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Today's Daf Yomi

April 5, 2020 | 讬状讗 讘谞讬住谉 转砖状驻

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

Shabbat 30

Are there certain circumstances in which we allow one to extinguish a candle on Shabbat? In what circumstances

and why? The gemara brings a long drasha that begins with contradictions between statements of Shlomo’s in Kohelet and statements of David in Tehillim regarding the importance of dead people as compared to live people. This was brought as an intro to answer the question of whether one can extinguish a candle for a sick person on Shabbat. The gemara brings other contradicitions in Kohelet and Mishlei on account of which they wanted to suppress those books, however the gemara found ways to resolve the contradictions.

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转讜讻谉 讝讛 转讜专讙诐 讙诐 诇: 注讘专讬转

讙诪壮 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讞讬讬讘 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 专讬砖讗 讘诪讗讬 注住讬拽谞讗 讗讬 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讬砖 讘讜 住讻谞讛 诪讜转专 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讜讗讬 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讞讬讬讘 讞讟讗转 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

GEMARA: From the fact that it was taught in the latter clause of the mishna that one who extinguishes a flame on Shabbat is liable, conclude from it that this mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that one who performs a prohibited labor on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering even if it is a labor that is not necessary for its own sake [melakha sheeina tzerikha legufa]. In the mishna, one does not extinguish the flame to achieve the product produced by extinguishing it. He does so to prevent the light from shining. If so, with what is the first clause of the mishna dealing? If it is referring to one who extinguished the flame due to a critically ill person, the term exempt is imprecise. It should have said permitted, as it is permitted even ab initio to perform a prohibited labor on Shabbat in a case of danger. And if it is speaking about a non-critically ill person, why is one who extinguished the flame exempt? It should have said that one is liable to bring a sin-offering.

诇注讜诇诐 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讬砖 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讜讘讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讚诇讬转谞讬 诪讜转专 讜讗讬讬讚讬 讚讘注讬 诇诪转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讞讬讬讘 转谞讗 谞诪讬 专讬砖讗 驻讟讜专 讜讛讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诐 讘砖讘讬诇 讛讞讜诇讛 砖讬讬砖谉 诇讗 讬讻讘讛 讜讗诐 讻讘讛 驻讟讜专 讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗:

The Gemara replies: Actually, the first clause was referring to a critically ill person, and it should have taught that it is permitted. And since the latter clause of the mishna had to teach that one is liable, in the first clause too, it taught employing the opposite term, exempt, so that the mishna would maintain stylistic uniformity. The halakha is, indeed, that not only is one exempt if he extinguished a light for a critically ill person, it is even permitted to do so ab initio. The Gemara asks: What of that which Rabbi Oshaya taught: If one wants to extinguish a flame on Shabbat for a sick person so he can sleep, he may not extinguish it, and if he extinguished it, he is not liable after the fact, but ab initio he is prohibited to do so? The Gemara answers: This is not similar, as that baraita is referring to a non-critically ill person and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said that one who performs a prohibited labor not necessary for its own sake is exempt. Our mishna is referring to a critically ill person.

砖讗讜诇 砖讗讬诇讛 讝讜 诇注讬诇讗 诪专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讚诪谉 谞讜讬 诪讛讜 诇讻讘讜转 讘讜爪讬谞讗 讚谞讜专讗 诪拽诪讬 讘讗讬砖讗 讘砖讘转讗 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讗谞转 砖诇诪讛 讗谉 讞讻诪转讱 讗谉 住讜讻诇转谞讜转讱 诇讗 讚讬讬讱 砖讚讘专讬讱 住讜转专讬谉 讚讘专讬 讚讜讚 讗讘讬讱 讗诇讗 砖讚讘专讬讱 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讚讜讚 讗讘讬讱 讗诪专 诇讗 讛诪转讬诐 讬讛诇诇讜 讬讛 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 讜讞讝专转 讜讗诪专转 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转

The Gemara relates: This question was asked before Rabbi Tan岣m from the village of Nevi: What is the ruling with regard to extinguishing a burning lamp before a sick person on Shabbat? The Gemara relates that Rabbi Tan岣m delivered an entire homily touching upon both aggadic and halakhic materials surrounding this question. He began and said: You, King Solomon, where is your wisdom, where is your understanding? Not only do your statements contradict the statements of your father David, but your statements even contradict each other. Your father David said: 鈥淭he dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go down into silence鈥 (Psalms 115:17); and you said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive鈥 (Ecclesiastes 4:2). And then again you said: 鈥淔or a living dog is better than a dead lion鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:4). These are different assessments of life and death.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚拽讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇讗 讛诪转讬诐 讬讛诇诇讜 讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬注住讜拽 讗讚诐 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 拽讜讚诐 砖讬诪讜转 砖讻讬讜谉 砖诪转 讘讟诇 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 讜讗讬谉 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讘讞 讘讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪转讬诐 讞驻砖讬 讻讬讜谉 砖诪转 讗讚诐 谞注砖讛 讞驻砖讬 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转

He resolved the contradictions in the following manner: This is not difficult. That which David said: 鈥淭he dead praise not the Lord,鈥 this is what he is saying: A person should always engage in Torah and mitzvot before he dies, as once he is dead he is idle from Torah and mitzvot and there is no praise for the Holy One, Blessed be He, from him. And that is what Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淪et free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom You remember no more鈥 (Psalms 88:6)? When a person dies he then becomes free of Torah and mitzvot.

讜讚拽讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 砖讻砖讞讟讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 注诪讚 诪砖讛 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 讻诪讛 转驻诇讜转 讜转讞谞讜谞讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 讜讻砖讗诪专 讝讻讜专 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注讘讚讬讱 诪讬讚 谞注谞讛 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 讚讘专 讗讞专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 砖专 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讙讜讝专 讙讝专讛 住驻拽 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 住驻拽 讗讬谉 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讜讗诐 转诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讞讬讬讜 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘诪讜转讜 讗讬谉 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讜讗讬诇讜 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讙讝专 讻诪讛 讙讝讬专讜转 讜转讬拽谉 讻诪讛 转拽谞讜转 讜拽讬讬诪讜转 讛诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜诇注讜诇诪讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 讜讙讜壮

And that which Solomon said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead鈥; he was not speaking of all dead people, but rather in praise of certain dead people. As when Israel sinned in the desert, Moses stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and he said several prayers and supplications before Him, and his prayers were not answered. And when he said: 鈥淩emember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Your servants鈥 (Exodus 32:13), his prayers were answered immediately. Consequently, did Solomon not speak appropriately when he said: 鈥淲herefore I praised the dead that are already dead鈥? Certainly the merit of the deceased forefathers is greater than that of the righteous people who are alive. Alternatively, the way of the world is such that when a flesh-and-blood prince issues a decree on the public it is uncertain whether they fulfill it and uncertain whether they do not fulfill it. And even if you want to say that they fulfill it, it is only during his lifetime that they fulfill it; after he dies they do not fulfill it. But Moses our teacher issued several decrees and instituted several ordinances, and they are in effect forever and ever. And, if so, is it not appropriate that which Solomon said: 鈥淲herefore I praised the dead that are already dead鈥?

讚讘专 讗讞专 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 注诪讬 讗讜转 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讬专讗讜 砖讜谞讗讬 讜讬讘讜砖讜 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讞讜诇 诇讬 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讞讜诇 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讜 注砖讛 注诪讬 讗讜转 讘讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讞讬讬讱 讗讬谞讬 诪讜讚讬注 讘讞讬讬 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 讗谞讬 诪讜讚讬注

Alternatively, another explanation is given for the verse: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead,鈥 is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of the verse that was written: 鈥淲ork on my behalf a sign for good; that they that hate me may see it, and be put to shame鈥 (Psalms 86:17)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, forgive me for that sin in the matter of Bathsheba. He said to him: It is forgiven you. David said to Him: Show me a sign in my lifetime so that all will know that You have forgiven me. God said to him: In your lifetime I will not make it known that you were forgiven; however, in the lifetime of your son Solomon I will make it known.

讻砖讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讬拽砖 诇讛讻谞讬住 讗专讜谉 诇讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讚讘拽讜 砖注专讬诐 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专谞谞讜转 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 砖讗讜 砖注专讬诐 专讗砖讬讻诐 讜讛谞砖讗讜 驻转讞讬 注讜诇诐 讜讬讘讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 专讛讟讜 讘转专讬讛 诇诪讬讘诇注讬讛 讗诪专讜 诪讬 讛讜讗 讝讛 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛壮 注讝讜讝 讜讙讘讜专 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 砖讗讜 砖注专讬诐 专讗砖讬讻诐 讜砖讗讜 驻转讞讬 注讜诇诐 讜讬讘讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 诪讬 讛讜讗 讝讛 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讛讜讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 住诇讛 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 讻讬讜谉 砖讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗诇 转砖讘 驻谞讬 诪砖讬讞讱 讝讻专讛 诇讞住讚讬 讚讜讚 注讘讚讱 诪讬讚 谞注谞讛 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 谞讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬 讻诇 砖讜谞讗讬 讚讜讚 讻砖讜诇讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜讬讚注讜 讻诇 讛注诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪讞诇 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜

When Solomon built the Temple and sought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung together and could not be opened. Solomon uttered twenty-four songs of praise, as in his prayer there are twenty-four expressions of prayer, song, etc. (I Kings 8), and his prayer was not answered. He began and said: 鈥淟ift up your heads, O you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in鈥 (Psalms 24:7). Immediately, the gates ran after him to swallow him, as they thought that in the words: 鈥淜ing of glory鈥 he was referring to himself, and they said to him: 鈥淲ho is the King of glory?鈥 (Psalms 24:8). He said to them: 鈥淭he Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle鈥 (Psalms 24:8). And he said again: 鈥淟ift up your heads, O you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah鈥 (Psalms 24:9鈥10), and he was not answered. When he said: 鈥淥 Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant鈥 (II Chronicles 6:42), he was immediately answered, and a fire descended from Heaven (II Chronicles 7:1). At that moment, the faces of all of David鈥檚 enemies turned dark like the charred bottom of a pot. And all of Israel knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, forgave him for that sin. And if so, is it not appropriate what Solomon said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead,鈥 David, more than the living, Solomon, to whose request to open the gates of the Temple God did not respond?

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诪讬谞讬 砖诇讞 讗转 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻讜 讗转 讛诪诇讱 讜讬诇讻讜 诇讗讛诇讬讛诐 砖诪讞讬诐 讜讟讜讘讬 诇讘 注诇 讻诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 注砖讛 讛壮 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 讜讬诇讻讜 诇讗讛诇讬讛诐 砖诪爪讗讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 讘讟讛专讛 砖诪讞讬诐 砖谞讛谞讜 诪讝讬讜 讛砖讻讬谞讛 讜讟讜讘讬 诇讘 砖谞转注讘专讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讜讬诇讚讛 讝讻专 注诇 讻诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 注砖讛 讛壮 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜 (讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜) 砖诪讞诇 诇讜 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 讚讗讞讬诇 诇讛讜 注讜谉 讚讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

And that is what is written: 鈥淥n the eighth day he sent the people away, and they blessed the king, and went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that the Lord had shown unto David His servant and to Israel His people鈥 (I Kings 8:66). The Gemara explains: And went unto their tents, in accordance with the common expression: One鈥檚 house is his wife. It is explained that when they returned home they found their wives ritually pure from the ritual impurity of menstruation. Joyful means that they enjoyed the aura of the Divine Presence at the dedication of the Temple. And glad of heart means that the wife of each and every one of them was impregnated and gave birth to a male. The verse continues: For all the goodness that the Lord had shown unto David His servant and to Israel His people. Unto David His servant means that at that opportunity they all saw that God forgave him for that sin. And to Israel His people means that He forgave them for the sin of Yom Kippur, as they did not fast that year (see I Kings 8:65).

讜讚拽讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛讜讚讬注谞讬 讛壮 拽爪讬 讜诪讚转 讬诪讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 讗讚注讛 诪讛 讞讚诇 讗谞讬 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讚讬注谞讬 讛壮 拽爪讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讙讝专讛 讛讬讗 诪诇驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 拽爪讜 砖诇 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讜诪讚转 讬诪讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 讙讝专讛 讛讬讗 诪诇驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 诪讚转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜讗讚注讛 诪讛 讞讚诇 讗谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘砖讘转 转诪讜转 讗诪讜转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讘专 讛讙讬注 诪诇讻讜转 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗 讗诪讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讬讜诐 讘讞爪专讬讱 诪讗诇祝 讟讜讘 诇讬 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 砖讗转讛 讬讜砖讘 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 诪讗诇祝 注讜诇讜转 砖注转讬讚 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 诇讛拽专讬讘 诇驻谞讬 注诇 讙讘讬 讛诪讝讘讞

The Gemara continues: And that which Solomon said: 鈥淔or a living dog is better than a dead lion鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:4), is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that verse which David said: 鈥淟ord, make me to know my end, and the measure of my days, what it is; let me know how short-lived I am鈥 (Psalms 39:5)? It means that David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Lord, make me to know my end; in how long will I die? God said to him: It is decreed before Me that I do not reveal the end of the life of flesh and blood. He asked further: And the measure of my days; on what day of the year will I die? He said to him: It is decreed before Me not to reveal the measure of a person鈥檚 days. Again he requested: Let me know how short-lived I am; on what day of the week will I die? He said to him: You will die on Shabbat. David requested of God: Let me die on the first day of the week so that the honor of Shabbat will not be tarnished by the pain of death. He said to him: On that day the time of the kingdom of your son Solomon has already arrived, and one kingdom does not overlap with another and subtract from the time allotted to another even a hairbreadth. He said to him: I will cede a day of my life and die on Shabbat eve. God said to him: 鈥淔or a day in your courts is better than a thousand鈥 (Psalms 84:11); a single day in which you sit and engage in Torah is preferable to Me than the thousand burnt-offerings that your son Solomon will offer before Me on the altar (see I Kings 3:4).

讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讘转讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讜讙专讬住 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 拽诐 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 拽诪讬讛 讜诇讗 讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 驻住拽 驻讜诪讬讛 诪讙讬专住讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讗注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讘讜住转谞讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转讬讛 讗转讗 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 住诇讬拽 讜讘讞讬砖 讘讗讬诇谞讬 谞驻拽 诇诪讬讞讝讬 讛讜讛 住诇讬拽 讘讚专讙讗 讗讬驻讞讬转 讚专讙讗 诪转讜转讬讛 讗讬砖转讬拽 讜谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛

What did David do? Every Shabbat he would sit and learn all day long to protect himself from the Angel of Death. On that day on which the Angel of Death was supposed to put his soul to rest, the day on which David was supposed to die, the Angel of Death stood before him and was unable to overcome him because his mouth did not pause from study. The Angel of Death said: What shall I do to him? David had a garden [bustana] behind his house; the Angel of Death came, climbed, and shook the trees. David went out to see. As he climbed the stair, the stair broke beneath him. He was startled and was silent, interrupted his studies for a moment, and died.

砖诇讞 砖诇诪讛 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗讘讗 诪转 讜诪讜讟诇 讘讞诪讛 讜讻诇讘讬诐 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 专注讘讬诐 诪讛 讗注砖讛 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 讞转讜讱 谞讘诇讛 讜讛谞讞 诇驻谞讬 讛讻诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘讬讱 讛谞讞 注诇讬讜 讻讻专 讗讜 转讬谞讜拽 讜讟诇讟诇讜 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转 讜诇注谞讬谉 砖讗讬诇讛 讚砖讗讬诇谞讗 拽讚诪讬讻讜谉 谞专 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 讜谞砖诪转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 诪讜讟讘 转讻讘讛 谞专 砖诇 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪驻谞讬 谞专讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗:

Since David died in the garden, Solomon sent the following question to the study hall: Father died and is lying in the sun, and the dogs of father鈥檚 house are hungry. There is room for concern lest the dogs come and harm his body. What shall I do? They sent an answer to him: Cut up an animal carcass and place it before the dogs. Since the dogs are hungry, handling the animal carcass to feed them is permitted. And with regard to your father, it is prohibited to move his body directly. Place a loaf of bread or an infant on top of him, and you can move him into the shade due to the bread or the infant. And is it not appropriate what Solomon said: 鈥For a living dog is better than a dead lion.鈥 The ultimate conclusion of this discussion is that life is preferable to death. And now, with regard to the question that I asked before you; Rav Tan岣m spoke modestly, as, actually, they had asked him the question. A lamp is called ner and a person鈥檚 soul is also called ner, as it is written: 鈥淭he spirit of man is the lamp [ner] of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 20:27). It is preferable that the lamp of a being of flesh and blood, an actual lamp, will be extinguished in favor of the lamp of the Holy One, Blessed be He, a person鈥檚 soul. Therefore, one is permitted to extinguish a flame for the sake of a sick person.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讘拽砖讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讙谞讜讝 住驻专 拽讛诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 讙谞讝讜讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖转讞讬诇转讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜住讜驻讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 转讞讬诇转讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬转专讜谉 诇讗讚诐 讘讻诇 注诪诇讜 砖讬注诪讜诇 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讜讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讛讜讗 讚讗讬谉 诇讜 拽讜讚诐 砖诪砖 讬砖 诇讜 住讜驻讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 住讜祝 讚讘专 讛讻诇 谞砖诪注 讗转 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讬专讗 讜讗转 诪爪讜转讬讜 砖诪讜专 讻讬 讝讛 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 诪讗讬 讻讬 讝讛 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讝讛 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 砖拽讜诇 讝讛 讻谞讙讚 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讗讜诪专 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讗诇讗 诇爪讜讜转 诇讝讛

Since contradictions in Ecclesiastes were mentioned, the Gemara cites additional relevant sources. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: The Sages sought to suppress the book of Ecclesiastes and declare it apocryphal because its statements contradict each other and it is liable to confuse its readers. And why did they not suppress it? Because its beginning consists of matters of Torah and its end consists of matters of Torah. The ostensibly contradictory details are secondary to the essence of the book, which is Torah. The Gemara elaborates: Its beginning consists of matters of Torah, as it is written: 鈥淲hat profit has man of all his labor which he labors under the sun?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:3), and the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: By inference: Under the sun is where man has no profit from his labor; however, before the sun, i.e., when engaged in the study of Torah, which preceded the sun, he does have profit. Its ending consists of matters of Torah, as it is written: 鈥淭he end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His mitzvot; for this is the whole man鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:13). With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: For this is the whole man? Rabbi Eliezer said: The entire world was only created for this person. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: This person is equivalent to the entire world. Shimon ben Azzai says and some say that Shimon ben Zoma says: The entire world was only created as companion to this man, so that he will not be alone.

讜诪讗讬 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讻转讬讘 讟讜讘 讻注住 诪砖讞讜拽 讜讻转讬讘 诇砖讞讜拽 讗诪专转讬 诪讛诇诇 讻转讬讘 讜砖讘讞转讬 讗谞讬 讗转 讛砖诪讞讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜诇砖诪讞讛 诪讛 讝讛 注讜砖讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讟讜讘 讻注住 诪砖讞讜拽 讟讜讘 讻注住 砖讻讜注住 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诪砖讞讜拽 砖诪砖讞拽 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讛专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇砖讞讜拽 讗诪专转讬 诪讛诇诇 讝讛 砖讞讜拽 砖诪砖讞拽 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

And to the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Its statements that contradict each other? It is written: 鈥淰exation is better than laughter鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:3), and it is written: 鈥淚 said of laughter: It is praiseworthy鈥 (Ecclesiastes 2:2), which is understood to mean that laughter is commendable. Likewise in one verse it is written: 鈥淪o I commended mirth鈥 (Ecclesiastes 8:15), and in another verse it is written: 鈥淎nd of mirth: What does it accomplish?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 2:2). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as the contradiction can be resolved. Vexation is better than laughter means: The vexation of the Holy One, Blessed be He, toward the righteous in this world is preferable to the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the wicked in this world by showering them with goodness. I said of laughter: It is praiseworthy, that is the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the righteous in the World-to-Come.

讜砖讘讞转讬 讗谞讬 讗转 讛砖诪讞讛 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诇砖诪讞讛 诪讛 讝讛 注讜砖讛 讝讜 砖诪讞讛 砖讗讬谞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗讬谉 砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪讘讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪诇讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讞讜拽 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讬讞讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 拽讞讜 诇讬 诪谞讙谉 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讙谉 讛诪谞讙谉 讜转讛讬 注诇讬讜 讬讚 讛壮 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻谉 诇讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讻谉 诇讞诇讜诐 讟讜讘

Similarly, 鈥So I commended mirth,鈥 that is the joy of a mitzva. 鈥淎nd of mirth: What does it accomplish?鈥 that is joy that is not the joy of a mitzva. The praise of joy mentioned here is to teach you that the Divine Presence rests upon an individual neither from an atmosphere of sadness, nor from an atmosphere of laziness, nor from an atmosphere of laughter, nor from an atmosphere of frivolity, nor from an atmosphere of idle conversation, nor from an atmosphere of idle chatter, but rather from an atmosphere imbued with the joy of a mitzva. As it was stated with regard to Elisha that after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: 鈥淏ut now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him鈥 (II Kings 3:15). Rav Yehuda said: And, so too, one should be joyful before stating a matter of halakha. Rava said: And, so too, one should be joyful before going to sleep in order to have a good dream.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖讬讜砖讘 诇驻谞讬 专讘讜 讜讗讬谉 砖驻转讜转讬讜 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪专 转讻讜讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇讗 诪专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜讛讗 讘转诇诪讬讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇驻转讞 讛讗 诇讘转专 讚驻转讞 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘讚讬讞讜转讗 讜讘讚讞讬 专讘谞谉 诇住讜祝 讬转讬讘 讘讗讬诪转讗 讜驻转讞 讘砖诪注转讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so, that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully? Didn鈥檛 Rav Giddel say that Rav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with myrrh due to fear of his teacher, those lips shall be burnt, as it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are as lilies, dripping with flowing myrrh [shoshanim notefot mor over]鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13)? He interpreted homiletically: Do not read mor over, flowing myrrh; rather, read mar over, flowing bitterness. Likewise, do not read shoshanim, lilies; rather, read sheshonim, that are studying, meaning that lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness. The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, there is no contradiction here, as this, where it was taught that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully, is referring to a rabbi, and that, where it was taught that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring to a student, who must listen to his teacher with trepidation. And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to a rabbi, and it is not difficult. This, where it was taught that he must be joyful, is before he begins teaching, whereas that, where it was taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is after he already began teaching halakha. That explanation is like that which Rabba did. Before he began teaching halakha to the Sages, he would say something humorous and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and began teaching the halakha.

讜讗祝 住驻专 诪砖诇讬 讘拽砖讜 诇讙谞讜讝 砖讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 讙谞讝讜讛讜 讗诪专讬 住驻专 拽讛诇转 诇讗讜 注讬讬谞讬谞谉 讜讗砖讻讞讬谞谉 讟注诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诇讬注讬讬谞谉 讜诪讗讬 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬诐 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讻转讬讘 讗诇 转注谉 讻住讬诇 讻讗讜诇转讜 讜讻转讬讘 注谞讛 讻住讬诇 讻讗讜诇转讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗

And, the Gemara continues, the Sages sought to suppress the book of Proverbs as well because its statements contradict each other. And why did they not suppress it? They said: In the case of the book of Ecclesiastes, didn鈥檛 we analyze it and find an explanation that its statements were not contradictory? Here too, let us analyze it. And what is the meaning of: Its statements contradict each other? On the one hand, it is written: 鈥淎nswer not a fool according to his folly, lest you also be like him鈥 (Proverbs 26:4), and on the other hand, it is written: 鈥淎nswer a fool according to his folly, lest he be wise in his own eyes鈥 (Proverbs 26:5). The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction: This is not difficult, as this, where one should answer a fool, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims about Torah matters; whereas that, where one should not answer him, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims about mundane matters.

讻讬 讛讗 讚讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖转讱 讗砖转讬 讜讘谞讬讱 讘谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专爪讜谞讱 砖转砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 砖转讛 讜驻拽注 讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讱 讗砖转讬 讜讗转讛 讘谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专爪讜谞讱 砖转砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 砖转讛 讜驻拽注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗讛谞讬讗 诇讬讛 爪诇讜转讬讛 诇专讘讬 讚诇讗 诇砖讜讜讬讬讛 讘谞讬 诪诪讝讬专讬 讚专讘讬 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 砖转爪讬诇谞讬 讛讬讜诐 诪注讝讬 驻谞讬诐 讜诪注讝讜转 驻谞讬诐

The Gemara relates how Sages conducted themselves in both of those circumstances. As in the case of that man who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and said to him: Your wife is my wife and your children are my children, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Would you like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burst and died. Similarly, the Gemara relates: There was that man who came before Rabbi 岣yya and said to him: Your mother is my wife, and you are my son. He said to him: Would you like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burst and died. Rabbi 岣yya said with regard to the incident involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 prayer that his children will not be rendered mamzerim, children of illicit relations, was effective for him. As when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would pray, he said after his prayer: May it be Your will, O Lord, my God, that You will deliver me today from impudent people and from insolence. Insolence, in this case, refers to mamzerut. It was due to his prayer that that man burst and was unsuccessful in disparaging Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 children.

讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讛 讗砖讛 砖转诇讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛专讛 讜讬讜诇讚转 讬讞讚讬讜 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 转专谞讙讜诇转

In matters of Torah, what is the case with regard to which the verse said that one should respond to a fool鈥檚 folly? As in the case where Rabban Gamliel was sitting and he interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, in the World-to-Come, a woman will give birth every day, as it says: 鈥淭he woman with child and her that gives birth together鈥 (Jeremiah 31:7), explaining that birth will occur on the same day as conception. A certain student scoffed at him and said: That cannot be, as it has already been stated: 鈥淭here is nothing new under the sun鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:9). Rabban Gamliel said to him: Come and I will show you an example of this in this world. He took him outside and showed him a chicken that lays eggs every day.

讜转讜 讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讬诐 讗讬诇谞讜转 砖诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 驻讬专讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞砖讗 注谞祝 讜注砖讛 驻专讬 诪讛 注谞祝 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讗祝 驻专讬 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗诪专 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 爪诇祝

And furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, in the World-to-Come, trees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit鈥 (Ezekiel 17:23); just as a branch grows every day, so too, fruit will be produced every day. A certain student scoffed at him and said: Isn鈥檛 it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an example of this in this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush, part of which is edible during each season of the year.

讜转讜 讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖转讜爪讬讗 讙诇讜住拽讗讜转 讜讻诇讬 诪讬诇转 砖谞讗诪专 讬讛讬 驻住转 讘专 讘讗专抓 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讜讗诪专 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 讻诪讬讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜讗讻诇讬 诪讬诇转 谞讘专讗 讘专 拽讜专讗:

And furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, the World-to-Come, Eretz Yisrael will produce cakes and fine wool garments that will grow in the ground, as it is stated: 鈥淟et abundant grain be in the land.鈥 A certain student scoffed at him and said: There is nothing new under the sun. He said to him: Come and I will show you an example in this world. He went outside and showed him truffles and mushrooms, which emerge from the earth over the course of a single night and are shaped like a loaf of bread. And with regard to wool garments, he showed him the covering of a heart of palm, a young palm branch, which is wrapped in a thin net-like covering.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 注谞讜讜转谉 讻讛诇诇 讜讗诇 讬讛讗 拽驻讚谉 讻砖诪讗讬 诪注砖讛 讘砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐

Since the Gemara discussed the forbearance of Sages, who remain silent in the face of nonsensical comments, it cites additional relevant examples. The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should always be patient like Hillel and not impatient like Shammai. The Gemara related: There was an incident involving two people

Masechet Shabbat is sponsored in memory of Elliot Freilich, Eliyahu Daniel ben Bar Tzion David Halevi z"l by a group of women from Kehilath Jeshurun, Manhattan.

  • This month's learning is dedicated by Debbie and Yossi Gevir to Rabbanit Michelle and the Hadran Zoom group for their kindness, support, and care during a medically challenging year.

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Shabbat 30

讙诪壮 诪讚拽转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讞讬讬讘 砖诪注 诪讬谞讛 专讘讬 讬讛讜讚讛 讛讬讗 专讬砖讗 讘诪讗讬 注住讬拽谞讗 讗讬 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讬砖 讘讜 住讻谞讛 诪讜转专 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛 讜讗讬 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讞讬讬讘 讞讟讗转 诪讬讘注讬 诇讬讛

GEMARA: From the fact that it was taught in the latter clause of the mishna that one who extinguishes a flame on Shabbat is liable, conclude from it that this mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, who holds that one who performs a prohibited labor on Shabbat is liable to bring a sin-offering even if it is a labor that is not necessary for its own sake [melakha sheeina tzerikha legufa]. In the mishna, one does not extinguish the flame to achieve the product produced by extinguishing it. He does so to prevent the light from shining. If so, with what is the first clause of the mishna dealing? If it is referring to one who extinguished the flame due to a critically ill person, the term exempt is imprecise. It should have said permitted, as it is permitted even ab initio to perform a prohibited labor on Shabbat in a case of danger. And if it is speaking about a non-critically ill person, why is one who extinguished the flame exempt? It should have said that one is liable to bring a sin-offering.

诇注讜诇诐 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讬砖 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讜讘讚讬谉 讛讜讗 讚诇讬转谞讬 诪讜转专 讜讗讬讬讚讬 讚讘注讬 诇诪转谞讬 住讬驻讗 讞讬讬讘 转谞讗 谞诪讬 专讬砖讗 驻讟讜专 讜讛讚转谞讬 专讘讬 讗讜砖注讬讗 讗诐 讘砖讘讬诇 讛讞讜诇讛 砖讬讬砖谉 诇讗 讬讻讘讛 讜讗诐 讻讘讛 驻讟讜专 讗讘诇 讗住讜专 讛讛讬讗 讘讞讜诇讛 砖讗讬谉 讘讜 住讻谞讛 讜专讘讬 砖诪注讜谉 讛讬讗:

The Gemara replies: Actually, the first clause was referring to a critically ill person, and it should have taught that it is permitted. And since the latter clause of the mishna had to teach that one is liable, in the first clause too, it taught employing the opposite term, exempt, so that the mishna would maintain stylistic uniformity. The halakha is, indeed, that not only is one exempt if he extinguished a light for a critically ill person, it is even permitted to do so ab initio. The Gemara asks: What of that which Rabbi Oshaya taught: If one wants to extinguish a flame on Shabbat for a sick person so he can sleep, he may not extinguish it, and if he extinguished it, he is not liable after the fact, but ab initio he is prohibited to do so? The Gemara answers: This is not similar, as that baraita is referring to a non-critically ill person and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon, who said that one who performs a prohibited labor not necessary for its own sake is exempt. Our mishna is referring to a critically ill person.

砖讗讜诇 砖讗讬诇讛 讝讜 诇注讬诇讗 诪专讘讬 转谞讞讜诐 讚诪谉 谞讜讬 诪讛讜 诇讻讘讜转 讘讜爪讬谞讗 讚谞讜专讗 诪拽诪讬 讘讗讬砖讗 讘砖讘转讗 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 讗谞转 砖诇诪讛 讗谉 讞讻诪转讱 讗谉 住讜讻诇转谞讜转讱 诇讗 讚讬讬讱 砖讚讘专讬讱 住讜转专讬谉 讚讘专讬 讚讜讚 讗讘讬讱 讗诇讗 砖讚讘专讬讱 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讚讜讚 讗讘讬讱 讗诪专 诇讗 讛诪转讬诐 讬讛诇诇讜 讬讛 讜讗转 讗诪专转 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 讜讞讝专转 讜讗诪专转 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转

The Gemara relates: This question was asked before Rabbi Tan岣m from the village of Nevi: What is the ruling with regard to extinguishing a burning lamp before a sick person on Shabbat? The Gemara relates that Rabbi Tan岣m delivered an entire homily touching upon both aggadic and halakhic materials surrounding this question. He began and said: You, King Solomon, where is your wisdom, where is your understanding? Not only do your statements contradict the statements of your father David, but your statements even contradict each other. Your father David said: 鈥淭he dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go down into silence鈥 (Psalms 115:17); and you said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive鈥 (Ecclesiastes 4:2). And then again you said: 鈥淔or a living dog is better than a dead lion鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:4). These are different assessments of life and death.

诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讚拽讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇讗 讛诪转讬诐 讬讛诇诇讜 讬讛 讛讻讬 拽讗诪专 诇注讜诇诐 讬注住讜拽 讗讚诐 讘转讜专讛 讜讘诪爪讜转 拽讜讚诐 砖讬诪讜转 砖讻讬讜谉 砖诪转 讘讟诇 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转 讜讗讬谉 诇讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 砖讘讞 讘讜 讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讗诪专 专讘讬 讬讜讞谞谉 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讘诪转讬诐 讞驻砖讬 讻讬讜谉 砖诪转 讗讚诐 谞注砖讛 讞驻砖讬 诪谉 讛转讜专讛 讜诪谉 讛诪爪讜转

He resolved the contradictions in the following manner: This is not difficult. That which David said: 鈥淭he dead praise not the Lord,鈥 this is what he is saying: A person should always engage in Torah and mitzvot before he dies, as once he is dead he is idle from Torah and mitzvot and there is no praise for the Holy One, Blessed be He, from him. And that is what Rabbi Yo岣nan said: What is the meaning of that which is written: 鈥淪et free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom You remember no more鈥 (Psalms 88:6)? When a person dies he then becomes free of Torah and mitzvot.

讜讚拽讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 砖讻砖讞讟讗讜 讬砖专讗诇 讘诪讚讘专 注诪讚 诪砖讛 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 讜讗诪专 讻诪讛 转驻诇讜转 讜转讞谞讜谞讬诐 诇驻谞讬讜 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 讜讻砖讗诪专 讝讻讜专 诇讗讘专讛诐 诇讬爪讞拽 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注讘讚讬讱 诪讬讚 谞注谞讛 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜 讚讘专 讗讞专 诪谞讛讙讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 砖专 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讙讜讝专 讙讝专讛 住驻拽 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 住驻拽 讗讬谉 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讜讗诐 转诪爪讬 诇讜诪专 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘讞讬讬讜 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讘诪讜转讜 讗讬谉 诪拽讬讬诪讬谉 讗讜转讛 讜讗讬诇讜 诪砖讛 专讘讬谞讜 讙讝专 讻诪讛 讙讝讬专讜转 讜转讬拽谉 讻诪讛 转拽谞讜转 讜拽讬讬诪讜转 讛诐 诇注讜诇诐 讜诇注讜诇诪讬 注讜诇诪讬诐 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 讜讙讜壮

And that which Solomon said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead鈥; he was not speaking of all dead people, but rather in praise of certain dead people. As when Israel sinned in the desert, Moses stood before the Holy One, Blessed be He, and he said several prayers and supplications before Him, and his prayers were not answered. And when he said: 鈥淩emember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, Your servants鈥 (Exodus 32:13), his prayers were answered immediately. Consequently, did Solomon not speak appropriately when he said: 鈥淲herefore I praised the dead that are already dead鈥? Certainly the merit of the deceased forefathers is greater than that of the righteous people who are alive. Alternatively, the way of the world is such that when a flesh-and-blood prince issues a decree on the public it is uncertain whether they fulfill it and uncertain whether they do not fulfill it. And even if you want to say that they fulfill it, it is only during his lifetime that they fulfill it; after he dies they do not fulfill it. But Moses our teacher issued several decrees and instituted several ordinances, and they are in effect forever and ever. And, if so, is it not appropriate that which Solomon said: 鈥淲herefore I praised the dead that are already dead鈥?

讚讘专 讗讞专 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讜讙讜壮 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 注砖讛 注诪讬 讗讜转 诇讟讜讘讛 讜讬专讗讜 砖讜谞讗讬 讜讬讘讜砖讜 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 诪讞讜诇 诇讬 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讗诪专 诇讜 诪讞讜诇 诇讱 讗诪专 诇讜 注砖讛 注诪讬 讗讜转 讘讞讬讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘讞讬讬讱 讗讬谞讬 诪讜讚讬注 讘讞讬讬 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 讗谞讬 诪讜讚讬注

Alternatively, another explanation is given for the verse: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead,鈥 is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of the verse that was written: 鈥淲ork on my behalf a sign for good; that they that hate me may see it, and be put to shame鈥 (Psalms 86:17)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, forgive me for that sin in the matter of Bathsheba. He said to him: It is forgiven you. David said to Him: Show me a sign in my lifetime so that all will know that You have forgiven me. God said to him: In your lifetime I will not make it known that you were forgiven; however, in the lifetime of your son Solomon I will make it known.

讻砖讘谞讛 砖诇诪讛 讗转 讘讬转 讛诪拽讚砖 讘讬拽砖 诇讛讻谞讬住 讗专讜谉 诇讘讬转 拽讚砖讬 讛拽讚砖讬诐 讚讘拽讜 砖注专讬诐 讝讛 讘讝讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 注砖专讬诐 讜讗专讘注讛 专谞谞讜转 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 驻转讞 讜讗诪专 砖讗讜 砖注专讬诐 专讗砖讬讻诐 讜讛谞砖讗讜 驻转讞讬 注讜诇诐 讜讬讘讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 专讛讟讜 讘转专讬讛 诇诪讬讘诇注讬讛 讗诪专讜 诪讬 讛讜讗 讝讛 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 讗诪专 诇讛讜 讛壮 注讝讜讝 讜讙讘讜专 讞讝专 讜讗诪专 砖讗讜 砖注专讬诐 专讗砖讬讻诐 讜砖讗讜 驻转讞讬 注讜诇诐 讜讬讘讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 诪讬 讛讜讗 讝讛 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 讛壮 爪讘讗讜转 讛讜讗 诪诇讱 讛讻讘讜讚 住诇讛 讜诇讗 谞注谞讛 讻讬讜谉 砖讗诪专 讛壮 讗诇讛讬诐 讗诇 转砖讘 驻谞讬 诪砖讬讞讱 讝讻专讛 诇讞住讚讬 讚讜讚 注讘讚讱 诪讬讚 谞注谞讛 讘讗讜转讛 砖注讛 谞讛驻讻讜 驻谞讬 讻诇 砖讜谞讗讬 讚讜讚 讻砖讜诇讬 拽讚讬专讛 讜讬讚注讜 讻诇 讛注诐 讜讻诇 讬砖专讗诇 砖诪讞诇 诇讜 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讜砖讘讞 讗谞讬 讗转 讛诪转讬诐 砖讻讘专 诪转讜

When Solomon built the Temple and sought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung together and could not be opened. Solomon uttered twenty-four songs of praise, as in his prayer there are twenty-four expressions of prayer, song, etc. (I Kings 8), and his prayer was not answered. He began and said: 鈥淟ift up your heads, O you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in鈥 (Psalms 24:7). Immediately, the gates ran after him to swallow him, as they thought that in the words: 鈥淜ing of glory鈥 he was referring to himself, and they said to him: 鈥淲ho is the King of glory?鈥 (Psalms 24:8). He said to them: 鈥淭he Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle鈥 (Psalms 24:8). And he said again: 鈥淟ift up your heads, O you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah鈥 (Psalms 24:9鈥10), and he was not answered. When he said: 鈥淥 Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant鈥 (II Chronicles 6:42), he was immediately answered, and a fire descended from Heaven (II Chronicles 7:1). At that moment, the faces of all of David鈥檚 enemies turned dark like the charred bottom of a pot. And all of Israel knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, forgave him for that sin. And if so, is it not appropriate what Solomon said: 鈥淎nd I praised the dead that are already dead,鈥 David, more than the living, Solomon, to whose request to open the gates of the Temple God did not respond?

讜讛讬讬谞讜 讚讻转讬讘 讘讬讜诐 讛砖诪讬谞讬 砖诇讞 讗转 讛注诐 讜讬讘专讻讜 讗转 讛诪诇讱 讜讬诇讻讜 诇讗讛诇讬讛诐 砖诪讞讬诐 讜讟讜讘讬 诇讘 注诇 讻诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 注砖讛 讛壮 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 讜讬诇讻讜 诇讗讛诇讬讛诐 砖诪爪讗讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 讘讟讛专讛 砖诪讞讬诐 砖谞讛谞讜 诪讝讬讜 讛砖讻讬谞讛 讜讟讜讘讬 诇讘 砖谞转注讘专讜 谞砖讜转讬讛谉 砖诇 讻诇 讗讞讚 讜讗讞讚 讜讬诇讚讛 讝讻专 注诇 讻诇 讛讟讜讘讛 讗砖专 注砖讛 讛壮 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜 (讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 诇讚讜讚 注讘讚讜) 砖诪讞诇 诇讜 注诇 讗讜转讜 注讜谉 讜诇讬砖专讗诇 注诪讜 讚讗讞讬诇 诇讛讜 注讜谉 讚讬讜诐 讛讻驻讜专讬诐

And that is what is written: 鈥淥n the eighth day he sent the people away, and they blessed the king, and went unto their tents joyful and glad of heart for all the goodness that the Lord had shown unto David His servant and to Israel His people鈥 (I Kings 8:66). The Gemara explains: And went unto their tents, in accordance with the common expression: One鈥檚 house is his wife. It is explained that when they returned home they found their wives ritually pure from the ritual impurity of menstruation. Joyful means that they enjoyed the aura of the Divine Presence at the dedication of the Temple. And glad of heart means that the wife of each and every one of them was impregnated and gave birth to a male. The verse continues: For all the goodness that the Lord had shown unto David His servant and to Israel His people. Unto David His servant means that at that opportunity they all saw that God forgave him for that sin. And to Israel His people means that He forgave them for the sin of Yom Kippur, as they did not fast that year (see I Kings 8:65).

讜讚拽讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转 讻讚专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 讚讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讗诪专 专讘 诪讗讬 讚讻转讬讘 讛讜讚讬注谞讬 讛壮 拽爪讬 讜诪讚转 讬诪讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 讗讚注讛 诪讛 讞讚诇 讗谞讬 讗诪专 讚讜讚 诇驻谞讬 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 专讘讜谞讜 砖诇 注讜诇诐 讛讜讚讬注谞讬 讛壮 拽爪讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讙讝专讛 讛讬讗 诪诇驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 拽爪讜 砖诇 讘砖专 讜讚诐 讜诪讚转 讬诪讬 诪讛 讛讬讗 讙讝专讛 讛讬讗 诪诇驻谞讬 砖讗讬谉 诪讜讚讬注讬谉 诪讚转 讬诪讬讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 讜讗讚注讛 诪讛 讞讚诇 讗谞讬 讗诪专 诇讜 讘砖讘转 转诪讜转 讗诪讜转 讘讗讞讚 讘砖讘转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讘专 讛讙讬注 诪诇讻讜转 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 讜讗讬谉 诪诇讻讜转 谞讜讙注转 讘讞讘专转讛 讗驻讬诇讜 讻诪诇讗 谞讬诪讗 讗诪讜转 讘注专讘 砖讘转 讗诪专 诇讜 讻讬 讟讜讘 讬讜诐 讘讞爪专讬讱 诪讗诇祝 讟讜讘 诇讬 讬讜诐 讗讞讚 砖讗转讛 讬讜砖讘 讜注讜住拽 讘转讜专讛 诪讗诇祝 注讜诇讜转 砖注转讬讚 砖诇诪讛 讘谞讱 诇讛拽专讬讘 诇驻谞讬 注诇 讙讘讬 讛诪讝讘讞

The Gemara continues: And that which Solomon said: 鈥淔or a living dog is better than a dead lion鈥 (Ecclesiastes 9:4), is in accordance with that which Rav Yehuda said that Rav said. As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that verse which David said: 鈥淟ord, make me to know my end, and the measure of my days, what it is; let me know how short-lived I am鈥 (Psalms 39:5)? It means that David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, Lord, make me to know my end; in how long will I die? God said to him: It is decreed before Me that I do not reveal the end of the life of flesh and blood. He asked further: And the measure of my days; on what day of the year will I die? He said to him: It is decreed before Me not to reveal the measure of a person鈥檚 days. Again he requested: Let me know how short-lived I am; on what day of the week will I die? He said to him: You will die on Shabbat. David requested of God: Let me die on the first day of the week so that the honor of Shabbat will not be tarnished by the pain of death. He said to him: On that day the time of the kingdom of your son Solomon has already arrived, and one kingdom does not overlap with another and subtract from the time allotted to another even a hairbreadth. He said to him: I will cede a day of my life and die on Shabbat eve. God said to him: 鈥淔or a day in your courts is better than a thousand鈥 (Psalms 84:11); a single day in which you sit and engage in Torah is preferable to Me than the thousand burnt-offerings that your son Solomon will offer before Me on the altar (see I Kings 3:4).

讻诇 讬讜诪讗 讚砖讘转讗 讛讜讛 讬转讬讘 讜讙专讬住 讻讜诇讬 讬讜诪讗 讛讛讜讗 讬讜诪讗 讚讘注讬 诇诪讬谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛 拽诐 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 拽诪讬讛 讜诇讗 讬讻讬诇 诇讬讛 讚诇讗 讛讜讛 驻住拽 驻讜诪讬讛 诪讙讬专住讗 讗诪专 诪讗讬 讗注讘讬讚 诇讬讛 讛讜讛 诇讬讛 讘讜住转谞讗 讗讞讜专讬 讘讬转讬讛 讗转讗 诪诇讗讱 讛诪讜转 住诇讬拽 讜讘讞讬砖 讘讗讬诇谞讬 谞驻拽 诇诪讬讞讝讬 讛讜讛 住诇讬拽 讘讚专讙讗 讗讬驻讞讬转 讚专讙讗 诪转讜转讬讛 讗讬砖转讬拽 讜谞讞 谞驻砖讬讛

What did David do? Every Shabbat he would sit and learn all day long to protect himself from the Angel of Death. On that day on which the Angel of Death was supposed to put his soul to rest, the day on which David was supposed to die, the Angel of Death stood before him and was unable to overcome him because his mouth did not pause from study. The Angel of Death said: What shall I do to him? David had a garden [bustana] behind his house; the Angel of Death came, climbed, and shook the trees. David went out to see. As he climbed the stair, the stair broke beneath him. He was startled and was silent, interrupted his studies for a moment, and died.

砖诇讞 砖诇诪讛 诇讘讬 诪讚专砖讗 讗讘讗 诪转 讜诪讜讟诇 讘讞诪讛 讜讻诇讘讬诐 砖诇 讘讬转 讗讘讗 专注讘讬诐 诪讛 讗注砖讛 砖诇讞讜 诇讬讛 讞转讜讱 谞讘诇讛 讜讛谞讞 诇驻谞讬 讛讻诇讘讬诐 讜讗讘讬讱 讛谞讞 注诇讬讜 讻讻专 讗讜 转讬谞讜拽 讜讟诇讟诇讜 讜诇讗 讬驻讛 讗诪专 砖诇诪讛 讻讬 诇讻诇讘 讞讬 讛讜讗 讟讜讘 诪谉 讛讗专讬讛 讛诪转 讜诇注谞讬谉 砖讗讬诇讛 讚砖讗讬诇谞讗 拽讚诪讬讻讜谉 谞专 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 讜谞砖诪转讜 砖诇 讗讚诐 拽专讜讬讛 谞专 诪讜讟讘 转讻讘讛 谞专 砖诇 讘砖专 讜讚诐 诪驻谞讬 谞专讜 砖诇 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗:

Since David died in the garden, Solomon sent the following question to the study hall: Father died and is lying in the sun, and the dogs of father鈥檚 house are hungry. There is room for concern lest the dogs come and harm his body. What shall I do? They sent an answer to him: Cut up an animal carcass and place it before the dogs. Since the dogs are hungry, handling the animal carcass to feed them is permitted. And with regard to your father, it is prohibited to move his body directly. Place a loaf of bread or an infant on top of him, and you can move him into the shade due to the bread or the infant. And is it not appropriate what Solomon said: 鈥For a living dog is better than a dead lion.鈥 The ultimate conclusion of this discussion is that life is preferable to death. And now, with regard to the question that I asked before you; Rav Tan岣m spoke modestly, as, actually, they had asked him the question. A lamp is called ner and a person鈥檚 soul is also called ner, as it is written: 鈥淭he spirit of man is the lamp [ner] of the Lord鈥 (Proverbs 20:27). It is preferable that the lamp of a being of flesh and blood, an actual lamp, will be extinguished in favor of the lamp of the Holy One, Blessed be He, a person鈥檚 soul. Therefore, one is permitted to extinguish a flame for the sake of a sick person.

讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讘专讬讛 讚专讘 砖诪讜讗诇 讘专 砖讬诇转 诪砖诪讬讛 讚专讘 讘拽砖讜 讞讻诪讬诐 诇讙谞讜讝 住驻专 拽讛诇转 诪驻谞讬 砖讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 讙谞讝讜讛讜 诪驻谞讬 砖转讞讬诇转讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讜住讜驻讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 转讞讬诇转讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 诪讛 讬转专讜谉 诇讗讚诐 讘讻诇 注诪诇讜 砖讬注诪讜诇 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讜讗诪专讬 讚讘讬 专讘讬 讬谞讗讬 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讛讜讗 讚讗讬谉 诇讜 拽讜讚诐 砖诪砖 讬砖 诇讜 住讜驻讜 讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讚讻转讬讘 住讜祝 讚讘专 讛讻诇 谞砖诪注 讗转 讛讗诇讛讬诐 讬专讗 讜讗转 诪爪讜转讬讜 砖诪讜专 讻讬 讝讛 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 诪讗讬 讻讬 讝讛 讻诇 讛讗讚诐 讗诪专 专讘讬 (讗诇讬注讝专) 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讗诇讗 讘砖讘讬诇 讝讛 专讘讬 讗讘讗 讘专 讻讛谞讗 讗诪专 砖拽讜诇 讝讛 讻谞讙讚 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 注讝讗讬 讗讜诪专 讜讗诪专讬 诇讛 砖诪注讜谉 讘谉 讝讜诪讗 讗讜诪专 诇讗 谞讘专讗 讻诇 讛注讜诇诐 讻讜诇讜 讗诇讗 诇爪讜讜转 诇讝讛

Since contradictions in Ecclesiastes were mentioned, the Gemara cites additional relevant sources. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: The Sages sought to suppress the book of Ecclesiastes and declare it apocryphal because its statements contradict each other and it is liable to confuse its readers. And why did they not suppress it? Because its beginning consists of matters of Torah and its end consists of matters of Torah. The ostensibly contradictory details are secondary to the essence of the book, which is Torah. The Gemara elaborates: Its beginning consists of matters of Torah, as it is written: 鈥淲hat profit has man of all his labor which he labors under the sun?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:3), and the Sages of the school of Rabbi Yannai said: By inference: Under the sun is where man has no profit from his labor; however, before the sun, i.e., when engaged in the study of Torah, which preceded the sun, he does have profit. Its ending consists of matters of Torah, as it is written: 鈥淭he end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His mitzvot; for this is the whole man鈥 (Ecclesiastes 12:13). With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of the phrase: For this is the whole man? Rabbi Eliezer said: The entire world was only created for this person. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: This person is equivalent to the entire world. Shimon ben Azzai says and some say that Shimon ben Zoma says: The entire world was only created as companion to this man, so that he will not be alone.

讜诪讗讬 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讻转讬讘 讟讜讘 讻注住 诪砖讞讜拽 讜讻转讬讘 诇砖讞讜拽 讗诪专转讬 诪讛诇诇 讻转讬讘 讜砖讘讞转讬 讗谞讬 讗转 讛砖诪讞讛 讜讻转讬讘 讜诇砖诪讞讛 诪讛 讝讛 注讜砖讛 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讟讜讘 讻注住 诪砖讞讜拽 讟讜讘 讻注住 砖讻讜注住 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 诪砖讞讜拽 砖诪砖讞拽 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诇 讛专砖注讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 讜诇砖讞讜拽 讗诪专转讬 诪讛诇诇 讝讛 砖讞讜拽 砖诪砖讞拽 讛拽讚讜砖 讘专讜讱 讛讜讗 注诐 讛爪讚讬拽讬诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讘讗

And to the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: What is the meaning of: Its statements that contradict each other? It is written: 鈥淰exation is better than laughter鈥 (Ecclesiastes 7:3), and it is written: 鈥淚 said of laughter: It is praiseworthy鈥 (Ecclesiastes 2:2), which is understood to mean that laughter is commendable. Likewise in one verse it is written: 鈥淪o I commended mirth鈥 (Ecclesiastes 8:15), and in another verse it is written: 鈥淎nd of mirth: What does it accomplish?鈥 (Ecclesiastes 2:2). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as the contradiction can be resolved. Vexation is better than laughter means: The vexation of the Holy One, Blessed be He, toward the righteous in this world is preferable to the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the wicked in this world by showering them with goodness. I said of laughter: It is praiseworthy, that is the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the righteous in the World-to-Come.

讜砖讘讞转讬 讗谞讬 讗转 讛砖诪讞讛 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 讜诇砖诪讞讛 诪讛 讝讛 注讜砖讛 讝讜 砖诪讞讛 砖讗讬谞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 诇诇诪讚讱 砖讗讬谉 砖讻讬谞讛 砖讜专讛 诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪讘讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 注爪诇讜转 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讞讜拽 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 拽诇讜转 专讗砖 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 砖讬讞讛 讜诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专讬诐 讘讟诇讬诐 讗诇讗 诪转讜讱 讚讘专 砖诪讞讛 砖诇 诪爪讜讛 砖谞讗诪专 讜注转讛 拽讞讜 诇讬 诪谞讙谉 讜讛讬讛 讻谞讙谉 讛诪谞讙谉 讜转讛讬 注诇讬讜 讬讚 讛壮 讗诪专 专讘 讬讛讜讚讛 讜讻谉 诇讚讘专 讛诇讻讛 讗诪专 专讘讗 讜讻谉 诇讞诇讜诐 讟讜讘

Similarly, 鈥So I commended mirth,鈥 that is the joy of a mitzva. 鈥淎nd of mirth: What does it accomplish?鈥 that is joy that is not the joy of a mitzva. The praise of joy mentioned here is to teach you that the Divine Presence rests upon an individual neither from an atmosphere of sadness, nor from an atmosphere of laziness, nor from an atmosphere of laughter, nor from an atmosphere of frivolity, nor from an atmosphere of idle conversation, nor from an atmosphere of idle chatter, but rather from an atmosphere imbued with the joy of a mitzva. As it was stated with regard to Elisha that after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: 鈥淏ut now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him鈥 (II Kings 3:15). Rav Yehuda said: And, so too, one should be joyful before stating a matter of halakha. Rava said: And, so too, one should be joyful before going to sleep in order to have a good dream.

讗讬谞讬 讜讛讗诪专 专讘 讙讬讚诇 讗诪专 专讘 讻诇 转诇诪讬讚 讞讻诐 砖讬讜砖讘 诇驻谞讬 专讘讜 讜讗讬谉 砖驻转讜转讬讜 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪专 转讻讜讬谞讛 砖谞讗诪专 砖驻转讜转讬讜 砖讜砖谞讬诐 谞讜讟驻讜转 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 诪讜专 注讜讘专 讗诇讗 诪专 注讜讘专 讗诇 转拽专讬 砖讜砖谞讬诐 讗诇讗 砖砖讜谞讬诐 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜讛讗 讘转诇诪讬讚 讜讗讬讘注讬转 讗讬诪讗 讛讗 讜讛讗 讘专讘讛 讜诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 诪拽诪讬 讚诇驻转讞 讛讗 诇讘转专 讚驻转讞 讻讬 讛讗 讚专讘讛 诪拽诪讬 讚驻转讞 诇讛讜 诇专讘谞谉 讗诪专 诪讬诇转讗 讚讘讚讬讞讜转讗 讜讘讚讞讬 专讘谞谉 诇住讜祝 讬转讬讘 讘讗讬诪转讗 讜驻转讞 讘砖诪注转讗

The Gemara asks: Is that so, that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully? Didn鈥檛 Rav Giddel say that Rav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with myrrh due to fear of his teacher, those lips shall be burnt, as it is stated: 鈥淗is lips are as lilies, dripping with flowing myrrh [shoshanim notefot mor over]鈥 (Song of Songs 5:13)? He interpreted homiletically: Do not read mor over, flowing myrrh; rather, read mar over, flowing bitterness. Likewise, do not read shoshanim, lilies; rather, read sheshonim, that are studying, meaning that lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness. The Gemara explains: This is not difficult, there is no contradiction here, as this, where it was taught that one should introduce matters of halakha joyfully, is referring to a rabbi, and that, where it was taught that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring to a student, who must listen to his teacher with trepidation. And if you wish, say instead that this and that are referring to a rabbi, and it is not difficult. This, where it was taught that he must be joyful, is before he begins teaching, whereas that, where it was taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is after he already began teaching halakha. That explanation is like that which Rabba did. Before he began teaching halakha to the Sages, he would say something humorous and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and began teaching the halakha.

讜讗祝 住驻专 诪砖诇讬 讘拽砖讜 诇讙谞讜讝 砖讛讬讜 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬谉 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讜诪驻谞讬 诪讛 诇讗 讙谞讝讜讛讜 讗诪专讬 住驻专 拽讛诇转 诇讗讜 注讬讬谞讬谞谉 讜讗砖讻讞讬谞谉 讟注诪讗 讛讻讗 谞诪讬 诇讬注讬讬谞谉 讜诪讗讬 讚讘专讬讜 住讜转专讬诐 讝讛 讗转 讝讛 讻转讬讘 讗诇 转注谉 讻住讬诇 讻讗讜诇转讜 讜讻转讬讘 注谞讛 讻住讬诇 讻讗讜诇转讜 诇讗 拽砖讬讗 讛讗 讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 讛讗 讘诪讬诇讬 讚注诇诪讗

And, the Gemara continues, the Sages sought to suppress the book of Proverbs as well because its statements contradict each other. And why did they not suppress it? They said: In the case of the book of Ecclesiastes, didn鈥檛 we analyze it and find an explanation that its statements were not contradictory? Here too, let us analyze it. And what is the meaning of: Its statements contradict each other? On the one hand, it is written: 鈥淎nswer not a fool according to his folly, lest you also be like him鈥 (Proverbs 26:4), and on the other hand, it is written: 鈥淎nswer a fool according to his folly, lest he be wise in his own eyes鈥 (Proverbs 26:5). The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction: This is not difficult, as this, where one should answer a fool, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims about Torah matters; whereas that, where one should not answer him, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims about mundane matters.

讻讬 讛讗 讚讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗砖转讱 讗砖转讬 讜讘谞讬讱 讘谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专爪讜谞讱 砖转砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 砖转讛 讜驻拽注 讛讛讜讗 讚讗转讗 诇拽诪讬讛 讚专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讗诪讱 讗砖转讬 讜讗转讛 讘谞讬 讗诪专 诇讬讛 专爪讜谞讱 砖转砖转讛 讻讜住 砖诇 讬讬谉 砖转讛 讜驻拽注 讗诪专 专讘讬 讞讬讬讗 讗讛谞讬讗 诇讬讛 爪诇讜转讬讛 诇专讘讬 讚诇讗 诇砖讜讜讬讬讛 讘谞讬 诪诪讝讬专讬 讚专讘讬 讻讬 讛讜讛 诪爪诇讬 讗诪专 讬讛讬 专爪讜谉 诪诇驻谞讬讱 讛壮 讗诇讛讬谞讜 砖转爪讬诇谞讬 讛讬讜诐 诪注讝讬 驻谞讬诐 讜诪注讝讜转 驻谞讬诐

The Gemara relates how Sages conducted themselves in both of those circumstances. As in the case of that man who came before Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and said to him: Your wife is my wife and your children are my children, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Would you like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burst and died. Similarly, the Gemara relates: There was that man who came before Rabbi 岣yya and said to him: Your mother is my wife, and you are my son. He said to him: Would you like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burst and died. Rabbi 岣yya said with regard to the incident involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 prayer that his children will not be rendered mamzerim, children of illicit relations, was effective for him. As when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would pray, he said after his prayer: May it be Your will, O Lord, my God, that You will deliver me today from impudent people and from insolence. Insolence, in this case, refers to mamzerut. It was due to his prayer that that man burst and was unsuccessful in disparaging Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi鈥檚 children.

讘讚讘专讬 转讜专讛 诪讗讬 讛讬讗 讻讬 讛讗 讚讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讛 讗砖讛 砖转诇讚 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讛专讛 讜讬讜诇讚转 讬讞讚讬讜 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗诪专 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 转专谞讙讜诇转

In matters of Torah, what is the case with regard to which the verse said that one should respond to a fool鈥檚 folly? As in the case where Rabban Gamliel was sitting and he interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, in the World-to-Come, a woman will give birth every day, as it says: 鈥淭he woman with child and her that gives birth together鈥 (Jeremiah 31:7), explaining that birth will occur on the same day as conception. A certain student scoffed at him and said: That cannot be, as it has already been stated: 鈥淭here is nothing new under the sun鈥 (Ecclesiastes 1:9). Rabban Gamliel said to him: Come and I will show you an example of this in this world. He took him outside and showed him a chicken that lays eggs every day.

讜转讜 讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讬诐 讗讬诇谞讜转 砖诪讜爪讬讗讬谉 驻讬专讜转 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 砖谞讗诪专 讜谞砖讗 注谞祝 讜注砖讛 驻专讬 诪讛 注谞祝 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 讗祝 驻专讬 讘讻诇 讬讜诐 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讗诪专 讜讛讻转讬讘 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转诐 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 爪诇祝

And furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, in the World-to-Come, trees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: 鈥淎nd it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit鈥 (Ezekiel 17:23); just as a branch grows every day, so too, fruit will be produced every day. A certain student scoffed at him and said: Isn鈥檛 it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an example of this in this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush, part of which is edible during each season of the year.

讜转讜 讬转讬讘 专讘谉 讙诪诇讬讗诇 讜拽讗 讚专讬砖 注转讬讚讛 讗专抓 讬砖专讗诇 砖转讜爪讬讗 讙诇讜住拽讗讜转 讜讻诇讬 诪讬诇转 砖谞讗诪专 讬讛讬 驻住转 讘专 讘讗专抓 诇讬讙诇讙 注诇讬讜 讗讜转讜 转诇诪讬讚 讜讗诪专 讗讬谉 讻诇 讞讚砖 转讞转 讛砖诪砖 讗诪专 诇讬讛 讘讗 讜讗专讗讱 讚讜讙诪转谉 讘注讜诇诐 讛讝讛 谞驻拽 讗讞讜讬 诇讬讛 讻诪讬讛讬谉 讜驻讟专讬讜转 讜讗讻诇讬 诪讬诇转 谞讘专讗 讘专 拽讜专讗:

And furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreted a verse homiletically: In the future, the World-to-Come, Eretz Yisrael will produce cakes and fine wool garments that will grow in the ground, as it is stated: 鈥淟et abundant grain be in the land.鈥 A certain student scoffed at him and said: There is nothing new under the sun. He said to him: Come and I will show you an example in this world. He went outside and showed him truffles and mushrooms, which emerge from the earth over the course of a single night and are shaped like a loaf of bread. And with regard to wool garments, he showed him the covering of a heart of palm, a young palm branch, which is wrapped in a thin net-like covering.

转谞讜 专讘谞谉 诇注讜诇诐 讬讛讗 讗讚诐 注谞讜讜转谉 讻讛诇诇 讜讗诇 讬讛讗 拽驻讚谉 讻砖诪讗讬 诪注砖讛 讘砖谞讬 讘谞讬 讗讚诐

Since the Gemara discussed the forbearance of Sages, who remain silent in the face of nonsensical comments, it cites additional relevant examples. The Sages taught in a baraita: A person should always be patient like Hillel and not impatient like Shammai. The Gemara related: There was an incident involving two people

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