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Today's Daf Yomi

August 3, 2020 | י״ג באב תש״פ

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

Shabbat 150

Today’s daf is sponsored by Rabbi David Young in honor of his chevruta called “Day Yomi, Baby!” – Rabbi Rachel Greengrass, Rabbi Stephen Wise, Rabbi Eric Linder, Rabbi Andy Rosenkranz and Rabbi Sari Laufer.

Can one hire workers on Shabbat for work on Shabbat or after Shabbat? Can one tell someone else to hire workers for them? Is that referring to telling a Jew or a non-Jew? Can one go to the edge of techum Shabbat and wait there until Shabbat ends to do something immediately after Shabbat? It depends on whether or not what you are planning to do is something forbidden on Shabbat. Can one do calculations on Shabbat – under what circumstances? Can one gather to discuss public issues? If one did not make havdala at the end of Shabbat, can one perform melacha?

מדוד והבא ואיכא דאמרי שאמרה מאד מאד הביא בלא מדה

Measure and bring a lot of money, has ceased. And some say that the meaning of the statement is that this nation said: Bring very, very much, without measure.

ורבו יתירה הוספת לי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירמיה בר אבא מלמד שרכב על ארי זכר וקשר תנין בראשו לקיים מה שנאמר וגם את חית השדה נתתי לו לעבדו:

The Gemara cites another verse pertaining to Nebuchadnezzar: “And surpassing greatness was added unto me” (Daniel 4:33), about which Rav Yehuda said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said: This teaches that Nebuchadnezzar rode atop a male lion and tied a serpent to its head, fulfilling what was said of him: “And the beasts of the field I have also given him to serve him” (Jeremiah 27:6).

מתני׳ לא ישכור אדם פועלים בשבת ולא יאמר אדם לחבירו לשכור לו פועלים אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור לו פועלים ולהביא פירות אבל מחשיך הוא לשמור ומביא פירות בידו כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני זכאי באמירתו רשאי אני להחשיך עליו:

MISHNA: A person may not hire workers on Shabbat to work for him after Shabbat because even speaking about weekday matters is prohibited on Shabbat. Similarly, a person may not tell another on Shabbat to hire workers for him. One may not even wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to leave the boundary immediately after Shabbat to hire workers for himself or to bring produce from his field. But he may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to guard his produce that is outside the Shabbat boundary, and he may then bring produce back in his hand, since he did not initially intend to wait at the edge of the boundary for this purpose. Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake.

גמ׳ (פשיטא) מאי שנא הוא ומאי שנא חבירו אמר רב פפא חבר גוי מתקיף לה רב אשי אמירה לגוי שבות

GEMARA: The beginning of the mishna taught that one may not hire workers on Shabbat, and one may not tell another to hire workers for him. The Gemara finds this puzzling and states: This is obvious. What is the difference between him and another? Just as he is prohibited from hiring workers on Shabbat, others are also prohibited from doing so. Rav Pappa said: Another is referring to a gentile. Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: This is itself a prohibition, for telling a gentile to do something that is prohibited for a Jew on Shabbat violates a rabbinic prohibition.

אלא אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא חבירו ישראל הא קא משמע לן לא יאמר אדם לחבירו שכור לי פועלים אבל אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב ומתניתין מני כרבי יהושע בן קרחה דתניא לא יאמר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב

Rather, Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that it is referring to another Jew, it can be said that the novel element of this ruling is not the statement itself but what can be derived from it. This is what it is teaching us: One may not say to another explicitly on Shabbat: Hire workers for me, but one may say to another: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? This is permitted even though both of them understand that the questioner intends to hire the other person to work for him. And in accordance with whose opinion is the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; as it was taught in a baraita: A person may not say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: A person may say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening?

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמא דרבי יהושע בן קרחה דכתיב ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר דיבור אסור הרהור מותר

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’s ruling? As it is written in the verse from which we derive the prohibition to speak on Shabbat about activities that one may not perform on that day: “And you shall honor it by not doing your ways, nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13). We derive from this verse that speaking is prohibited, but merely contemplating these matters is permitted.

רמי ליה רב אחא בר רב הונא לרבא מי אמר רבי יוחנן דיבור אסור הרהור מותר אלמא הרהור לאו כדיבור דמי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא שאני התם דבעינן והיה מחניך קדוש וליכא

Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna raised a contradiction to Rava: Did Rabbi Yoḥanan really state as a general principle that speaking is prohibited, but contemplating is permitted? Consequently, we can derive from here that contemplation is not tantamount to speech. But Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is permitted to think about Torah in any place except for a bathhouse and a bathroom. This statement indicates that contemplation is tantamount to speech, as even thought is prohibited in these locations. The Gemara answers: It is different there, for with regard to Torah we need to fulfill the verse: “For the Lord your God walks in the midst of your camp to deliver you and to give your enemies before you; therefore, your camp shall be sacred so that He see no unseemly thing in you and turn away from you” (Deuteronomy 23:15); and the requirement to be sacred is not fulfilled if one thinks about Torah while in the bathhouse or bathroom.

הכא נמי כתיב ולא יראה בך ערות דבר ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה גוי ערום אסור לקרות קרית שמע כנגדו

The Gemara challenges this: But here, too, with regard to a bathhouse and a bathroom, it is written: “So that He see no unseemly thing [davar] in you” (Deuteronomy 23:15). We can infer that this prohibits speech [dibbur] but not contemplation. The Gemara answers: That verse is not referring to speech. It is needed for the ruling of Rav Yehuda, for Rav Yehuda said: Opposite a naked gentile, it is prohibited to recite Shema, as this is included in the prohibition of unseemly things mentioned above.

מאי איריא גוי אפילו ישראל נמי לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא ישראל דאסור אבל גוי כיון דכתיב ביה אשר בשר חמורים בשרם אימא שפיר דמי קא משמע לן

The Gemara asks: Why did Rav Yehuda teach this prohibition particularly with regard to a gentile? Even in the presence of a naked Jew, reciting Shema is also prohibited. The Gemara answers: That ruling is stated employing the style of: There is no need. The Gemara explains: There is no need to state this halakha with regard to a Jew, as it is certainly prohibited to recite Shema in the presence of a naked Jew. However, with regard to a gentile, since it is written about him: “Whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys” (Ezekiel 23:20), perhaps his flesh is not considered nakedness, and one may say that it seems well and permitted. Therefore, Rav Yehuda teaches us that it is also prohibited to recite Shema before a naked gentile.

אימא הכי נמי אמר קרא וערות אביהם לא ראו

The Gemara asks: Why not say that it is indeed so, that gentile flesh is not considered nakedness? The Gemara rejects this idea: The verse already said with regard to the sons of Noah: “And they walked backward and covered their father’s nakedness, and their faces were turned backward, and they did not see their father’s nakedness” (Genesis 9:23). The verse uses the term nakedness with regard to Noah, who was a gentile.

ודיבור מי אסיר והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת ואמר רבי אלעזר פוסקים צדקה לעניים בשבת ואמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש ופיקוח רבים בשבת והולכין לבתי כנסיות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת

The Gemara addresses the basis of the halakha mentioned above: And is it speaking about proscribed activities prohibited on Shabbat? But Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna both said: It is permitted to make calculations pertaining to a mitzva on Shabbat, and Rabbi Elazar said that this means that one may apportion charity for the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may attend to activities necessary for saving a life or for communal needs on Shabbat, and one may go to a synagogue to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסאות ולבסילקאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשה משדכין על התינוקות ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות אמר קרא ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר חפציך אסורים חפצי שמים מותרין

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may go to theaters [tarteiot], and circus performances [kirkesaot], and courthouses [basilkaot] to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat. And one of the Sages in the school of Menashe taught: One may make the necessary arrangements to pair off children so that they will be betrothed on Shabbat, and one may likewise make arrangements for a child by finding someone to teach him how to read books and to teach him a craft. If speaking about monetary matters is prohibited on Shabbat, how is it possible to participate in all these activities? The Gemara answers that although speaking about similar things is generally prohibited on Shabbat, it is permitted in these cases because the verse said: “Nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13), which indicates that your business matters are prohibited to speak of on Shabbat, but the business of Heaven, matters which have religious significance, is permitted to speak of.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל חשבונות של [מלך] ושל מה בכך מותר לחשבן בשבת תניא נמי הכי חשבונות שעברו ושעתידין להיות אסור לחשבן של מלך

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to calculations of: What is it to you, [mallakh], calculations that are in no way relevant to the person making them, and of: What significance does it have [ma bekhakh], calculations that do not have any practical significance, it is permitted to make them on Shabbat. This was also taught in the Tosefta: Calculations with regard to matters that have passed or that will be in the future may not be calculated on Shabbat. However, with regard to calculations of: What is it to you,

ושל מה בכך מותר לחושבן

and of: What significance does it have, it is permitted to calculate them.

ורמינהו חושבין חשבונות שאינן צריכין ואין מחשבין חשבונות שצריכין בשבת כיצד אומר אדם לחבירו כך וכך פועלים הוצאתי על שדה זו כך וכך דינרין הוצאתי על דירה זו אבל לא יאמר לו כך וכך הוצאתי וכך וכך אני עתיד להוציא

The Gemara raises a contradiction based on what was taught in another baraita: One may make calculations that are unnecessary, but one may not make calculations that are necessary on Shabbat. How so? One may say to another: I sent out such and such number of workers to this field, and I spent such and such number of dinar for this home. But he may not say to him: I spent such and such amount of money, and I am going to spend such and such amount in the future. Apparently, one is permitted to calculate one’s previous expenditures on Shabbat.

ולטעמיך קשיא לך היא גופא אלא הא דאיכא אגרא דאגירא גביה הא דליכא אגרא דאגירא גביה:

The Gemara responds: And according to your reasoning, it itself, the Tosefta quoted previously, is difficult for you, for it prohibits calculating past expenditures while allowing one to make calculations that do not have practical significance. Rather, it must be explained in the following manner: This Tosefta, which taught that it is prohibited to calculate past expenses, is referring to a case in which he has payment with him that he still owes his workers. Therefore, although his calculation pertains to projects that have already been completed, it is still relevant in a practical manner. And this baraita, which taught that it is permitted to calculate past expenses, is referring to a case in which he does not have payment with him that he must still pay his workers, and therefore his calculation does not have practical significance.

אין מחשיכין: תנו רבנן מעשה בחסיד אחד שנפרצה לו פרץ בתוך שדהו ונמלך עליה לגודרה ונזכר ששבת הוא ונמנע אותו חסיד ולא גדרה ונעשה לו נס ועלתה בו צלף וממנה היתה פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו

We learned in the mishna that one may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or bring produce from outside of the boundary immediately after Shabbat. The Sages taught: There was an incident with a pious man in which a breach was made in the fence around his field, and when he saw it he decided to fence it in. And then he remembered that it was Shabbat. And that pious man refrained from fixing the fence forever because he had thought about fixing it on Shabbat. And a miracle was done for him, and a caper bush grew in the breach, thereby closing it up. And from it and its produce he then received his livelihood and the livelihood of the members of his household.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מותר לאדם לומר לחבירו לכרך פלוני אני הולך למחר שאם יש בורגנין הולך

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A person is permitted to say to another on Shabbat: I am going to such and such city tomorrow, for if there were small guardhouses [burganin] one would be permitted to walk. If small guardhouses, from which the surrounding area and fields could be watched, were located along the way one needs to travel, the entire area would attain the status of a single city, and walking from one part to the other on Shabbat would be permitted ab initio. Since it would be permitted to traverse this area on Shabbat with burganin present, it is permitted to talk about such a journey on Shabbat, even when these guardhouses are not present. This is because it is permitted to speak about or prepare for something that can be done in a permitted fashion on Shabbat, even in the absence of the conditions that make it permitted.

תנן אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור פועלים ולהביא פירות בשלמא לשכור פועלים דבשבת לא מצי אגר אלא להביא פירות לימא שאם יש שם מחיצות מביא משכחת לה בפירות המחוברים

We learned in the mishna: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or bring produce after Shabbat from the other side of the boundary. Granted, it makes sense that it is prohibited to wait at the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers, as one may not hire workers under any circumstances on Shabbat. But if one waits there in order to bring produce, why is it prohibited? Let us say that since one would be permitted to bring produce at the edge of the boundary on Shabbat ab initio if there were partitions there, one may wait for nightfall at the border to bring produce even when there are not partitions present, in accordance with Rav Yehuda’s ruling mentioned above. The Gemara answers: You find a case where bringing produce is not permitted under any circumstances; that is when the produce is still attached to the ground, as there is no permitted way to pick produce on Shabbat.

והתני רבי אושעיא אין מחשיכין על התחום להביא תבן וקש בשלמא קש משכחת לה במחובר אלא תבן היכי משכחת לה בתיבנא סריא

The Gemara again questions Rav Yehuda’s ruling: But Rabbi Oshaya taught: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to bring in hay and straw after Shabbat. Granted, Rabbi Oshaya taught that it is prohibited in the case of straw; you find the case of straw that is still attached to the ground, which it is clearly prohibited to pick under any circumstances. But hay, which has already been detached from the ground, how do you find a case in which it would be prohibited to carry it on Shabbat, even with partitions present? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Oshaya’s ruling referred to rotten straw, which may not be carried on Shabbat because it is considered set-aside [muktze].

תא שמע מחשיכין על התחום לפקח על עסקי כלה ועל עסקי המת על עסקי כלה ומת אין על עסקי אחר לא

Come and hear a proof with regard to this matter based on what was taught elsewhere: One may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to attend to the needs of a bride or the needs of a corpse. The Gemara infers from this that for the needs of a bride or a corpse, yes, one is permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary, but for the needs of another person, no, it is not permitted.

בשלמא אחר דומיא דכלה משכחת לה למיגזא ליה אסא אלא מת מאי ניהו להביא לו ארון ותכריכין וקתני מת אין אבל אחר לא

Granted, with regard to attending to the needs of another in a manner similar to attending to the needs of a bride, you find a case where it is prohibited to cut him a myrtle branch as was customarily done for brides because this is absolutely prohibited on Shabbat. But with regard to a corpse, what is it that one might do which would be prohibited to do for others? To bring for it a coffin and shrouds. And it teaches that for a corpse, yes, it is permitted, but for another it is not.

ואמאי לימא שאם יש שם מחיצות מביא מת נמי משכחת לה למיגזא ליה גלימא:

And why is it prohibited to do so for others? Let us say that since one would be permitted to bring these items on Shabbat if there were partitions there, one may wait for nightfall at the edge of the border to bring these items after Shabbat, in accordance with the ruling of Rav Yehuda. The Gemara answers: In the case of a corpse, you also find a case where bringing an item is prohibited under any circumstance, e.g., if one is waiting to cut a garment for the corpse to use as shrouds. There is no permissible way to do that on Shabbat. In that case, it would be prohibited to wait at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for this purpose if not for the fact that it is for the sake of a corpse, as it is a mitzva to attend to the needs of a corpse.

אבל מחשיכין: ואף על גב דלא אבדיל והאמר רבי אלעזר בן אנטיגנוס משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אסור לו לאדם שיעשה חפציו קודם שיבדיל וכי תימא דאבדיל בתפלה והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס וכי תימא דאבדיל על הכוס כוס בשדה מי איכא תרגמא רבי נתן בר אמי קמיה דרבא בין הגיתות שנו

We learned in the mishna: But one may wait for nightfall at the Shabbat boundary in order to guard one’s produce. The Gemara asks: And is this the case even if he has not recited the blessing of distinction [havdala] marking the end of Shabbat? But didn’t Rabbi Elazar ben Antigonos say in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov that it is prohibited for a person to tend to his weekday affairs after Shabbat before he recites havdala? And if you say that this is referring to a case in which one already recited havdala during prayer, as formulated by the Sages in the blessing of: Who graciously grants knowledge, didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said that one who recites havdala in prayer must still recite havdala over a cup of wine? And if you say that this is an instance in which one already recited havdala over a cup of wine, does one have a cup of wine in the field? Rabbi Natan bar Ami explained this before Rava: They taught this halakha with regard to a unique case in which the edge of the Shabbat boundary was situated among wine presses, and one took wine from the wine press and recited havdala over it.

אמר ליה רבי אבא לרב אשי במערבא אמרינן הכי המבדיל בין קודש לחול ועבדינן צורכין אמר רב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא הוה אמר המבדיל בין קודש לחול ומסלתינן סילתי:

Rabbi Abba said another explanation to Rav Ashi: In the West, in Eretz Yisrael, we say this at the end of Shabbat: The One who distinguishes between the sacred and the mundane, and then we attend to our needs, as reciting havdala over a cup is unnecessary in order to begin doing labor after Shabbat. It is therefore possible that the mishna addressed a similar case. Similarly, Rav Ashi said: When I was in the house of Rav Kahana, he would say: The One who distinguishes between the sacred and the mundane, at the end of Shabbat, and we would cut wood to burn for light and heat.

כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני וכו׳: (איבעיא להו) אבא שאול אהייא אילימא ארישא קאי אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור פועלים להביא פירות

We learned in the mishna: Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake. The Gemara raises a dilemma: To which part of the mishna did Abba Shaul’s statement refer? If you say that it relates to the first clause of the mishna, which taught: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or to bring produce,

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

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Shabbat 150

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Shabbat 150

מדוד והבא ואיכא דאמרי שאמרה מאד מאד הביא בלא מדה

Measure and bring a lot of money, has ceased. And some say that the meaning of the statement is that this nation said: Bring very, very much, without measure.

ורבו יתירה הוספת לי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ירמיה בר אבא מלמד שרכב על ארי זכר וקשר תנין בראשו לקיים מה שנאמר וגם את חית השדה נתתי לו לעבדו:

The Gemara cites another verse pertaining to Nebuchadnezzar: “And surpassing greatness was added unto me” (Daniel 4:33), about which Rav Yehuda said that Rav Yirmeya bar Abba said: This teaches that Nebuchadnezzar rode atop a male lion and tied a serpent to its head, fulfilling what was said of him: “And the beasts of the field I have also given him to serve him” (Jeremiah 27:6).

מתני׳ לא ישכור אדם פועלים בשבת ולא יאמר אדם לחבירו לשכור לו פועלים אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור לו פועלים ולהביא פירות אבל מחשיך הוא לשמור ומביא פירות בידו כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני זכאי באמירתו רשאי אני להחשיך עליו:

MISHNA: A person may not hire workers on Shabbat to work for him after Shabbat because even speaking about weekday matters is prohibited on Shabbat. Similarly, a person may not tell another on Shabbat to hire workers for him. One may not even wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to leave the boundary immediately after Shabbat to hire workers for himself or to bring produce from his field. But he may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to guard his produce that is outside the Shabbat boundary, and he may then bring produce back in his hand, since he did not initially intend to wait at the edge of the boundary for this purpose. Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake.

גמ׳ (פשיטא) מאי שנא הוא ומאי שנא חבירו אמר רב פפא חבר גוי מתקיף לה רב אשי אמירה לגוי שבות

GEMARA: The beginning of the mishna taught that one may not hire workers on Shabbat, and one may not tell another to hire workers for him. The Gemara finds this puzzling and states: This is obvious. What is the difference between him and another? Just as he is prohibited from hiring workers on Shabbat, others are also prohibited from doing so. Rav Pappa said: Another is referring to a gentile. Rav Ashi strongly objects to this: This is itself a prohibition, for telling a gentile to do something that is prohibited for a Jew on Shabbat violates a rabbinic prohibition.

אלא אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא חבירו ישראל הא קא משמע לן לא יאמר אדם לחבירו שכור לי פועלים אבל אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב ומתניתין מני כרבי יהושע בן קרחה דתניא לא יאמר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אומר אדם לחבירו הנראה שתעמוד עמי לערב

Rather, Rav Ashi said: Even if you say that it is referring to another Jew, it can be said that the novel element of this ruling is not the statement itself but what can be derived from it. This is what it is teaching us: One may not say to another explicitly on Shabbat: Hire workers for me, but one may say to another: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? This is permitted even though both of them understand that the questioner intends to hire the other person to work for him. And in accordance with whose opinion is the mishna? It is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; as it was taught in a baraita: A person may not say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: A person may say to another on Shabbat: Does it seem that you will join me this evening?

אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן הלכה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי טעמא דרבי יהושע בן קרחה דכתיב ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר דיבור אסור הרהור מותר

Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa. And Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: What is the reason for Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa’s ruling? As it is written in the verse from which we derive the prohibition to speak on Shabbat about activities that one may not perform on that day: “And you shall honor it by not doing your ways, nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13). We derive from this verse that speaking is prohibited, but merely contemplating these matters is permitted.

רמי ליה רב אחא בר רב הונא לרבא מי אמר רבי יוחנן דיבור אסור הרהור מותר אלמא הרהור לאו כדיבור דמי והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן בכל מקום מותר להרהר חוץ מבית המרחץ ומבית הכסא שאני התם דבעינן והיה מחניך קדוש וליכא

Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna raised a contradiction to Rava: Did Rabbi Yoḥanan really state as a general principle that speaking is prohibited, but contemplating is permitted? Consequently, we can derive from here that contemplation is not tantamount to speech. But Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: It is permitted to think about Torah in any place except for a bathhouse and a bathroom. This statement indicates that contemplation is tantamount to speech, as even thought is prohibited in these locations. The Gemara answers: It is different there, for with regard to Torah we need to fulfill the verse: “For the Lord your God walks in the midst of your camp to deliver you and to give your enemies before you; therefore, your camp shall be sacred so that He see no unseemly thing in you and turn away from you” (Deuteronomy 23:15); and the requirement to be sacred is not fulfilled if one thinks about Torah while in the bathhouse or bathroom.

הכא נמי כתיב ולא יראה בך ערות דבר ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה גוי ערום אסור לקרות קרית שמע כנגדו

The Gemara challenges this: But here, too, with regard to a bathhouse and a bathroom, it is written: “So that He see no unseemly thing [davar] in you” (Deuteronomy 23:15). We can infer that this prohibits speech [dibbur] but not contemplation. The Gemara answers: That verse is not referring to speech. It is needed for the ruling of Rav Yehuda, for Rav Yehuda said: Opposite a naked gentile, it is prohibited to recite Shema, as this is included in the prohibition of unseemly things mentioned above.

מאי איריא גוי אפילו ישראל נמי לא מיבעיא קאמר לא מיבעיא ישראל דאסור אבל גוי כיון דכתיב ביה אשר בשר חמורים בשרם אימא שפיר דמי קא משמע לן

The Gemara asks: Why did Rav Yehuda teach this prohibition particularly with regard to a gentile? Even in the presence of a naked Jew, reciting Shema is also prohibited. The Gemara answers: That ruling is stated employing the style of: There is no need. The Gemara explains: There is no need to state this halakha with regard to a Jew, as it is certainly prohibited to recite Shema in the presence of a naked Jew. However, with regard to a gentile, since it is written about him: “Whose flesh is as the flesh of donkeys” (Ezekiel 23:20), perhaps his flesh is not considered nakedness, and one may say that it seems well and permitted. Therefore, Rav Yehuda teaches us that it is also prohibited to recite Shema before a naked gentile.

אימא הכי נמי אמר קרא וערות אביהם לא ראו

The Gemara asks: Why not say that it is indeed so, that gentile flesh is not considered nakedness? The Gemara rejects this idea: The verse already said with regard to the sons of Noah: “And they walked backward and covered their father’s nakedness, and their faces were turned backward, and they did not see their father’s nakedness” (Genesis 9:23). The verse uses the term nakedness with regard to Noah, who was a gentile.

ודיבור מי אסיר והא רב חסדא ורב המנונא דאמרי תרוייהו חשבונות של מצוה מותר לחשבן בשבת ואמר רבי אלעזר פוסקים צדקה לעניים בשבת ואמר רבי יעקב בר אידי אמר רבי יוחנן מפקחין פיקוח נפש ופיקוח רבים בשבת והולכין לבתי כנסיות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת

The Gemara addresses the basis of the halakha mentioned above: And is it speaking about proscribed activities prohibited on Shabbat? But Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna both said: It is permitted to make calculations pertaining to a mitzva on Shabbat, and Rabbi Elazar said that this means that one may apportion charity for the poor on Shabbat. And Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may attend to activities necessary for saving a life or for communal needs on Shabbat, and one may go to a synagogue to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat.

ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יוחנן הולכין לטרטיאות ולקרקסאות ולבסילקאות לפקח על עסקי רבים בשבת ותנא דבי מנשה משדכין על התינוקות ליארס בשבת ועל התינוק ללמדו ספר וללמדו אומנות אמר קרא ממצוא חפצך ודבר דבר חפציך אסורים חפצי שמים מותרין

And Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said that Rabbi Yoḥanan said: One may go to theaters [tarteiot], and circus performances [kirkesaot], and courthouses [basilkaot] to attend to communal affairs on Shabbat. And one of the Sages in the school of Menashe taught: One may make the necessary arrangements to pair off children so that they will be betrothed on Shabbat, and one may likewise make arrangements for a child by finding someone to teach him how to read books and to teach him a craft. If speaking about monetary matters is prohibited on Shabbat, how is it possible to participate in all these activities? The Gemara answers that although speaking about similar things is generally prohibited on Shabbat, it is permitted in these cases because the verse said: “Nor pursuing your business, nor speaking of it” (Isaiah 58:13), which indicates that your business matters are prohibited to speak of on Shabbat, but the business of Heaven, matters which have religious significance, is permitted to speak of.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל חשבונות של [מלך] ושל מה בכך מותר לחשבן בשבת תניא נמי הכי חשבונות שעברו ושעתידין להיות אסור לחשבן של מלך

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: With regard to calculations of: What is it to you, [mallakh], calculations that are in no way relevant to the person making them, and of: What significance does it have [ma bekhakh], calculations that do not have any practical significance, it is permitted to make them on Shabbat. This was also taught in the Tosefta: Calculations with regard to matters that have passed or that will be in the future may not be calculated on Shabbat. However, with regard to calculations of: What is it to you,

ושל מה בכך מותר לחושבן

and of: What significance does it have, it is permitted to calculate them.

ורמינהו חושבין חשבונות שאינן צריכין ואין מחשבין חשבונות שצריכין בשבת כיצד אומר אדם לחבירו כך וכך פועלים הוצאתי על שדה זו כך וכך דינרין הוצאתי על דירה זו אבל לא יאמר לו כך וכך הוצאתי וכך וכך אני עתיד להוציא

The Gemara raises a contradiction based on what was taught in another baraita: One may make calculations that are unnecessary, but one may not make calculations that are necessary on Shabbat. How so? One may say to another: I sent out such and such number of workers to this field, and I spent such and such number of dinar for this home. But he may not say to him: I spent such and such amount of money, and I am going to spend such and such amount in the future. Apparently, one is permitted to calculate one’s previous expenditures on Shabbat.

ולטעמיך קשיא לך היא גופא אלא הא דאיכא אגרא דאגירא גביה הא דליכא אגרא דאגירא גביה:

The Gemara responds: And according to your reasoning, it itself, the Tosefta quoted previously, is difficult for you, for it prohibits calculating past expenditures while allowing one to make calculations that do not have practical significance. Rather, it must be explained in the following manner: This Tosefta, which taught that it is prohibited to calculate past expenses, is referring to a case in which he has payment with him that he still owes his workers. Therefore, although his calculation pertains to projects that have already been completed, it is still relevant in a practical manner. And this baraita, which taught that it is permitted to calculate past expenses, is referring to a case in which he does not have payment with him that he must still pay his workers, and therefore his calculation does not have practical significance.

אין מחשיכין: תנו רבנן מעשה בחסיד אחד שנפרצה לו פרץ בתוך שדהו ונמלך עליה לגודרה ונזכר ששבת הוא ונמנע אותו חסיד ולא גדרה ונעשה לו נס ועלתה בו צלף וממנה היתה פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו

We learned in the mishna that one may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or bring produce from outside of the boundary immediately after Shabbat. The Sages taught: There was an incident with a pious man in which a breach was made in the fence around his field, and when he saw it he decided to fence it in. And then he remembered that it was Shabbat. And that pious man refrained from fixing the fence forever because he had thought about fixing it on Shabbat. And a miracle was done for him, and a caper bush grew in the breach, thereby closing it up. And from it and its produce he then received his livelihood and the livelihood of the members of his household.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מותר לאדם לומר לחבירו לכרך פלוני אני הולך למחר שאם יש בורגנין הולך

Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: A person is permitted to say to another on Shabbat: I am going to such and such city tomorrow, for if there were small guardhouses [burganin] one would be permitted to walk. If small guardhouses, from which the surrounding area and fields could be watched, were located along the way one needs to travel, the entire area would attain the status of a single city, and walking from one part to the other on Shabbat would be permitted ab initio. Since it would be permitted to traverse this area on Shabbat with burganin present, it is permitted to talk about such a journey on Shabbat, even when these guardhouses are not present. This is because it is permitted to speak about or prepare for something that can be done in a permitted fashion on Shabbat, even in the absence of the conditions that make it permitted.

תנן אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור פועלים ולהביא פירות בשלמא לשכור פועלים דבשבת לא מצי אגר אלא להביא פירות לימא שאם יש שם מחיצות מביא משכחת לה בפירות המחוברים

We learned in the mishna: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or bring produce after Shabbat from the other side of the boundary. Granted, it makes sense that it is prohibited to wait at the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers, as one may not hire workers under any circumstances on Shabbat. But if one waits there in order to bring produce, why is it prohibited? Let us say that since one would be permitted to bring produce at the edge of the boundary on Shabbat ab initio if there were partitions there, one may wait for nightfall at the border to bring produce even when there are not partitions present, in accordance with Rav Yehuda’s ruling mentioned above. The Gemara answers: You find a case where bringing produce is not permitted under any circumstances; that is when the produce is still attached to the ground, as there is no permitted way to pick produce on Shabbat.

והתני רבי אושעיא אין מחשיכין על התחום להביא תבן וקש בשלמא קש משכחת לה במחובר אלא תבן היכי משכחת לה בתיבנא סריא

The Gemara again questions Rav Yehuda’s ruling: But Rabbi Oshaya taught: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to bring in hay and straw after Shabbat. Granted, Rabbi Oshaya taught that it is prohibited in the case of straw; you find the case of straw that is still attached to the ground, which it is clearly prohibited to pick under any circumstances. But hay, which has already been detached from the ground, how do you find a case in which it would be prohibited to carry it on Shabbat, even with partitions present? The Gemara answers: Rabbi Oshaya’s ruling referred to rotten straw, which may not be carried on Shabbat because it is considered set-aside [muktze].

תא שמע מחשיכין על התחום לפקח על עסקי כלה ועל עסקי המת על עסקי כלה ומת אין על עסקי אחר לא

Come and hear a proof with regard to this matter based on what was taught elsewhere: One may wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to attend to the needs of a bride or the needs of a corpse. The Gemara infers from this that for the needs of a bride or a corpse, yes, one is permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary, but for the needs of another person, no, it is not permitted.

בשלמא אחר דומיא דכלה משכחת לה למיגזא ליה אסא אלא מת מאי ניהו להביא לו ארון ותכריכין וקתני מת אין אבל אחר לא

Granted, with regard to attending to the needs of another in a manner similar to attending to the needs of a bride, you find a case where it is prohibited to cut him a myrtle branch as was customarily done for brides because this is absolutely prohibited on Shabbat. But with regard to a corpse, what is it that one might do which would be prohibited to do for others? To bring for it a coffin and shrouds. And it teaches that for a corpse, yes, it is permitted, but for another it is not.

ואמאי לימא שאם יש שם מחיצות מביא מת נמי משכחת לה למיגזא ליה גלימא:

And why is it prohibited to do so for others? Let us say that since one would be permitted to bring these items on Shabbat if there were partitions there, one may wait for nightfall at the edge of the border to bring these items after Shabbat, in accordance with the ruling of Rav Yehuda. The Gemara answers: In the case of a corpse, you also find a case where bringing an item is prohibited under any circumstance, e.g., if one is waiting to cut a garment for the corpse to use as shrouds. There is no permissible way to do that on Shabbat. In that case, it would be prohibited to wait at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for this purpose if not for the fact that it is for the sake of a corpse, as it is a mitzva to attend to the needs of a corpse.

אבל מחשיכין: ואף על גב דלא אבדיל והאמר רבי אלעזר בן אנטיגנוס משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אסור לו לאדם שיעשה חפציו קודם שיבדיל וכי תימא דאבדיל בתפלה והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס וכי תימא דאבדיל על הכוס כוס בשדה מי איכא תרגמא רבי נתן בר אמי קמיה דרבא בין הגיתות שנו

We learned in the mishna: But one may wait for nightfall at the Shabbat boundary in order to guard one’s produce. The Gemara asks: And is this the case even if he has not recited the blessing of distinction [havdala] marking the end of Shabbat? But didn’t Rabbi Elazar ben Antigonos say in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov that it is prohibited for a person to tend to his weekday affairs after Shabbat before he recites havdala? And if you say that this is referring to a case in which one already recited havdala during prayer, as formulated by the Sages in the blessing of: Who graciously grants knowledge, didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said that one who recites havdala in prayer must still recite havdala over a cup of wine? And if you say that this is an instance in which one already recited havdala over a cup of wine, does one have a cup of wine in the field? Rabbi Natan bar Ami explained this before Rava: They taught this halakha with regard to a unique case in which the edge of the Shabbat boundary was situated among wine presses, and one took wine from the wine press and recited havdala over it.

אמר ליה רבי אבא לרב אשי במערבא אמרינן הכי המבדיל בין קודש לחול ועבדינן צורכין אמר רב אשי כי הוינא בי רב כהנא הוה אמר המבדיל בין קודש לחול ומסלתינן סילתי:

Rabbi Abba said another explanation to Rav Ashi: In the West, in Eretz Yisrael, we say this at the end of Shabbat: The One who distinguishes between the sacred and the mundane, and then we attend to our needs, as reciting havdala over a cup is unnecessary in order to begin doing labor after Shabbat. It is therefore possible that the mishna addressed a similar case. Similarly, Rav Ashi said: When I was in the house of Rav Kahana, he would say: The One who distinguishes between the sacred and the mundane, at the end of Shabbat, and we would cut wood to burn for light and heat.

כלל אמר אבא שאול כל שאני וכו׳: (איבעיא להו) אבא שאול אהייא אילימא ארישא קאי אין מחשיכין על התחום לשכור פועלים להביא פירות

We learned in the mishna: Abba Shaul stated a general principle: With regard to anything that I am permitted to discuss on Shabbat, I am permitted to wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary for its sake. The Gemara raises a dilemma: To which part of the mishna did Abba Shaul’s statement refer? If you say that it relates to the first clause of the mishna, which taught: One may not wait for nightfall at the edge of the Shabbat boundary in order to hire workers or to bring produce,

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