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Today's Daf Yomi

July 23, 2020 | ב׳ באב תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 139

Today’s shiur is dedicated by Mark Goldstein in honor of Rena Septee Goldstein, his wife of 38 years and his daf yomi chevruta.

The gemara discussed the problematic nature of having corrupt and arrogant leaders. The people of Baschar ask a number of questions regarding building a canopy on Shabbat, planting hops in a vineyard (issue of kelaim, mixing diverse kinds) and burial on Yom Tov. Rav Menashia tells them that all are forbidden because he is worried about the “slippery slope” as they are not “bnei Torah.” Since all these things are allowed only in a particular manner or particular circumstances, he is concerned and they will not properly understand the nuances and think it is allowed across the board. People had non Jewish children plant their hops. Why can’t one have Jewish children who are not yet obligated in mitzvot? There is concern that they will think they can also do it when they get older. The gemara brings cases where one can employ artifice to do something like build a wine strainer and claim to use it to hold pomegranates. Rav Ashi says it is allowed only if one actually uses it for pomegranates. In a similar situation, that wasn’t necessary – the gemara explains the difference between the two cases. When it comes to rabbinic law, we allow a talmid chacham to use artifice because we are not worried that he do it without artifice. One can filter clear water and wine. What mechanisms can be used to filter the wine? The gemara explain how Rav Papa’s family would strain beer (they were beer brewers).

 

 

הלכה ברורה ומשנה ברורה במקום אחד:

clear halakha and clear teaching together, but rather there will be disputes among the Sages.

תניא רבי יוסי בן אלישע אומר אם ראית דור שצרות רבות באות עליו צא ובדוק בדייני ישראל שכל פורענות שבאה לעולם לא באה אלא בשביל דייני ישראל שנאמר שמעו נא זאת ראשי בית יעקב וקציני בית ישראל המתעבים משפט ואת כל הישרה יעקשו בונה ציון בדמים וירושלים בעולה ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה׳ ישענו וגו׳

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei ben Elisha says: If you see a generation that many troubles are befalling it, go and examine the judges of Israel. Perhaps their sins are the cause, as any calamity that comes to the world comes due to the judges of Israel acting corruptly, as it is stated: “Please hear this, heads of the house of Jacob, and officers of the house of Israel, who abhor justice and pervert all equity, who build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity. Their heads they judge for bribes, and their priests teach for hire, and their prophets divine for money; yet they lean upon the Lord, saying: Is not the Lord in our midst? No evil shall befall us” (Micah 3:9–11).

רשעים הן אלא שתלו בטחונם במי שאמר והיה העולם לפיכך מביא הקדוש ברוך הוא עליהן שלש פורעניות כנגד שלש עבירות שבידם שנאמר לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער

The Gemara comments: They are wicked, but they placed their trust in the One Who spoke and the world came into being, the Almighty. Therefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings upon them three calamities corresponding to the three transgressions for which they are responsible, as it is stated in the following verse: “Therefore, because of you, Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the Temple Mount as the high places of a forest” (Micah 3:12).

ואין הקדוש ברוך הוא משרה שכינתו על ישראל עד שיכלו שופטים ושוטרים רעים מישראל שנאמר ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סגיך ואסירה כל בדיליך ואשיבה שופטיך כבראשונה ויועציך כבתחלה וגו׳

And the Holy One, Blessed be He, will not rest His Divine Presence on the Jewish people until evil judges and officers shall be eliminated from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “And I will turn My hand upon you, and I will purge away your dross as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy. And I will restore your judges as at first, and your counselors as at the beginning; afterward you shall be called the city of righteousness, a faithful city” (Isaiah 1:25–26).

אמר עולא אין ירושלים נפדה אלא בצדקה שנאמר ציון במשפט תפדה ושביה בצדקה

Ulla said: Jerusalem will be redeemed only through righteousness, as it is stated: “Zion will be redeemed with justice and those who return to her with righteousness” (Isaiah 1:27).

אמר רב פפא אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי

Rav Pappa said: If the arrogant will cease to exist, the Persian fire priests will cease to exist as well. If the deceitful judges will cease to exist, the royal officers [gazirpatei] and taskmasters will cease to exist.

אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי דכתיב ואצרוף כבור סגיך

He explains: If the arrogant will cease, the Persian fire priests will cease, as it is written: “And I will purge away your dross [sigayikh] as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy [bedilayikh].” This teaches that when the conceited and haughty [sigim] are purged, the priests of fire, who are separated [muvdalim] from the fear of God, will also cease.

אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי דכתיב הסיר ה׳ משפטיך פנה אויבך

He said: If the deceitful judges cease, the royal officers and taskmasters will cease, as it is written: “The Lord has removed your judgment, cast out your enemy” (Zephaniah 3:15).

אמר רבי מלאי משום רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מאי דכתיב שבר ה׳ מטה רשעים שבט מושלים שבר ה׳ מטה רשעים אלו הדיינין שנעשו מקל לחזניהם שבט מושלים אלו תלמידי חכמים שבמשפחות הדיינין מר זוטרא אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שמלמדים הלכות ציבור לדייני בור

Rabbi Mallai said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The Lord has broken the staff of the wicked, the rod of the rulers” (Isaiah 14:5)? He explains: “The Lord has broken the staff of the wicked”; these are the judges who have become staffs for their attendants. The attendants abuse people, and the judges provide the attendants with legal backing and moral support. “The rod of the rulers”; these are the Torah scholars who are members of the families of the judges. These Torah scholars assist their relatives, the judges, conceal their faults. Mar Zutra said: These are the Torah scholars who teach communal halakhot to ignorant judges. They teach ignorant judges just enough Torah and modes of conduct to prevent the people from realizing how ignorant they are, enabling them to maintain their positions.

אמר רבי אליעזר בן מלאי משום ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב כי כפיכם נגאלו בדם ואצבעותיכם בעון שפתותיכם דברו שקר לשונכם עולה תהגה

Rabbi Eliezer ben Mallai said in the name of Reish Lakish: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies, your tongue utters wickedness” (Isaiah 59:3)?

כי כפיכם נגואלו בדם אלו הדיינין ואצבעותיכם בעון אלו סופרי הדיינין שפתותיכם דברו שקר אלו עורכי הדיינין לשונכם עולה תהגה אלו בעלי דינין

He explains: “For your hands are defiled with blood”; these are the judges who take bribes in their hands. “And your fingers with iniquity”; these are the scribes of the judges, who write falsehood with their fingers. “Your lips have spoken lies”; these are the legal advisors. “Your tongue utters wickedness”; these are the litigants themselves.

ואמר רבי מלאי משום רבי יצחק מגדלאה מיום שפירש יוסף מאחיו לא טעם טעם יין דכתיב ולקדקד נזיר אחיו

And Rabbi Mallai said in the name of Rabbi Yitzḥak from Migdal: From the day that Joseph took leave from his brothers, he did not sample a taste of wine, as it is written: “They shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of he who was separated [nezir] from his brothers” (Genesis 49:26). The language of the verse alludes to the fact that Joseph conducted himself like a nazirite and abstained from wine.

רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר אף הן לא טעמו טעם יין דכתיב וישתו וישכרו עמו מכלל דעד האידנא לא (הוה שיכרות) ואידך שיכרות הוא דלא הוה שתיה מיהא הוה

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Joseph’s brothers too did not sample the taste of wine during the intervening period, due to their remorse, as it is written: “And they drank and became drunk with him” (Genesis 43:34). By inference: Until now there was no drunkenness, as they abstained from drinking. And the other Sage, Rabbi Mallai, holds: It was drunkenness of which there was none; however, there was drinking on the part of the brothers during the intervening years.

ואמר רבי מלאי בשכר וראך ושמח בלבו זכה לחשן המשפט על לבו:

And Rabbi Mallai said: It is stated in the verse: “And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and He said: Is there not Aaron your brother the Levite, I know that he can surely speak, and also behold, he is coming out to greet you, and he will see you and be glad in his heart” (Exodus 4:14). Rabbi Mallai taught that as reward for Aaron’s lack of jealousy at seeing his brother Moses rise to greatness, as it is stated: “And he will see you and be glad in his heart,” he merited to become the High Priest, and for the breastplate of judgment to rest on his heart.

שלחו ליה בני בשכר ללוי כילה מהו כשותא בכרמא מהו מת ביום טוב מהו

The Gemara returns to the laws of a canopy. The inhabitants of the town of Bashkar sent to Levi: What is the halakha with regard to spreading a canopy on Shabbat? Additionally, what is the halakha with regard to hops in a vineyard? Do they constitute a prohibited mixture of diverse kinds? Finally, what is the halakha with regard to one who died on a Festival? How can the people attend to his burial?

אדאזיל נח נפשיה דלוי אמר שמואל לרב מנשיא אי חכימת שלח להו שלח להו כילה חזרנו על כל צידי כילה ולא מצינו לה צד היתר

As the messenger was going with the question, Levi died. Shmuel said to Rav Menashya: If you are wise and able to respond, send them answers to their questions. He sent them: With regard to a canopy, we reviewed all aspects of the matter of the canopy, and we did not find any permissible aspect.

ולישלח להו כדרמי בר יחזקאל לפי שאינן בני תורה

The Gemara asks: And let him send them that it can be permitted in accordance with the opinion of Rami bar Yeḥezkel. The Gemara answers: He did not want to reveal that leniency to them, because they are not well versed in Torah, and they would not distinguish between permitted and prohibited methods of spreading the canopy.

כשותא בכרמא עירבובא ולישלח להו כדרבי טרפון דתניא כישות רבי טרפון אומר אין כלאים בכרם וחכמים אומרים כלאים בכרם וקיימא לן כל המיקל בארץ הלכה כמותו בחוץ לארץ לפי שאינן בני תורה

He also told them: Hops in a vineyard are a forbidden mixture of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: And let him send them the message that it is permitted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Tarfon, as it was taught in the Tosefta: With regard to hops, Rabbi Tarfon says: They do not constitute a prohibited mixture of food crops in a vineyard, and the Rabbis say: They constitute a forbidden mixture of food crops in a vineyard. And we maintain that anyone who is lenient with regard to the halakhot of diverse kinds in Eretz Yisrael, even if the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion, the halakha is ruled in accordance with his opinion outside of Eretz Yisrael, where the halakhot of diverse kinds apply only by rabbinic law. The Gemara explains: He did not reveal this leniency to them, because they were not well versed in Torah.

מכריז רב האי מאן דבעי למיזרע כשותא בכרמא ליזרע רב עמרם חסידא מנגיד עילויה

With regard to the matter of hops in a vineyard, the Gemara relates that Rav would announce: One who seeks to sow hops in a vineyard, let him sow. In contrast, Rav Amram Ḥasida would administer lashes for sowing hops in a vineyard.

רב משרשיא יהיב ליה פרוטה לתינוק גוי וזרע ליה וליתן ליה לתינוק ישראל אתי למיסרך וליתן ליה לגדול גוי אתי לאיחלופי בישראל

The Gemara relates that Rav Mesharshiya would give a peruta to a gentile child, and the child would sow hops for him. The Gemara asks: And let him give the peruta to a Jewish child, who is also not obligated in mitzva observance. The Gemara answers: He may come to continue this habit and violate the prohibition as an adult. The Gemara asks: And let him give the peruta to an adult gentile. The Gemara answers: He may come to confuse him with a Jew.

מת שלח להו מת לא יתעסקו ביה לא יהודאין ולא ארמאין לא ביום טוב ראשון ולא ביום טוב שני

With regard to a person who died on a Festival, he sent them in response: If a person died on a Festival, neither Jews nor Arameans, i.e., gentiles, should attend to his burial, neither on the first day of a Festival, nor on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora.

איני והאמר רבי יהודה בר שילת אמר רבי אסי עובדא הוה בבי כנישתא דמעון ביום טוב הסמוך לשבת

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rabbi Yehuda bar Sheilat say that Rabbi Asi said: There was an incident in the synagogue of the settlement of Maon on a Festival adjacent to Shabbat. A person died,

ולא ידענא אי מלפניה אי מלאחריה ואתו לקמיה דרבי יוחנן ואמר להו יתעסקו ביה עממין

and I do not know whether the Festival occurred before Shabbat or after Shabbat. And they came before Rabbi Yoḥanan, and he said to them: Let gentiles attend to his burial.

ואמר רבא מת ביום טוב ראשון יתעסקו בו עממין ביום טוב שני יתעסקו בו ישראל ואפילו ביום טוב שני של ראש השנה מה שאין כן בביצה לפי שאינן בני תורה:

And likewise, Rava said: If a person died on the first day of a Festival, gentiles may attend to his burial; on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora, Jews may attend to his burial. And this is the halakha even on the second day of the festival of Rosh HaShana, which is not so with regard to an egg. With regard to an egg laid on the Festival, the two days of Rosh HaShana are considered one long day that cannot be disconnected. Therefore, in contrast to other two-day Festivals in the Diaspora, use of an egg laid on the first day of Rosh HaShana is prohibited on the second day. However, in deference to the dead, the Sages were lenient with regard to burial on the second day of Rosh HaShana. Why then did Rav Menashya prohibit the inhabitants of Bashkar from attending to the burial on a Festival? The Gemara answers: Because they were not well versed in Torah.

אמר רבי אבין בר רב הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא מתעטף אדם בכילה ובכסכסיה ויוצא לרשות הרבים בשבת ואינו חושש

Rabbi Avin bar Rav Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gureya said: A person may wrap himself in a canopy and in its straps and go out to the public domain on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned about violating the prohibited act of carrying out a burden.

מאי שנא מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב היוצא בטלית שאינה מצוייצת כהילכתה בשבת חייב חטאת ציצית לגבי טלית חשיבי ולא בטלי הני לא חשיבי ובטלי

The Gemara asks: In what way is the halakha with regard to the straps different from that which Rav Huna said? As Rav Huna said that Rav said: One who goes out unwittingly to the public domain on Shabbat with a four-cornered garment that does not have the requisite ritual fringes attached is liable to bring a sin-offering, because the remaining fringes are not an integral part of the garment. Since they do not fulfill the mitzva, they are considered a burden that may not be carried into the public domain on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: There is a distinction between the cases. Ritual fringes are significant relative to a garment and are not negated. They are considered an independent entity that may not be carried out into the public domain. These straps of a canopy are not significant and are negated.

אמר רבה בר רב הונא מערים אדם על המשמרת ביום טוב לתלות בה רמונים ותולה בה שמרים אמר רב אשי והוא דתלה בה רמונים

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: According to the Rabbis, who prohibit suspending a strainer on a Festival, a person may nevertheless employ artifice and circumvent the prohibition against suspending a strainer by taking it on a Festival and suspending it for the purpose of pomegranates in it, which is permitted. Once the strainer is suspended, he may suspend it in order to filter sediment from the wine, as even the Rabbis hold that on a Festival it is permitted to do this straining through a strainer that is already suspended. Rav Ashi said: And this is only permitted provided that he actually suspended pomegranates in it before using it to strain wine. It must be obvious to all that he used the strainer in a permitted manner.

מאי שנא מהא דתניא מטילין שכר במועד לצורך המועד שלא לצורך המועד אסור אחד שכר תמרים ואחד שכר שעורים אף על פי שיש להן ישן מערים ושותה מן החדש

The Gemara asks: In what way is that halakha different from that which was taught in a baraita: One may begin brewing beer during the intermediate days of a Festival for the purpose of using it on the Festival. If it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited. This is the halakha both with regard to date beer and with regard to barley beer. And even though they have old beer, one may employ artifice and say that he wishes to drink from the new, and that he is making beer on the intermediate days of the Festival for that purpose. Apparently, it is permitted to employ artifice even without actively demonstrating that one is performing the action for a permitted purpose. This contradicts the opinion of Rav Ashi.

התם לא מוכחא מילתא הכא מוכחא מילתא

The Gemara answers: There, with regard to beer, the matter is not evident. When people see someone starting to brew beer, they have no way of knowing whether or not he has beer at home, and consequently, whether or not the action itself is prohibited in that case. However, here, with regard to a strainer, the matter is evident, as people see him suspending a strainer for wine, which is prohibited.

אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי חזי מר האי צורבא מרבנן ורב הונא בן רבי חיון שמיה ואמרי לה רב הונא ברבי חלוון שמיה דשקל ברא דתומא ומנח בברזא דדנא ואמר לאצנועיה קמיכוינא ואזיל ונאים במברא ועבר להך גיסא וסייר פירי ואמר אנא למינם קמיכוינא

On the topic of artifice, the Gemara relates that the Rabbis said to Rav Ashi: Master, observe this Torah scholar, and Rav Huna ben Rabbi Ḥayon is his name, and some say that his name is Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Ḥalvan, who took a slice of garlic and placed it in the spout of a barrel, and said: I intend to store it. He thereby stopped the spout on Shabbat. And similarly, he went and slept in a ferry on the river, and the ferryman sailed the ferry across the river, and he thereby crossed to the other side and inspected the fruit of his vineyard. He said: I intend to sleep. In this way, he crosses the river by boat on Shabbat, which is a prohibited activity.

אמר להו הערמה קאמרת הערמה בדרבנן היא וצורבא מרבנן לא אתי למיעבד לכתחילה:

Rav Ashi said to them: Are you speaking of artifice? This is artifice employed to circumvent a rabbinic prohibition, and a Torah scholar will not come to perform the action ab initio without artifice. Therefore, there is no reason to prohibit him from doing so.

מתני׳ נותנין מים על גבי השמרים בשביל שיצולו ומסננין את היין בסודרין ובכפיפה מצרית

MISHNA: One may pour water over sediment that is in a strainer on Shabbat so that it will become clear and clean. And similarly, one may filter wine through cloths and through an Egyptian basket made from palm leaves. Since these liquids are drinkable even without filtering, doing so does not violate the prohibition of selecting.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת של חרדל ועושין אנומלין בשבת רבי יהודה אומר בשבת בכוס ביום טוב בלגין ובמועד בחבית רבי צדוק אומר הכל לפי האורחין:

And likewise, one may place an egg in a mustard strainer in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white, and one may prepare anumlin, a wine-based drink, on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: On Shabbat one may only make anumlin in a small cup; on a Festival, in a larger vessel; and on the intermediate days of a Festival, one may even prepare it in a barrel. Rabbi Tzadok says: There is no objective principle; rather, it is all according to the number of guests; if they are numerous, one may prepare a larger quantity of anumlin.

גמ׳ אמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אבל עכורין לא

GEMARA: Ze’iri said: A person may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned over the prohibition of selecting, as the wine is drinkable even without this filtering. However, doing so with murky liquids, no, one may not strain them.

מיתיבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר טורד אדם חבית של יין יינה ושמריה ונותן לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש תרגמה זעירי בין הגיתות שנו:

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person may stir a barrel of wine, mixing its wine and its sediment, and place it in a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned. Apparently, it is permitted to place even murky wine in a strainer. Ze’iri explained that baraita and resolved the difficulty: That was taught with regard to wine between the presses, when the wine has yet to ferment and will remain murky even after filtering.

מסננין את היין בסודרין: אמר רב שימי בר חייא ובלבד שלא יעשה גומא:

We learned in the mishna: One may filter wine through cloths on Shabbat. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya said: This is permitted provided one does not make a hole in the cloth through which to pour the wine, as one must diverge from the usual, weekday manner of performing this activity.

ובכפיפה מצרית: אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב ובלבד שלא יגביה מקרקעיתו של כלי טפח

We also learned in the mishna: And it is permitted to filter wine on Shabbat through an Egyptian basket. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said the following caveat to that statement: It is permitted provided one does not lift the basket a handbreadth from the bottom of the lower vessel. This ensures that one performs the activity in an atypical manner (Rabbeinu Yona).

אמר רב האי פרונקא אפלגיה דכובא שרי אכוליה כובא אסור

Rav said: It is permitted to place this cover that has holes for filtering over half a barrel, but it is prohibited to spread it over the entire barrel, in order that it not appear as though one is using it as a filter (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

אמר רב פפא לא ניהדק איניש צינייתא בפומיה דכוזני דחביתא משום דמיחזי כמשמרת

Rav Pappa said: A person may not attach a bundle of straw to the mouth of a barrel’s spigot, because it appears like a strainer.

דבי רב פפא שאפו שיכרא ממנא למנא אמר ליה רב אחא מדיפתי לרבינא האיכא ניצוצות ניצוצות לבי רב פפא לא חשיבי:

The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Pappa’s household would carefully pour beer from one vessel to another so that the dregs from one vessel would not pass to the other. Rav Aḥa from Difti said to Ravina: But there are the final drops, which remain when one pours the beer into another vessel. When pouring the final drops from the dregs left in the vessel, one is in violation of the prohibition of selecting. He replied: In Rav Pappa’s house they would leave the final drops in the first vessel together with the dregs. They would not attempt to separate them, as the last drops were not significant to the household of Rav Pappa, because beer was always readily available in his house.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת: תני יעקב קרחה

And we further learned in the mishna: One may place an egg in a mustard strainer on Shabbat in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white. The Sage, Ya’akov Korḥa, taught a reason for this:

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Shabbat 139

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 139

הלכה ברורה ומשנה ברורה במקום אחד:

clear halakha and clear teaching together, but rather there will be disputes among the Sages.

תניא רבי יוסי בן אלישע אומר אם ראית דור שצרות רבות באות עליו צא ובדוק בדייני ישראל שכל פורענות שבאה לעולם לא באה אלא בשביל דייני ישראל שנאמר שמעו נא זאת ראשי בית יעקב וקציני בית ישראל המתעבים משפט ואת כל הישרה יעקשו בונה ציון בדמים וירושלים בעולה ראשיה בשוחד ישפוטו וכהניה במחיר יורו ונביאיה בכסף יקסומו ועל ה׳ ישענו וגו׳

It was taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei ben Elisha says: If you see a generation that many troubles are befalling it, go and examine the judges of Israel. Perhaps their sins are the cause, as any calamity that comes to the world comes due to the judges of Israel acting corruptly, as it is stated: “Please hear this, heads of the house of Jacob, and officers of the house of Israel, who abhor justice and pervert all equity, who build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity. Their heads they judge for bribes, and their priests teach for hire, and their prophets divine for money; yet they lean upon the Lord, saying: Is not the Lord in our midst? No evil shall befall us” (Micah 3:9–11).

רשעים הן אלא שתלו בטחונם במי שאמר והיה העולם לפיכך מביא הקדוש ברוך הוא עליהן שלש פורעניות כנגד שלש עבירות שבידם שנאמר לכן בגללכם ציון שדה תחרש וירושלים עיין תהיה והר הבית לבמות יער

The Gemara comments: They are wicked, but they placed their trust in the One Who spoke and the world came into being, the Almighty. Therefore, the Holy One, Blessed be He, brings upon them three calamities corresponding to the three transgressions for which they are responsible, as it is stated in the following verse: “Therefore, because of you, Zion shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the Temple Mount as the high places of a forest” (Micah 3:12).

ואין הקדוש ברוך הוא משרה שכינתו על ישראל עד שיכלו שופטים ושוטרים רעים מישראל שנאמר ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סגיך ואסירה כל בדיליך ואשיבה שופטיך כבראשונה ויועציך כבתחלה וגו׳

And the Holy One, Blessed be He, will not rest His Divine Presence on the Jewish people until evil judges and officers shall be eliminated from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “And I will turn My hand upon you, and I will purge away your dross as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy. And I will restore your judges as at first, and your counselors as at the beginning; afterward you shall be called the city of righteousness, a faithful city” (Isaiah 1:25–26).

אמר עולא אין ירושלים נפדה אלא בצדקה שנאמר ציון במשפט תפדה ושביה בצדקה

Ulla said: Jerusalem will be redeemed only through righteousness, as it is stated: “Zion will be redeemed with justice and those who return to her with righteousness” (Isaiah 1:27).

אמר רב פפא אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי

Rav Pappa said: If the arrogant will cease to exist, the Persian fire priests will cease to exist as well. If the deceitful judges will cease to exist, the royal officers [gazirpatei] and taskmasters will cease to exist.

אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי דכתיב ואצרוף כבור סגיך

He explains: If the arrogant will cease, the Persian fire priests will cease, as it is written: “And I will purge away your dross [sigayikh] as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy [bedilayikh].” This teaches that when the conceited and haughty [sigim] are purged, the priests of fire, who are separated [muvdalim] from the fear of God, will also cease.

אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי דכתיב הסיר ה׳ משפטיך פנה אויבך

He said: If the deceitful judges cease, the royal officers and taskmasters will cease, as it is written: “The Lord has removed your judgment, cast out your enemy” (Zephaniah 3:15).

אמר רבי מלאי משום רבי אלעזר ברבי שמעון מאי דכתיב שבר ה׳ מטה רשעים שבט מושלים שבר ה׳ מטה רשעים אלו הדיינין שנעשו מקל לחזניהם שבט מושלים אלו תלמידי חכמים שבמשפחות הדיינין מר זוטרא אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שמלמדים הלכות ציבור לדייני בור

Rabbi Mallai said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: What is the meaning of that which is written: “The Lord has broken the staff of the wicked, the rod of the rulers” (Isaiah 14:5)? He explains: “The Lord has broken the staff of the wicked”; these are the judges who have become staffs for their attendants. The attendants abuse people, and the judges provide the attendants with legal backing and moral support. “The rod of the rulers”; these are the Torah scholars who are members of the families of the judges. These Torah scholars assist their relatives, the judges, conceal their faults. Mar Zutra said: These are the Torah scholars who teach communal halakhot to ignorant judges. They teach ignorant judges just enough Torah and modes of conduct to prevent the people from realizing how ignorant they are, enabling them to maintain their positions.

אמר רבי אליעזר בן מלאי משום ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב כי כפיכם נגאלו בדם ואצבעותיכם בעון שפתותיכם דברו שקר לשונכם עולה תהגה

Rabbi Eliezer ben Mallai said in the name of Reish Lakish: What is the meaning of that which is written: “For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies, your tongue utters wickedness” (Isaiah 59:3)?

כי כפיכם נגואלו בדם אלו הדיינין ואצבעותיכם בעון אלו סופרי הדיינין שפתותיכם דברו שקר אלו עורכי הדיינין לשונכם עולה תהגה אלו בעלי דינין

He explains: “For your hands are defiled with blood”; these are the judges who take bribes in their hands. “And your fingers with iniquity”; these are the scribes of the judges, who write falsehood with their fingers. “Your lips have spoken lies”; these are the legal advisors. “Your tongue utters wickedness”; these are the litigants themselves.

ואמר רבי מלאי משום רבי יצחק מגדלאה מיום שפירש יוסף מאחיו לא טעם טעם יין דכתיב ולקדקד נזיר אחיו

And Rabbi Mallai said in the name of Rabbi Yitzḥak from Migdal: From the day that Joseph took leave from his brothers, he did not sample a taste of wine, as it is written: “They shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of he who was separated [nezir] from his brothers” (Genesis 49:26). The language of the verse alludes to the fact that Joseph conducted himself like a nazirite and abstained from wine.

רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר אף הן לא טעמו טעם יין דכתיב וישתו וישכרו עמו מכלל דעד האידנא לא (הוה שיכרות) ואידך שיכרות הוא דלא הוה שתיה מיהא הוה

Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Joseph’s brothers too did not sample the taste of wine during the intervening period, due to their remorse, as it is written: “And they drank and became drunk with him” (Genesis 43:34). By inference: Until now there was no drunkenness, as they abstained from drinking. And the other Sage, Rabbi Mallai, holds: It was drunkenness of which there was none; however, there was drinking on the part of the brothers during the intervening years.

ואמר רבי מלאי בשכר וראך ושמח בלבו זכה לחשן המשפט על לבו:

And Rabbi Mallai said: It is stated in the verse: “And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and He said: Is there not Aaron your brother the Levite, I know that he can surely speak, and also behold, he is coming out to greet you, and he will see you and be glad in his heart” (Exodus 4:14). Rabbi Mallai taught that as reward for Aaron’s lack of jealousy at seeing his brother Moses rise to greatness, as it is stated: “And he will see you and be glad in his heart,” he merited to become the High Priest, and for the breastplate of judgment to rest on his heart.

שלחו ליה בני בשכר ללוי כילה מהו כשותא בכרמא מהו מת ביום טוב מהו

The Gemara returns to the laws of a canopy. The inhabitants of the town of Bashkar sent to Levi: What is the halakha with regard to spreading a canopy on Shabbat? Additionally, what is the halakha with regard to hops in a vineyard? Do they constitute a prohibited mixture of diverse kinds? Finally, what is the halakha with regard to one who died on a Festival? How can the people attend to his burial?

אדאזיל נח נפשיה דלוי אמר שמואל לרב מנשיא אי חכימת שלח להו שלח להו כילה חזרנו על כל צידי כילה ולא מצינו לה צד היתר

As the messenger was going with the question, Levi died. Shmuel said to Rav Menashya: If you are wise and able to respond, send them answers to their questions. He sent them: With regard to a canopy, we reviewed all aspects of the matter of the canopy, and we did not find any permissible aspect.

ולישלח להו כדרמי בר יחזקאל לפי שאינן בני תורה

The Gemara asks: And let him send them that it can be permitted in accordance with the opinion of Rami bar Yeḥezkel. The Gemara answers: He did not want to reveal that leniency to them, because they are not well versed in Torah, and they would not distinguish between permitted and prohibited methods of spreading the canopy.

כשותא בכרמא עירבובא ולישלח להו כדרבי טרפון דתניא כישות רבי טרפון אומר אין כלאים בכרם וחכמים אומרים כלאים בכרם וקיימא לן כל המיקל בארץ הלכה כמותו בחוץ לארץ לפי שאינן בני תורה

He also told them: Hops in a vineyard are a forbidden mixture of diverse kinds. The Gemara asks: And let him send them the message that it is permitted in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Tarfon, as it was taught in the Tosefta: With regard to hops, Rabbi Tarfon says: They do not constitute a prohibited mixture of food crops in a vineyard, and the Rabbis say: They constitute a forbidden mixture of food crops in a vineyard. And we maintain that anyone who is lenient with regard to the halakhot of diverse kinds in Eretz Yisrael, even if the halakha is not ruled in accordance with his opinion, the halakha is ruled in accordance with his opinion outside of Eretz Yisrael, where the halakhot of diverse kinds apply only by rabbinic law. The Gemara explains: He did not reveal this leniency to them, because they were not well versed in Torah.

מכריז רב האי מאן דבעי למיזרע כשותא בכרמא ליזרע רב עמרם חסידא מנגיד עילויה

With regard to the matter of hops in a vineyard, the Gemara relates that Rav would announce: One who seeks to sow hops in a vineyard, let him sow. In contrast, Rav Amram Ḥasida would administer lashes for sowing hops in a vineyard.

רב משרשיא יהיב ליה פרוטה לתינוק גוי וזרע ליה וליתן ליה לתינוק ישראל אתי למיסרך וליתן ליה לגדול גוי אתי לאיחלופי בישראל

The Gemara relates that Rav Mesharshiya would give a peruta to a gentile child, and the child would sow hops for him. The Gemara asks: And let him give the peruta to a Jewish child, who is also not obligated in mitzva observance. The Gemara answers: He may come to continue this habit and violate the prohibition as an adult. The Gemara asks: And let him give the peruta to an adult gentile. The Gemara answers: He may come to confuse him with a Jew.

מת שלח להו מת לא יתעסקו ביה לא יהודאין ולא ארמאין לא ביום טוב ראשון ולא ביום טוב שני

With regard to a person who died on a Festival, he sent them in response: If a person died on a Festival, neither Jews nor Arameans, i.e., gentiles, should attend to his burial, neither on the first day of a Festival, nor on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora.

איני והאמר רבי יהודה בר שילת אמר רבי אסי עובדא הוה בבי כנישתא דמעון ביום טוב הסמוך לשבת

The Gemara asks: Is that so? Didn’t Rabbi Yehuda bar Sheilat say that Rabbi Asi said: There was an incident in the synagogue of the settlement of Maon on a Festival adjacent to Shabbat. A person died,

ולא ידענא אי מלפניה אי מלאחריה ואתו לקמיה דרבי יוחנן ואמר להו יתעסקו ביה עממין

and I do not know whether the Festival occurred before Shabbat or after Shabbat. And they came before Rabbi Yoḥanan, and he said to them: Let gentiles attend to his burial.

ואמר רבא מת ביום טוב ראשון יתעסקו בו עממין ביום טוב שני יתעסקו בו ישראל ואפילו ביום טוב שני של ראש השנה מה שאין כן בביצה לפי שאינן בני תורה:

And likewise, Rava said: If a person died on the first day of a Festival, gentiles may attend to his burial; on the second day of a Festival observed in the Diaspora, Jews may attend to his burial. And this is the halakha even on the second day of the festival of Rosh HaShana, which is not so with regard to an egg. With regard to an egg laid on the Festival, the two days of Rosh HaShana are considered one long day that cannot be disconnected. Therefore, in contrast to other two-day Festivals in the Diaspora, use of an egg laid on the first day of Rosh HaShana is prohibited on the second day. However, in deference to the dead, the Sages were lenient with regard to burial on the second day of Rosh HaShana. Why then did Rav Menashya prohibit the inhabitants of Bashkar from attending to the burial on a Festival? The Gemara answers: Because they were not well versed in Torah.

אמר רבי אבין בר רב הונא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא מתעטף אדם בכילה ובכסכסיה ויוצא לרשות הרבים בשבת ואינו חושש

Rabbi Avin bar Rav Huna said that Rav Ḥama bar Gureya said: A person may wrap himself in a canopy and in its straps and go out to the public domain on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned about violating the prohibited act of carrying out a burden.

מאי שנא מדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב היוצא בטלית שאינה מצוייצת כהילכתה בשבת חייב חטאת ציצית לגבי טלית חשיבי ולא בטלי הני לא חשיבי ובטלי

The Gemara asks: In what way is the halakha with regard to the straps different from that which Rav Huna said? As Rav Huna said that Rav said: One who goes out unwittingly to the public domain on Shabbat with a four-cornered garment that does not have the requisite ritual fringes attached is liable to bring a sin-offering, because the remaining fringes are not an integral part of the garment. Since they do not fulfill the mitzva, they are considered a burden that may not be carried into the public domain on Shabbat. The Gemara answers: There is a distinction between the cases. Ritual fringes are significant relative to a garment and are not negated. They are considered an independent entity that may not be carried out into the public domain. These straps of a canopy are not significant and are negated.

אמר רבה בר רב הונא מערים אדם על המשמרת ביום טוב לתלות בה רמונים ותולה בה שמרים אמר רב אשי והוא דתלה בה רמונים

Rabba bar Rav Huna said: According to the Rabbis, who prohibit suspending a strainer on a Festival, a person may nevertheless employ artifice and circumvent the prohibition against suspending a strainer by taking it on a Festival and suspending it for the purpose of pomegranates in it, which is permitted. Once the strainer is suspended, he may suspend it in order to filter sediment from the wine, as even the Rabbis hold that on a Festival it is permitted to do this straining through a strainer that is already suspended. Rav Ashi said: And this is only permitted provided that he actually suspended pomegranates in it before using it to strain wine. It must be obvious to all that he used the strainer in a permitted manner.

מאי שנא מהא דתניא מטילין שכר במועד לצורך המועד שלא לצורך המועד אסור אחד שכר תמרים ואחד שכר שעורים אף על פי שיש להן ישן מערים ושותה מן החדש

The Gemara asks: In what way is that halakha different from that which was taught in a baraita: One may begin brewing beer during the intermediate days of a Festival for the purpose of using it on the Festival. If it is not for the purpose of the Festival, it is prohibited. This is the halakha both with regard to date beer and with regard to barley beer. And even though they have old beer, one may employ artifice and say that he wishes to drink from the new, and that he is making beer on the intermediate days of the Festival for that purpose. Apparently, it is permitted to employ artifice even without actively demonstrating that one is performing the action for a permitted purpose. This contradicts the opinion of Rav Ashi.

התם לא מוכחא מילתא הכא מוכחא מילתא

The Gemara answers: There, with regard to beer, the matter is not evident. When people see someone starting to brew beer, they have no way of knowing whether or not he has beer at home, and consequently, whether or not the action itself is prohibited in that case. However, here, with regard to a strainer, the matter is evident, as people see him suspending a strainer for wine, which is prohibited.

אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי חזי מר האי צורבא מרבנן ורב הונא בן רבי חיון שמיה ואמרי לה רב הונא ברבי חלוון שמיה דשקל ברא דתומא ומנח בברזא דדנא ואמר לאצנועיה קמיכוינא ואזיל ונאים במברא ועבר להך גיסא וסייר פירי ואמר אנא למינם קמיכוינא

On the topic of artifice, the Gemara relates that the Rabbis said to Rav Ashi: Master, observe this Torah scholar, and Rav Huna ben Rabbi Ḥayon is his name, and some say that his name is Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Ḥalvan, who took a slice of garlic and placed it in the spout of a barrel, and said: I intend to store it. He thereby stopped the spout on Shabbat. And similarly, he went and slept in a ferry on the river, and the ferryman sailed the ferry across the river, and he thereby crossed to the other side and inspected the fruit of his vineyard. He said: I intend to sleep. In this way, he crosses the river by boat on Shabbat, which is a prohibited activity.

אמר להו הערמה קאמרת הערמה בדרבנן היא וצורבא מרבנן לא אתי למיעבד לכתחילה:

Rav Ashi said to them: Are you speaking of artifice? This is artifice employed to circumvent a rabbinic prohibition, and a Torah scholar will not come to perform the action ab initio without artifice. Therefore, there is no reason to prohibit him from doing so.

מתני׳ נותנין מים על גבי השמרים בשביל שיצולו ומסננין את היין בסודרין ובכפיפה מצרית

MISHNA: One may pour water over sediment that is in a strainer on Shabbat so that it will become clear and clean. And similarly, one may filter wine through cloths and through an Egyptian basket made from palm leaves. Since these liquids are drinkable even without filtering, doing so does not violate the prohibition of selecting.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת של חרדל ועושין אנומלין בשבת רבי יהודה אומר בשבת בכוס ביום טוב בלגין ובמועד בחבית רבי צדוק אומר הכל לפי האורחין:

And likewise, one may place an egg in a mustard strainer in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white, and one may prepare anumlin, a wine-based drink, on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda says: On Shabbat one may only make anumlin in a small cup; on a Festival, in a larger vessel; and on the intermediate days of a Festival, one may even prepare it in a barrel. Rabbi Tzadok says: There is no objective principle; rather, it is all according to the number of guests; if they are numerous, one may prepare a larger quantity of anumlin.

גמ׳ אמר זעירי נותן אדם יין צלול ומים צלולין לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש אבל עכורין לא

GEMARA: Ze’iri said: A person may place clear wine and clear water into a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned over the prohibition of selecting, as the wine is drinkable even without this filtering. However, doing so with murky liquids, no, one may not strain them.

מיתיבי רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר טורד אדם חבית של יין יינה ושמריה ונותן לתוך המשמרת בשבת ואינו חושש תרגמה זעירי בין הגיתות שנו:

The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: A person may stir a barrel of wine, mixing its wine and its sediment, and place it in a strainer on Shabbat, and he need not be concerned. Apparently, it is permitted to place even murky wine in a strainer. Ze’iri explained that baraita and resolved the difficulty: That was taught with regard to wine between the presses, when the wine has yet to ferment and will remain murky even after filtering.

מסננין את היין בסודרין: אמר רב שימי בר חייא ובלבד שלא יעשה גומא:

We learned in the mishna: One may filter wine through cloths on Shabbat. Rav Shimi bar Ḥiyya said: This is permitted provided one does not make a hole in the cloth through which to pour the wine, as one must diverge from the usual, weekday manner of performing this activity.

ובכפיפה מצרית: אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב ובלבד שלא יגביה מקרקעיתו של כלי טפח

We also learned in the mishna: And it is permitted to filter wine on Shabbat through an Egyptian basket. Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said the following caveat to that statement: It is permitted provided one does not lift the basket a handbreadth from the bottom of the lower vessel. This ensures that one performs the activity in an atypical manner (Rabbeinu Yona).

אמר רב האי פרונקא אפלגיה דכובא שרי אכוליה כובא אסור

Rav said: It is permitted to place this cover that has holes for filtering over half a barrel, but it is prohibited to spread it over the entire barrel, in order that it not appear as though one is using it as a filter (Rabbeinu Ḥananel).

אמר רב פפא לא ניהדק איניש צינייתא בפומיה דכוזני דחביתא משום דמיחזי כמשמרת

Rav Pappa said: A person may not attach a bundle of straw to the mouth of a barrel’s spigot, because it appears like a strainer.

דבי רב פפא שאפו שיכרא ממנא למנא אמר ליה רב אחא מדיפתי לרבינא האיכא ניצוצות ניצוצות לבי רב פפא לא חשיבי:

The Gemara relates: The members of Rav Pappa’s household would carefully pour beer from one vessel to another so that the dregs from one vessel would not pass to the other. Rav Aḥa from Difti said to Ravina: But there are the final drops, which remain when one pours the beer into another vessel. When pouring the final drops from the dregs left in the vessel, one is in violation of the prohibition of selecting. He replied: In Rav Pappa’s house they would leave the final drops in the first vessel together with the dregs. They would not attempt to separate them, as the last drops were not significant to the household of Rav Pappa, because beer was always readily available in his house.

ונותנין ביצה במסננת: תני יעקב קרחה

And we further learned in the mishna: One may place an egg in a mustard strainer on Shabbat in order to separate the yolk from the egg-white. The Sage, Ya’akov Korḥa, taught a reason for this:

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