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Today's Daf Yomi

July 24, 2020 | ג׳ באב תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 140

Can one put eggs in a mustard strainer on Shabbat – why? If the mustard (oil or wine made from mustard) was kneaded in its own liquids before Shabbat, can one add liquid and mix it on Shabbat or is it a problem of kneading? Is there a difference if it is done with a utensil or by hand? Other drinks that people prepare in a way that involves kneading or may be used for medicinal purposes are discussed – can they be prepare don Shabbat or not? If one needs to take medicine for a number of days in a row, can one prepare the medicine on Shabbat? Can one rub a garment after laundering which was meant both to soften and to whiten – which is the main reason it is done? If for whitening, it would be forbidden. Rav Hisda has a long list of advice including financial, food-related, marital advice to his daughters, etc. Can one sweep the feeding trough of an animal on Shabbat? On what does it depend? Can one move food from one animal to another? It depends from which animal to which – how?

לפי שאין עושין אותה אלא לגוון

Because it is only made to enhance the color of the food. That does not negate the egg-white as significant food in the sense that it would be considered waste, and therefore, no actual selection is performed.

איתמר חרדל שלשו מערב שבת למחר אמר רב ממחו בכלי אבל לא ביד

It is stated: With regard to mustard that one kneaded on Shabbat eve, on the following day, Shabbat, Rav said: One may dissolve it in wine or water with a vessel, but not with his hand, as using a vessel diverges from the normal method of preparation.

אמר ליה שמואל ביד אטו כל יומא ממחו ליה ביד מאכל חמורים הוא אלא אמר שמואל ממחו ביד ואינו ממחו בכלי

Shmuel said to him: Why may he not dissolve it with his hand? Is that to say that he dissolves it with his hand every day? If it is prepared in that manner, it is donkey food. Certainly dissolving by hand is not the manner in which mustard is prepared during the week. Therefore, dissolving mustard with a vessel should not be permitted on Shabbat. Rather, Shmuel said the opposite: He may dissolve it with his hand as a divergence from the typical method of preparation, but he may not dissolve it in the usual manner, with a vessel.

אתמר רבי אלעזר אמר אחד זה ואחד זה אסור ורבי יוחנן אמר אחד זה ואחד זה מותר אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אין הלכה כרבי יוחנן

It is stated that amora’im from Eretz Yisrael also disputed this issue, as Rabbi Elazar said: Both this and that, dissolving by hand and with a vessel, are prohibited; while Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Both this and that are permitted. Abaye and Rava both said: The halakha is not in accordance with the lenient opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

קם רבי יוחנן בשיטתיה דרבי אלעזר קם רבי אלעזר בשיטתיה דשמואל אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו הלכה כרבי יוחנן

Subsequently, Rabbi Yoḥanan stood and adopted the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and prohibited both methods of dissolving. Rabbi Elazar stood and adopted the opinion of Shmuel, who prohibited using a vessel but permitted it by hand. Given these stances, Abaye and Rava both said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan, who prohibited both methods.

אימיה דאביי עבדא ליה ולא אכל דביתהו דזעירא עבדא ליה לרב חייא בר אשי ולא אכיל אמר ליה לרבך עבידי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת אמר רבא בר שבא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבינא ובחשי ליה בשופתא דתומא ואכל

The Gemara relates: Abaye’s mother, actually his foster mother, prepared mustard for him, and he did not eat it. Ze’eira’s wife prepared mustard for Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, her husband’s student, and he did not eat it. She said to him: I made this for your rabbi and he ate it, and you do not eat it? Rava bar Shabba said: I was standing before Ravina, and they stirred mustard for him with the inner part of the garlic, and he ate it.

אמר מר זוטרא לית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאתמר חרדל שלשו מערב שבת למחר ממחו בין ביד בין בכלי ונותן לתוכו דבש ולא יטרוף אלא מערב

Mar Zutra said: The halakha is not in accordance with any of these statements. Rather, it is in accordance with this one, as it was stated: Mustard that one kneaded on Shabbat eve, on the following day he may dissolve it either by hand or with a vessel, and he may place honey in it. And when he dissolves it he may not beat it forcefully as would a craftsman, but he may mix it gently.

שחליים ששחקן מערב שבת למחר נותן לתוכן שמן וחומץ וממשיך לתוכן אמיתא ולא יטרוף אלא מערב שום שריסקו מערב שבת למחר נותן לתוכו פול וגריסין ולא ישחוק אלא מערב וממשיך את אמיתא לתוכן מאי אמיתא נינייא אמר אביי שמע מינה האי נינייא מעליא לתחלי:

Cress that one ground on Shabbat eve, on the following day he may place oil and vinegar in it, and add amita into the mixture, and he may not beat it, but he may mix it. Similarly, garlic that one crushed on Shabbat eve, on the following day, he may place beans and grits in it, and he may not pound, but mix, and he may add amita into the mixture. The Gemara asks: What is amita? The Gemara answers: It is mint. Abaye said: Learn from this that adding mint is beneficial for cress.

ועושין אנומלין בשבת: תנו רבנן עושין אנומלין בשבת ואין עושין אלונטית ואיזו היא אנומלין ואיזו היא אלונטית אנומלין יין ודבש ופלפלין אלונטית יין ישן ומים צלולין ואפרסמון דעבדי לבי מסותא למיקר

We also learned in the mishna: One may prepare anumlin on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may prepare anumlin on Shabbat. However, one may not prepare aluntit. The baraita explains: And what is anumlin and what is aluntit? Anumlin is a drink, which is a mixture of wine, honey, and pepper. Aluntit is a mixture of aged wine and clear water and balsam, which they prepare for use after bathing in a bathhouse to cool down from the heat of the bathhouse. It is prohibited to prepare it on Shabbat because it is a form of remedy.

אמר רב יוסף זימנא חדא עלית בתר מר עוקבא לבי באני כי נפקי אתאי אשקיין חמרא חד כסא וחשי מבינתא דראשי ועד טופרא דכרעי ואי אשקיין כסא אחרינא הואי מסתפינא דלמא מנכו לי מזכותא דעלמא דאתי והא מר עוקבא דשתי כל יומא שאני מר עוקבא דדש ביה:

Rav Yosef said: On one occasion, I followed Mar Ukva into a bathhouse. When I exited, he came and gave me one cup of this wine to drink, and I felt its chill from the hairs on my head down to the toenails on my feet. And if he had given me another cup to drink, and if I would have survived it, I would have feared a reduction of my merit in the World-to-Come. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Mar Ukva drink this wine every day? How was he not harmed? The Gemara answers: Mar Ukva was different, as he grew accustomed to it.

מתני׳ אין שורין את החילתית בפושרין אבל נותן לתוך החומץ ואין שולין את הכרשינין ולא שפין אותן אבל נותן לתוך הכברה או לתוך הכלכלה

MISHNA: One may not soak asafoetida in lukewarm water to prepare a medicinal drink from it; however, one may place it into vinegar like a standard spice. And one may not soak vetches in water in order to separate them from their chaff, nor rub them by hand so as to remove their chaff. However, one may place them into a sieve or into a basket, and if the chaff gets removed, so be it.

אין כוברין את התבן בכברה ולא יתננו על גבי מקום גבוה בשביל שירד המוץ אבל נוטל הוא בכברה ונותן לתוך האיבוס:

One may not sift straw in a sieve, and similarly, one may not place it on a high place so that that the chaff blows away in the wind; however, one may take the straw in a sieve and place it into the trough of an animal, and one need not be concerned if the chaff is removed in the process.

גמ׳ איבעיא להו שרה מאי תרגמא רב אדא נרשאה קמיה דרב יוסף שרה חייב חטאת

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one unwittingly soaked asafoetida on Shabbat, what is the halakha? Rav Adda from the city of Naresh interpreted it before Rav Yosef: If one soaked it, he is liable to bring a sin-offering.

אמר ליה אביי אלא מעתה שרה אומצא במיא הכי נמי דמיחייב אלא אמר אביי מדרבנן שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול

Abaye said to him: But if that is so, if one soaked a piece of meat in water, would you also say that he is liable? No cooking was performed at all. Rather, Abaye said: It is prohibited by rabbinic decree, so that one will not conduct himself on Shabbat in the manner in which he conducts himself during the week.

בעא מיניה רבי יוחנן מרבי ינאי מהו לשרות את החלתית בצונן אמר ליה אסור והא אנן תנן אין שורין את החלתית בפושרין הא בצונן מותר

Rabbi Yoḥanan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yannai: What is the halakha with regard to soaking asafoetida in cold water on Shabbat? Rabbi Yannai said to him: It is prohibited. Rabbi Yoḥanan asked: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: One may not soak asafoetida in lukewarm water, indicating that it is permitted to soak it in cold water?

אמר ליה אם כן מה בין לי ולך מתניתין יחידאה היא דתניא אין שורין את החלתית לא בחמין ולא בצונן רבי יוסי אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר

Rabbi Yannai said to him: If so, that is the difference between my knowledge and yours, as I am able to analyze the halakha more profoundly. In this case, the mishna is not a reliable source, as the mishna expresses an individual opinion. As it was taught in the Tosefta: One may neither soak asafoetida in hot water nor in cold water. Rabbi Yosei says: In hot water it is prohibited; in cold water it is permitted. The mishna that does not prohibit cold water is in accordance with the individual opinion of Rabbi Yosei, but the halakha is not ruled based on that opinion.

למאי עבדי ליה ליוקרא דליבא רב אחא בר יוסף חש ביוקרא דליבא אתא לקמיה דמר עוקבא אמר ליה זיל שתי תלתא תיקלי חילתתא בתלתא יומי אזל אישתי חמשא בשבת ומעלי שבת לצפרא אזל שאל בי מדרשא אמרו ליה תנא דבי רב אדא ואמרי לה תנא דבי מר בר רב אדא שותה אדם קב או קביים ואינו חושש

The Gemara asks: For what purpose is soaked asafoetida prepared? The Gemara answers: As a cure for heaviness of the heart. One who feels a pain in his heart drinks asafoetida. The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥa bar Yosef felt heaviness in his heart. He came before Mar Ukva to ask his advice. Mar Ukva said to him: Go drink the weight of three shekels of asafoetida in three days. He went and drank on Thursday and Shabbat eve. In the morning, he went and asked in the study hall if he could drink it on Shabbat. They said to him: The Sage from the school of Rav Adda taught, and others say, that the Sage from the school of Mar bar Rav Adda taught: A person may drink asafoetida on Shabbat, even a kav or two kav, and he need not be concerned about the decree prohibiting medicine, because asafoetida is drunk by healthy people as well.

אמר להו לשתות לא קמיבעיא לי כי קא מיבעיא לי לשרות מאי אמר להו רב חייא בר אבין בדידי הוה עובדא ואתאי שאילתיה לרב אדא בר אהבה ולא הוה בידיה אתאי שאילתיה לרב הונא ואמר הכי קאמר רב שורה בצונן ומניח בחמה

Rav Aḥa bar Yosef said to them: With regard to drinking, I have no dilemma. When I raised a dilemma, it is with regard to soaking asafoetida; what is the halakha? Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said to them: There was an incident that happened with me, and I came and asked that question to Rav Adda bar Ahava, and he did not have an answer for it. I came and asked Rav Huna, and he said that this is what Rav is saying: One may soak asafoetida in cold water and place it in the sun to warm it so it will be fit to drink.

כמאן דשרי אפילו למאן דאסר הני מילי היכא דלא אישתי כלל אבל הכא כיון דאישתי חמשא ומעלי שבתא אי לא שתי בשבת מיסתכן

The Gemara asks: Was Rav’s ruling according to the opinion of the one who permitted soaking asafoetida in cold water? The Gemara answers: His ruling could be even according to the opinion of the one who prohibited doing so; this prohibition applies only when he had not drunk asafoetida at all; however, here, since he drank it on Thursday and on Shabbat eve, if he does not drink on Shabbat he would thereby be endangered. Therefore, he is permitted even to soak the asafoetida.

מיסתמיך ואזיל רב אחא בר יוסף אכתפיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק בר אחתיה אמר ליה כי מטינן לבי רב ספרא עיילינא כי מטו עייליה בעא מיניה מהו לכסכוסי כיתניתא בשבתא לרכוכי כיתניתא קא מיכוין ושפיר דמי או דילמא לאולודי חיורא קמיכוין ואסיר אמר ליה לרכוכי קא מיכוין ושפיר דמי

The Gemara relates another incident involving Rav Aḥa bar Yosef: Rav Aḥa bar Yosef was walking and leaning on the shoulder of Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, his sister’s son. Rav Aḥa said to him: When we arrive at Rav Safra’s house, bring me in. When they arrived, Rav Naḥman brought him in. Rav Aḥa then raised a dilemma before Rav Safra: What is the halakha pertaining to rubbing and thereby softening a linen shirt that is hard after being laundered on Shabbat? Does one intend to soften the shirt, and one may well do so? Or perhaps he intends to generate whiteness in the shirt, and it is prohibited? Rav Safra said to him: He intends to soften, and one may well do so.

כי נפק אתא אמר ליה מאי בעא מר מיניה אמר ליה בעי מיניה מהו לכסכוסי כיתניתא בשבתא ואמר לי שפיר דמי

When Rav Aḥa emerged and came from Rav Safra’s house, Rav Naḥman said to him: What dilemma did the Master raise before Rav Safra? Rav Aḥa said to him: I raised the following dilemma before him: What is the halakha pertaining to rubbing and thereby softening a linen shirt on Shabbat, and he said to me: One may well do so.

ותבעי ליה למר סודרא סודרא לא קא מיבעיא לי דבעי מרב הונא ופשיט לי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak asked: And let the Master raise the same dilemma with regard to rubbing a scarf. He replied: I did not raise the dilemma with regard to a scarf, as I raised it before Rav Huna. And he resolved it for me and said that it is permitted (Rif).

ותיפשיט ליה למר מסודרא אמר ליה התם מיחזי כי אולודי חיורא הכא לא מיחזי כאולודי חיורא

Rav Naḥman asked him: And let the Master resolve the dilemma with regard to a shirt from Rav Huna’s ruling with regard to a scarf. Rav Aḥa said to him: There is a difference between the cases: There, in the case of a shirt, it appears that one is generating whiteness, whereas here, in the case of a scarf, it does not appear that one is generating whiteness, as people are not so particular with the whiteness of a scarf, and one’s intention is undoubtedly to soften it.

אמר רב חסדא האי כיתניתא

Rav Ḥisda said: With regard to this linen shirt,

משלפו לדידה מקניא שרי קניא ממנה אסור אמר רבא ואם כלי קיואי הוא מותר

to remove it from the reed upon which it is hanging is permitted; however, to remove the reed from it is prohibited. Since the reed is not a vessel, it is set-aside. Rava said: And if it is hung on a weaver’s vessel, it is permitted to remove the vessel as well. Although its primary function is for a prohibited labor, since it is a vessel, it may be moved.

אמר רב חסדא האי כישתא דירקא אי חזיא למאכל בהמה שרי לטלטולי ואי לא אסיר

Rav Ḥisda said: This bundle of vegetables, if it is suitable for animal food, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat, but if not, it is prohibited to move it.

אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב האי תליא דבשרא שרי לטלטולי דכוורי אסיר

Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said as follows: In the case of this hook, if it is used for hanging meat, it is permitted to move it, as it is also suitable for other uses. However, if it is a hook for hanging fish, it is prohibited to move it, because it smells bad (Rabbeinu Ḥananel) and is used exclusively for fish.

אמר רב קטינא העומד באמצע המטה כאילו עומד בכריסה של אשה ולאו מילתא היא

Rav Ketina said: One who stands on a board in the middle of a bed, it is as though he were standing on the stomach of a woman. Just as he would certainly injure the woman, he will certainly break the bed (ge’onim). The Gemara comments: And it is not a correct matter, and it is not accepted as halakha.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין ירקא ליזבין אריכא כישא כי כישא ואורכא ממילא

On the topic of the bundle of vegetables, the Gemara cites additional advice on similar issues that Rav Ḥisda said to poor scholars experiencing difficulty earning a livelihood: A student of a Torah academy who buys vegetables should buy long ones. A bundle is a bundle, and they have a standard thickness at a standard price. However, the addition of length comes on its own for free.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין קניא ליזבין אריכא טונא כי טונא ואורכא ממילא

And Rav Ḥisda also said: A student of a Torah academy who buys reeds should buy long ones, since a bundle is a bundle. Bundles of reeds have a standard thickness, but the length comes on its own for free.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב [דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא] לא ליכול ירקא משום דגריר ואמר רב חסדא אנא לא בעניותי אכלי ירקא ולא בעתירותי אכלי ירקא בעניותי משום דגריר בעתירותי דאמינא היכא דעייל ירקא ליעול בשרא וכוורי

And Rav Ḥisda further said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not eat a vegetable, because it whets the appetite. And Rav Ḥisda said: I neither ate a vegetable in my state of poverty, nor did I eat a vegetable in my state of wealth. In my poverty, I did not eat a vegetable because it whets the appetite. In my wealth, I did not eat a vegetable because I said: Where a vegetable enters, let meat and fish enter instead.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא לא ליבצע בצועי ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא לא ליבצע מאי טעמא דלא עביד בעין יפה ואמר רב חסדא אנא מעיקרא לא הואי בצענא עד דשדאי ידי בכולי מנא ואשכחי [ביה כל צרכי]

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not cut it into thin slices; rather, he should eat what he has in one helping. And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not break it for guests. What is the reason? As he will not do so in a generous manner. And Rav Ḥisda said: Originally, I would not break bread until I placed my hand in the entire dish to assure that I found that there was enough bread to meet my needs.

ואמר רב חסדא האי מאן דאפשר ליה למיכל נהמא דשערי ואכל דחיטי קעבר משום בל תשחית ואמר רב פפא האי מאן דאפשר למישתי שיכרא ושתי חמרא עובר משום בל תשחית ולאו מילתא היא בל תשחית דגופא עדיף

And Rav Ḥisda also said: One who is able to eat barley bread and nevertheless eats wheat bread violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. One who wastes resources is comparable to one who destroys items of value. And Rav Pappa said: One who is able to drink beer and nevertheless drinks wine violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. The Gemara comments: And this is not a correct matter, as the prohibition against destruction of one’s body takes precedence. It is preferable for one to care for his body by eating higher quality food than to conserve his money.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלית ליה משחא נימשי במיא דחריצי

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who has no oil should wash, i.e., smear himself, with ditch water, as the scum that accumulates in it is as useful as oil.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין אומצא ליזבין אונקא דאית ביה תלתא מיני בישרא

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys meat should buy from the neck [unka], as there are three types of meat there.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין כיתוניתא ליזבן מדנהר אבא וניחוורה כל תלתין יומין דמפטיא ליה תריסר ירחי שתא ואנא ערבא מאי כיתוניתא כיתא נאה

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys a linen shirt [kitonita] should buy it from those who work by the river Abba, and should wash it every thirty days, so that it will last him for the twelve months of the year. And I guarantee that the shirt will remain in good shape. The Gemara comments: What is the meaning of kitonita? A fine class [kita], as fine clothing provide one entry into a well-dressed class of people.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב לא ליתיב אציפתא חדתא דמכליא מאניה

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not sit on a new mat, as its dampness ruins his garments.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב לא לישדר מאניה לאושפיזיה לחווריה ליה דלאו אורח ארעא דילמא חזי ביה מידי ואתי למגניא

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not give his clothes to his host to wash for him, as that is not proper behavior, for the host might see something on it, such as signs of a seminal emission, and he will be demeaned in the eyes of his host.

אמר להו רב חסדא לבנתיה תיהוי צניעתן באפי גברייכו לא תיכלון נהמא באפי גברייכו

After citing Rav Ḥisda’s recommendations to students, the Gemara cites his advice to his daughters. Rav Ḥisda said to his daughters: Be modest before your husbands; do not eat bread before your husbands, lest you eat too much and be demeaned in their eyes.

לא תיכלון ירקא בליליא לא תיכלון תמרי בליליא ולא תשתון שיכרא בליליא ולא תיפנון היכא דמפני גברייכו

Similarly, he advised: Do not eat vegetables at night, as vegetables cause bad breath. Do not eat dates at night and do not drink beer at night, as these loosen the bowels. And do not relieve yourself in the place where your husbands relieve themselves, so that they will not be revolted by you.

וכי קא קארי אבבא איניש לא תימרון מנו אלא מני

And when a person calls at the door seeking to enter, do not say: Who is it, in the masculine form, but rather: Who is it, in the feminine form. Avoid creating the impression that you have dealings with other men.

נקיט מרגניתא בחדא ידיה וכורא בחדא ידיה מרגניתא אחוי להו וכורא לא אחוי להו עד דמיצטערן והדר אחוי להו:

In order to demonstrate the value of modesty to his daughters, Rav Ḥisda held a pearl in one hand and a clod of earth in the other. The pearl he showed them immediately, and the clod of earth, he did not show them until they were upset due to their curiosity, and then he showed it to them. This taught them that a concealed object is more attractive than one on display, even if it is less valuable.

אין שולין את הכרשינין: מתניתין דלא כי האי תנא דתניא רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר אין משגיחין בכברה כל עיקר:

We learned in the mishna: One may not soak vetches in water in order to separate them from their chaff. However, one may take the straw in a sieve and place it into the trough of an animal. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: One may not look at a sieve at all on Shabbat, lest one come to violate the prohibited labor of selecting.

מתני׳ גורפין מלפני הפטם ומסלקין לצדדין מפני הרעי דברי רבי דוסא וחכמים אוסרין נוטלין מלפני בהמה זו ונותנין לפני בהמה זו בשבת:

MISHNA: One may sweep hay from before an animal that is being fattened, and one may move hay to the sides for an animal that grazes on its own in the field (Rabbeinu Ḥananel); this is the statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so. One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal on Shabbat.

גמ׳ איבעיא להו רבנן ארישא פליגי או אסיפא פליגי או אתרוייהו פליגי

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Do the Rabbis, who are stringent, disagree with the first clause of Rabbi Dosa’s statement, or do they disagree with the latter clause of the mishna, or do they disagree with both clauses?

תא שמע דתניא וחכמים אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לא יסלקנו לצדדין

Come and hear a resolution from that which was taught in a baraita. And the Rabbis say: With regard to both this, hay placed before an animal set aside for fattening, and that, hay placed before an animal that grazes on its own, one may not move it to the sides. Apparently, the Rabbis rule stringently in both cases.

אמר רב חסדא מחלוקת באיבוס של קרקע אבל באיבוס של כלי דברי הכל מותר ואיבוס של קרקע מי איכא למאן דשרי הא קא משוי גומות אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב חסדא מחלוקת באיבוס של כלי אבל באיבוס של קרקע דברי הכל אסור:

Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute is with regard to a trough formed in the ground; however, with regard to a trough which is a vessel, everyone agrees that it is permitted. The Gemara expresses surprise: Is there anyone who permits doing so in a trough formed in the ground? Isn’t one leveling holes and thereby performing the prohibited labors of building or plowing? Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows: Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute applies only to a trough that is a vessel; however, with regard to a trough formed in the ground, everyone agrees that it is prohibited, due to the concern lest one level holes.

ונוטלין מלפני בהמה: תנא חדא נוטלין מלפני בהמה שפיה יפה ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה רע ותניא אידך נוטלין מלפני בהמה שפיה רע ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה יפה

We also learned in the mishna: One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal. It was taught in one baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine and place it before an animal whose mouth is foul. And it was taught in another baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is foul and place it in front of an animal whose mouth is fine. There is an apparent contradiction between the two baraitot.

אמר אביי אידי ואידי מקמי חמרא לקמי תורא שקלינן מקמי תורא לקמי חמרא לא שקלינן והא דקתני נוטל מלפני בהמה שפיה יפה בחמור דלית ליה רירי ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה רע בפרה

Abaye said: Both this baraita and that baraita hold that one may take hay from before a donkey and place it before an ox. However, one may not take hay from before an ox and place it before a donkey. The formulation of the baraitot can be explained as follows: That which was taught: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine, is referring to a donkey, and the reason the baraita says its mouth is fine is because it has no spittle. Therefore, the donkey does not dampen the remaining hay with its saliva. And the statement: And one may place it before an animal whose mouth is foul, is referring to a cow,

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Shabbat 140

The William Davidson Talmud | Powered by Sefaria

Shabbat 140

לפי שאין עושין אותה אלא לגוון

Because it is only made to enhance the color of the food. That does not negate the egg-white as significant food in the sense that it would be considered waste, and therefore, no actual selection is performed.

איתמר חרדל שלשו מערב שבת למחר אמר רב ממחו בכלי אבל לא ביד

It is stated: With regard to mustard that one kneaded on Shabbat eve, on the following day, Shabbat, Rav said: One may dissolve it in wine or water with a vessel, but not with his hand, as using a vessel diverges from the normal method of preparation.

אמר ליה שמואל ביד אטו כל יומא ממחו ליה ביד מאכל חמורים הוא אלא אמר שמואל ממחו ביד ואינו ממחו בכלי

Shmuel said to him: Why may he not dissolve it with his hand? Is that to say that he dissolves it with his hand every day? If it is prepared in that manner, it is donkey food. Certainly dissolving by hand is not the manner in which mustard is prepared during the week. Therefore, dissolving mustard with a vessel should not be permitted on Shabbat. Rather, Shmuel said the opposite: He may dissolve it with his hand as a divergence from the typical method of preparation, but he may not dissolve it in the usual manner, with a vessel.

אתמר רבי אלעזר אמר אחד זה ואחד זה אסור ורבי יוחנן אמר אחד זה ואחד זה מותר אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו אין הלכה כרבי יוחנן

It is stated that amora’im from Eretz Yisrael also disputed this issue, as Rabbi Elazar said: Both this and that, dissolving by hand and with a vessel, are prohibited; while Rabbi Yoḥanan said: Both this and that are permitted. Abaye and Rava both said: The halakha is not in accordance with the lenient opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan.

קם רבי יוחנן בשיטתיה דרבי אלעזר קם רבי אלעזר בשיטתיה דשמואל אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו הלכה כרבי יוחנן

Subsequently, Rabbi Yoḥanan stood and adopted the opinion of Rabbi Elazar and prohibited both methods of dissolving. Rabbi Elazar stood and adopted the opinion of Shmuel, who prohibited using a vessel but permitted it by hand. Given these stances, Abaye and Rava both said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥanan, who prohibited both methods.

אימיה דאביי עבדא ליה ולא אכל דביתהו דזעירא עבדא ליה לרב חייא בר אשי ולא אכיל אמר ליה לרבך עבידי ליה ואכל ואת לא אכלת אמר רבא בר שבא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבינא ובחשי ליה בשופתא דתומא ואכל

The Gemara relates: Abaye’s mother, actually his foster mother, prepared mustard for him, and he did not eat it. Ze’eira’s wife prepared mustard for Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi, her husband’s student, and he did not eat it. She said to him: I made this for your rabbi and he ate it, and you do not eat it? Rava bar Shabba said: I was standing before Ravina, and they stirred mustard for him with the inner part of the garlic, and he ate it.

אמר מר זוטרא לית הלכתא ככל הני שמעתתא אלא כי הא דאתמר חרדל שלשו מערב שבת למחר ממחו בין ביד בין בכלי ונותן לתוכו דבש ולא יטרוף אלא מערב

Mar Zutra said: The halakha is not in accordance with any of these statements. Rather, it is in accordance with this one, as it was stated: Mustard that one kneaded on Shabbat eve, on the following day he may dissolve it either by hand or with a vessel, and he may place honey in it. And when he dissolves it he may not beat it forcefully as would a craftsman, but he may mix it gently.

שחליים ששחקן מערב שבת למחר נותן לתוכן שמן וחומץ וממשיך לתוכן אמיתא ולא יטרוף אלא מערב שום שריסקו מערב שבת למחר נותן לתוכו פול וגריסין ולא ישחוק אלא מערב וממשיך את אמיתא לתוכן מאי אמיתא נינייא אמר אביי שמע מינה האי נינייא מעליא לתחלי:

Cress that one ground on Shabbat eve, on the following day he may place oil and vinegar in it, and add amita into the mixture, and he may not beat it, but he may mix it. Similarly, garlic that one crushed on Shabbat eve, on the following day, he may place beans and grits in it, and he may not pound, but mix, and he may add amita into the mixture. The Gemara asks: What is amita? The Gemara answers: It is mint. Abaye said: Learn from this that adding mint is beneficial for cress.

ועושין אנומלין בשבת: תנו רבנן עושין אנומלין בשבת ואין עושין אלונטית ואיזו היא אנומלין ואיזו היא אלונטית אנומלין יין ודבש ופלפלין אלונטית יין ישן ומים צלולין ואפרסמון דעבדי לבי מסותא למיקר

We also learned in the mishna: One may prepare anumlin on Shabbat. The Sages taught in a baraita: One may prepare anumlin on Shabbat. However, one may not prepare aluntit. The baraita explains: And what is anumlin and what is aluntit? Anumlin is a drink, which is a mixture of wine, honey, and pepper. Aluntit is a mixture of aged wine and clear water and balsam, which they prepare for use after bathing in a bathhouse to cool down from the heat of the bathhouse. It is prohibited to prepare it on Shabbat because it is a form of remedy.

אמר רב יוסף זימנא חדא עלית בתר מר עוקבא לבי באני כי נפקי אתאי אשקיין חמרא חד כסא וחשי מבינתא דראשי ועד טופרא דכרעי ואי אשקיין כסא אחרינא הואי מסתפינא דלמא מנכו לי מזכותא דעלמא דאתי והא מר עוקבא דשתי כל יומא שאני מר עוקבא דדש ביה:

Rav Yosef said: On one occasion, I followed Mar Ukva into a bathhouse. When I exited, he came and gave me one cup of this wine to drink, and I felt its chill from the hairs on my head down to the toenails on my feet. And if he had given me another cup to drink, and if I would have survived it, I would have feared a reduction of my merit in the World-to-Come. The Gemara asks: Didn’t Mar Ukva drink this wine every day? How was he not harmed? The Gemara answers: Mar Ukva was different, as he grew accustomed to it.

מתני׳ אין שורין את החילתית בפושרין אבל נותן לתוך החומץ ואין שולין את הכרשינין ולא שפין אותן אבל נותן לתוך הכברה או לתוך הכלכלה

MISHNA: One may not soak asafoetida in lukewarm water to prepare a medicinal drink from it; however, one may place it into vinegar like a standard spice. And one may not soak vetches in water in order to separate them from their chaff, nor rub them by hand so as to remove their chaff. However, one may place them into a sieve or into a basket, and if the chaff gets removed, so be it.

אין כוברין את התבן בכברה ולא יתננו על גבי מקום גבוה בשביל שירד המוץ אבל נוטל הוא בכברה ונותן לתוך האיבוס:

One may not sift straw in a sieve, and similarly, one may not place it on a high place so that that the chaff blows away in the wind; however, one may take the straw in a sieve and place it into the trough of an animal, and one need not be concerned if the chaff is removed in the process.

גמ׳ איבעיא להו שרה מאי תרגמא רב אדא נרשאה קמיה דרב יוסף שרה חייב חטאת

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: If one unwittingly soaked asafoetida on Shabbat, what is the halakha? Rav Adda from the city of Naresh interpreted it before Rav Yosef: If one soaked it, he is liable to bring a sin-offering.

אמר ליה אביי אלא מעתה שרה אומצא במיא הכי נמי דמיחייב אלא אמר אביי מדרבנן שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול

Abaye said to him: But if that is so, if one soaked a piece of meat in water, would you also say that he is liable? No cooking was performed at all. Rather, Abaye said: It is prohibited by rabbinic decree, so that one will not conduct himself on Shabbat in the manner in which he conducts himself during the week.

בעא מיניה רבי יוחנן מרבי ינאי מהו לשרות את החלתית בצונן אמר ליה אסור והא אנן תנן אין שורין את החלתית בפושרין הא בצונן מותר

Rabbi Yoḥanan raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yannai: What is the halakha with regard to soaking asafoetida in cold water on Shabbat? Rabbi Yannai said to him: It is prohibited. Rabbi Yoḥanan asked: Didn’t we learn in the mishna: One may not soak asafoetida in lukewarm water, indicating that it is permitted to soak it in cold water?

אמר ליה אם כן מה בין לי ולך מתניתין יחידאה היא דתניא אין שורין את החלתית לא בחמין ולא בצונן רבי יוסי אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר

Rabbi Yannai said to him: If so, that is the difference between my knowledge and yours, as I am able to analyze the halakha more profoundly. In this case, the mishna is not a reliable source, as the mishna expresses an individual opinion. As it was taught in the Tosefta: One may neither soak asafoetida in hot water nor in cold water. Rabbi Yosei says: In hot water it is prohibited; in cold water it is permitted. The mishna that does not prohibit cold water is in accordance with the individual opinion of Rabbi Yosei, but the halakha is not ruled based on that opinion.

למאי עבדי ליה ליוקרא דליבא רב אחא בר יוסף חש ביוקרא דליבא אתא לקמיה דמר עוקבא אמר ליה זיל שתי תלתא תיקלי חילתתא בתלתא יומי אזל אישתי חמשא בשבת ומעלי שבת לצפרא אזל שאל בי מדרשא אמרו ליה תנא דבי רב אדא ואמרי לה תנא דבי מר בר רב אדא שותה אדם קב או קביים ואינו חושש

The Gemara asks: For what purpose is soaked asafoetida prepared? The Gemara answers: As a cure for heaviness of the heart. One who feels a pain in his heart drinks asafoetida. The Gemara relates: Rav Aḥa bar Yosef felt heaviness in his heart. He came before Mar Ukva to ask his advice. Mar Ukva said to him: Go drink the weight of three shekels of asafoetida in three days. He went and drank on Thursday and Shabbat eve. In the morning, he went and asked in the study hall if he could drink it on Shabbat. They said to him: The Sage from the school of Rav Adda taught, and others say, that the Sage from the school of Mar bar Rav Adda taught: A person may drink asafoetida on Shabbat, even a kav or two kav, and he need not be concerned about the decree prohibiting medicine, because asafoetida is drunk by healthy people as well.

אמר להו לשתות לא קמיבעיא לי כי קא מיבעיא לי לשרות מאי אמר להו רב חייא בר אבין בדידי הוה עובדא ואתאי שאילתיה לרב אדא בר אהבה ולא הוה בידיה אתאי שאילתיה לרב הונא ואמר הכי קאמר רב שורה בצונן ומניח בחמה

Rav Aḥa bar Yosef said to them: With regard to drinking, I have no dilemma. When I raised a dilemma, it is with regard to soaking asafoetida; what is the halakha? Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said to them: There was an incident that happened with me, and I came and asked that question to Rav Adda bar Ahava, and he did not have an answer for it. I came and asked Rav Huna, and he said that this is what Rav is saying: One may soak asafoetida in cold water and place it in the sun to warm it so it will be fit to drink.

כמאן דשרי אפילו למאן דאסר הני מילי היכא דלא אישתי כלל אבל הכא כיון דאישתי חמשא ומעלי שבתא אי לא שתי בשבת מיסתכן

The Gemara asks: Was Rav’s ruling according to the opinion of the one who permitted soaking asafoetida in cold water? The Gemara answers: His ruling could be even according to the opinion of the one who prohibited doing so; this prohibition applies only when he had not drunk asafoetida at all; however, here, since he drank it on Thursday and on Shabbat eve, if he does not drink on Shabbat he would thereby be endangered. Therefore, he is permitted even to soak the asafoetida.

מיסתמיך ואזיל רב אחא בר יוסף אכתפיה דרב נחמן בר יצחק בר אחתיה אמר ליה כי מטינן לבי רב ספרא עיילינא כי מטו עייליה בעא מיניה מהו לכסכוסי כיתניתא בשבתא לרכוכי כיתניתא קא מיכוין ושפיר דמי או דילמא לאולודי חיורא קמיכוין ואסיר אמר ליה לרכוכי קא מיכוין ושפיר דמי

The Gemara relates another incident involving Rav Aḥa bar Yosef: Rav Aḥa bar Yosef was walking and leaning on the shoulder of Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, his sister’s son. Rav Aḥa said to him: When we arrive at Rav Safra’s house, bring me in. When they arrived, Rav Naḥman brought him in. Rav Aḥa then raised a dilemma before Rav Safra: What is the halakha pertaining to rubbing and thereby softening a linen shirt that is hard after being laundered on Shabbat? Does one intend to soften the shirt, and one may well do so? Or perhaps he intends to generate whiteness in the shirt, and it is prohibited? Rav Safra said to him: He intends to soften, and one may well do so.

כי נפק אתא אמר ליה מאי בעא מר מיניה אמר ליה בעי מיניה מהו לכסכוסי כיתניתא בשבתא ואמר לי שפיר דמי

When Rav Aḥa emerged and came from Rav Safra’s house, Rav Naḥman said to him: What dilemma did the Master raise before Rav Safra? Rav Aḥa said to him: I raised the following dilemma before him: What is the halakha pertaining to rubbing and thereby softening a linen shirt on Shabbat, and he said to me: One may well do so.

ותבעי ליה למר סודרא סודרא לא קא מיבעיא לי דבעי מרב הונא ופשיט לי

Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak asked: And let the Master raise the same dilemma with regard to rubbing a scarf. He replied: I did not raise the dilemma with regard to a scarf, as I raised it before Rav Huna. And he resolved it for me and said that it is permitted (Rif).

ותיפשיט ליה למר מסודרא אמר ליה התם מיחזי כי אולודי חיורא הכא לא מיחזי כאולודי חיורא

Rav Naḥman asked him: And let the Master resolve the dilemma with regard to a shirt from Rav Huna’s ruling with regard to a scarf. Rav Aḥa said to him: There is a difference between the cases: There, in the case of a shirt, it appears that one is generating whiteness, whereas here, in the case of a scarf, it does not appear that one is generating whiteness, as people are not so particular with the whiteness of a scarf, and one’s intention is undoubtedly to soften it.

אמר רב חסדא האי כיתניתא

Rav Ḥisda said: With regard to this linen shirt,

משלפו לדידה מקניא שרי קניא ממנה אסור אמר רבא ואם כלי קיואי הוא מותר

to remove it from the reed upon which it is hanging is permitted; however, to remove the reed from it is prohibited. Since the reed is not a vessel, it is set-aside. Rava said: And if it is hung on a weaver’s vessel, it is permitted to remove the vessel as well. Although its primary function is for a prohibited labor, since it is a vessel, it may be moved.

אמר רב חסדא האי כישתא דירקא אי חזיא למאכל בהמה שרי לטלטולי ואי לא אסיר

Rav Ḥisda said: This bundle of vegetables, if it is suitable for animal food, it is permitted to move it on Shabbat, but if not, it is prohibited to move it.

אמר רב חייא בר אשי אמר רב האי תליא דבשרא שרי לטלטולי דכוורי אסיר

Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi said that Rav said as follows: In the case of this hook, if it is used for hanging meat, it is permitted to move it, as it is also suitable for other uses. However, if it is a hook for hanging fish, it is prohibited to move it, because it smells bad (Rabbeinu Ḥananel) and is used exclusively for fish.

אמר רב קטינא העומד באמצע המטה כאילו עומד בכריסה של אשה ולאו מילתא היא

Rav Ketina said: One who stands on a board in the middle of a bed, it is as though he were standing on the stomach of a woman. Just as he would certainly injure the woman, he will certainly break the bed (ge’onim). The Gemara comments: And it is not a correct matter, and it is not accepted as halakha.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין ירקא ליזבין אריכא כישא כי כישא ואורכא ממילא

On the topic of the bundle of vegetables, the Gemara cites additional advice on similar issues that Rav Ḥisda said to poor scholars experiencing difficulty earning a livelihood: A student of a Torah academy who buys vegetables should buy long ones. A bundle is a bundle, and they have a standard thickness at a standard price. However, the addition of length comes on its own for free.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין קניא ליזבין אריכא טונא כי טונא ואורכא ממילא

And Rav Ḥisda also said: A student of a Torah academy who buys reeds should buy long ones, since a bundle is a bundle. Bundles of reeds have a standard thickness, but the length comes on its own for free.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב [דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא] לא ליכול ירקא משום דגריר ואמר רב חסדא אנא לא בעניותי אכלי ירקא ולא בעתירותי אכלי ירקא בעניותי משום דגריר בעתירותי דאמינא היכא דעייל ירקא ליעול בשרא וכוורי

And Rav Ḥisda further said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not eat a vegetable, because it whets the appetite. And Rav Ḥisda said: I neither ate a vegetable in my state of poverty, nor did I eat a vegetable in my state of wealth. In my poverty, I did not eat a vegetable because it whets the appetite. In my wealth, I did not eat a vegetable because I said: Where a vegetable enters, let meat and fish enter instead.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא לא ליבצע בצועי ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלא נפישא ליה ריפתא לא ליבצע מאי טעמא דלא עביד בעין יפה ואמר רב חסדא אנא מעיקרא לא הואי בצענא עד דשדאי ידי בכולי מנא ואשכחי [ביה כל צרכי]

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not cut it into thin slices; rather, he should eat what he has in one helping. And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who does not have much bread should not break it for guests. What is the reason? As he will not do so in a generous manner. And Rav Ḥisda said: Originally, I would not break bread until I placed my hand in the entire dish to assure that I found that there was enough bread to meet my needs.

ואמר רב חסדא האי מאן דאפשר ליה למיכל נהמא דשערי ואכל דחיטי קעבר משום בל תשחית ואמר רב פפא האי מאן דאפשר למישתי שיכרא ושתי חמרא עובר משום בל תשחית ולאו מילתא היא בל תשחית דגופא עדיף

And Rav Ḥisda also said: One who is able to eat barley bread and nevertheless eats wheat bread violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. One who wastes resources is comparable to one who destroys items of value. And Rav Pappa said: One who is able to drink beer and nevertheless drinks wine violates the prohibition against wanton destruction. The Gemara comments: And this is not a correct matter, as the prohibition against destruction of one’s body takes precedence. It is preferable for one to care for his body by eating higher quality food than to conserve his money.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דלית ליה משחא נימשי במיא דחריצי

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who has no oil should wash, i.e., smear himself, with ditch water, as the scum that accumulates in it is as useful as oil.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין אומצא ליזבין אונקא דאית ביה תלתא מיני בישרא

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys meat should buy from the neck [unka], as there are three types of meat there.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב דזבין כיתוניתא ליזבן מדנהר אבא וניחוורה כל תלתין יומין דמפטיא ליה תריסר ירחי שתא ואנא ערבא מאי כיתוניתא כיתא נאה

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy who buys a linen shirt [kitonita] should buy it from those who work by the river Abba, and should wash it every thirty days, so that it will last him for the twelve months of the year. And I guarantee that the shirt will remain in good shape. The Gemara comments: What is the meaning of kitonita? A fine class [kita], as fine clothing provide one entry into a well-dressed class of people.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב לא ליתיב אציפתא חדתא דמכליא מאניה

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not sit on a new mat, as its dampness ruins his garments.

ואמר רב חסדא בר בי רב לא לישדר מאניה לאושפיזיה לחווריה ליה דלאו אורח ארעא דילמא חזי ביה מידי ואתי למגניא

And Rav Ḥisda said: A student of a Torah academy should not give his clothes to his host to wash for him, as that is not proper behavior, for the host might see something on it, such as signs of a seminal emission, and he will be demeaned in the eyes of his host.

אמר להו רב חסדא לבנתיה תיהוי צניעתן באפי גברייכו לא תיכלון נהמא באפי גברייכו

After citing Rav Ḥisda’s recommendations to students, the Gemara cites his advice to his daughters. Rav Ḥisda said to his daughters: Be modest before your husbands; do not eat bread before your husbands, lest you eat too much and be demeaned in their eyes.

לא תיכלון ירקא בליליא לא תיכלון תמרי בליליא ולא תשתון שיכרא בליליא ולא תיפנון היכא דמפני גברייכו

Similarly, he advised: Do not eat vegetables at night, as vegetables cause bad breath. Do not eat dates at night and do not drink beer at night, as these loosen the bowels. And do not relieve yourself in the place where your husbands relieve themselves, so that they will not be revolted by you.

וכי קא קארי אבבא איניש לא תימרון מנו אלא מני

And when a person calls at the door seeking to enter, do not say: Who is it, in the masculine form, but rather: Who is it, in the feminine form. Avoid creating the impression that you have dealings with other men.

נקיט מרגניתא בחדא ידיה וכורא בחדא ידיה מרגניתא אחוי להו וכורא לא אחוי להו עד דמיצטערן והדר אחוי להו:

In order to demonstrate the value of modesty to his daughters, Rav Ḥisda held a pearl in one hand and a clod of earth in the other. The pearl he showed them immediately, and the clod of earth, he did not show them until they were upset due to their curiosity, and then he showed it to them. This taught them that a concealed object is more attractive than one on display, even if it is less valuable.

אין שולין את הכרשינין: מתניתין דלא כי האי תנא דתניא רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר אין משגיחין בכברה כל עיקר:

We learned in the mishna: One may not soak vetches in water in order to separate them from their chaff. However, one may take the straw in a sieve and place it into the trough of an animal. The Gemara comments: The mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of this tanna, as it was taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: One may not look at a sieve at all on Shabbat, lest one come to violate the prohibited labor of selecting.

מתני׳ גורפין מלפני הפטם ומסלקין לצדדין מפני הרעי דברי רבי דוסא וחכמים אוסרין נוטלין מלפני בהמה זו ונותנין לפני בהמה זו בשבת:

MISHNA: One may sweep hay from before an animal that is being fattened, and one may move hay to the sides for an animal that grazes on its own in the field (Rabbeinu Ḥananel); this is the statement of Rabbi Dosa. And the Rabbis prohibit doing so. One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal on Shabbat.

גמ׳ איבעיא להו רבנן ארישא פליגי או אסיפא פליגי או אתרוייהו פליגי

GEMARA: A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Do the Rabbis, who are stringent, disagree with the first clause of Rabbi Dosa’s statement, or do they disagree with the latter clause of the mishna, or do they disagree with both clauses?

תא שמע דתניא וחכמים אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לא יסלקנו לצדדין

Come and hear a resolution from that which was taught in a baraita. And the Rabbis say: With regard to both this, hay placed before an animal set aside for fattening, and that, hay placed before an animal that grazes on its own, one may not move it to the sides. Apparently, the Rabbis rule stringently in both cases.

אמר רב חסדא מחלוקת באיבוס של קרקע אבל באיבוס של כלי דברי הכל מותר ואיבוס של קרקע מי איכא למאן דשרי הא קא משוי גומות אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב חסדא מחלוקת באיבוס של כלי אבל באיבוס של קרקע דברי הכל אסור:

Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute is with regard to a trough formed in the ground; however, with regard to a trough which is a vessel, everyone agrees that it is permitted. The Gemara expresses surprise: Is there anyone who permits doing so in a trough formed in the ground? Isn’t one leveling holes and thereby performing the prohibited labors of building or plowing? Rather, if it was stated, it was stated as follows: Rav Ḥisda said: This dispute applies only to a trough that is a vessel; however, with regard to a trough formed in the ground, everyone agrees that it is prohibited, due to the concern lest one level holes.

ונוטלין מלפני בהמה: תנא חדא נוטלין מלפני בהמה שפיה יפה ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה רע ותניא אידך נוטלין מלפני בהמה שפיה רע ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה יפה

We also learned in the mishna: One may take hay from before this animal and place it before that animal. It was taught in one baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine and place it before an animal whose mouth is foul. And it was taught in another baraita: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is foul and place it in front of an animal whose mouth is fine. There is an apparent contradiction between the two baraitot.

אמר אביי אידי ואידי מקמי חמרא לקמי תורא שקלינן מקמי תורא לקמי חמרא לא שקלינן והא דקתני נוטל מלפני בהמה שפיה יפה בחמור דלית ליה רירי ונותנין לפני בהמה שפיה רע בפרה

Abaye said: Both this baraita and that baraita hold that one may take hay from before a donkey and place it before an ox. However, one may not take hay from before an ox and place it before a donkey. The formulation of the baraitot can be explained as follows: That which was taught: One may take hay from before an animal whose mouth is fine, is referring to a donkey, and the reason the baraita says its mouth is fine is because it has no spittle. Therefore, the donkey does not dampen the remaining hay with its saliva. And the statement: And one may place it before an animal whose mouth is foul, is referring to a cow,

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