岣nina said: It is an acronym of the words: God, faithful King [El Melekh ne鈥檈man].

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬谉 讛讚诇讬拽讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讞讬诇讜诇 砖讘转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗诐 诇讗 转砖诪注讜 讗诇讬 诇拽讚砖 讗转 讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 讜诇讘诇转讬 砖讗转 诪砖讗 讜讙讜壮 讜讛爪转讬 讗砖 讘砖注专讬讛 讜讗讻诇讛 讗专诪谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诇讗 转讻讘讛 诪讗讬 讜诇讗 转讻讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讘砖注讛 砖讗讬谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪爪讜讬讬谉 诇讻讘讜转讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讞诇诇讜 讘讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讘转讜转讬 讛注诇讬诪讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讜讗讞诇 讘转讜讻诐

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel, said in the name of Rav: Fire is only found in a place where there is desecration of Shabbat, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd if you do not heed Me to sanctify the day of Shabbat, and to refrain from carrying burdens and come to the gates of Jerusalem on the day of Shabbat, and I will light a fire in its gates and it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem and it will not be extinguished鈥 (Jeremiah 17:27). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: And it will not be extinguished? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Fire will break out at a time when people are not found to extinguish it. Abaye said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people desecrated the Shabbat in it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from My Shabbatot they averted their eyes, and I was profaned among them鈥 (Ezekiel 22:26). Several punishments were decreed to befall Jerusalem as punishment for this transgression.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讟诇讜 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪砖讻讬诪讬 讘讘拽专 砖讻专 讬专讚驻讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜专 讜谞讘诇 转讜祝 讜讞诇讬诇 讜讬讬谉 诪砖转讬讛诐 讜讗转 驻讜注诇 讛壮 诇讗 讬讘讬讟讜 讜讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讙诇讛 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讚注转

The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the destruction of Jerusalem.
Rabbi Abbahu said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because its citizens intentionally omitted recitation of Shema morning and evening, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to those who rise early in the morning and pursue the drink and are aflame from wine until late in the evening鈥 (Isaiah 5:11). And it is written in the continuation of that passage: 鈥淎nd their drinking parties have lyre and lute, drum and flute and wine, and they do not look upon the actions of God, and they do not see His hands鈥 creations鈥 (Isaiah 5:12). This means that in the morning and evening, when the Jews should have been reciting Shema, they were drinking wine and liquor. And it is written in that passage: 鈥淭herefore My nation is being exiled for its ignorance; its honor will die of hunger and its multitudes will be parched with thirst鈥 (Isaiah 5:13).

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讟诇讜 讘讛 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻讜讱 注诇 注讜诇诇 讘讞讜抓 讜讙讜壮 诪讛 讟注诐 砖驻讜讱 诪砖讜诐 讚注讜诇诇 讘讞讜抓 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讛诐 讘讜砖转 驻谞讬诐 讝讛 诪讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讘讬砖讜 讻讬 转讜注讘讛 注砖讜 讙诐 讘讜砖 诇讗 讬讘讜砖讜 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讛讜砖讜讜 拽讟谉 讜讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讻注诐 讻讻讛谉 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讛讘讜拽 转讘讜拽 讛讗专抓

Rav Hamnuna said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because schoolchildren there were interrupted from studying Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I am filled with the wrath of God, I cannot contain it, pour it onto the infants in the street and onto the gathering of youths together, for men and women alike will be captured, the elderly along with those of advanced years鈥 (Jeremiah 6:11). Rav Hamnuna explains: What is the reason that the wrath is poured? It is because infants are outside in the streets and are not studying Torah.
Ulla said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people had no shame before each other, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey acted shamefully; they have performed abominations, yet they neither were ashamed nor did they know humiliation. Therefore, they will fall among the fallen, they will fail at the time that I punish them, said God鈥 (Jeremiah 6:15).
Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because its small and the great citizens were equated. They did not properly value the prominent leaders of their generation, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the common people were like the priest, the slave like his master, the maidservant like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the one indebted to him鈥 (Isaiah 24:2). And it is written afterward: 鈥淭he land shall be utterly desolate and completely plundered, for God has said this鈥 (Isaiah 24:3).

讗诪专 专讘 注诪专诐 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诇讗 讛讜讻讬讞讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬讜 砖专讬讛 讻讗讬诇讬诐 诇讗 诪爪讗讜 诪专注讛 诪讛 讗讬诇 讝讛 专讗砖讜 砖诇 讝讛 讘爪讚 讝谞讘讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讗讜转讜 讛讚讜专 讻讘砖讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讘拽专拽注 讜诇讗 讛讜讻讬讞讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讝讜 讘讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬讜 诪诇注讬讘讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讜讘讜讝讬诐 讚讘专讬讜 讜诪转注转注讬诐 讘谞讘讬讗讬讜 注讚 注诇讜转 讞诪转 讛壮 讘注诪讜 注讚 [诇]讗讬谉 诪专驻讗 诪讗讬 注讚 诇讗讬谉 诪专驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪讘讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 专驻讜讗讛 诇诪讻转讜

Rav Amram, son of Rabbi Shimon bar Abba, said that Rabbi Shimon bar Abba said that Rabbi 岣nina said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because the people did not rebuke one another, as it is stated: 鈥淗er ministers were like stags that found no pasture, and they walked without strength before their pursuer鈥 (Lamentations 1:6). Just as this stag turns its head toward the other鈥檚 tail when it grazes, and each one feeds on its own, so too, the Jewish people in that generation lowered their faces to the ground and did not rebuke one another.
Rabbi Yehuda said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because they disparaged the Torah scholars in it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they mocked the messengers of God and disdained His words and taunted His prophets, until the wrath of God arose against His people, until it could not be healed鈥 (II Chronicles 36:16). What is the meaning of: Until it could not be healed? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: It means that anyone who disparages Torah scholars cannot be healed from his wound.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转讙注讜 讘诪砖讬讞讬 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬 讗诇 转专注讜 讗诇 转讙注讜 讘诪砖讬讞讬 讗诇讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬 讗诇 转专注讜 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讗讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讛讘诇 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讚讬讚讬 讜讚讬讚讱 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 讛讘诇 砖讬砖 讘讜 讞讟讗 诇讛讘诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讞讟讗 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讗讬谉 诪讘讟诇讬谉 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讗讘讜转讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诪讗讘讜转讬讱 讻诇 注讬专 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 诪讞专讬讘讬谉 讗讜转讛 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讞专讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淒o not touch My anointed ones and do My prophets no harm鈥 (I Chronicles 16:22)? 鈥淒o not touch My anointed ones,鈥 these are the schoolchildren, who are as precious and important as kings and priests (Maharsha); 鈥渁nd do not harm My prophets,鈥 these are Torah scholars. Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: The world only exists because of the breath, i.e., reciting Torah, of schoolchildren. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: My Torah study and yours, what is its status? Why is the Torah study of adults worth less? He said to him: The breath of adults, which is tainted by sin, is not similar to the breath of children, which is not tainted by sin. And Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: One may not interrupt schoolchildren from studying Torah, even in order to build the Temple. And Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: I have received from my ancestors, and some say that he said to him: I have received from your ancestors as follows: Any city in which there are no schoolchildren studying Torah, they destroy it. Ravina said: They leave it desolate.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖驻住拽讜 诪诪谞讛 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖讜讟讟讜 讘讞讜爪讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜专讗讜 谞讗 [讜讚注讜 讜讘拽砖讜 讘专讞讜讘讜转讬讛 讗诐 转诪爪讗讜 讗讬砖] (讗诐 讬砖 讗讬砖) 注讜砖讛 诪砖驻讟 诪讘拽砖 讗诪讜谞讛 讜讗住诇讞 诇讛 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 拽讟讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注转 讻砖诇讜谞讛 砖诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 驻住拽讜 诪诪谞讛 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讬转驻砖 讗讬砖 讘讗讞讬讜 讘讬转 讗讘讬讜 (诇讗诪专) 砖诪诇讛 诇讻讛 拽爪讬谉 转讛讬讛 诇谞讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪转讻住讬谉 讘讛谉 讻砖诪诇讛 讬砖谞谉 讘讬讚讬讱 讜讛诪讻砖诇讛 讛讝讗转 转讞转 讬讚讱

And Rava said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because there were no more trustworthy people there, as it is stated: 鈥淩oam about the streets of Jerusalem and see, and search its plazas, if you can find a person, who acts justly, who seeks integrity, that I should forgive it鈥 (Jeremiah 5:1). The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Ketina say: Even at the time of Jerusalem鈥檚 failure, trustworthy people did not cease there, as it is stated: 鈥淔or a man will grab his brother of his father鈥檚 house and say: You have a garment. Come be a chief over us and let this ruin be under your care鈥 (Isaiah 3:6)? Things that people use to cover up like a garment, secrets, are in your hands and you know about them. Therefore, you should be a leader of the community. And that which is stated: 鈥淎nd let this ruin be under your care,鈥 meaning:

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 119

注讘讬讚谞讗 讬讜诪讗 讟讘讗 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 专讘讗 转讬转讬 诇讬 讚讻讬 讗转讗 爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇拽诪讗讬 诇讚讬谞讗 诇讗 诪讝讬讙谞讗 专讬砖讬 讗讘讬 住讚讬讗 讻诪讛 讚诇讗 诪讛驻讬讻谞讗 讘讝讻讜转讬讛 讗诪专 诪专 讘专 专讘 讗砖讬 驻住讬诇谞讗 诇讬讛 诇爪讜专讘讗 诪专讘谞谉 诇讚讬谞讗 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讚讞讘讬讘 注诇讬 讻讙讜驻讗讬 讜讗讬谉 讗讚诐 专讜讗讛 讞讜讘讛 诇注爪诪讜

I make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receive my reward because when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seek as many of his merits as possible, based on conditions and his claims. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified to sit in judgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reason that I am disqualified? It is because the Torah scholar is as beloved to me as my own self, and a person does not find fault in himself.

专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诪讬注讟祝 讜拽讗讬 讗驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诪专 讘讜讗讜 讜谞爪讗 诇拽专讗转 砖讘转 讛诪诇讻讛 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 诇讘讬砖 诪讗谞讬讛 诪注诇讬 砖讘转 讜讗诪专 讘讜讗讬 讻诇讛 讘讜讗讬 讻诇讛 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 讛讜谞讗 讗讬拽诇注 诇讘讬 专讘讛 讘专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 拽专讬讘讜 诇讬讛 转诇转 住讗讜讬 讟讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讛讜 诪讬 讛讜讛 讬讚注讬转讜谉 讚讗转讬谞讗 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 诪讬 注讚讬驻转 诇谉 诪讬谞讛

The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. Rabbi 岣nina would wrap himself in his garment and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, and say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride. The Gemara relates: Rabba bar Rav Huna happened to come to the house of Rabba bar Rav Na岣an. They brought before him three se鈥檃 of oiled biscuits. He said to them: Did you know I was coming and prepared all of this in my honor? They said to him: Are you more important to us than Shabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat.

专讘讬 讗讘讗 讝讘谉 讘转诇讬住专 讗住转讬专讬 驻砖讬讟讬 讘讬砖专讗 诪转诇讬住专 讟讘讞讬 讜诪砖诇讬诐 诇讛讜 讗爪讬谞讜专讗 讚讚砖讗 讜讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗砖讜专 讛讬讬讗 讗砖讜专 讛讬讬讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讗转讻转拽讗 讚砖讬谞讗 讜诪讜砖讬祝 谞讜专讗 专讘 注谞谉 诇讘讬砖 讙讜谞讚讗 讚转谞讗 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘讙讚讬诐 砖讘讬砖诇 讘讛谉 拽讚讬专讛 诇专讘讜 讗诇 讬诪讝讜讙 讘讛谉 讻讜住 诇专讘讜

Rabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [astirei peshitei] worth half a zuz of meat from thirteen butchers in deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. And he would place the meats at the door hinge at the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. And he said to the cooks, in order to rush them: Hurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it. The Gemara also relates: Rabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [takhteka] and fan the fire cooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. Rav Anan would don a simple black garment for the Shabbat preparations, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: While wearing the garments in which he cooked a pot of food for his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master. One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand.

专讘 住驻专讗 诪讞专讬讱 专讬砖讗 专讘讗 诪诇讞 砖讬讘讜讟讗 专讘 讛讜谞讗 诪讚诇讬拽 砖专讙讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讙讚讬诇 驻转讬诇转讗 专讘 讞住讚讗 驻专讬诐 住讬诇拽讗 专讘讛 讜专讘 讬讜住祝 诪爪诇讞讬 爪讬讘讬 专讘讬 讝讬专讗 诪爪转转 爪转讜转讬 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 诪讻转祝 讜注讬讬诇 诪讻转祝 讜谞驻讬拽 讗诪专 讗讬诇讜 诪拽诇注讬谉 诇讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讬 诇讗 诪讻转讬驻谞讗 拽诪讬讬讛讜 讜讗讬讻讗 讚讗诪专讬 专讘讬 讗诪讬 讜专讘讬 讗住讬 诪讻转驻讬 讜注讬讬诇讬 诪讻转驻讬 讜谞驻拽讬 讗诪专讬 讗讬诇讜 讗讬拽诇注 诇谉 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讬 诇讗 诪讻转驻讬谞谉 拽诪讬讛

Rav Safra would roast the head of an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. Rava salted a shibuta fish in deference to Shabbat. Rav Huna kindled lamps in deference to Shabbat. Rav Pappa spun the wicks for the Shabbat lamp. Rav 岣sda cut the beets in preparation for Shabbat. Rabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticks for kindling. Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k would load objects on his shoulder and enter, load objects on his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to visit me, would I not load objects on my shoulder before them? So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. And some say that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would load objects on their shoulders and enter, load objects on their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yo岣nan happened to come to visit us, would we not load objects on our shoulders before him?

讬讜住祝 诪讜拽讬专 砖讘讬 讛讜讛 讛讛讜讗 讙讜讬 讘砖讘讘讜转讬讛 讚讛讜讛 谞驻讬砖讬 谞讻住讬讛 讟讜讘讗 讗诪专讬 诇讬讛 讻诇讚讗讬 讻讜诇讛讜 谞讻住讬 讬讜住祝 诪讜拽专 砖讘讬 讗讻讬诇 诇讛讜 讗讝诇 讝讘谞讬谞讛讜 诇讻讜诇讛讜 谞讬讻住讬 讝讘谉 讘讛讜 诪专讙谞讬转讗 讗讜转讘讛 讘住讬讬谞讬讛 讘讛讚讬 讚拽讗 注讘专 诪讘专讗 讗驻专讞讬讛 讝讬拽讗 砖讚讬讬讛 讘诪讬讗 讘诇注讬讛 讻讜讜专讗 讗住拽讜讛 讗讬讬转讜讛 讗驻谞讬讗 讚诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 讗诪专讬 诪讗谉 讝讘讬谉 讻讬 讛砖转讗 讗诪专讬 诇讛讜 讝讬诇讜 讗诪讟讬讜讛讜 诇讙讘讬 讬讜住祝 诪讜拽专 砖讘讬 讚专讙讬诇 讚讝讘讬谉 讗诪讟讬讜讛 谞讬讛诇讬讛 讝讘谞讬讛 拽专注讬讛 讗砖讻讞 讘讬讛 诪专讙谞讬转讗 讝讘谞讬讛 讘转诇讬住专 注讬诇讬转讗 讚讚讬谞专讬 讚讚讛讘讗 驻讙注 讘讬讛 讛讛讜讗 住讘讗 讗诪专 诪讗谉 讚讬讝讬祝 砖讘转讗 驻专注讬讛 砖讘转讗

The Gemara relates with regard to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said to the gentile with regard to all his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it. The gentile went and sold all of his property, and with the money he received he bought a pearl, and he placed it in his hat. When he was crossing a river in a ferry, the wind blew his hat and cast it into the water, and a fish swallowed it. The fish was caught and removed from the water and it was brought to shore adjacent to nightfall on Shabbat eve. The fishermen said: Who buys fish at a time like this? The townspeople said to the fishermen: Go bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchases delicacies in deference to Shabbat. They brought it to him and he purchased it. He ripped the fish open and found a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars (Tosafot). This elderly man who encountered him and said: One who lends to Shabbat, Shabbat repays him.

讘注讗 诪讬谞讬讛 专讘讬 诪专讘讬 讬砖诪注讗诇 讘专讘讬 讬讜住讬 注砖讬专讬诐 砖讘讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪注砖专讬谉 砖谞讗诪专 注砖专 转注砖专 注砖专 讘砖讘讬诇 砖转转注砖专 砖讘讘讘诇 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛转讜专讛

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to the wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: 鈥淎 tithe you shall tithe [asser te鈥檃sser] from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year鈥 (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: Take a tithe [asser] so that you will become wealthy [titasher]. He asked: With regard to the wealthy of Babylonia, who are not obligated to tithe, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor the Torah and the Sages in Babylonia.

讜砖讘砖讗专 讗专爪讜转 讘诪讛 讛谉 讝讜讻讬谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诪讻讘讚讬谉 讗转 讛砖讘转 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 驻注诐 讗讞转 谞转讗专讞转讬 讗爪诇 讘注诇 讛讘讬转 讘诇讜讚拽讬讗 讜讛讘讬讗讜 诇驻谞讬讜 砖诇讞谉 砖诇 讝讛讘 诪砖讜讬 砖砖讛 注砖专 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讜砖砖 注砖专讛 砖诇砖诇讗讜转 砖诇 讻住祝 拽讘讜注讜转 讘讜 讜拽注专讜转 讜讻讜住讜转 讜拽讬转讜谞讬讜转 讜爪诇讜讞讬讜转 拽讘讜注讜转 讘讜 讜注诇讬讜 讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讗讻诇 讜讻诇 诪讬谞讬 诪讙讚讬诐 讜讘砖诪讬诐 讜讻砖诪谞讬讞讬诐 讗讜转讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讛壮 讛讗专抓 讜诪诇讜讗讛 讜讙讜壮 讜讻砖诪住诇拽讬谉 讗讜转讜 讗讜诪专讬诐 讛砖诪讬诐 砖诪讬诐 诇讛壮 讜讛讗专抓 谞转谉 诇讘谞讬 讗讚诐 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 讘谞讬 讘诪讛 讝讻讬转 诇讻讱 讗诪专 诇讬 拽爪讘 讛讬讬转讬 讜诪讻诇 讘讛诪讛 砖讛讬转讛 谞讗讛 讗诪专转讬 讝讜 转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗诪专转讬 诇讜 [讗砖专讬讱 砖讝讻讬转] 讜讘专讜讱 讛诪拽讜诐 砖讝讬讻讱 诇讻讱

With regard to the wealthy of other countries, where there are no Sages, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted at the home of a homeowner in Laodicea and they brought before him a table of gold that was so heavy it required sixteen people to carry it, and there were sixteen chains of silver attached to it, and there were bowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, and there were all sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed it there they would say: 鈥淭he earth and all that fills it is God鈥檚, the world and all that inhabit it鈥 (Psalms 24:1). And when they removed it they would say: 鈥淭he heavens are God鈥檚 heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind鈥 (Psalms 115:16). I said to him: My son, what did you do to merit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, and when I would come across parts from every animal that I slaughtered that was fine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you merited this, and blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit.

讗诪专 诇讜 拽讬住专 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 讞谞谞讬讗 诪驻谞讬 诪讛 转讘砖讬诇 砖诇 砖讘转 专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 转讘诇讬谉 讗讞讚 讬砖 诇谞讜 讜砖讘转 砖诪讜 砖讗谞讜 诪讟讬诇讬谉 诇转讜讻讜 讜专讬讞讜 谞讜讚祝 讗诪专 诇讜 转谉 诇谞讜 讛讬诪谞讜 讗诪专 诇讜 讻诇 讛诪砖诪专 讗转 讛砖讘转 诪讜注讬诇 诇讜 讜砖讗讬谞讜 诪砖诪专 讗转 讛砖讘转 讗讬谞讜 诪讜注讬诇 诇讜

The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben 岣nanya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse? He said to him: We have a certain spice called dill [shevet], which we place in the cooked dishes and its fragrance diffuses. The emperor said to him: Give us some of it. He said to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat, the spice is effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective.

讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讬砖 讙诇讜转讗 诇专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讜诇拽讚讜砖 讛壮 诪讻讜讘讚 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讝讛 讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 诇讗 讗讻讬诇讛 讜诇讗 砖转讬讛 讗诪专讛 转讜专讛 讻讘讚讛讜 讘讻住讜转 谞拽讬讛 讜讻讘讚转讜 专讘 讗诪专 诇讛拽讚讬诐 讜砖诪讜讗诇 讗诪专 诇讗讞专 讗诪专讜 诇讬讛 讘谞讬 专讘 驻驻讗 讘专 讗讘讗 诇专讘 驻驻讗 讻讙讜谉 讗谞谉 讚砖讻讬讞 诇谉 讘讬砖专讗 讜讞诪专讗 讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讘诪讗讬 谞讬砖谞讬讬讛 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讗讬 专讙讬诇讬转讜 诇讗拽讚讜诪讬 讗讞专讜讛 讗讬 专讙讬诇讬转讜 诇讗讞专讜讛 讗拽讚诪讜讛 专讘 砖砖转 讘拽讬讟讗 诪讜转讬讘 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讬讗 砖讬诪砖讗 讘住讬转讜讗 诪讜转讬讘 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讛讬讻讗 讚诪讟讬讗 讟讜诇讗 讻讬 讛讬讻讬 讚诇讬拽讜诪讜 讛讬讬讗 专讘讬 讝讬专讗

The Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: What is the meaning of that which is written, 鈥淭he holy one of God is honored鈥 (Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna said to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking, and so the Torah said: Honor it with a clean garment. And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, 鈥淎nd you shall honor it,鈥 Rav said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast earlier than on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. And Shmuel said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast later, so that one鈥檚 appetite will be greater. The sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa: People like us, for whom meat and wine is found on our table every day, in what manner can we change it on Shabbat? He said to them: If you are accustomed to eating your meal early, make it later on Shabbat; if you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlier on Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: In the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sages who attended his lecture in a place where the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sages in a place where the shade would reach. He did this so that they would stand quickly after the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira

诪讛讚专 讗讝讜讝讬 讝讜讝讬 讚专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘诪讟讜转讗 诪讬谞讬讬讻讜 诇讗 转讞诇诇讜谞讬讛

would seek pairs of Sages engaged in conversation on Shabbat and said to them: Please do not desecrate Shabbat by failing to delight in Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讗讬转讬诪讗 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讗驻讬诇讜 讬讞讬讚 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 爪专讬讱 诇讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讚讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 诪注诇讛 注诇讬讜 讛讻转讜讘 讻讗讬诇讜 谞注砖讛 砖讜转祝 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讘诪注砖讛 讘专讗砖讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讗诇 转拽专讬 讜讬讻讜诇讜 讗诇讗 讜讬讻诇讜 讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诪谞讬讬谉 砖讛讚讬讘讜专 讻诪注砖讛 砖谞讗诪专 讘讚讘专 讛壮 砖诪讬诐 谞注砖讜

Rava said, and some say it was Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said: Even an individual who prays on Shabbat evening must recite the passage: 鈥淎nd the heavens and the earth were finished [vaykhullu]鈥 (Genesis 2:1鈥3), as Rav Hamnuna said: Anyone who prays on Shabbat evening and recites the passage of vaykhullu, the verse ascribed him credit as if he became a partner with the Holy One, Blessed be He, in the act of Creation. As it is stated: 鈥淎nd the heavens and the earth were finished [vaykhullu].鈥 Do not read it as: Were finished [vaykhullu]; rather, as: They finished [vaykhallu]. It is considered as though the Holy One, Blessed be He, and the individual who says this become partners and completed the work together. Rabbi Elazar said: From where is it derived that speech is like action? As it is stated: 鈥淏y the word of God the heavens were made, and all of their hosts by the breath of His mouth鈥 (Psalms 33:6).

讗诪专 专讘 讞住讚讗 讗诪专 诪专 注讜拽讘讗 讻诇 讛诪转驻诇诇 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讜讗讜诪专 讜讬讻讜诇讜 砖谞讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 讛诪诇讜讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 诪谞讬讞讬谉 讬讚讬讛谉 注诇 专讗砖讜 讜讗讜诪专讬诐 诇讜 讜住专 注讜谞讱 讜讞讟讗转讱 转讻驻专 转谞讬讗 专讘讬 讬讜住讬 讘专 讬讛讜讚讛 讗讜诪专 砖谞讬 诪诇讗讻讬 讛砖专转 诪诇讜讬谉 诇讜 诇讗讚诐 讘注专讘 砖讘转 诪讘讬转 讛讻谞住转 诇讘讬转讜 讗讞讚 讟讜讘 讜讗讞讚 专注 讜讻砖讘讗 诇讘讬转讜 讜诪爪讗 谞专 讚诇讜拽 讜砖诇讞谉 注专讜讱 讜诪讟转讜 诪讜爪注转 诪诇讗讱 讟讜讘 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗讞专转 讻讱 讜诪诇讗讱 专注 注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘注诇 讻专讞讜 讜讗诐 诇讗讜 诪诇讗讱 专注 讗讜诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 砖转讛讗 诇砖讘转 讗讞专转 讻讱 讜诪诇讗讱 讟讜讘 注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘注诇 讻专讞讜

Rav 岣sda said that Mar Ukva said: One who prays on Shabbat evening and recites vaykhullu, the two ministering angels who accompany the person at all times place their hands on his head and say to him: 鈥淎nd your iniquity has passed, and your sin has been atoned鈥 (Isaiah 6:7). It was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Two ministering angels accompany a person on Shabbat evening from the synagogue to his home, one good angel and one evil angel. And when he reaches his home and finds a lamp burning and a table set and his bed made, the good angel says: May it be Your will that it shall be like this for another Shabbat. And the evil angel answers against his will: Amen. And if the person鈥檚 home is not prepared for Shabbat in that manner, the evil angel says: May it be Your will that it shall be so for another Shabbat, and the good angel answers against his will: Amen.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗诇注讝专 诇注讜诇诐 讬住讚专 讗讚诐 砖诇讞谞讜 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇讻讝讬转 讜讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇注讜诇诐 讬住讚专 讗讚诐 砖诇讞谞讜 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 讗祝 注诇 驻讬 砖讗讬谞讜 爪专讬讱 讗诇讗 诇讻讝讬转 讞诪讬谉 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 诪诇讜讙诪讗 驻转 讞诪讛 讘诪讜爪讗讬 砖讘转 诪诇讜讙诪讗 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 讛讜讛 注讘讚讬谉 诇讬讛 讘讗驻讜拽讬 砖讘转讗 注讬讙诇讗 转讬诇转讗 讛讜讛 讗讻讬诇 诪讬谞讬讛 讻讜诇讬讬转讗 讻讬 讙讚诇 讗讘讬诪讬 讘专讬讛 讗诪专 诇讬讛 诇诪讛 诇讱 诇讗驻住讜讚讬 讻讜诇讬 讛讗讬 谞砖讘讜拽 讻讜诇讬讬转讗 诪诪注诇讬 砖讘转讗 砖讘拽讜讛讜 讜讗转讗 讗专讬讗 讗讻诇讬讛

Rabbi Elazar said: A person should always set his table on Shabbat eve with all the preparations for an important feast, even if he only needs the table set for an olive-bulk of food. And Rabbi 岣nina said: A person should always set his table at the conclusion of Shabbat, Saturday night, for a feast in deference to the Shabbat that passed, even if he only needs the table set for an olive-bulk of food. And with regard to the meal at the conclusion of Shabbat, they said: Hot water after Shabbat is a remedy [melugma], warm bread at the conclusion of Shabbat is a remedy. The Gemara relates: They would prepare for Rabbi Abbahu at the conclusion of Shabbat a third-born calf, and he would eat one kidney from it. When his son Avimi grew up, he said to his father: Why do you waste so much? Let us leave a kidney over from Shabbat eve, and you will not need to slaughter an entire calf for that purpose. Indeed, they left the calf and did not slaughter it, and a lion came and ate it. This teaches that one should not be miserly when it comes to honoring Shabbat.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜砖注 讘谉 诇讜讬 讻诇 讛注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讬讛讗 砖诪讬讛 专讘讗 诪讘专讱 讘讻诇 讻讞讜 拽讜专注讬谉 诇讜 讙讝专 讚讬谞讜 砖谞讗诪专 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 讘讬砖专讗诇 讘讛转谞讚讘 注诐 讘专讻讜 讛壮 诪讗讬 讟注诪讗 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 诪砖讜诐 讚讘专讻讜 讛壮 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 讗驻讬诇讜 讬砖 讘讜 砖诪抓 砖诇 注讘讜讚讛 讝专讛 诪讜讞诇讬谉 诇讜 讻转讬讘 讛讻讗 讘驻专讜注 驻专注讜转 讜讻转讬讘 讛转诐 讻讬 驻专讜注 讛讜讗 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 讻诇 讛注讜谞讛 讗诪谉 讘讻诇 讻讞讜 驻讜转讞讬谉 诇讜 砖注专讬 讙谉 注讚谉 砖谞讗诪专 驻转讞讜 砖注专讬诐 讜讬讘讗 讙讜讬 爪讚讬拽 砖讜诪专 讗诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇 转讬拽专讬 砖讜诪专 讗诪讜谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖讗讜诪专讬诐 讗诪谉 诪讗讬 讗诪谉 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 讗诇 诪诇讱 谞讗诪谉

Apropos the reward for honoring Shabbat, the Gemara cites statements about the reward for answering amen. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that anyone who answers: Amen, may His great name be blessed, wholeheartedly, with all his might, they rip his sentence, as it is stated: 鈥淲hen punishments are annulled in Israel, when the people offer themselves, bless the Lord鈥 (Judges 5:2). What is the reason for when punishments are annulled? Because the Jewish people blessed God. When one recites: Amen, may His great name be blessed, and blesses God, his punishment is annulled. Rabbi 岣yya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yo岣nan said: Even if one has within him a trace of idolatry, when he answers amen he is forgiven. It is written here, in the verse above: 鈥淲hen punishments [pera鈥檕t] are annulled.鈥 And it is written there, with regard to the sin of the Golden Calf: 鈥淎nd Moses saw that the nation was wild [paru鈥檃], for Aaron had let them loose for anyone who might rise against them鈥 (Exodus 32:25). Even one with the wildness of idolatry is forgiven. Reish Lakish said: One who answers amen with all his strength, they open the gates of the Garden of Eden before him, as it is stated: 鈥淥pen the gates, and a righteous nation shall come who keeps the faith鈥 (Isaiah 26:2). Do not read: Who keeps [shomer] the faith [emunim], but rather: Who say [she鈥檕merim] amen. What is the allusion of the word amen? Rabbi 岣nina said: It is an acronym of the words: God, faithful King [El Melekh ne鈥檈man].

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讗讬谉 讛讚诇讬拽讛 诪爪讜讬讛 讗诇讗 讘诪拽讜诐 砖讬砖 讞讬诇讜诇 砖讘转 砖谞讗诪专 讜讗诐 诇讗 转砖诪注讜 讗诇讬 诇拽讚砖 讗转 讬讜诐 讛砖讘转 讜诇讘诇转讬 砖讗转 诪砖讗 讜讙讜壮 讜讛爪转讬 讗砖 讘砖注专讬讛 讜讗讻诇讛 讗专诪谞讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜诇讗 转讻讘讛 诪讗讬 讜诇讗 转讻讘讛 讗诪专 专讘 谞讞诪谉 讘专 讬爪讞拽 讘砖注讛 砖讗讬谉 讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪爪讜讬讬谉 诇讻讘讜转讛 讗诪专 讗讘讬讬 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讞诇诇讜 讘讛 讗转 讛砖讘转 砖谞讗诪专 讜诪砖讘转讜转讬 讛注诇讬诪讜 注讬谞讬讛诐 讜讗讞诇 讘转讜讻诐

Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel, said in the name of Rav: Fire is only found in a place where there is desecration of Shabbat, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd if you do not heed Me to sanctify the day of Shabbat, and to refrain from carrying burdens and come to the gates of Jerusalem on the day of Shabbat, and I will light a fire in its gates and it will consume the palaces of Jerusalem and it will not be extinguished鈥 (Jeremiah 17:27). The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: And it will not be extinguished? Rav Na岣an bar Yitz岣k said: Fire will break out at a time when people are not found to extinguish it. Abaye said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people desecrated the Shabbat in it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd from My Shabbatot they averted their eyes, and I was profaned among them鈥 (Ezekiel 22:26). Several punishments were decreed to befall Jerusalem as punishment for this transgression.

讗诪专 专讘讬 讗讘讛讜 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讟诇讜 拽专讬讗转 砖诪注 砖讞专讬转 讜注专讘讬转 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讬 诪砖讻讬诪讬 讘讘拽专 砖讻专 讬专讚驻讜 讜讙讜壮 讜讻转讬讘 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讜专 讜谞讘诇 转讜祝 讜讞诇讬诇 讜讬讬谉 诪砖转讬讛诐 讜讗转 驻讜注诇 讛壮 诇讗 讬讘讬讟讜 讜讻转讬讘 诇讻谉 讙诇讛 注诪讬 诪讘诇讬 讚注转

The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the destruction of Jerusalem.
Rabbi Abbahu said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because its citizens intentionally omitted recitation of Shema morning and evening, as it is stated: 鈥淲oe to those who rise early in the morning and pursue the drink and are aflame from wine until late in the evening鈥 (Isaiah 5:11). And it is written in the continuation of that passage: 鈥淎nd their drinking parties have lyre and lute, drum and flute and wine, and they do not look upon the actions of God, and they do not see His hands鈥 creations鈥 (Isaiah 5:12). This means that in the morning and evening, when the Jews should have been reciting Shema, they were drinking wine and liquor. And it is written in that passage: 鈥淭herefore My nation is being exiled for its ignorance; its honor will die of hunger and its multitudes will be parched with thirst鈥 (Isaiah 5:13).

讗诪专 专讘 讛诪谞讜谞讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讟诇讜 讘讛 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻讜讱 注诇 注讜诇诇 讘讞讜抓 讜讙讜壮 诪讛 讟注诐 砖驻讜讱 诪砖讜诐 讚注讜诇诇 讘讞讜抓 讗诪专 注讜诇讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪驻谞讬 砖诇讗 讛讬讛 诇讛诐 讘讜砖转 驻谞讬诐 讝讛 诪讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讜讘讬砖讜 讻讬 转讜注讘讛 注砖讜 讙诐 讘讜砖 诇讗 讬讘讜砖讜 讜讙讜壮 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬爪讞拽 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讛讜砖讜讜 拽讟谉 讜讙讚讜诇 砖谞讗诪专 讜讛讬讛 讻注诐 讻讻讛谉 讜讻转讬讘 讘转专讬讛 讛讘讜拽 转讘讜拽 讛讗专抓

Rav Hamnuna said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because schoolchildren there were interrupted from studying Torah, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd I am filled with the wrath of God, I cannot contain it, pour it onto the infants in the street and onto the gathering of youths together, for men and women alike will be captured, the elderly along with those of advanced years鈥 (Jeremiah 6:11). Rav Hamnuna explains: What is the reason that the wrath is poured? It is because infants are outside in the streets and are not studying Torah.
Ulla said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because people had no shame before each other, as it is stated: 鈥淭hey acted shamefully; they have performed abominations, yet they neither were ashamed nor did they know humiliation. Therefore, they will fall among the fallen, they will fail at the time that I punish them, said God鈥 (Jeremiah 6:15).
Rabbi Yitz岣k said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because its small and the great citizens were equated. They did not properly value the prominent leaders of their generation, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd the common people were like the priest, the slave like his master, the maidservant like her mistress, the buyer like the seller, the lender like the borrower, the creditor like the one indebted to him鈥 (Isaiah 24:2). And it is written afterward: 鈥淭he land shall be utterly desolate and completely plundered, for God has said this鈥 (Isaiah 24:3).

讗诪专 专讘 注诪专诐 讘专讬讛 讚专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讘专 讗讘讗 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞谞讬谞讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖诇讗 讛讜讻讬讞讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 砖谞讗诪专 讛讬讜 砖专讬讛 讻讗讬诇讬诐 诇讗 诪爪讗讜 诪专注讛 诪讛 讗讬诇 讝讛 专讗砖讜 砖诇 讝讛 讘爪讚 讝谞讘讜 砖诇 讝讛 讗祝 讬砖专讗诇 砖讘讗讜转讜 讛讚讜专 讻讘砖讜 驻谞讬讛诐 讘拽专拽注 讜诇讗 讛讜讻讬讞讜 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖讘讬讝讜 讘讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜讬讛讬讜 诪诇注讬讘讬诐 讘诪诇讗讻讬 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讜讘讜讝讬诐 讚讘专讬讜 讜诪转注转注讬诐 讘谞讘讬讗讬讜 注讚 注诇讜转 讞诪转 讛壮 讘注诪讜 注讚 [诇]讗讬谉 诪专驻讗 诪讗讬 注讚 诇讗讬谉 诪专驻讗 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 讛诪讘讝讛 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗讬谉 诇讜 专驻讜讗讛 诇诪讻转讜

Rav Amram, son of Rabbi Shimon bar Abba, said that Rabbi Shimon bar Abba said that Rabbi 岣nina said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because the people did not rebuke one another, as it is stated: 鈥淗er ministers were like stags that found no pasture, and they walked without strength before their pursuer鈥 (Lamentations 1:6). Just as this stag turns its head toward the other鈥檚 tail when it grazes, and each one feeds on its own, so too, the Jewish people in that generation lowered their faces to the ground and did not rebuke one another.
Rabbi Yehuda said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because they disparaged the Torah scholars in it, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd they mocked the messengers of God and disdained His words and taunted His prophets, until the wrath of God arose against His people, until it could not be healed鈥 (II Chronicles 36:16). What is the meaning of: Until it could not be healed? Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: It means that anyone who disparages Torah scholars cannot be healed from his wound.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讗诇 转讙注讜 讘诪砖讬讞讬 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬 讗诇 转专注讜 讗诇 转讙注讜 讘诪砖讬讞讬 讗诇讜 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讜讘谞讘讬讗讬 讗诇 转专注讜 讗诇讜 转诇诪讬讚讬 讞讻诪讬诐 讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讗讬谉 讛注讜诇诐 诪转拽讬讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讛讘诇 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专讘 驻驻讗 诇讗讘讬讬 讚讬讚讬 讜讚讬讚讱 诪讗讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗讬谞讜 讚讜诪讛 讛讘诇 砖讬砖 讘讜 讞讟讗 诇讛讘诇 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 讞讟讗 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诪砖讜诐 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讗讬谉 诪讘讟诇讬谉 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 讗驻讬诇讜 诇讘谞讬谉 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讜讗诪专 专讬砖 诇拽讬砖 诇专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 谞砖讬讗讛 讻讱 诪拽讜讘诇谞讬 诪讗讘讜转讬 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 诪讗讘讜转讬讱 讻诇 注讬专 砖讗讬谉 讘讛 转讬谞讜拽讜转 砖诇 讘讬转 专讘谉 诪讞专讬讘讬谉 讗讜转讛 专讘讬谞讗 讗诪专 诪讞专讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛

Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淒o not touch My anointed ones and do My prophets no harm鈥 (I Chronicles 16:22)? 鈥淒o not touch My anointed ones,鈥 these are the schoolchildren, who are as precious and important as kings and priests (Maharsha); 鈥渁nd do not harm My prophets,鈥 these are Torah scholars. Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: The world only exists because of the breath, i.e., reciting Torah, of schoolchildren. Rav Pappa said to Abaye: My Torah study and yours, what is its status? Why is the Torah study of adults worth less? He said to him: The breath of adults, which is tainted by sin, is not similar to the breath of children, which is not tainted by sin. And Reish Lakish said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: One may not interrupt schoolchildren from studying Torah, even in order to build the Temple. And Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yehuda Nesia: I have received from my ancestors, and some say that he said to him: I have received from your ancestors as follows: Any city in which there are no schoolchildren studying Torah, they destroy it. Ravina said: They leave it desolate.

讜讗诪专 专讘讗 诇讗 讞专讘讛 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 砖驻住拽讜 诪诪谞讛 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖讜讟讟讜 讘讞讜爪讜转 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 讜专讗讜 谞讗 [讜讚注讜 讜讘拽砖讜 讘专讞讜讘讜转讬讛 讗诐 转诪爪讗讜 讗讬砖] (讗诐 讬砖 讗讬砖) 注讜砖讛 诪砖驻讟 诪讘拽砖 讗诪讜谞讛 讜讗住诇讞 诇讛 讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 拽讟讬谞讗 讗驻讬诇讜 讘砖注转 讻砖诇讜谞讛 砖诇 讬专讜砖诇讬诐 诇讗 驻住拽讜 诪诪谞讛 讗谞砖讬 讗诪谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 讻讬 讬转驻砖 讗讬砖 讘讗讞讬讜 讘讬转 讗讘讬讜 (诇讗诪专) 砖诪诇讛 诇讻讛 拽爪讬谉 转讛讬讛 诇谞讜 讚讘专讬诐 砖讘谞讬 讗讚诐 诪转讻住讬谉 讘讛谉 讻砖诪诇讛 讬砖谞谉 讘讬讚讬讱 讜讛诪讻砖诇讛 讛讝讗转 转讞转 讬讚讱

And Rava said: Jerusalem was destroyed only because there were no more trustworthy people there, as it is stated: 鈥淩oam about the streets of Jerusalem and see, and search its plazas, if you can find a person, who acts justly, who seeks integrity, that I should forgive it鈥 (Jeremiah 5:1). The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn鈥檛 Rav Ketina say: Even at the time of Jerusalem鈥檚 failure, trustworthy people did not cease there, as it is stated: 鈥淔or a man will grab his brother of his father鈥檚 house and say: You have a garment. Come be a chief over us and let this ruin be under your care鈥 (Isaiah 3:6)? Things that people use to cover up like a garment, secrets, are in your hands and you know about them. Therefore, you should be a leader of the community. And that which is stated: 鈥淎nd let this ruin be under your care,鈥 meaning:

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